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Lab 3 PDS

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Understand a notch filter.

Apply CTFT in designing a notch filter.

Obtain frequency response of a filter.

In this lab, you will design a notch filter and a low pass filter. To design a notch filter,

the way explained in class will be used and verified by the magnitude plot in dB and

angle plot in degree. Those plots are called frequency responses (or Bode plot). To

draw the frequency responses of a filter, you need to read the freqs built-in function

in the MATLAB. In designing a low pass filter using a Butterworth filter, you need to

look at the butter built-in function. In addition, linspace function will help you draw

a Bode plot. (There is another built-in function, bode, to draw Bode plot. You will

learn it in Control Systems what it does)

Lets use an example introduced in class to design a notch filter. The specifications for

a notch filter are given as follows:

a. Eliminate a 60Hz signal component. (i.e., the magnitude of a filter must be

less than -60 dB at 60 Hz).

b. Make the gain no more than -1 dB at 40 Hz and 80 Hz.

As you learned, the magnitude of a filter is obtained by the following equation. To use

the following equation, you need to think about where the poles and zeros must be in

the complex frequency domain. Once, you determine where the poles ( p k ) and zeros (

z k ) are located to satisfy the specifications, you can find other values such as A etc.

as explained in class. In the help file for freqs, note that the freqs uses H(s) instead

of H(jw). This means that you have to use s instead of jw if you want to draw

frequency responses with freqs built-in function.

N

| jw z k |

| H ( jw) | | A | k 1

D

| jw p

k 1

k |

or

| s z k |

| H (s) | | A | k 1

D

| s p

k 1

k |

Once you find out a transfer function H(jw), you can plot frequency responses of the

filter using freqs function. To use freqs, you need to know the coefficients of

denominator (for A input of freqs function) and the coefficients of numerator (for B

input of freqs function). Before you use the freqs function, you need to generate

radian frequency value using the linspace (or logspace). You can use it like this:

Hnotch = freqs(Bnotch, Anotch, w);

Draw a magnitude plot and phase plot for a notch filter you designed. You can plot a

magnitude in dB and phase in degree with following commands.

subplot(211),plot(w/(2*pi),20*log10(abs(Hnotch))),grid on;

subplot(212),plot(w/(2*pi),(angle(Hnotch)*180/pi)),grid on;

Check whether your notch filter satisfies the given specifications from you plots.

The Butterworth filter is a way to design a LPF and it is defined as follows. The detail

parts of how to design a Butterworth filter will be explained in ENGR 420 class later.

1

H ( )

2N

1

c

where c is the desired cutoff frequency

N is the order of the filter (i.e., number of poles).

In this step, you will design a LPF based on the Butterworth filter model. The following

specifications for LPF are given:

b. It must have 3 poles

You can obtain all filter coefficients using the function butter. (Please check help file

for butter function) in continuous time or in discrete time. We are going to design a

Butterworth filter in continuous time in this lab as follows, where fc is a cutoff

frequency you want to design.

In the above, example, N means an order of a Butterworth filter, and s implies that

filter coefficient in continuous time not in discrete time (Default is discrete time filter

coefficients). Obtain the frequency response using the function freqs as you did in the

Step 1. Before using freqs, define frequency [rad/s] points as like this:

HButterworth = freqs(Bbutter, Abutter, w);

Draw a magnitude plot and phase plot for a Butterworth filter you designed. You can

plot a magnitude in dB and phase in degree with following commands.

subplot(211),plot(w/(2*pi),20*log10(abs(HButterworth))),grid on;

subplot(212),plot(w/(2*pi),(angle(HButterworth)*180/pi)),grid on;

Check whether your Butterworth filter satisfies the given specifications from you plots.

If you think that your result satisfies the specification, repeat Step 2 with different

order of your filter (i.e., with different number of poles) such as N=5 and N=8. Plot all

magnitude responses into a subplot with different colors and put all phase responses

into a subplot with different colors.

3. Lab report

Design a notch filter. The specifications for a notch filter are given as follows:

less than 60 dB from unity.

b. Make the gain no more than 1 dB from unity at 980 Hz an 1020 Hz.

Submit all your calculations to design a notch filter and MATLAB codes with plots.

Submit all documents supporting your answers.

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