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Aim & Problem:

To learn the basic steps that are needed to model, mesh, define and analyze subsequent real life fluid
flow problems. This step by step procedure presents a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach to
simulate/predict the flow over a cylinder. A specific meshing and modeling scheme is selected for
solving the 2-D flow problem. ICEM (Integrated Computer-Aided Engineering and Manufacturing) is used
to create and mesh the computational domain. Upon creation of the mesh, ANSYS FLUENT will be used
to solve the flow problem and analyze the solution.
Problem Definition:
Water at 200 C and 1 ATM pressure flows over a cylinder of diameter 0.1m at a velocity of 0.01 m/s. It is
required to determine the steady state pressure distribution over the cylinder in order to study the
effect of fluid flow over it.

The properties of water at 200C and 1 atm are given by:

Density = 998.2071 kg/m3
Dynamic Viscosity = 0.001003 kg/m-s
The Reynolds number (Re) for the flow over a cylinder is given by the relation:

Substituting the above values we get Re = 995.22 which implies that the regime of flow is laminar.

Effect of Reynolds number on the vortex shedding pattern

Based on the Reynolds number the following physical models are recommended

Re < 1000 Laminar Flow

1000 Re 10,000 Low Reynolds number k- or k-


Re > 10,000 k- model (preferred)

Since our Reynolds number is low, we do not use any turbulence model. Our flow is laminar.
The first step towards solving the problem is to create the geometry associated with the flow analysis.
We use ICEM for this purpose. The computational domain is a square encompassing a 2D cylinder. To
study the drag coefficients and the boundary layer formation which are near wall effects, it is necessary
to have a finer mesh at the vicinity of the wall. Also a fine grid from the vicinity of the cylinder and
extending forward would provide an accurate depiction of vortex formation downstream. A coarser grid
is recommended to be employed over the remaining flow domain. Using a coarser grid will reduce the
computational time necessary in solving the problem.
Let us first get acquainted with the GUI of ANSYS ICEM meshing software.
Similarly join AB, BK, KL, LC & CD and name them bottom, out1, out2, out3 & up respectively.
Let us now draw a circle through point F & G having E as the mid-point. Let us name it as
Geometry (function tab) > Create/Modify curve > Change part name to construction > Circle > Select E, F
and G > APPLY
Now let us draw an ARC through point H, I and J and straight lines connecting JK and HL.
Geometry (function tab) > Create/Modify curve > from 3 points (drop menu) > select H, I, and J > APPLY
Geometry (function tab) > Create/Modify curve > from points > select J & K> APPLY > select H & L >
Note: While drawing arc and lines through points F, G, H, I, J, K & L, the part name should be
construction only.
Step 4: Create a surface & Cylinder.
Geometry (function tab) > Create/Modify surface > Change Part name to Surface > simple surface >
from 4 points (select from drop down menu) > select A,B,C&D > middle click > APPLY
Geometry (function tab) > Create/Modify surface >change part name to Cylinder>Standard shapes >
Drill a hole > select the surface that you just created > Radius = 0.05 > Location = select point E > Apply
To study the surface parameters accurately, the mesh at the surface should be very fine while the one
away can be coarser. We need to have a boundary layer at the surface of the cylinder.
Mesh (function tab) > Curve mesh setup > Method-general > Select the cylinder > Enter the following
values > APPLY
Maximum size = 0.005
Number of nodes = 64
Height = 0.001
Height Ratio = 1.1
Number of layers = 10
For the lines CL and KB we use the bunching law as the mesh distribution is not even.

Select the curve

Use Geometric 1 as the bunching law.
Check the direction of line CL and KB. It will be marked by an arrow head. Line CL should be facing in the
positive y direction while KB in the exactly opposite direction.
Enter the number of nodes
Remember to also add the Ratio 1 and Ratio 2 values given in the image above.
If the lines are not in the direction they are supposed to be, then change its direction using the following
Geometry ( function tab) > create/modify curve > modify curve > reverse direction (using drop down
menu) > Select curve > Apply
Then, proceed again with the Curve Mesh Setup.
To view the node distribution, right click Curves under geometry in the MODEL TREE and select curve
node spacing. The nodes on lines CL and KB should be finer towards the centre and coarse towards the
end. (zoom in to see if every curve/line has nodes visible on it. If not then it has not been meshed, Go
back to step 5 and make sure every line/curve has nodes on it)
Step 6: Meshing
Mesh (function tab) > Mesh curve > Select each and every curve individually including all lines, arc and
circles > APPLY
Step 7: Surface meshing
Mesh (function tab) > Compute mesh > Surface mesh only > Check-overwrite Surface
Present/Default mesh type > Mesh type- All Tri (from drop down menu) > COMPUTE

Step 8: Select the solver.

Output (function tab) > Select solver > Output Solver = Fluent_V6 (from the drop down menu) >
Common structural solver = ANSYS > OK/APPLY

Step 9: Saving the mesh file

Output (function tab) > write input > save project first = YES > Open the .uns file > save the file in 2-D >
Change output file name to (say) cylinder > Done
Note: .uns stands for un-structured mesh file.

Step 10: Import mesh file into FLUENT.

Go to: Start > Programs > ANSYS 14.5 > Fluid Dynamics > FLUENT
READ> Mesh File > OK
File > import > mesh > select the .msh file that we just created > Open
Note: Before you click on OPEN, make sure the Files of Type is FLUENT (*cas *msh)

Step 11: Set up steady-state case definition

In the model tree, double click Analysis Type > select steady state (from drop down box) > OK
In the model tree, (Double click) Default Domain
Basic settings (tab) > change material to water > Ref. Pressure = 1 [atm]
Fluid Models (tab) > turbulence > (none) laminar > Ok

Step 12: Define boundary conditions

Step 13: Set up solver controls

In the model tree, Simulation > Flow Analysis 1 > Solver > Solver control (double click)
Advection Scheme > High Resolution
Minimum Iterations > 1
Maximum Iterations > 280
Convergence criteria:
Residual type> RMS
Residual target > 1e-5 > OK

Save the case file !!, we have set up the case now.
Now Run the FLUENT Solver.