(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 8, No.

4, July 2010

High Performance FingerPrint Identification System

Dr.R.Seshadri ,B.Tech,M.E,Ph.D Director, S.V.U.Computer Center S.V.University, Tirupati E-mail : ravalaseshadri@gmail.com

Yaswanth Kumar.Avulapati,M.C.A,M.Tech,(Ph.D) Research Scholar, Dept of Computer Science S.V.University, Tirupati E-mail:yaswanthkumar_1817@yahoo.co.in

Abstract
Biometrics is the science of establishing the identity of an individual based on their physical, chemical and behavioral characteristics of the person. Fingerprints are the most widely used biometric feature for person identification and verification in the field of biometric identification .A finger print is the representation of the epidermis of a finger. It consists of a pattern of interleaved ridges and valleys. Fingerprints are graphical flow-like ridges present on human fingers. They are fully formed at about seven months of fetus development and finger ridge configurations do not change throughout the life of an individual except due to accidents such as bruises and cuts on the fingertips. This property makes fingerprints a very attractive biometric identifier. This paper presents an approach to classifying the fingerprints into different groups and increase the performance of the system.It increases the performance of fingerprint matching while matching the input template with stored template. Keywords-Biometrics, Verification, Identification Introduction A fingerprint is a pattern of ridges and valleys located on the tip of each finger. Fingerprints were used for personal identification for many centuries and the matching accuracy was very high. Patterns have been extracted by creating an inked impression of the fingertip on paper. Today, compact sensors provide digital images of these patterns. Fingerprint system can be separated into two categories Verification and identification. Verification system authenticates a person’s identity by comparing the captured biometric characteristic with its own biometric template(s) prestored in the system It conducts one-to-one comparison to determine whether the identity claimed by the individual is true. A verification system either rejects or accepts the submitted claim of identity Identification system recognizes an individual by searching the entire template database for a match. It conducts one-to-many comparisons to establish the identity of the individual. In an identification system, the system establishes a subject’s identity without the subject having to claim an identity. Prehistoric picture writing of a hand with ridge patterns was discovered in Nova Scotia. In ancient Babylon,fingerprints were used on clay tablets for business transactions. In ancient China, thumb prints were found on clay seals.In 14th century Persia, various official government papers had fingerprints (impressions), and one government official, a doctor, observed that no two fingerprints were exactly alike. In 1686, Marcello Malpighi, a professor of anatomy at the University of Bologna, noted in his treatise; ridges, spirals and loops in fingerprints. He made no mention of their value as a tool for individual identification. A layer of skin was named after him; "Malpighi" layer, which is approximately 1.8mm thick. In 1823, John Evangelist Purkinji, a professor of anatomy at the University of Breslau, published his thesis discussing 9 fingerprint patterns, but he too made no mention of the value of fingerprints for personal identification. During the 1870's, Dr. Henry Faulds, the British Surgeon-Superintendent of Tsukiji Hospital in Tokyo, Japan, took up the study of "skin-furrows" after noticing finger marks on specimens of "prehistoric"

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 8, No. 4, July 2010

pottery. A learned and industrious man, Dr. Faulds not only recognized the importance of fingerprints as a means of identification, but devised a method of classification as well. In 1880, Faulds forwarded an explanation of his classification system and a sample of the forms he had designed for recording inked impressions, to Sir Charles Darwin. Darwin, in advanced age and ill health, informed Dr. Faulds that he could be of no assistance to him, but promised to pass the materials on to his cousin, Francis Galton. Also in 1880, Dr. Faulds published an article in the Scientific Journal, "Nautre" (nature). He discussed fingerprints as a means of personal identification, and the use of printers ink as a method for obtaining such fingerprints. He is also credited with the first fingerprint identification of a greasy fingerprint left on an alcohol bottle. In order to implement a fingerprint system, the various research methodologies involved in it like fingerprint image capture, image preprocessing, feature extraction, storage and image matching must be clearly defined are shown in figure. 1

Enrollment Mode Finger print Acquisition Feature Extraction Template

Authentication Mode Finger Print Acquisition Feature Extraction Matching

Matching Score Fig 2.Enrollment and Authentication of a fingerprint system

Image Capture

Fingerprint matching can be performed based on Minutiae, Correlation based, Ridge feature based. In minutiae based matching it stores minutiae is a set of points in a plane and the points are matched in the template and the input minutiae. In correlation based matching two finger print images and correlation between corresponding pixels is computed. Ridge feature based is a advanced technology that capture the ridges. The most popular technologies used to identify fingerprint are Optical, silicon and ultra sound. Previous Work: The previous work is based on the theory of fingerprint classification they stored only single finger print of person in the database. This single finger print can be index or thumb. Let us see how the previous system will work. In the enrollment process in conventional system the database contains the fingerprint templates in an ordinary manner but in that system the database e contains the different set of templates according to classification. During the enrollment process, sensor sense the fingerprint, then next step is feature extraction . After this step they put a classifier to check the classification of input template that whether it is left-loop, right-loop, arch or whorl as shown in the figure 3
Let us come to the verification process here the finger print is placed at sensor and then its features are extracted and a final template is generated for matching. Now this template will not matched with every templates in the database rather it extracts its classified domain out of 4-domain and will perform match from this extracted domain
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Image Preprocessing & Feature Extraction

Matching

Stored Pattern

Fig 1.Various steps in a Fingerprint system

A finger print system works in two different modes they are Enrollment mode and Authentication mode as shown in figure.2. Enrollment mode in which fingerprint system is used to identify and collect the related information about the person and his/her fingerprint image. Authentication mode in which fingerprint system is used to identify the person who is declared to be 121 him/her.

(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 8, No. 4, July 2010

After this step we put a classifier to check the classification of input template that whether it is arch,tentarch, loop, doubleLoop, pocked Loop, whorl ,mixed, left-loop, right-loop

Left Loop

Right-Loop

Arch

Whorl Fig4.Classification of Finger prints in proposed system Enrollment Mode
Finger print Acquisition Feature Extraction Finger print Classifier

Fig3.Classification of Finger prints in existing system Fingerprint classifiers classify the input fingerprint into four major categories namely Left-Loop, Right-Loop, Whorl and Arch. They proposed classifiers works on the basis of singular point (Delta) extracted. If there are two deltas then it will be counted as whorl or twin loop. If there is no delta then it will be counted as arch. If only one delta is there then it will be consider as either left loop or right loop. Problems in the Existing system: The existing system can identify the finger prints according to their four categories namely LeftLoop, Right-Loop, Whorl and Arch. If the people having different types of finger prints other than this four categories. It is very difficult for the system to identify the finger prints like mixed category, pocked loop, double loop. The time taken for identifies the finger prints is also more in the existing system. It decreases the performance of the system. Proposed Work:

Authentication Mode
Finger Print Acquisition Feature Extraction

FingerPrint Template

Matching

Extracted Area

Arch Tentarch Loop DoubleLoop PockedLoop Whorl Mixed Left-loop Right-loop

Matching Score Fig5.Proposed Fingerprint identification system After classification the input template is stored in

Proposed work is based on the classification of particular area. A area in the database contains the fingerprints. In our proposed system during the templates of same classification. Normally fingerprints enrollment process fingerprint is captured with a are classified as Whorl(27%), arch (4%) loops(65%)and sensor, then next step is feature extraction . we mixed (4%) we further divide this domain into

further classify the finger prints as arch,tentarch,loop, four parts i.e. left http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ (25%) loop (26%) right loop 122 doubleLoop, pocked Loop, whorl ,mixed, left-loop, pocked loop (9%)and ISSN 1947-5500 (5%), apx double loop right-loop as shown in figure below

(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 8, No. 4, July 2010

Fingerprint Classifier: The proposed classifiers works on the basis of core and Delta extracted. If there is two deltas then it will be counted as whorl or twin loop. If there is no delta then it will be counted at arch. If only one delta is there then it will be either left loop or right loop. If there is only one delta and one core then it will be pocked loop. If there is two deltas and one core then it will be double loop. If there is two deltas and two cores then it will be mixed as shown in the figure.6

Performance of Existing System For Best case i.e. the template is First match, Time required = 1 X 1 = 1 ms they calculate for worst case They assumed 1, 50000 templates , According to c lassific ation there will be 45000 whorls (30%) + 48000 Left Loop (32%) + 49500 Right Loop (33%) + 7500 Arch (5%)

At First stage they get the template classification and accordingly particular domain will be extracted. Now they calculate the time taken for each classification For Whorl = 1ms X 45000 = 45 sec. For LL = 1ms X 48000 = 48 sec. For RL = 1ms X 49500= 49.5 sec For Arch = 1msX 7500= 7.5 sec. Average time = 150/4= 37.4 sec. For an Average case, Time required= apx 20-24 sec. Proposed System Fingerprint classification: Let us assume that we classify fingerprints as Whorl, loop,mixed. Loops make up nearly 65% of all fingerprints, whorls are nearly 27%, arches are nearly 4%and mixed are nearly 4% Since the loops are 65%, we further divide this domain into four parts i.e. left loop 26% right loop 25% pocked loop 9%and double loop 5%, apx . Performance of Proposed System For Best case i.e. the template in First match, Time required = 1 X 1 = 1 msNow let us calculate for worst case We have assumed 1, 50000 templates , According to classific ation there will be 40500whorls (27%) + 39000 Left Loop (26%) + 37500 Right Loop (25%) + 13500 Pocked Loop (9%) +7500 Double Loop(5%)+6000 Arch(4%)+6000 Mixed(4%).At First stage we get the template classification and accordingly particular domain will be extracted. Now we calculate the time taken for each classification For Whorl = 1ms X 40500 = 40..5 sec. For LL = 1ms X 39000 = 39 sec. For RL = 1ms X 37500= 37.5 sec For PL = 1ms X 13500= 13.5 sec For DL = 1ms X 7500= 7.5 sec For Mixed = 1ms X 6000= 6 sec For Arch = 1msX 6000= 6 sec. http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/
ISSN 1947-5500

Fig 6. Position and number of Core and Delta in different Finger prints
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A, no. 8, pp. 1913–1923, Aug. 2004. Average time = 150/7= 21.42sec. For an Average case, Time required= apx 12-18 sec. Performance Factor PF=Time taken in worst case of existing system 37.4sec PF=Time take in worst case of proposed system 21.42 Sec i.e. the new approach is better than the existing one. Coclusion: This paper presents an approach to classifying the fingerprints into different groups and increase the performance of the system. It increases the performance of fingerprint matching while matching the input template with stored template.The paper presents an overview of the different steps involved in the enrollment and authentication modes. We have proposed seven major classifications of fingerprints like arch, doubleLoop, pocked Loop, whorl ,mixed, left-loop, right-loop .Its a new approach for classification of fingerprints and matching in the database. This paper presents an approach to speed up the matching process by classifying the fingerprint into different groups at the time of enrollment, and authentication modes. This proposed system is better than the previous one. References: 1.A. K. Jain,Patrick Flynn,Arun A.Ross . “Handbook of Biometrics”. 2.D. Maltoni, D. Maio, A. K. Jain, and S. Prabhakar, Handbook of Fingerprint Recognition. Springer, 2003. 3. C. D. Kuglin and D. C. Hines, “The phase correlation image alignment method,” Proc. Int. Conf. on Cybernetics and Society, pp. 163–165, 1975. 4. K. Takita, T. Aoki, Y. Sasaki, T. Higuchi, and K. Kobayashi, “High-accuracy subpixel image registration based on phase-only correlation,” IEICE Trans. Fundamentals,vol. E86-A, no. 8, pp. 1925– 1934, Aug. 2003. 5. K. Takita, M. A. Muquit, T. Aoki, and T. Higuchi, “A subpixel 124 correspondence search technique for computer vision applications,” IEICE Trans. Fundamentals, vol. E876. K. Ito, H. Nakajima, K. Kobayashi, T. Aoki, and T. Higuchi, “A fingerprint matching algorithm using phaseonlycorrelation,” IEICE Trans. Fundamentals, vol. E87-A,no. 3, pp. 682–691, Mar. 2004. 7. M. Kawagoe and A. Tojo, “Fingerprint pattern classification,” Pattern Recognition, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 295–303, 1984. 8. www.aladdinusa.com Biometrics Information Group www.biometricsinfo.org. 9. A. K. Jain, R. Bolle, S. Pankanti (eds), Biometrics: Personal Identification in Networked Society, Kluwer Academic, December 1998. 10.Reducing Process-Time for Fingerprint Identification System , Chander Kant & Rajender Nath 11. A. K. Hrechak and J. A. McHugh, Automated Fingerprint Recognition using Structural Matching, Pattern Recognition, Vol. 23, No. 8, 1990. 12. The Henry Clas sification System Copyright © 2003 International Biometric Group 13.A. K. Jain, S. Prabhak ar. “Handbook of Fingerprint Recognition”. 14.www.google.co.in 15A. K. Jain and S.Pankanti , “Fingerprint lassification and matching, ”InA. Bovik, Ed., Handbook for Image and Video Processing . AcademicPress, 2000. 16. Z.W. bo, N. X. bao and W.C. jian, “ A fingerprint matching algorithmbased on relative topological relationship among minutiae, ” IEEE Int. Conference Neural Networks & Signal Processing Zhenjiang, China,2008. 17. Y.He, J.Tian, X.Luo and T.Zhang, “ Image enhancement and minutiae matching in fingerprint verification, ”Patt.Recog.Lett. no.24, 2003,pp.13491360. 18.Glossary of Biometric Terms, Association for Biometrics and International Computer Security Association, to be referred at URL: http://www.afb.org.uk/ (1998). 19. Biometrics Information Management and Security (2001). 20. Bahuguna, R.D. and Corboline, T.: Prism fingerprint sensor that uses a holographic optical element, APPLIED OPTICS, Vol. 35, No. 26 (1996). http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/
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Authors Profile Dr.R.Seshadri was born in Andhra Pradesh, India, in 1959. He received his B.Tech degree from Nagarjuna University in 1981. He received his M.E degree in Control System Engineering from PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore in 1984. He was awarded with PhD from Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati in 1998. He is currently Director, Computer Center, S.V.University, Tirupati, India. He has Published number of papers in national and international conferences, seminars and journals. At present 12 members are doing research work under his guidance in different areas

Mr.YaswanthKumar .Avulapati received his MCA degree with First class from Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati. He received his M.Tech Computer Science and Engineering degree with Distinction from Acharya Nagarjuna University, Guntur.He is a research scholar in S.V.University Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh.He has presented number of papers in national and international conferences, seminars.He attend Number of work shops in different fields.

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