RULES & REGULATIONS HANDBOOK FOR AIRSIDE PERSONNEL

15th Edition (2008)

Published by : CAAS APRON CONTROL / MANAGEMENT SERVICE

FOREWORD

This 15th Edition of the Rules and Regulations for Airside Personnel handbook contains relevant aspects of the Apron Operational and Safety procedures and extracts from the CAAS (Aerodrome) Regulations. The contents are structured in a simplified format to serve as an easy guide for airside personnel on the rules and regulations governing the airside of Changi Airport. The objective of this handbook is to safeguard the safety of aircraft, personnel, drivers, vehicles and mobile equipment operating in the movement areas. All airside operators shall abide by the rules and regulations stipulated in this handbook. A copy of which is given to the management of airside organisations to ensure their staff compliance. This 15th Edition (2008) supersedes all previous editions of the handbook. It is also available on CAAS Website at http://www.caas.gov.sg. This handbook should also be read in conjunction with the CAAS Apron Notices which are issued from time to time. These notices consist of information requiring airside personnel compliance to safety rules or regulations arising from changes to infrastructures, procedures, operations or existing rules. Any recommendation towards the improvement to the handbook should be forwarded to: Airport Manager Apron Control/Management Service Airport Management Division Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore P O Box 1 PTB Singapore Changi Airport Singapore 918141

As at 20 May 2008

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
FOREWORD TABLE OF CONTENTS DEFINITION OF TERMS KEY CONTACT NUMBERS 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 Illustration 1 2.9 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 2.15 2.16 2.17 2.18 2.19 2.20 2.21 2.22 2.23 2.24 2.25 2.26 INTRODUCTION Citation Jurisdiction Traffic Control Cancellation of Permits Action Against Offenders of Traffic Rules Notice of Offer of Composition (NOC) Suspension of Airfield Driving Permit (ADP) and Compulsory Attendance of Airfield Rules and Regulations Course and Tests CAAS (Aerodrome) Regulations Regulations and Scale of Demerit Points SAFETY RULES WITHIN THE AIRSIDE Valid Airfield Driving Permit (ADP) Classification of Vehicles Speed Limit Speed Limit Exemption Safety in the Vicinity of Aircraft Safety around Aircraft Parked at the stand Seat Belts Safety Vest Hand Signals to Guide Vehicles Driving Areas Crossing Runways Restriction on Surface Roadways Crossing Taxiways Safety Rules for Vehicles Crossing Taxiways Vehicle on Runway or Taxiway Driving in Airside Tunnels Driving within Baggage Handling Area Parking of Vehicles Vehicle Lightings Driver’s Responsibility Towing Rules No Smoking Right of Way Littering Instruction of Authorised Officer Cyclists Reporting of Airside Incident / Accident Requirement for Entry of Ambulance in the Airside on Request by Airport Organisation

SUBJECT

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1 2-3 4-6 6 7 7 7 8 8 8 8-9 9 10 11 11 12 12 13-14 15 15 16-17 18 19-22 22-23 23-24 24-25 25-26 26 26-27 27 27-28 28-29 29 30 30 30-31 31 31-32 32-33 33

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7 Illustration 2 3.4 5.5 4.6 4.7 4.31 2.2 4.2 3.27 2.1 5.1 3.8 4 4.13 6 7 8 Procedure for Entry of Ambulance Operators in the Airside Vehicle Breakdown Procedure in Event of Spillage Refuelling of Vehicle Use of Communication Devices (Mobile phones / Walkie Talkies) Lightning Warning General Rules for Pedestrians AIRSIDE MARKINGS AND SAFETY SIGNAGES Apron Boundary Line (ABL) Equipment Restraint Area (ERA) Equipment Staging Area (ESA) Equipment Parking Area (EPA) No Parking Area (NPA) Holding Strip Passenger Loading Bridge Safety Zone Layout of Aircraft Stand Other Airside and Roadways Markings and Signs BUDGET TERMINAL OPERATIONS General Instructions Speed Limit Driving Areas Driving Within The Baggage Handling Area Airside Markings And Safety Signs Pedestrian Crossing Safety In The Vicinity Of Aircraft Safety On Roadway Behind Aircraft Parking Stand RADIO TELEPHONY PROCEDURES General Instructions Movement Instructions Crossing Runways Language of Communication Time System Transmission Techniques Phraseology Pronunciation of Letters Transmission of Digits Radiotelephony Call Signs Standard Words and Phrases Requirements to Obtain Category 1 Airfield Driving Permit (ADP) for Drivers Entering Manoeuvring Areas Requirements for Installation of Radio Telephony (RT) Set in Airside Vehicles for Entering Manoeuvring Areas REQUIREMENTS FOR A VEHICLE OPERATING IN THE MOVEMENT AREA AIRFIELD RULES TEST QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS MAPS (ATTACHMENTS) Singapore Changi Airport Airside Roadway System 33 34 34-35 35 35 36 36 37 37 38 38 39 39 39 40 41-43 44 44 44-45 45 45-46 46 46-47 47 48 48-49 49 49 49 49-50 50-51 51 51-52 52 52-53 54 54-55 56-62 63-73 74 3 .6 5.2.8 5 5.2 5.11 5.29 2.28 2.3 3.7 5.5 3.5 5.3 5.4 4.10 5.3 4.32 2.8 5.1 4.33 3 3.9 5.4 3.30 2.12 5.6 3.

access to which is controlled. fuelling. NOT permitted to enter Runway/ Taxiway at all times. the Seletar Aerodrome and any other aerodrome maintained or managed by the Authority and include any road or uncovered area which is within the limits of the aerodrome but does not include any road or uncovered area to which the public has access. or the aircraft sustains damage (adapted from the definition contained in ICAO Annex 13). The movement area of an airport. adjacent terrain and buildings or portions thereof. Any officer of the Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore (CAAS) or any police officer or any person duly authorised by the chief executive officer to act on his behalf. Permitted to enter Runway/ Taxiway subject to clearance from Changi Control Tower. Means the Changi Aerodrome. mail or cargo. Permit for a vehicle to be operated in the airside of Singapore Changi Airport. A defined area in an aerodrome. A designated area in an apron intended to be used for parking an aircraft.DEFINITION OF TERMS ACCIDENT An occurrence associated with the operation or handling of an aircraft in which a person is fatally or seriously injured. AERODROME AIRCRAFT STAND AIRFIELD DRIVING PERMIT (ADP) AIRFIELD VEHICLE PERMIT(AVP) AIRSIDE APRON AUTHORISED OFFICER CATEGORY ONE AIRFIELD DRIVING PERMIT (ADP) CATEGORY TWO AIRFIELD DRIVING PERMIT (ADP) 4 . parking or maintenance. The card evidencing the authorisation issued by CAAS Apron Control/ Management Service to the holder to drive vehicle in the airside of Singapore Changi Airport in accordance with the classes of vehicles specified therein. intended to accommodate aircraft for the purposes of loading or unloading passengers.

includes the operator manning the console by which the bridge is activated. (b) PERIMETER ROAD That road within the airside that allows vehicles to move around the airport clear of apron. 5 . and ‘drive’ shall be construed accordingly. A report made of any violations of the CAAS (Aerodrome) Regulations by an authorised officer’. and any person or organisation who has the use of the vehicle under a hire-purchase agreement but not the lessor under any such agreement. includes the rider of a bicycle and any person propelling a tricycle or pushing or pulling a cart and ‘drive’ shall be construed accordingly.DRIVER (a) in relation to a trailer. and in relation to a passenger loading bridge. *Any condition which requires medical assistance. landing and taxiing of aircraft. consisting of the manoeuvring area and the apron(s). taxiways and runways. That part of an aerodrome used for the take-off. *An occurrence. associated with the operation or handling of an aircraft. includes the driver of a vehicle by which the trailer is drawn and ‘drive’ shall be construed accordingly. the person or organisation in whose name the vehicle is registered. That part of an aerodrome used for the take-off. landing and taxiing of aircraft. INCIDENT INJURY MANOEUVRING AREA MOVEMENT AREA NOTICE OF OFFENCE (NOO) / NOTICE OF OFFENCE WITH OFFER OF COMPOSITION (NOC) OWNER In relation to a motor vehicle. other than an accident. includes:(a) every person or organisation who is the owner or joint owner or part owner of the vehicle. including first aid. which affects or could affect the safety of operation. excluding apron(s). (b) (c) ‘FOLLOW ME’ VEHICLE A vehicle with a rotating red light used to guide aircraft or other vehicles.

These include all signals. ROAD TAXIWAY TRAFFIC SIGNS * Adapted from ACI Survey on Apron Incidents / Accidents (Sep 2000) Published by : ACI World Headquarters KEY CONTACT NUMBERS Airport Emergency Service Airport Police Apron Control Centre Budget Terminal (Apron Operations) Changi Airport Fuel Hydrant Installation (CAFHI) Medical Emergency Hotline (Raffles Medical Group) 6541 2525 6546 0000 6541 2148 / 2257 / 2258 6412 7508 6546 4316 6543 2223 6 . posts. lights or other devices for the guidance or direction of persons using the aerodrome.PARK To bring a vehicle to a stationary position and cause it to wait for any purpose other than that of immediately taking up or setting down passengers. warning signs. lines. direction posts. goods or luggage. signs. An established surface route on the movement area meant for the exclusive use of vehicles. A defined path on a land aerodrome established for the taxiing of aircraft. lamps.

3.1.2 1.2. Where in force.2. 1.1 JURISDICTION The control of the airside with regard to vehicles. (d) 1. Work Place Safety and Health Act (c) .1 1. a temporary entry permit is issued to a vehicle.3 1. (Note: The CAAS Apron Control/Management Service. 1. its contracted enforcement staff from the Auxilary Police.3 7 .) 1.2 1. drivers and handling operations on the Apron and roadways is under CAAS Apron Control/Management Service.2. Airport Police and the CAAS Airport Emergency Service are authorised to check vehicles and persons within the provisions of the law.3.2 1.3 1.1 TRAFFIC CONTROL The Airport Police is responsible for the control of passenger and vehicle traffic entering and exiting the airside of Changi Airport. the driver without an Airfield Driving Permit. All drivers entering the airside shall present their Airfield Driving Permits to the guard at the guard posts without request. The security of the airside comes under the charge of the State Police.1.1 INTRODUCTION CITATION All personnel operating in the airside of Changi Airport are governed by the following rules and regulations: (a) (b) The Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore (Aerodrome) Regulations The Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore (Composition of Offences) Regulations Protected Areas and Protected Places Act (Chapter 256) (Note: In addition. the Penal Code is applicable in certain traffic accidents determined by the State Police). The control of aircraft taxiing from runway to aircraft stands and vice versa comes under the Aerodrome Control Tower. shall be escorted by a holder of the Airfield Driving Permit who shall act as a steersman.3.

or Involves in 2 minor accidents within a period of 12 months. SUSPENSION OF AIRFIELD DRIVING PERMIT AND COMPULSORY ATTENDANCE OF AIRFIELD RULES AND REGULATIONS COURSE AND TESTS A driver who (a) (b) (c) Accumulates 12 demerit points or more within a period of 12 months from the date of the first offence. surrender the permit to CAAS Apron Control/ Management Service.5. the CAAS Apron Control / Management Service may demand that the vehicle owner send the driver to attend the Apron Rules and Regulations Course as a refresher lesson.1 1.1 CANCELLATION OF PERMITS The chief executive officer may at any time in his discretion cancel any Airfield Vehicle Permit and Airfield Driving Permit without assigning any reason under Regulations 9 and 21 of the CAAS (Aerodrome) Regulations. If any driver receives repeated reprimands. NOTICE OF OFFENCE WITH OFFER OF COMPOSITION (NOC) Vehicle owner and person issued with the NOC have up to 14 days to settle the compounded amount.6. pass both the Airfield Rules test and Airfield Driving/Safety-Compliance test.5.5. ACTION AGAINST OFFENDERS OF TRAFFIC RULES Any person who acts in contravention of or fails to comply with any of the CAAS (Aerodrome) Regulations or fails to comply with the conditions of any permit or pass issued under the CAAS (Aerodrome) Regulations shall be guilty of an offence and shall be liable on conviction to a fine not exceeding S$2000 or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 6 months or to both.6 1.7 1.4 1.3 1. 8 1.4 1.5 1.2 1. the holder of the permit shall. would be suspended from driving in the airside.1 .5 1. upon being notified by the chief executive officer of the cancellation.5. The chief executive officer may at any time in his discretion cancel any airfield driving permit without assigning any reason.4.1 1.1. Late Payment Fee rate is S$90 per NOC. or Involves in an accident causing injury to personnel or damage to CAAS property and /or aircraft. Where an airfield driving permit has been cancelled. the CAAS Apron Control/Management Service or any 'authorised officer' designated by the chief executive officer is authorised to issue reprimands in writing (reporting forms).7. The CAAS Apron Control/Management Service reserves the right to withdraw permission to enter and drive in the airside.5. In cases of violation of the licensing regulations.

adjustment and passenger carriage) in the Air Cargo Complex. $30 25 $120 54 $30 26 27 $100 $30 55 56 $30 $100 28 29 $70 $30 57(2) 58(1) Loading or unloading fuel tanks within the Air Cargo Complex. $30 68 $70 38 39 Approaching an aircraft which has its engine running. Failing to comply with the directions or verbal instructions given by an authorised officer regulating trafficin an aerodrome. condition or circumstances likely to cause danger. when the red light signal is switched on. Leaving refuse or littering in the Air Cargo Complex. 3 13 14 $30 $70 48 52 $150 $150 24 $130 53 Proceeding onto the apron without being escorted by a representative of an airline. Parking a vehicle on any road in an aerodrome between the edge of the roadway and any portion of unbroken white line(s) laid down on such road.8 SECTION 41A CIVIL AVIATION AUTHORITY OF SINGAPORE ACT (CHAPTER 41). Failing to keep the vehicle to right side of the runway or taxiway when proceeding along a runway or taxiway respectively. $30 $30 69 70(1) $70 $70 40 41(2) 42 43 44 $30 $150 $40 $100 $40 71 72 73 76 First Sched ule $120 $100 $200 $150 $50 45 $30 9 . Overtaking and passing any other vehicle proceeding in the same direction in the movement area. Driving beyond the speed limit of 25km/h on roads in the vicinity of aircraft bays or beyond 40 km/h on roads away from aircraft parking bays. Travelling in any vehicle in the movement area otherwise than seated in a passenger seat or standing in a section constructed for standing passengers. packing. Parking a vehicle or causing a vehicle to remain at rest in any place in an aerodrome in any position. $30 $40 64 65(2) $50 $70 36 $30 67(1) $100 37 Backing up a vehicle to an aircraft other than for the purpose of servicing that aircraft or other that where directed to do so by a marshaller. Failing to slow down vehicle when approaching an aircraft which is setting down or taking up passengers. obstruction or undue inconvenience to traffic or other users in the aerodrome. or parking on the side of any road with an unbroken yellow line laid down on that side of such road. Failing to conform to traffic signs regulating the movement of traffic or indicating the route to be followed by traffic in the aerodrome. Failing to stop vehicle or give way to aircraft. Failing to keep a safety distance of at least 5 metres from the wing-tip of a stationary aircraft or failing to maintain a safety distance of at least 38 metres from the edge of the taxiway when travelling parallel to taxiing aircraft. Compos ition Amount $30 Regula tion No. Failing to give way to aircraft passengers in the movement area. CIVIL AVIATION AUTHORITY OF SINGAPORE (AERODROME) REGULATIONS (R2) and CIVIL AVIATION AUTHORITY OF SINGAPORE (COMPOSITION OF OFFENCES) REGULATIONS (R3) Offence Using a vehicle or causing or permitting a vehicle to be used in the movement area without a valid Airfield Vehicle Permit issued by the chief executive officer in respect of that vehicles Failingto comply with the conditions of a valid temporary Airfield Vehicle Entry Permit issued by the chief executive officer Driving a vehicle in the movement area without a valid Airfield Driving Permit issued by the chief executive officer fro driving a vehicle of that description or employing or permitting a person not issued with such a permit to drive a vehicle in the movement area. Leaving broken-down vehicle unattended in the movement area. Compos ition Amount $70 Regul ation No. distribution. 47 Offence Failing to remove servicing vehicles or equipment from parking bay or other related parking spaces immediately after the aircraft being serviced has taxied away. Failing to obey the lawful directions given by an authorised officer in an aerodrome. CIAS & SWISSPORT) and pass both the theory Airfield Rules Test and the practical Airfield Driving / Safety Compliance Test conducted by CAAS Apron Control/Management Service before the permit can be reinstated. $70 $40 61 62 $100 $30 33 $50 63 $50 34 35 Failing to approach an aircraft at an angle and keep to its right side when approaching that aircraft in the movement area. Proceeding onto the apron without obtaining prior clearance from Duty Apron Controller. Failing to stop at point of entry to the manoeuring area or failing to ascertain that there is no aircraft movement before proceeding into the manoeuring area. $30 $60 30 $40 59 $70 31 32 Parking a vehicle in or near the movement area or a vehicular traffic route other than in areas approved for such a purpose. at a crossing point.2 The driver would then be required to attend the Airfield Rules and Regulations Course (ARRC) at outsourced centres (SATS. Failing to comply with the restrictions and stipulations on vehicle loads (height. Parking or stopping a vehicle on footway of any road in the aerodrome. Requirments for a vehicle operating in the movement area. Failing to give way or failing to give maximum clearance to aircraft in the movement area. failing to arrange for immediate removal of broken-down vehicle in the movement area or failing to ensure aircraft or other vehicles are not obstructed by such breakdown. Failing to comply with the directions or verbal instructions given by an authorised officer regulating traffic in the movement area.1. Using a vehicle or causing or permitting a vehicle to be used in the aerodrome without a valid motor vehicle licence issued under Road Traffic Act in respect of that vehicle. Failing to keep clear of an aircraft’s engine or passing within 8 metres from the air intake or within 80 metres from the rear of a running jet engine. Leaving refuse or littering in the apron Smoking in any part of the movement area or hangars. tail or fuselage of an aircraft in the movement area. weight. Failing to comply accordingly with respective light signals when driving a vehicle not equipped with two-way radio. Towing a vehicle with another vehicle in the movement area without using a suitable tow bar. Starting up a vehicle in the movement area within 15 metres of any aircraft that is being refueled. Failing to obtain prior clearance from Duty Tower Controller before proceeding to any part of the movement area other than apron. Drawing up or stopping a vehicle under the wing. Failing to comply with the direction or verbal instructions of an authorized officer in the Air Cargo Complex. 1. Driving a vehicle without due care and attention or without reasonable consideration for other persons using aerodrome. Travelling in any vehicle in the Air Cargo Complex otherwise than seated in a passenger seat or standing in a section constructed for standing passengers. Entering or leaving the Air Cargo Complex other than through an entrance or exit designated by the chief executive officer.7. Crossing the movement area in front of the path of a taxiing aircraft or an aircraft on tow. Failing to ensure that a vehicle used in the movement area is maintained in good working condition. Driving a vehicle in the Air Cargo Complex without a valid driving licence issued under the Road Traffic Act for driving a vehicle of that description or driving a forklift in the Air Cargo Complex without a valid Forklift Driving Permit issued by chief executive officer or employing or permitting a person not issued with the respective permit to drive such vehicle in the Air Cargo Complex. Entering or remaining in the prohibited area of an aerodrome without a valid airport pass issued by the chief executive officer.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Nature of Violation Driving over any hose or bonding cable lying on the ground during aircraft refuelling. Failing to switch on yellow flashing light on top of the vehicle cab when operating on taxiways and runways. Travelling in any vehicle in the movement area otherwise than seated in a passenger seat or standing in a section constructed for standing passengers. Towing defective trailers / trolleys on airside roadways. Parking a vehicle in or near the movement area or on a vehicular traffic route other than in areas approved for such a purpose. 24 Offence Driving beyond the speed limit of 25 km/h on roads in the vicinity of aircraft parking bays : (a) 10 km/h to 20 km/h (b) 21 km/h to 30 km/h (c) 31 km/h to 40 km/h (d) More than 40 km/h Driving beyond the speed limit of 40 km/h on roads away from aircraft parking bays: (a) 10 km/h to 20 km/h (b) 21 km/h to 30 km/h (c) 31 km/h to 40 km/h (d) More than 40 km/h Failing to comply with the directions or verbal instructions given by an authorised officer regulating traffic in the movement area. Failing to give way or failing to give maximum clearance to aircraft in the movement area.1.9 SECTION 41A CIVIL AVIATION AUTHORITY OF SINGAPORE ACT (CHAPTER 41). Demerit Points 9 9 6 6 4 4 4 4 4 4 10 . Failing to conform to traffic signs regulating the movement of traffic or indicating the route to be followed by traffic in the aerodrome. Driving a vehicle without due care and attention or without reasonable consideration for other persons in an aerodrome. Requirements for a vehicle operating in the movement area . Load falling from equipment / vehicle.Failing to fasten seat belts Demerit Points 4 6 8 12 25 26 31 54 65(2) 67(1) 4 6 8 12 3 9 3 6 6 4 76 1st Sched (Para 15) 9 3 Table 2 – RULES AND SCALE OF DEMERIT POINTS Rule No. Parking a vehicle or causing a vehicle to remain at rest in an aerodrome in any position. ‘Run-away’ trailer unit. obstruction or undue inconvenience to traffic or other users in the aerodrome. Towing more than 4 container trailers / baggage trolleys or more than 3 pallet dollies at any one time. condition or circumstances likely to cause danger. Driving a forklift with its fork at more than 10 centimetres above road level. Vehicle other than baggage tractor entering baggage handling area. CIVIL AVIATION AUTHORITY OF SINGAPORE (AERODROME) REGULATIONS (R2) and CIVIL AVIATION AUTHORITY OF SINGAPORE (COMPOSITION OF OFFENCES) REGULATIONS (R3) Table 1 – REGULATIONS AND SCALE OF DEMERIT POINTS Reg No. Leaving vehicle unattended with the engine running.5 metres of an aircraft. Conveying load that is not properly secured. within 7.

1 Class 4D - Class 4 Class 5S - Class 5 - 11 . authorising them to operate a vehicle of that description at all times. All holders of this permit shall produce the ADP upon request by authorised CAAS officers.1 2.1 SAFETY RULES WITHIN THE AIRSIDE VALID AIRFIELD DRIVING PERMIT (ADP) Drivers operating within the airside must possess a valid Airfield Driving Permit (ADP).2 2.4 2.2 2.2.1. CLASSIFICATION OF VEHICLES The classification of vehicles in the ADP is similar to those of the Land Transport Authority (LTA) with certain internal classifications approved by CAAS as follows:Class A Class B Class F Class 3T Class 3A Class 3 Class 4T Passenger Loading Bridge (PLB) Passenger Loading Bridge.2 2.1.1. All ADP holders are required to sit for a refresher course once every 2 years before they are allowed to renew their ADP.1.3 2. All ADP holders are required to change their ADP if it is faded or torn due to wear and tear.For cleaning & maintenance contractors Forklift or Fork Truck Motor Tractors (unladen weight less than 2500 kg) – Internal License approved by CAAS Motor Cars and Motor Tractors with auto-transmission (unladen weight less than 2500 kg) Motor Cars and Motor Tractors (unladen weight less than 2500 kg) Motor Tractors (unladen weight more than 2500 kg but less than 7250 kg) – Internal License approved by CAAS Heavy Motor Cars and Motor Tractors (unladen weight more than 2500 kg) – Internal License approved by CAAS Heavy Motor Cars and Motor Tractors (unladen weight more than 2500 kg) Motor Vehicles which are not constructed to carry any load and the unladen weight is more than 7250 kg – Internal License approved by CAAS Motor Vehicles which are not constructed to carry any load and the unladen weight is more than 7250 kg 2.

4. No overtaking is allowed where a continuous double white line is painted in the centre of the roadway.2 2.2 The speed limit signs painted on the surface of airside roadways as illustrated below refers to the speed permissible in km/h. SPEED LIMIT EXEMPTION Emergency vehicles such as fire vehicles.1 2.3. 10 km per hour in the Baggage Handling Area.4.1 SPEED LIMIT Drivers shall obey all regulatory signs in the airside and adhere to the speed limits of : (a) (b) (c) (d) 5 km per hour within 10m of an aircraft.3 2.4 2. ¹’Follow Me’ vehicles with a flashing blue.2.3. ambulance and police vehicles on call must be given priority to move ahead quickly and safely.3.3 40 The speed limit signs are the maximum speed for ideal conditions for that particular stretch of road and must be reduced when visibility conditions deteriorate. red or yellow light signal.4. They may leave the established roadways if necessary. and 40 km per hour on roadways situated more than 15 metres away from any aircraft stand. slowing down or stopping if necessary. Any indication of their approach such as sirens or flashing lights should prompt the driver to give way by moving to the left. 25 2. 25 km per hour on roadways within 15 metres of an aircraft stand. 2.3 ¹ Adapted from ICAO Document Annex 14 Volume I 12 . 2.3.4 2. including the vehicles they escort are exempted from the speed limit when attending to an emergency. The vehicles described above. must give way to taxiing and towing aircraft at all times.

They shall not cross in front or behind a taxiing aircraft that would subject themselves and or aircraft in danger. No driver shall drive a vehicle towards an aircraft with its engine running.5. Aprons & Holding Bays (Appendix 2) ³ Adapted from CAAS Aerodrome Regulations (Regulations 39) 13 .5¹ metres from the air intake of the aircraft engine.4 Any person except maintenance staff working on a stationary aircraft with its engine running: (a) (b) (c) shall not pass within 7.5. ¹ Adapted from ACI Apron Safety Handbook.2 2.5. Part 2 Taxiways.5.1 2. shall not pass within 76² metres from the rear of an aircraft jet engine.Aerodrome Design Manual.SAFETY IN THE VICINITY OF AIRCRAFT When Aircraft is Stationary with Engines Running Drivers and airside personnel must be aware of the dangerous effects of jet blast injuries that could be caused by rotating propellers and potential ingestion when in close proximity to aircraft with its engine running. must be at least 5³ metres clear from the wing tip of a parked aircraft. An aircraft with its engine running will have its anti collision light on (displaying a flashing red light signal) 2.3 2. 1996 Edition (Pages 28 & 31) ² Adapted from ICAO Doc 9157 .

6 (a) Drivers shall not start their vehicles when within 15³ metres of a refuelling aircraft. (b) (c) 1 Adapted from CAAS Aerodrome Regulations (Regulations 36) 14 .5 Personnel and vehicles shall give way to aircraft at all times irrespective of whether the aircraft is taxiing or on tow. Drivers of vehicles shall not drive over any hose or bonding cable laid during aircraft refuelling. Drivers of vehicles shall keep clear of the aircraft engines and shall no pass within 2. The picture below provides a guide to the safety distances where vehicles or personnel shall maintain from a taxiing aircraft: When Aircraft Being Refuelled 2.5.When Aircraft is Taxiing 2.5.5 metres radius around the aircraft fuel tank vents.

Do not drive or park under aircraft or aircraft wings unless the vehicles are used for servicing the aircraft. the wheels have been chocked and the engines shut down. Do not approach an aircraft until the ground engineer gives the ‘thumb up’ signal when the aircraft has come to a complete stop. Maintain at least 7. Overtaking is strictly prohibited on aircraft stands.7. Deposit all Foreign Object Damage (FOD) in bins provided after handling of each flight. Use a marshaller or guideman when reversing towards aircraft.5 metres clearance of the front of its engine. Approach stationary aircraft at an angle and keep to the aircraft on the driver’s side(not meant for docking to aircraft). oil and other chemical spillages. Do not stop or park in the PLB safety zone. 15 . Wear high visibility safety vest at all times. (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) (k) (l) (m) (n) 2. Do not leave vehicle unattended with the engine running near the aircraft. Report all fuel. Keep the PLB safety zone free of any obstruction.1 SAFETY AROUND AIRCRAFT PARKED AT THE STAND Points to remember:(a) Do not drive behind an aircraft when its engines are running or when the aircraft anti-collision light is still on (flashing red light).2. Do not obstruct the path of an aircraft waiting for push back. and To engage the handbrake whenever the vehicle is stationary. All drivers and passengers shall belt up where seat belts are installed in a vehicle.6.6 2.7 2. Beware of engine ingestion and to keep clear of propellers.1 SEAT BELT Drivers and passengers shall fasten their seat belts when the vehicle is in motion. Do not walk or drive in front of an aircraft when its engines are running.

The specifications for the high visibility (hi-vis) safety vest to be used at Singapore Changi Airport are as follows : (a) The basic colour of the background material of the high visibility (hi-vis) safety vest shall be yellow or lime green. The high visibility (hi-vis) safety vest shall be imprinted with the respective organisations’ logo for easy identification. are required to wear the high visibility (hi-vis) raincoat / rain suit at all times. all personnel entering/performing work at all movement areas. (b) The airport pass should be visibile when wearing the high visibility (hivis) raincoat / rain suit. 2. Comply with Class 3 in the European Standard EN 471.1 SAFETY VEST All personnel entering/performing work at all apron areas.2. (d) 2.3 During inclement weather.8. including all aircraft stands and the compass swing area are required to wear the high visibility (hivis) safety vest at all times. British Standard BS EN 471 or American Standard ANSI 107 in the following aspects : i) ii) (c) minimum area of 0.2m2 of retro reflective material.13m2 of retro reflective material. minimum area of 0.8m2 of background material. British Standard BS EN 471 or American Standard ANSI 107 in the following aspects : i) ii) (c) minimum area of 0.5m2 of background material. It is also mandatory for cyclists to wear this safety vest while cycling on airside roadways.8 2. The specifications for the high visibility (hi-vis) raincoat / rain suit to be used at Singapore Changi Airport are as follows : (a) The basic colour of the background material of the high visibility (hi-vis) raincoat / rain suit shall be yellow or lime green. The high visibility (hi-vis) raincoat / rain suit shall be imprinted with the respective organisations’ logo for easy identification. minimum area of 0. (d) 16 . Comply with Class 2 in the European Standard EN 471.8.2 (b) The airport pass should be visibile when wearing the high visibility (hivis) safety vest.8.

4 It is also acceptable if the high visibility (hi-vis) safety vest is worn over a nonhigh visibility (hi-vis) raincoat / rain suit.8. All airside workers are required to wear safety vest at all times when operating in the aircraft stand 17 . Front View of Safety Vest Back View of Safety Vest Cyclist is also required to wear safety vest.2.

Illustration 1: Hand signals to guide vehicles 18 .

g. catering trucks. It is meant for movement of vehicles and equipment.9.9 2. (e) 4. Tall vehicles. Under no circumstances shall vehicles enter the aircraft stand outside the Equipment Restraint Area (ERA) when aircraft is taxiing into the stand. Drivers shall not use the aircraft parking stands as short cuts to get to their intended destination.1 DRIVING AREAS Service Roadways (a) It is located in front of all aircraft parking stands. All drivers must ensure the height of their vehicles(including loads or equipment on tow) do not infringe the height restriction signs mounted on airside facilities and infrastructures.2. This is to avoid obstructing the view of the Aircraft Marshaller when he operates the Aircraft Docking Guidance System (ADGS). The height limit of gangway under Passenger Loading Bridge is 4 metres.0m 19 . (b) (c) Service Roadway Uninterrupted white lines in front of aircraft parking stand (d) Tall vehicles e. exceeding 4 metres in height shall refrain from travelling on the holding strip under the Passenger Loading Bridge. The speed limit is 25 km/h. travelling along the service roadways in front of all Passenger Loading Bridges shall immediately clear the roadway whenever an aircraft is approaching the gate.

R7S (T2) and R1N (T3) outside the Baggage Handling Areas serve to give uninterrupted flow to tractors towing baggage containers into and out of the Baggage Handling Areas. Stop signs painted on roadways R4 (T1). Nonetheless. All drivers are to give way to such tractors.(f) Height restriction limit signs are installed on the Passenger Loading Bridges. 4.5 metres Height Restriction (g) No Entry to Passenger Step Tall vehicles (those capable of extending or rising) must be driven in the retracted or lowered position and shall use the secondary roadways and avoid those infrastructures with height restrictions as shown in above pictures with height limit signs mounted. (h) 20 . at the underpasses and at the tunnel roadways. Tall vehicles exceeding the respective height restriction limits indicated by such signs are to use the secondary roadways or other alternative road ways. these tractor drivers shall also ensure traffic on these roadways have stopped before proceeding.

(b) (c) (d) (ii) (e) Tall vehicles.9. Tall vehicles (including load) exceeding 4. (b) 21 . exceeding 4. in front of the jet blast fence opposite Terminal 2 Baggage Handling Area shall stop at the entry to the taxiway and ensure that there is no aircraft movement before continuing their journey. 2 and 3 Baggage Handling Area.3 Perimeter Roadways (a) It is located near the fences that surround the airside.2 Secondary Roadways Secondary Roadway Interrupted white lines behind aircraft parking stand (a) It is located behind aircraft parking stands and in front of jet blast fence at Terminal 1. The speed limit on the secondary roadways is 25 km/h.5 metres in height are only allowed to use only the secondary roadways. The speed limit on the perimeter roadways is 40 km/h.2. Vehicles using the secondary roadways: (i) shall move away from the roadway and hold at the edge of the stands and wait for the aircraft on the taxiway to clear. or shall wait till the aircraft has been fully pushed back from its stand onto the taxiway and taxied off before joining the roadway to continue their journey.9. 2.5 metres in height travelling along the roadway.

2.9.4 Manoeuvring Area (a) The manoeuvring area (excludes the apron) is reserved for flight operations, e.g. take-off, landing and taxiing of aircraft. Walking or driving on the manoeuvring area is strictly prohibited. A vehicle not equipped with a two-way radio communication system shall not enter the runway or taxiway. In the event that a radio communication failure occurs, the driver of the affected vehicle must leave the manoeuvring area immediately while looking out and giving way to aircraft. He shall also look out for light signals from the direction of Changi Tower and react accordingly. They are: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Continuous GREEN Light directed at the vehicle - the driver is authorised to enter and drive on the runway or taxiway; Continuous RED Light directed at the vehicle - the driver shall stop the vehicle immediately; Intermittent RED Light is directed at the vehicle - the driver must drive the vehicle clear of the runway or taxiway immediately; Intermittent GREEN Light is directed at the vehicle - the driver whose vehicle has been ordered to stay clear of the runway or taxiway may return to the runway or taxiway; and Intermittent WHITE Light is directed at the vehicle, the driver is to return at once to his starting point.

(b)

(v) (c)

If the driver do not understand any of the light signal directed at his vehicle by the Changi Tower, the driver must not enter the runway or taxiway and to stay clear of any parts of these areas.

2.10

CROSSING RUNWAYS

2.10.1 Drivers shall not cross a runway under any circumstances unless positive permission has been given and acknowledged by the Changi Tower.

NO ENTRY RUNWAY AHEAD

EXCEPT AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLCLEARANCE

‘NO ENTRY RUNWAY AHEAD’ is painted on the ground (These signages and similar wordings marked on the ground are placed at the entrances of roadways leading into the runway). 22

2.10.2

Drivers proceeding to any part of the manoeuvring area shall obtain prior approval from the Duty Tower Controller over the radio transmitter on VHF 121.9 MHz before proceeding to their destinations. Drivers entering the manoeuvring area shall stop at the point of entry and ascertain that there is no aircraft movement before entering the manoeuvring area. RESTRICTION ON SURFACE ROADWAYS CROSSING TAXIWAYS

2.10.3

2.11

2.11.1

Only authorised vehicles are allowed to cross the taxiways with conditions (see paragraphs 2.9.4 and 2.10). This is to minimise interaction between aircraft and vehicles. These roadways are located at the North Cross Taxiways, South Cross Taxiways and taxiways behind aircraft parking stands and taxiways along the Perimeter Roadways. Please refer to Map of the Airside Roadway System attached. The ‘Warning Give Way (yield) To Aircraft’ sign is painted on the secondary roadway after the STOP line. This is to caution drivers of aircraft movement crossing ahead. Only authorised vehicles are allowed to use the surface roadways R3N and R5N crossing the North Cross Taxiways. They are: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) Vehicles proceeding to Aircraft Stands 300 – 310 for aircraft handling or other approved works; Air tugs; Joint Container Pallet Loaders (JCPL); Main Deck Loaders (MDL); Tankers / Bowsers carrying flammable liquid having a flash point of 61 degrees Celsius or less (e.g. Jet A1 fuel, Avgas or Petrol); Vehicles transporting explosive shipments; and Vehicles (including load) exceeding 4.5 metres in height.

2.11.2

2.11.3

2.11.4

2.11.5

Vehicles other than those mentioned above are to use the tunnel roadways R1N and R7N. 23

2.11.6

Drivers of vehicles under para 2.9.4 shall stop before the stop line at the respective junctions of R3N, R3S, R5N and R5S and look both left and right to ensure there is absolutely no aircraft taxiing or about to taxI along the North Cross Taxiways before proceeding. SAFETY RULES FOR VEHICLES CROSSING TAXIWAYS Only authorised vehicles are allowed to cross the North Cross or South Cross Taxiways or any other Taxiways. All drivers must comply with all traffic signs and markings, including traffic light signals provided, at the roadway crossing. Drivers are to stop before the vehicle stop-line, look out for aircraft movements on the taxiway at all times and ensure that there is no aircraft movement before crossing the taxiway. No vehicle is allowed to stop in any part of the roadway crossing that is within the taxiway. In the event of a vehicle breakdown within the taxiway, the driver must ensure it is reported to Apron Control Centre immediately. The vehicle shall not be left unattended.

2.12 2.12.1

2.12.2

2.12.3 All airside organisations are to ensure that their drivers are familiar with the rules and regulations governing the use of all roadways that cross the taxiways.

CAUTION
GIVE WAY TO AIRCRAFT

24

13. Under no circumstances shall the drivers of such vehicles proceed without the escort by CAAS ACMS Enforcement Officer.1 2. R7S link which cut across South Cross I and II.2 2. Prohibitions : The following vehicles shall not enter the tunnel areas: (a) Airtug.14.14 2.3 2.12.5 m in Height who need to gain access to aircraft stands 103 or 104 or the Budget Terminal from T2 and vice versa must make prior arrangement with CAAS Apron Control Centre at 65412257/8 with at least half an hour notice.2.1 VEHICLE ON RUNWAY OR TAXIWAY All drivers on the runway or taxiway shall drive the vehicle on the RIGHT SIDE of the runway/ taxiway.4 Signs indicating 'No Entry" except "Authorised Vehicles" are installed at both ends of the Roadway. (b) Joint Container Pallet Loaders (JCPL) 25 . Vehicles to be escorted shall park at the holding strip at either aircraft stand 103 or 200 whilst waiting for CAAS ACMS Enforcement Officer to escort them across.2 Drivers shall not leave their vehicles unattended on the runway or taxiway.13. DRIVING IN AIRSIDE TUNNELS Vehicles using the airside tunnels must comply with traffic signs and markings. 2.13 2. Both ends of this roadway are also barricaded to prevent any unauthorised entry. Only drivers of passenger steps and vehicles / equipment above 4.13. All drivers shall switch on the yellow flashing light signal on top of their vehicles at all times when operating on the runway / taxiway. 2.14.

15. Jet A1 fuel.5 2.3 metres at Terminal 2 & Terminal 3.g.1 Terminal 2 Baggage Handling Area Only baggage tractors and baggage trolleys are allowed to enter the baggage handling area.3 2.14. Tractors and trolleys when not in use. All drivers shall not enter the tunnel whenever the red light on the gantry is activated.4 2. Baggage tractors are to move within the vehicular lanes indicated by arrows. DRIVING WITHIN THE BAGGAGE HANDLING AREAS 2.15. Only hybrid tractors are allowed to enter the T3 baggage handling area.14.5 Main Deck Loaders (MDL) Tanker / Brwsers carrying flammable liquid having a flesh point of 61 degress Celsius or less (e. 26 2.6 2.15.15. Parking or waiting in the tunnel is not allowed.4 2.14. Littering is an offence in the baggage handling areas. All drivers shall observe the speed limit of 40 km/h whilst driving inside the tunnels. Baggage containers and trolleys are to be parked only at designated areas. Vehicles transporting explosive shipments.4 metres at Terminal 1 and 2.7 2.(c) (d) (e) (f) 2.15 Terminal 1 Baggage Handling Area 2.15.15.14. The speed limit in Baggage Handling Area is 10 km/h.6 2. Pallet dollies and igloos are not allowed in the baggage handling areas.2 2. The height clearance in the baggage handling area is 2.3 2. Container doors / flaps are to be secured when on tow. Avgas or Petrol).5 metres in height. All drivers shall report to Apron Control Centre as soon as possible at 65412148 / 2257/8 or through any of the SOS telephones located on the wall of the tunnels if their vehicles break down in the tunnel. shall be positioned clear of the vehicular lanes.8 .15. and Vehilces (including load) exceeding 4.15.

vehicles and equipment may only park within the defined equipment parking areas.4 2. Any vehicle not claimed within 3 months shall be disposed of in any manner the Authority deems fit.9 All drivers are to switched on the headlight whenever driving in the Baggage Handling Areas.15.16 Figure A Figure B 2.5 2.2 2. PARKING OF VEHICLES 2.16.17 Red Obstruction Light Yellow Flashing Light 27 . The chief executive officer may cause the vehicle to be removed and the owner or driver thereof shall pay the costs or charges for the impoundment plus storage fee of that vehicle.16. VEHICLE LIGHTINGS 2.16. Vehicles should not be parked in a way that will obstruct aircraft or other vehicles or in a way that causes danger.16.2. On apron areas.3 2. obstruction or undue inconvenience to other users. All drivers are reminded to exercise caution when reversing their vehicles from parking lots into the vehicular traffic lane. drivers are urged to park their vehicles nose out facing the roadway as shown in Figure B.16. As a safety measure and to minimise accidents involving reversing vehicles.1 Vehicles on the airside may only be parked in marked vehicle parking areas as shown in Figure A.

2.18. or for an adequate period of time before coming on duty. 2. In accordance to the First Schedule of the CAAS (Aerodrome) Regulations.18.1.15.17. shall have seat belts installed for the driver and front seat passenger. shall display at its highest point a single fixed red light.4 2. 2. Any abnormality discovered that would compromise safety to themselves and others.18.3 Vehicle Lights Vehicle headlights (dipped or low-beamed).2 Yellow Flashing Light Vehicles on the manoeuvring area. shall display a yellow flashing light at its highest point during the hours of darkness and during low visibility. visible through 360 degrees. The driver and front seat passenger shall fasten their seat belts when the vehicle is in motion.17.18. 28 2. Headlights must be dipped if there is oncoming traffic. Aircraft passengers shall have priority over all vehicular traffic. Passengers may be transported only in vehicles licensed for that purpose.g. tail lights and single fixed red light must be switched on during the hours of darkness or during low visibility in day time (e.17.2. Driving with high beam headlights is prohibited except on perimeter roadways. except vehicles used for servicing aircraft and vehicles used only on aprons including those described in para 2. Drivers must make sure that their vehicles are roadworthy before driving. Forklift drivers must ensure that the extended 'forks' are raised not more than 10 centimetres above the road level while travelling on the roadway. must be reported to their management immediately.1 DRIVER’S RESPONSIBILITY Drivers in the course of duties are not allowed to consume alcohol. of a type approved by CAAS. heavy rain) and when using the underpass or tunnels. The same applies to medicine or drugs which may impair the ability of the driver.2 2.7 .18 2. all vehicles. unless exempted by CAAS. No person other than the driver shall travel in any vehicle in the airside unless he is seated in a passenger seat provided in the vehicle or is standing in a section of the vehicle which has been constructed for standing.1 Red Light During the hours of darkness.3 2.5 2. a vehicle other than vehicle belonging to Airport Emergency Services and Airport Police.18.18.6 2. Drivers must check that loads and trailers are properly secured before moving off so as not to cause a hazard to other traffic or personnel. Drivers are also reminded that they are responsible for the safety of the passengers in their vehicle.18.

19. the driver shall tow the containers/cargoes to the nearest equipment staging area and replace the faulty trailer/dolly before continue to tow. The driver must report the defect immediately to his office to remove the equipment from staging area.1 TOWING RULES A tractor is allowed to tow a maximum of 4 container trailers/baggage trolleys or 3 pallet dollies at any one time.8 Pedestrian Crossing Pedestrian crossing signs are installed before the pedestrian crossings at the service roads and underpasses.19.2.3 2. 2.18.19. Container Trailer / Dolly Baggage Trolley Pallet Dolly 29 .19.2 2.4 Drivers are to secure their loads before moving off. 2. Vehicles and equipment shall reduce speed and stop before the crossing and give way to pedestrians. If defects on the trailers or dollies are spotted during towing. No vehicle shall be towed by another vehicle unless a suitable tow bar is used for that purpose.19 2.

the following priorities shall apply: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) taxiing and towing aircraft.1 NO SMOKING Smoking is prohibited at the airside (apron. Baggage Handling Areas and the Hangars).2 All ground handling agents engaged in the servicing or handling of aircraft shall inspect the aircraft stands to ensure that no foreign objects or materials are left on the parking stand before every arrival and after every departure.22. All unwanted items taken out from the aircraft shall not be left inside the PLB or outside the PLB’s stairs.20.22.22.1 LITTERING No person shall place. the Duty Apron Officer of the respective ground handler is to ensure that Passenger Loading Bridge (PLB) is clear of catering carton boxes. in vehicles and Passenger Loading Bridges. discharge or deposit any refuse or litter at the ramp except in the Foreign Object Damage (FOD) bins provided.20 2.22 2.1 RIGHT-OF-WAY On right-of-way. 2. and to traffic in all other areas. Examples of such items are bolts and nuts from ground equipment. 2. at road intersections or junctions. 2. unless prescribed otherwise by traffic signs. plastic bags or sheeting. Items that are potential safety risks are those that may be ingested by aircraft engines or can cause damage to aircraft tyres. The Duty Aircraft Ground Engineer shall ensure that the aircraft path to the stop bar is clear of debris before the arrival and pushback of the aircraft.2. 2. vehicles proceeding with a blue or red rotating lights and the escorted vehicles. the right-left principle shall apply. the right-before-left principle shall apply. guide vehicles with a red rotating lamp on.21 2. They shall be disposed off at their respective handler’s premises. including the vehicles they escort.3 30 . After an aircraft pushback.21.

the drivers shall inspect their vehicles to ensure that the loads are properly secured to prevent them from falling off the vehicle.3 2.24. its contracted enforcement staff from the Auxilary Police.1 2. within the provisions of the law including any officer empowered by the Authority) 2. Cyclists shall travel in single file when in a group and keep to the extreme left side of the road.22.4 . Drivers must produce the Airfield Driving Permit upon request by an authorised officer.23. to attend a briefing conducted by CAAS Apron Control/Management Service.23 2. Any airside organisation wishing to operate a bicycle in the airside must write in to obtain approval from CAAS Apron Control/Management Service. the Airport Police and the CAAS Airport Emergency Service are authorised to check vehicles and persons.24.23.1 CYCLISTS Airside organisations shall be required to send their staff who need to cycle in the airside.24. INSTRUCTION OF AUTHORISED OFFICER Drivers must comply with any direction or verbal instruction given by any authorised officer who is for the time being engaged in the regulation of traffic within an aerodrome.23.2 2. Every person on the premises of an aerodrome shall obey the lawful directions given by an authorised officer.2 2. Cyclists are required to check their bicycles to ensure they are roadworthy. 31 2.4 Before commencement of driving.2. 2. Only the namelist of all those who have attended the briefing are authorised to cycle in the airside.24.24 2.3 Spot Check Speed Trap (Note: The CAAS Apron Control/Management Service.

7 Cyclists must follow vehicular routes and give way to taxiing aircraft. If witnesses cannot stay at the scene due to other urgent duties. (Tel: 65412148/51 or 65412257/58) any airside incident/accident they witness.24.24. 2.5 For accidents with casualties. contact the Medical Emergency Hotline (Tel: 65432223).24.24.25. REPORTING OF AIRSIDE INCIDENT / ACCIDENT Drivers failing to report an accident within 24 hrs shall be guilty of an offence under the CAAS (Aerodrome) Regulations.6 2. 2. The details of a person alleged to have been driving or in charge of any vehicle at the time of an accident or to have committed an offence. As such. Provide transport for the medical officer or nurses from the airport medical centre if they are called upon for immediate medical assistance prior to the arrival of an ambulance.1 2.4 2. All persons involved in an accident and witness/es shall remain at the scene of the accident until an officer of the CAAS Apron Control/Management Service arrives.25 2.25. cyclists shall observe the safety precautions and driving regulations applicable to vehicle drivers.8 2.25. Airport Police (65460000) and Duty Apron Control Centre Supervisor (Tel: 65412148/51 or 65412257/58) immediately.25. they shall report to the CAAS Duty Enforcement Officer immediately upon accomplishing their duties.25.25.25.5 Cyclists shall park their bicycles on the kerb areas beside the apron floodlights when attending to flights at the stand. shall be provided to the CAAS Apron Control/Management Service within 24 hours. The rules and regulations stipulated in the CAAS (Aerodrome) Regulations with regard to 'drivers' and 'vehicles' shall apply to both cyclists and bicycles.7 32 . 2. All personnel shall report immediately to the CAAS Duty Apron Control Centre Supervisor. Cyclists on the airside roadways are also required to wear high visibility safety vest.6 2. Section 75(1)(a) of the CAAS (Aerodrome) Regulations stipulates that owners of vehicles and equipment are required to provide drivers' particulars to CAAS Apron Control/Management Service.2.2 2.3 2.

2 2. (b) Flight Number where necessary.26.27.1 2. and exact location of the injured / sick person.8 Drivers involved in accident shall not remove vehicle / equipment until permission has been granted by a Police Officer or CAAS Apron Control/Management Service except in situation where it endangers aircraft movement.27 2.27. REQUIREMENT FOR ENTRY OF AMBULANCE IN THE AIRSIDE ON REQUEST BY AIRPORT ORGANISATION Contact the Medical Emergency Hotline (Tel: 65432223) for an ambulance and provide the following details:(a) (b) (c) identify yourself.27.4 2. Ambulance driver shall maintain a safe distance of 15 metres from a refuelling aircraft. The Airport Police will provide the directions for the driver on the entry point into the airside. PROCEDURE FOR ENTRY OF AMBULANCE OPERATORS IN THE AIRSIDE Ambulance entering the airside without Airfield Vehicle Permit shall provide the ground handling agents the following details : (a) Name of patient.5 33 .27.3 2. 2.26.27.2 Alert the Airport Police (Tel: 65460000) and provide the same information.3 2. Inform them that an ambulance will be entering the airside.26. (d) Ambulance vehicle registration number.25. leave your contact number in case confirmation is required. The ambulance driver is required to obtain a ‘visitor pass’ from the pass office before meeting the ground handling agent at the entry point. Note : Ambulances without an Airfield Vehicle Permit are to be escorted by the Airport Police when attending to emergency call. The ambulance driver is to position the ambulance on the 5 metre holding strip and refrain from entering aircraft parking stand.1 2.26 2. The ground handling agent will stay with the ambulance driver throughout the assignment. 2. (c) Name and identification details of the ambulance driver.2.

Report spill to CAAS Apron Control Centre (Tel: 65412148 / 65412257/8) and the Airport Emergency Service (Tel: 65412526).1 PROCEDURE IN EVENT OF SPILLAGE This procedure applies to all spillage including aviation fuel. 2. Do not start the engine of motorised equipment within spill areas until it is cleaned up. If spillage is from an underground fuel pit.2.29.29.29 2.1 VEHICLE BREAKDOWN In the event of a vehicle breakdown in the airside. not leave the vehicle unattended. the driver shall :(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) inform CAAS Apron Control Centre at (Tel: 65412148 / 2257) immediately. Aviation Fuel (a) Fuel spillage covering an area of approximately 4m2 or more constitutes a hazard and should be brought to the immediate attention of the Airport Emergency Service (AES). provide marshaller to divert traffic. Do not drive through the spilt liquid. Divert road traffic. alert the Changi Airport Fuel Hydrant Installation (CAFHI) at (Tel: 65464316) immediately and call CAAS Apron Control Centre or AES who will advise CAFHI to activate the fuel cut-off switch at the affected section of the fuel hydrant system.3 Hydraulic Oil Spill (a) The driver responsible for the spillage shall mop up the affected area with an absorbent material (except sawdust).2 (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) 2.28 2.28. 34 . 2.29. and ensure that aircraft or vehicles are not obstructed by such breakdown. Cordon off the spillage area. No ground equipment / vehicle shall be permitted to come within 15 metres of the spillage area. chemical and sewerage. try to push the vehicle to the side of the roadway or any area that will not cause obstruction to other traffic. inform the company maintenance section to repair or tow the vehicle away as soon as possible. hydraulic oil. The absorbent material must then be disposed of safely.

scrubbing of the affected area is required.2 [X] 35 [X] .30.2 In the event refuelling is necessary for a vehicle that is stationed near a parked aircraft. (iii) Position in Equipment Parking Area (EPA) leased by ground handlers at remote stands. 2.(b) For heavy oil spillage. (b) 2.30. Contact CAAS Apron Control Centre (Tel: 65412148 / 65412257/8) and provide the following details:(i) (ii) identify yourself and leave your contact number in case confirmation is required. Safety: (i) Display sign 'Refuelling in Progress' on top of the refuelling truck and place safety cone to caution other vehicles. the refuelling truck must: (a) Refuelling Location: (i) Park away from aircraft at aircraft stand. (iv) Clean the spillage immediately. (ii) Additional fire extinguisher. USE OF COMMUNICATION DEVICES (MOBILE PHONES / WALKIE TALKIES) Using mobile phone or walkie talkie whilst driving within the airside is prohibited.31.30 2.31.1 2. They should stop their vehicle outside the roadway or holding strip if they wish to use any communication equipment. 2. (iii) Plug the leakage to stop the dripping.1 REFUELLING OF VEHICLE To refuel diesel powered engine vehicles or equipment at the apron area.31 2. (ii) Park away from vehicular traffic routes in front of parked aircraft. the ground handling agent has to tow the particular vehicle away to another leased area for refuelling for safety purposes. and location and extent of the spill and whether it affects aircraft and persons.

305. and 606.32. 2.2 Pedestrian shall use pedestrian crossings or walk paths where available and look out for traffic at all times. 2. Ensure vehicles stop before crossing the road. Earthing Points: The earthing points are available for use at all aircraft stands. 300. instead they are to walk alongside the kerbs of the tunnel roadways.33.33 GENERAL RULES FOR PEDESTRIAN 2.6 Pedestrian shall not cross in front or behind a taxiing aircraft.7 Any personnel who had been approved to work at certain portions of the manoeuvring area.1 Jaywalking in the apron is prohibited. They shall escort the outside personnel and ensure they adhere strictly to the rules and regulations governing the airside. LIGHTNING WARNING NO. 2. 2.33.3 2.32.4 Pedestrian shall comply with traffic signs and signals. R1N and R7N to get to and from Cargo Apron and the Terminal areas.33. 2.33.2 2.3 Pedestrian shall not walk across the North Cross Taxiways along roadways R3N and R7N. 307. 401. 2.33.e.1 LIGHTNING WARNING The Meteorological Office will inform Apron Control Tower of any expected lightning and thunderstorm within 6 kilometres of the airport. Permission must be obtained from Air Traffic Controller if personnel are required to go beyond the approved boundaries 36 .4 2.32. shall not stray outside the demarcated approved area of works. All pedestrians must not walk across the apron taxiway except workers carrying out works where approval has been obtained and where that portion of the taxiway is closed for works.32.2. 208.33. 2. This information will be displayed on FIDS VDU to inform all airport users i.33.5 Any airside organization which requires outside personnel or contractors to their premises shall abide by the terms and conditions associated with the issue of airport pass and the general rules applicable to pedestrians and workers in the airside. 403. 206. 1: 0830 – 0930 HRS.32 2. Lightning Shelters: Lightning safety shelters had been constructed at the apron at bays 201.

drawn in red. EQUIPMENT RESTRAINT AREA (ERA) 3.2. The ERA is defined by the Apron Safety Line.6). The dimensions of the ERA are determined by the largest type of aircraft using the parking position.1 3. 3. on the ground. provides a clear boundary between aircraft stand and taxiways.1. Apron Boundary Line (ABL) 3.2 37 .2. drawn in red. are to keep clear of the ERA and position at the 5m holding strip (refer to paragraph 3.1. ground handling equipment or objects are to keep clear of the ERA while an aircraft is taxiing into the aircraft parking stand.1 This is a closed area on which the aircraft is parked during ground handling.2 Equipment Restraint Area (ERA) Apron Safety Line (to demarcate ERA) 3. no equipment or vehicles are allowed on the overlapping areas formed by the ABL between the aircraft stands.2 Except at the West Cargo Apron.1 AIRSIDE MARKINGS AND SAFETY SIGNS APRON BOUNDARY LINE (ABL) This line. Vehicles. Transport vehicles which are not directly attending to the aircraft.3 3.

2 Only ground handling equipment is allowed to be positioned at the ESA 20 minutes before the Estimated Time of Arrival of aircraft. This area is located on the starboard side of each aircraft stand and marked by white outline before the Apron Safety Line of the ERA. All aircraft handling vehicles (eg. Equipment Staging Area(ESA) 3.1 EQUIPMENT STAGING AREA (ESA) This is an area set outside the ERA to position ground handling equipment on standby prior to the arrival of the aircraft. which are involved with handling of aircraft. 3. Warning Note: Failure to comply with these limit lines can result in an accident when aircraft enters the aircraft stand.3.3. baggage trolleys.3 3. transporters etc) and non-motorised equipment (eg. It is used for long-term parking and leased to the ground handling agents under a Tenancy Agreement.3.4 3.2 38 .1 This is a closed area.3. shall be properly lined up in an orderly manner within the ESA as marked on the ground.3 3. All equipment should be removed immediately after completion of aircraft handling. pallet dolleys etc) whether loaded or empty. JCPL. EQUIPMENT PARKING AREA (EPA) 3. Such equipment / vehicles shall not protrude beyond demarcated lines which form the boundary of the rentable areas.3. painted in white meant for parking of ground handling vehicles / equipment.4.4.4 Equipment Parking Area (EPA) 3.

5 3.1 39 .7 3. PASSENGER LOADING BRIDGE SAFETY ZONE Safety zone: Red hatched lines (no parking or stopping within this area).7.6 3. 3.6.2 Only transport vehicles are allowed to park within the strip not earlier than 20 minutes before the Estimated Time of Arrival of aircraft.1 NO PARKING AREA (NPA) This area is drawn to provide manoeuvring area for airtugs to connect to aircraft nose-wheel. Vehicles and equipment are prohibited to park at the NPA. The red hatching defines safety areas that must remain clear at all times.6. Vehicles must not park or hold in these areas.3.5.1 HOLDING STRIP This strip is located between the roadway and the aircraft stand. These vehicles shall be removed immediately after each departure of aircraft at the stand. 3. No Parking Area 3.

Illustraction 2 : Layout of Aircraft Stand PLAN VIEW OF APRON SHOWING DESIGNATED PARKING AREAS FOR VEHICLE AND NON-MOTORIZED EQUIPMENT 40 .

8.4 SAFETY RULES 41 . haze).3 Category II Instrument Landing System (Ils) Operations During a prolonged period of low visibility (i. The marshalling platform shall be removed after completion of the marshalling process.3.1 OTHER AIRSIDE AND ROADWAYS MARKINGS AND SIGNAGES Marshalling Box A marshalling box has been painted on the ‘NO PARKING’ area of all cargo and remote parking stands. Changi Tower may declare CAT II ILS Operations to facilitate aircraft landing. 3. 3. It marks the location for positioning the aircraft marshalling platform. Unauthorised entry of vehicles into roadways leading to runways may affect the readings of the ILS which are crucial to the final phase during the landing of an aircraft.8.8 3. Ground vehicles that need to move into or in the vicinity of the Obstacle Free Zone (OFZ) are to seek clearance from Changi Tower in advance. Aircraft marshallers are to ensure that the marshalling platform is positioned at the marshalling box such that the equipment does not protrude onto the service road.8. 3.2 Roadway designator Road designators are painted at the entrance of the roadway in white. Please also refer to the Map of the Obstacle Free Zone (OFZ) attached. All airside personnel and equipment are to withdraw from the Obstacle Free Zone (OFZ) within one hour of the declaration.e.8.

8.6 Changi Airport Fuel Hydrant Installation 42 .5 Designation of aircraft parking stand with coordinates.8.8.6 Caution Sign ### ### ### ### CAUTION GIVE WAY TO TRAFFIC ON YOUR LEFT & RIGHT 3. 3. Letters / Numbers : Yellow Background : Black 3.Informative signs on the DOs and DON’Ts at the airside.

BREAK GLASS PRESS BUTTON INFORM CAFHI AT TELEPHONE:65464316 /65464317 3. 2.8. It is the point of fuel uplift for the aircraft.8 Poster on SAFETY GUIDELINES FOR LIGHTNING PROTECTION Located at the rotunda of Passenger Loading Bridge. Damaged to the fuel pit cover must be reported to CAFHI (65464316) and Apron Control Centre (65412257).9 FUEL PIT Located on all aircraft stands.8.CAFHI JET A-1 FUEL EMERGENCY SWITCH IN CASE OF EMERGENCY :1. 43 . 3. 3.

and 40 km per hour on roadways situated more than 15 metres away from any aircraft stand. 10 km per hour in the Baggage Handling Area. (b) below and wait till the aircraft has parked and its engine shutdown or fully pushed back from its stand onto the taxiway and taxied off before joining the roadway to continue their journey.1. SPEED LIMIT Drivers shall comply with all regulatory and traffic signs or signals within the airside and adhere to the speed limits of : (a) (b) (c) 5 km per hour within 10 metres of an aircraft. L5 and give way to the aircraft until it has turned into its parking stand and shut off its engines and the anti-collision lights are off before continue your journey. stop his vehicle before the give-way marking indicated by broken double white lines as shown in fig.4 4.1 (d) 4.2.3. 4. In addition. (ii) (iii) 44 . 25 km per hour on roadways within 15 metres of an aircraft stand.1 BUDGET TERMINAL OPERATIONS RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR DRIVERS The Rules and Regulations governing the airside also apply to the airside of Budget Terminal.1 Apron Roadway Behind BT Parking Stands (a) It is the only roadway with access to the aircraft parking stands. The rotating light indicates impending aircraft arrival to the stand or aircraft at the stand is being pushed back from the parking stand.2 4. aircraft manoeuvring guidance lights would be lighted to alert drivers of impending arrival to the aircraft parking stand. All drivers shall : (i) look out for rotating aircraft movement lights on top of the INS Boards mounted at the terminal fronting all aircraft stands.1 4. look out for any aircraft taxiing along the apron taxiway.3 DRIVING AREAS (See attached chart) 4.

5. ground handling equipment or objects are to keep clear of the ERA while an aircraft is taxiing into the aircraft parking stand or pushing back. drawn in red.1 Apron Boundary Line (ABL) This line.5. Baggage pallets and igloos are not allowed in the baggage handling area.4 DRIVING WITHIN THE BAGGAGE HANDLING AREA (a) (b) (c) (d) Only baggage tractors and trolleys are allowed to enter the baggage handling area. Note : All drivers shall not use the roadway in front of the aircraft stand.5 AIRSIDE MARKINGS AND SAFETY SIGNS 4. Vehicles. on the ground. 4.2 Equipment Restraint Area (ERA) (a) This is a closed area on which the aircraft is parked during ground handling. The ERA is defined by the Apron Safety Line. . Apron Boundary Line (ABL) 4. Baggage tractors are to move within the vehicular lanes indicated by arrows. 45 .The broken double white lines indicate where vehicles shall hold to give way to aircraft taxiing into its stand or about to be pushed back from its stand. shall be positioned clear of the vehicular lanes.The ‘Warning Give Way To Aircraft’ (Yield) signs serve to caution drivers of aircraft movements traversing the roadway and to look out and give way to aircraft at all times. . Tractors and trolleys when not in use. Fig (b) 1 4. drawn in red.(iv) the aircraft stand numbering is painted beside the yield sign. provides a clear boundary between aircraft stand and taxiways. indicating to drivers the safe position to hold for an aircraft to enter or pushback from that particular stand.

shall be properly lined up in an orderly manner within the ESA. 4. Do not approach an aircraft until it has come to a complete stop. All equipment whether loaded or empty. All vehicles and equipment are not allowed to travel on the roadways in front of the parking stand. Equipment Staging Area(ESA) (b) Only ground handling equipment other than transport vehicles are allowed to be positioned 20 minutes before the Estimated Time of Arrival of aircraft and should be removed immediately after completion of aircraft servicing. This area is located on the starboard side of each aircraft stand. (c) 4. Beware of engine ingestion and to keep clear of propellers.(b) During the servicing of aircraft.6 PEDESTRIAN CROSSING Pedestrian crossing signs are installed before the pedestrian crossings in front of the parking stands.5 metres clearance of the front of its engine. Maintain 7. 4. the wheels have been chocked and the engines shut down.5. Do not walk or drive in front of an aircraft when its engines are running. (b) (c) (d) 46 .7 SAFETY IN THE VICINITY OF AIRCRAFT – POINTS TO REMEMBER : (a) Do not approach an aircraft when its anti-collision light is still on (flashing red light).3 Equipment Staging Area (ESA) (a) This is an area set outside the ERA to position ground handling equipment on standby prior to the arrival of the aircraft. all vehicles and equipment are to keep within the ERA. Pedestrian crossing at Budget Terminal is meant for passengers only. Do not drive behind an aircraft when its engines are running.

oil and other chemical spillages to AES. and Vehicles and equipment on the airside may only be parked in defined vehicle parking areas. 47 . Deposit all Foreign Object Damage (FOD) in bins provided. Aircraft marshaller is to switch on the aircraft movement light to warn airside drivers of aircraft movement at the parking stand.2 Lighted Warning Signs Lighted Warning signs have been installed at both entrances to the roadway.8 SAFETY ON ROADWAY BEHIND AIRCRAFT PARKING STAND AT BUDGET TERMINAL (BT) Holding position markings ‘Yield’ signs and give way markings (broken double white lines) are painted on the roadway behind every parking stand to remind drivers where to stop and give way whenever an aircraft is entering the parking stand or is pushing back from the parking stand. Do not obstruct the path of an aircraft waiting for push back.(e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) (k) (l) (m) Do not drive or park under aircraft or aircraft wings. 4. These signs serve to remind airside drivers to be vigilant and give way to aircraft and emergency vehicles at all times. Wear high visibility safety vest at all times.8. Report all fuel.8. Use a marshaller or guideman when reversing. Overtaking is strictly prohibited on aircraft stands.8. 4.3 Rotating Aircraft Movement Light A rotating aircraft movement light mounted on top of the INS board assists to pre-empt drivers of aircraft movement at the parking stand.1 4. Do not leave vehicle unattended with the engine running. 4.

1. THIS IS ROVER 47 AT BAY D46.1. REQUEST TO PROCEED TO WORK IN PROGRESS TAXIWAY ECHO 3.2 5.2 - The driver shall not proceed until positive permission is given by Changi Tower. Drivers would have to stop by the side of the roadway before responding on the RTF.4 5.5 5. state their position and intended destination (and possible required route). In addition.1. The RTFequipped vehicle must be approved by CAAS. AFFIRM. PROCEEDING TO TAXIWAY ECHO 3 VIA ECHO CHARLIE 3. THIS IS ROVER 47. Example: Rover 47 CHANGI TOWER.2 5. ROVER 47. or closely escorted by an RTF-equipped vehicle. 48 . To maintain such control. ROVER 47. Correct RTF operating techniques must be observed by users at all times. the driver must possess a Category One Airfield Driving Permit.1 5. The driver of a vehicle is not permitted to communicate on radiotelephony set/ handphone / walkie-talkie whilst the vehicle is in motion. It is important that all vehicles on the movement area maintain a continuous listening watch on the RTF.1 MOVEMENT INSTRUCTIONS Drivers on first call should identify themselves by their vehicle call sign. When vehicles are operating in close proximity to aircraft.1. drivers should be extremely vigilant and are to comply with the full local procedures and Changi Tower instructions. THIS IS CHANGI TOWER.2. 5. ACKNOWLEDGE? CHANGI TOWER.1. Tower - Rover 47 - Tower 5.1 RADIO PROCEDURES GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS The Changi Tower is responsible for the control of vehicle movement on the manoeuvring area. PROCEED TO TAXIWAY ECHO 3 VIA ECHO CHARLIE 3. vehicles operating on the manoeuvring area should be fitted with radiotelephony facility (RTF) tuned to the right channel.3 5.5 5.2.

6 5. TIME SYSTEM 0001 hours for the beginning of the day and midnight is designated 2400 hours for the end of the day. CROSSING RUNWAYS / TAXIWAYS Under no circumstances shall a person enter or drive into the runway or taxiway (manoeuvring areas) unless positive permission has been given and acknowledged by the Changi Tower.5 5. 5. Example: Tower - ROVER 47.2.2.2.2 5.3 5.6.5.3.4 If the radio equipment in the vehicle fails. Before Transmission 5.3 Determine what to say before transmission and avoid the inadvertent use of 'hesitation sounds' like 'er'. TRANSMISSION TECHNIQUES The articulation of the users of radiotelephony communication can affect the quality reception of speech. Poor delivery of RTF can cause confusion or misunderstanding and create potentially hazardous situations.6. GIVE WAY TO THE SIA B747 ON YOUR LEFT THEN PROCEED TO ECHO 3. CAUTION JET BLAST.4 5.2.2 5. any station having a distress or urgency message to transmit is entitled to interrupt any transmission of lower priority. Do not interrupt if a station is making a transmission that obviously requires a reply from another addressee. the driver must vacate the runway and taxiway immediately and inform Changi Tower by the most expeditious means.1 5.2.1 5.2 However. This could be through other vehicles with RTF.6. A runway vacated report shall not be made until the vehicle is clear of the runway.1 5.1 Tune to the right frequency to ensure no interference to transmission from another station. 5. 49 .6. LANGUAGE OF COMMUNICATION English language is used internationally for ground radiotelephony communication.5.1 5. 5.6.3.3 Permission to proceed on the manoeuvring area may include such instructions regarding other traffic to ensure safe operations. 'ah'. or 'um' etc.4. the nearest telephone or handphone. Changi Tower can be contacted at Tel: 65412416.

7. 5.4 Pronunciation 5.3 Microphones 5. Severe distortion of speech may arise from: (a) (b) Talking too close to the microphone.1 5. Avoid asking questions by using an inflection of the voice.6.6.6.2 5.7.3.5. 5.6.4 Talk slightly slower if any detail of a message has to be written down by the recipient. Do not mispronounce or omit consonants.6.1 Before you go onto the manoeuvring area: - 50 .6. 5.3.7. Some General Tips 5. This will prevent 'clipping' of transmissions. 5. Do not whisper or shout. Drivers are to ensure that the transmit switch is completely released after use. to prevent jamming of the frequency.6.1 Do not turn away from the microphone while talking or vary the distance between the microphone and the mouth.5.4.5. 5.5.1 It is important to pronounce each word slowly and clearly.5.2 Ensure the transmit switch is activated before talking and not released until finish.7. Maintain an even rate of speech (not greater than 100 words a minute).6.1 Speak normally. 5.6.5. 5.6 PHRASEOLOGY Use standard phraseology where possible.7 5.2 Avoid lowering your voice during the transmission. Always be concise and unambiguous on RTF. 5.7. This will make mutual understanding difficult or impossible over the radiotelephone.6.5 Voice Control 5. Always use the correct interrogative word or standard phrase.7.5 Make a slight pause between numbers to allow the listener to understand the message.3 Do not talk rapidly.6. Do not use expressions of politeness excessively.7.4 5.6. Touching the microphone with the lips.5 5.3 5.

TRANSMISSION OF DIGITS Every digit of a number is normally spoken separately.g.i. vi.2 5. iv. 5. if the number is a whole thousand.9.1 know the manoeuvring area know the procedures be precise . call signs.and patient comply with instruction keep your eyes open and stay alert never go beyond hearing range of your radio never leave anything (equipment or tools) on the manoeuvring area. vii.9.8.8 5.8. PRONUNCIATION OF LETTERS The following words are to be used when you are required to transmit individual letters. each digit of the number of thousands is spoken separately. 5. e. ii. v. A decimal point within a number is to be indicated by the word 'decimal' (pronounced DAY-SEE-MAL).2 51 .9 5. iii. LETTER A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z WORD Alfa Bravo Charlie Delta Echo Foxtrot Golf Hotel India Juliett Kilo Lima Mike November Oscar Papa Quebec Romeo Sierra Tango Uniform Victor Whiskey X-ray Yankee Zulu PRONUNCIATION IN ENGLISH AL FAH BRAH VOH CHAR LEE DELL TAH ECK OH FOKS TROT GOLF HOH TELL IN DEE AH JEW LEE ETT KEY LOH LEE MAH MIKE NO VEM BER OSS CAR PAH PAH KEY BECK ROW ME OH SEE AIR RAH TANG GO YOU NEE FORM VIK TAH WISS KEY ECKS RAY YANG KEY ZOO LOO 5. However. followed by the word 'thousand' (pronounced 'TOUSAND').1 The underlined syllables are emphasized.

.SEVEN 8 . 0 – ZERO 1 – WUN 2 – TOO 3 – TREE 4 – FOWER 5 . I am indicating the separation in between messages transmitted to different aircraft in a very busy environment. Authorised to proceed under the conditions specified.NINER • 5 and 9 are spoken as `FIFE' and `NINER' respectively as they are easily confused when spoken normally.11.AIT 9 . Permission for requested action is granted.1 STANDARD WORDS AND PHRASES The following words and phrases shall be used in radiotelephony communications as appropriate and shall have the meaning given below: Meaning Let me know you have received and understood the message.9.? or Did you correctly receive this message? 52 . Withdraw the previously transmitted clearance.11 5. Yes..FIFE 6 .3 The following words are used when transmitting single digits. (To be used where there is no clear distinction between the text and other portions of the message).10.10 5. I am indicating the separation in between portions of the message. CALLSIGNS SUFFIX Tower Singapore Apron IDENTIFICATION CHANGI TOWER APRON CONTROL CENTRE 5. Word / Phrase ACKNOWLEDGE AFFIRM APPROVED BREAK BREAK BREAK CANCEL CLEARED CONFIRM Have I correctly received the following .1 RADIOTELEPHONY CALLSIGNS The identification of the unit is used followed by a suffix to indicate the service provided.SIX 7 . 5.5.

Wait and I will call you.. Proceed with your message. My transmission is ended and I expect a response from you.. every word or group of words in this message will be sent twice.. That is correct. of your last transmission. An error has been made in this transmission (or message indicated).. No or Permission not granted or That is not correct.. I understand your message and will comply with it.CONTACT CORRECT CORRECTION Establish radio contact with . A change has been made to your last clearance.. Check and confirm with originator. Note: The phrase 'GO AHEAD' is not normally used in surface movement communications.... I wish to know .... Please send every word or group of words twice. or obtain . The correct version is .. Listen out on (frequency). I have received and understood your last transmission. This new clearance supersedes the previous clearance or part thereof.. DISREGARD GO AHEAD HOW DO YOU READ I SAY AGAIN MONITOR NEGATIVE OUT OVER RECLEARED REPORT REQUEST ROGER SAY AGAIN SPEAK SLOWER STANDBY VERIFY WILCO WORDS TWICE 53 ... Consider that transmission is not sent. Note: The word 'OVER' is not normally used in VHF communications. or part. Reduce your speed or rate of speech. (Abbreviation for 'will comply'). Repeat all. What is the readability of my transmission? I repeat for clarity or emphasis. Note: The word 'OUT' is not normally used in VHF communications. This exchange of transmission is ended and no response is expected. Pass me the following information.. (b) As information: Since communication is difficult.. (a) As a request: Communication is difficult..

13.4 Upon written approval and call-sign number is given.13.4 Applicant is also required to pass a written test and a radio telephony test into runway or taxiway. The minimum 10 familiarisation trips is inclusive of 20 percent of night trips. 5. the entire body of the vehicle down to the waist and the front portion of the vehicle shall be painted yellow. 5.12. A certified records on the completion of 10 familiarisation trips to the manouevring area accompanied by Cat 1 ADP holder. upon successful completion of the course and tests: ENTRY INTO RUNWAY/TAXIWAY SUBJECT TO CLEARANCE FROM CHANGI TOWER.6 The Airfield Driving Permit (ADP) will also be endorsed with the word ‘Category 1’ on the front of the driver’s permit. the vehicle must comply with the conditions as stipulated below: 54 . 5. 5.3 If the vehicle’s intended use is other than the apron areas.1 The vehicle must be issued with a valid Airfield Vehicle Permit. stipulated in Rules & Regulations Handbook.2 Applicant must write in with the following supporting documents: (a) Justification letter endorsed by CAAS Engineering Division with reasons to obtain the Cat 1 permit.12 REQUIREMENTS TO OBTAIN CATEGORY 1 AIRFIELD DRIVING PERMIT (ADP) FOR DRIVERS ENTERING MANOEUVRING AREAS 5.12.2 The owner of the vehicle shall write in to apply for the RT set to be installed in the vehicle.13 REQUIREMENTS FOR INSTALLATION OF RADIO TELEPHONY (RT) SET IN AIRSIDE VEHICLES FOR ENTERING MANOEUVRING AREAS 5.5 The Airfield Driving Permit (ADP) will be upgraded to Cat 1 with the following wordings endorsed on the driving permit. conducted by CAAS Apron Control/Management Service. 5. 5.12.1 Applicant must be an Airfield Driving Permit (ADP) holder for at least three month.3 Applicant is to attend a course on Radio Telephony (RT) phraseology.12. (b) 5. 5.12.13.12. The CAT 1 ADP holder must endorse the trips made. 5.13.5.

5. An updated runway/taxiway map to be available in the vehicle at all times. each letter no smaller than 60cm height by 45cm in width on top of the flat surface of the vehicle. 5.9 MHz) to be submitted to CAAS Apron Control/Management Service during the inspection. A copy of the Works Order on radio installation (121.5 The vehicle is to be inspected by CAAS Apron Control/Management Service for the compliance of the above conditions (para 5.4) within one week from the approval. The rover number must be painted black.13.6 The driver is to use the RT set according to procedures stipulated in the Rules and Regulations for Airside Personnel.13.(a) A warning sign (no less than 15mm height by 10mm in width) to be displayed on the dashboard (or any position conspicuous to the driver of the vehicle) bearing the following words: NO ENTRY INTO RUNWAY/TAXIWAY WITHOUT CLEARANCE FROM CHANGI TOWER (b) (c) (d) (e) A set of flashing yellow lights to be fitted on top of the vehicle. 55 .13.

For application and renewal.2 6.1 INSURANCE COVERAGE Owners of all vehicles and equipment operating within the airside must ensure that the insurance coverage for these vehicles and equipment shall include ‘operations within the airside of Changi Airport’. 56 .6 REQUIREMENTS FOR A VEHICLE OPERATING IN THE MOVEMENT AREA TYPES OF VEHICLE PERMITS All vehicles and equipment shall comply with the requirements as stipulated in the First Schedule of CAAS (Aerodrome) Regulations. Airfield Vehicle Permit with aircraft imprint are for vehicles and ground handling equipment permitted to go near parked aircraft for handling purposes.2. SPECIMEN Temporary Entry Permit (for vehicles only) ( Note: All AVP or TEP must be displayed conspicuously on the vehicle windscreen or around the driver or passenger seat for vehicles without windscreen ) 6. 6.1 Types Of Vehicle Permits SPECIMEN SPECIMEN Airfield Vehicle Permit without aircraft imprint are for vehicles not permitted to go near or parked near stationary aircraft. documentary proof is needed.

The driver or any person who being the holder of an airfield driving permit and acting as a steersman who acts in contravention to any of the above conditions including the rules and regulations governing the airside of Changi Airport.1 VEHICLE USAGE AND DEPLOYMENT Owners of vehicles and equipment operating within the airside must maintain records on vehicle usage and their deployment. and Comply with such other conditions as may be imposed by the Chief Executive Officer. 6.4. The owner of the vehicle and equipment with the Temporary Entry Permit shall comply with the followings: (a) Obtain prior clearance from the Licensing Section of CAAS Apron Control / Management Service. Not to enter any runway or taxiway unless clearance given by Changi Tower to do so.2.3m ] by day and flashing yellow light by night. When requested. at its highest point. If the vehicles are required to enter the manoeuvring areas i. deliver heavy equipment or for other approved purposes. 57 .2 This insurance coverage also applies to all vehicles with adhoc Temporary Entry Permits. Not to enter any aircraft hangar and aircraft parking stand.1 (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) 6. Remove any debris from the airside after completion of work. CONDITIONS FOR TEMPORARY ENTRY PERMIT APPLICATION A Temporary Entry Permit may be issued for any vehicle to enter the movement area on adhoc basis to set down personnel.3m by 0. these records must be submitted to CAAS Apron Control/Management Service for audit checks. shall be guilty of an offence. Display a regulation type checkered flag [0.e.3 6. Be accompanied by a holder of an Airfield Driving Permit who shall act as steersman of the vehicle. clearance must be obtained from Changi Tower.3. runways and taxiways.6.4 6. Maintain a safety distance of 15 metres from any refueling points and fuel tank vents. Pay the repair cost of any damage caused to CAAS property plus all administration charges.

fuel pump. and the gasket between the induction manifold and the cylinder block shall be such as to ensure an efficient gas-tight seal.5. of the vehicle. a drip tray shall be provided under the carburetor with drainpipe to direct waste petrol away from the manifold and exhaust pipe. LEE – Guiness) type MF50 or equivalent.3 The fuel system. etc. including the petrol tank.6. fuel filters. the carburetor air intake shall be fitted with a flame trap or arrestor. Alternative types of flame traps or air filters must be approved by the chief executive officer. Any leakage shall be immediately rectified. (b) (c) 6.5. Because of the rapid ease with which screen type arrestors can collect carbon. pipelines.5 6.5.5. 6.4 58 . the distributor cover shall be free of cracks or mechanical defects and shall fit tightly on the housing. the voltage regulator and cut-out shall be enclosed by a close-fitting cover. carburetors. (A standard automotive type oil bath air cleaner complies with this requirement).2 The exhaust system of the vehicle shall comply with the following requirements: (a) the exhaust manifold and the section of the exhaust pipe adjacent to the manifold shall be shrouded with a metal cover to prevent petrol.1 SPECIFICATIONS FOR AIRFIELD VEHICLE PERMIT APPLICATION The petrol engine of the vehicle shall be effectively flame proofed as follows: (a) the mixture adjustment for the induction system shall be such that exhaust pipe explosions cannot occur when the throttle is suddenly closed. If the manifold cannot be effectively protected in such a manner. (b) (c) 6. oil or other combustible material from coming into contact with the hot metal. The electrical system of the vehicle shall comply with the following requirements: (a) (b) (c) (d) spark plugs shall be of the KLG (K. and the entire exhaust system from the exhaust manifold to the tail pipe should be checked regularly to ensure that there are no gas leaks. the tail pipe of the exhaust system shall be fitted with an approved type of spark arrestor for vehicle without catalytic converter. all high tension cables shall be fastened by means of screwed connection or equivalent. shall be free of leaks. they must be serviced regularly to ensure that they remain in an efficient condition.

the electrical equipment associated with diesel engines shall conform where applicable to the requirements for electrical equipment associated with petrol engines specified in paragraph 4.5.5 The diesel engine of the vehicle shall comply with the following requirements:(a) flame proofing of the exhaust and ignition system of diesel engines is not required.(e) (f) fuses shall be of the glass enclosed type and protected from breakage by a cover..6 (a) (b) 6. The vehicle shall be painted with a distinguishing roundel comprising a 152-millimetres diameter green circle surrounded by a 25-millimetres white-band.W. other than a vehicle belonging to the Airport Emergency Service and Airport Police. (b) (c) (d) 6. the battery shall be suitably covered to avoid accidental shorting of the cells and shall be provided with adequate means of natural ventilation. and spark suppression shall be used where possible to reduce the intensity of sparking at switch and relay contacts and at the commutators of generators and starter motors. all switches shall be of the enclosed type. shall be adequately marked as an obstruction and such markings shall take the following form: 59 .5.5. (g) (h) (i) 6. the air intake to the air blower shall be fitted with a flame trap or arrestor (a standard automotive type oil bath air cleaner complies with this requirement). The roundel shall be painted in clearly discernible positions on the front and rear of each vehicle and in an appropriate position on other items of equipment. the fuel system of the engine shall be free of leaks.3. The chief executive officer must approve alternative types of flame traps or air filters.G.7 All vehicle. Any leakage shall be immediately rectified. openings in the casing of the generator and starter motor shall be covered by a fine wire screen having not less than 30 wire-meshes of a size not less than 30 S.

visible through 360 degrees of a type approved by the chief executive officer.8 During hours of darkness. vehicles other than a vehicle belonging to the Airport Emergency Service and Airport Police shall display at its highest point a single fixed red light.5.(a) the entire body of the vehicle down to the waist and the front portion of the vehicle shall be painted yellow for the vehicle entering the manoeuvring area and yellow or white for others. The size of the logo shall be at least 200mm x 260mm or 260mm x 200mm. The front headlamps (low beam) and tail lights of such a vehicle shall be switched on when the vehicle is used during the hours of darkness and the front headlamps shall be dipped at all times.10 6.5.5.5.5. 6. The electrical and ignition equipment of such a vehicle shall be suppressed to the satisfaction of the chief executive officer. and (b) the vertical yellow or white surface shall contain the owner's insignia or logo. 6. 6. 60 .9 6.12 The wheels of such a vehicle shall be fitted with rubber tyres.11 Such a vehicle shall be equipped with a fire extinguisher (1 kg ABC dry powder or 2 kg Halotron 1 or a suitable alternative as determined by the chief executive officer ) securely mounted on suitable brackets affixed to a readily accessible position.

During the hours of darkness this sign shall be illuminated.5. 6.16 61 .15 A vehicle. The original Certificate of Inspection with the additional endorsement must be submitted to the CAAS Licensing Counter for retention.5.5.14 Every vehicle belonging to the Airport Emergency Service shall: (a) (b) be marked with the Service's distinctive colour.6. that can travel at a speed in excess of 40 kilometres per hour shall be fitted with a speed warning device. unless exempted by the chief executive officer. shall be installed with seat belts for the driver and the front seat passenger and every driver and front seat passenger shall fasten their seat belts when the vehicle is in motion. and display a rotating red light when in operation. 6. The CAAS appointed inspection centres are JTC. unless exempted by the chief executive officer. Note : When applying for Airfield Vehicle Permits. A vehicle. all vehicle owners are required to send their vehicles annually to an authorised inspection centres appointed by CAAS Airport Emergency Service. VICOM and STA (Please see the Airport Information Circular 30/2006 dated 9 June 2006 ). The device shall be set to activate when the vehicle exceeds the speed of 50 kilometres per hour.5. 6.13 A vehicle used for the transport of passengers and crew shall display a 'NO SMOKING' sign inside the vehicle visible to all the occupants of the vehicle.

Please note that notwithstanding this. With effect from 1 July 2006. 3. The three Land Transport Authority (LTA) approved inspection centres. Please bring the contents of this circular to the attention of all your staff. ANG GUAN HIN SUPERINTENDENT (FIRE SAFETY) for DIRECTOR GENERAL OF CIVIL AVIATION 62 .No : 30/2006 9 June 2006 Date : AIRPORT INFORMATION CIRCULAR To all Airport Organisations INTEGRATION OF CAAS AIRFIELD VEHICLE PERMIT INSPECTIONS WITH ROADWORTHINESS INSPECTIONS In accordance with the CAAS Act. AES will randomly check vehicles operating on the airside. Yishun and Sin Ming are by appointment only). the airfield vehicle permit inspection carried out by the CAAS’ Airport Emergency Service (AES) and the roadworthiness inspection by appointed inspection centres. The addresses and telephone numbers of these centres are as follows: I) VICOM a) Changi 20 Changi North Crescent 65450098 b) Kaki Bukit 23 Kaki Bukit Ave 4 67495467 c) Bukit Batok 511 Bukit Batok Street 23 68959261 d) Yishun 501 Yishun Industrial Park A 67559621 e) Sin Ming 385 Sin Ming Drive 64584555 (Please note that VICOM inspection centres located at Bukit Batok. Section 42(1). 2. namely. have been assigned by CAAS to conduct a one-stop inspection covering all aspects at their vehicle inspection centres. all motorised vehicles operating on the airside at Changi and Seletar airports must comply with CAAS stipulated safety features to reduce fire risks. Chapter 41. VICOM. all vehicles operating on the airside are required to pass two inspections annually. the airfield vehicle permit inspection conducted by AES will be integrated with the roadworthiness inspections. 5. JIC Inspection Services and Singapore Technologies Automotive (STA). II) JIC 53 Pioneer Road 21 Ang Mo Kio Street 63 68651518 64847370 a) Jurong b) Ang Mo Kio III) STA a) Sin Ming 302 Sin Ming Road 64521398 b) Ayer Rajah 2E Ayer Rajah Crescent 64760988 4. Regulation 5.e. Presently. to ensure compliance with the regulations mentioned at paragraph 1. Please do not hesitate to contact us at 6541-2860/2697/2696/2535 if you need any further clarification. i.

Overtaking is not allowed on the __________ areas. 7.7 AIRFIELD RULES TEST QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS AIRFIELD RULES TEST 1 Holders of a Category 1 Airfield Driving Permit are permitted to enter________ upon clearance from Control Tower. Overtaking on roadway painted with continuous double white line is _________. Drivers and passengers shall fasten their __________ where available when vehicle is in motion. The speed limit within __________ of a parked aircraft is 5 km/hr. ____ on roadway painted with continuous double white line is strictly prohibited. A driver who is involved in __________ within a period of 12 months will have his Airfield Driving Permit suspended. Drivers of tall vehicles (those capable of extending) must ensure it is fully __________ before driving. The speed limit of the roadways 15 metres away from aircraft stands is ______.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 63 . Holders of a __________ Airfield Driving Permit are not permitted to enter runways and taxiways at all times. What is the maximum speed limit on roadways in the vicinity of aircraft stands? 25 km/hr is the maximum speed limit on roadways in the vicinity of __________. Overtaking is strictly ________ at the aircraft stands and the manoeuvring area. all drivers shall approach aircraft __________. at the underpasses and the tunnel roadways. _____ are exempted from the speed limit when attending to an emergency. All drivers shall not drive at a speed of__________ when operating on the aircraft parking stand. The speed limit on secondary roadways is __________. __________ limit signs are installed on the Passenger Loading Bridge. During aircraft servicing. Vehicle refuelling is not allowed at all times on the _______ of the aircraft stand.

it means that the ____. The safety distance from stationary aircraft with its engine running is at least __________ from the wing tip. The minimum safety distance when traveling parallel to a taxiing aircraft is __________ from the edge of taxiway. The minimum safety distance from a taxiing aircraft and your vehicle is at least 38 metres from the __________. The minimum safety distance from your vehicle and wing tip of a stationary aircraft with its __________ running is at least 5 metres. The minimum safety distance when __________ in front of a taxiing aircraft is 200 metres. __________ and persons operating at an aircraft stand shall remain at least 7. The minimum safety distance from stationary aircraft with its engine running is at least __________ from the front of the aircraft engine. 250 metres is the minimum __________ when crossing behind taxiing aircraft.20 21 22 23 When a parked aircraft displays a flashing red signal. The minimum safety distance from a taxiing aircraft and your vehicle is at least 250 metres from the __________ aircraft. What is the minimum safety distance for a vehicle to start up engine during aircraft refueling? 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 64 . The __________ safety distance when crossing behind a taxiing aircraft is at least 250 metres. The minimum safety distance __________ of a stationary aircraft with its engine running is at least 76 metres.5 metres clear in front of an operating aircraft engine. The minimum safety distance from rear of stationary aircraft with its engine running is at least __________ from the rear of the aircraft. The minimum safety distances from a refueling aircraft when it is safe to start up vehicle is at least __________ radius. The minimum safety distance between your vehicle and a stationary aircraft’s __________ is at least 5 metres. Do not approach the aircraft when the __________ are lighted. All vehicles must give way to __________ at all times. The minimum safety distance when crossing behind a taxiing aircraft is at least __________.

Vehicles traveling on secondary roadways shall __________ to any aircraft being pushed back from its parking bay. You are approaching an aircraft which has its engine running or is ready to commence pushback. Drivers shall not leave the vehicle __________ when the engine is running. Parking or driving under the aircraft or aircraft ‘s wing is __________ . You can approach an aircraft when it has __________ the wheels have been chocked and the engines shutdown. 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 65 . The __________ must be alerted if it is necessary for drivers and Passenger Loading Bridge operators to approach an aircraft which is ready for pushback. ‘__________’ are located in front of aircraft stands at T1 and T2. A marshaller is required when you are _________ towards a stationary aircraft. You need to proceed to the aircraft cabin after stopping the vehicle on the Holding Strip. How should you reverse a vehicle towards a stationary aircraft? __________ by a marshaller or guideman. During aircraft refuelling all drivers shall not __________ any hose or bonding cable laid. You should __________ the engines and remove the keys. Tall vehicles travelling on __________ shall hold at the edge of the stands and wait for the aircraft on the taxiway to clear. Drivers shall reverse towards a stationary aircraft only when guided by a _____. The safety vest must be worn __________ when personnel is working on all apron areas. You must maintain a minimum safety distance of at least __________ around the aircraft fuel tank vent when it is parked at an aircraft parking stand. Vehicles traveling on roadways behind aircraft parking stands shall give way to any aircraft being __________ from its parking bay. All drivers shall __________ under aircraft or aircraft wings. ‘__________’ are located behind aircraft stands at T1 and T2.39 40 The minimum safety distance for a vehicle to start up engine during ______ is 15 metres. Secondary roadways located behind aircraft stand is for vehicles exceeding __________ in height. what must you do? Alert the aircraft ground engineer__________.

All ground equipment or vehicle on aircraft stand shall not come within __________ of spillage area of aircraft fuel. In the hours of darkness. a triangular sign is painted on the ground. When traffic light at a taxiway crossing is lighted red. the vehicle’s headlights and ___________ lights must be switched on when driving on the airside roadways. After the aircraft has taxi passed and the traffic light at the roadway crossing is still showing red. Smoking is not allowed __________.GIVE WAY TO AIRCRAFT’ is painted on the __________ before roadway and taxiway crossing’. drivers shall stop at the designated stopping point to __________ to aircraft. This sign means __________. The __________ painted on the ground behind the aircraft stands is to provide a clear boundary between aircraft stands and taxiways. Before the crossing of roadways and taxiways. you should never __________. A triangular sign which means ‘WARNING . Report all chemical spillages to __________ immediately. 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 66 . except __________ vehicles are not allowed to use the roadways crossing the North Cross taxiways.59 Tall vehicles traveling on secondary roadways shall __________ at the edge of the stands and wait for the aircraft on the taxiway to taxi clear. All drivers shall refrain from using the mobile phone or walkie-talkie while __________ in the airside. All personnel and vehicles. What additional type and colour of light is fitted and used by vehicles operating on the taxiways and runways? All drivers operating on runways and in designated areas within taxiways must switch on __________ on top of the vehicle. The Apron Boundary Line at the aircraft stands are painted in __________. The markings for Apron Boundary Lines behind aircraft parking stands are demarcated by __________ lines. NO ENTRY RUNWAY AHEAD sign is painted on the ground and placed at the __________ of roadways leading into the runways. until the red light goes off. Vehicles on a vehicular route approaching a taxiway crossing point shall reduce their speed and stop before the ‘stop’ line to ensure that the __________ is clear of any aircraft movement.

5 metres tall. except Airtugs. Secondary roadways is painted with interrupted white lines on the taxiway behind __________. How long before the arrival of a flight are you allowed to prepare the handling equipment at the Equipment Staging Area? __________ is painted on the ground in front of the aircraft stand for the manoeuvring of airtugs to connect to aircraft nose-wheel. What is the permit for a vehicle to operate in airside roadways? All aircraft handling __________ must possess Airfield Vehicle Permit to operate in the airside. Your__________ vehicle should be parked at Holding Strip. ambulances and police vehicles _____. __________ are to keep within the Equipment Restraint Area. fuel tankers and vehicles more than 4.77 78 _______ should be cleared of any vehicle or equipment prior to aircraft‘s arrival. Pallet loaders. shall be lined up in an orderly manner within the __________ prior to aircraft arrival. The sign __________ is painted in front of Baggage Handling Areas to ensure uninterrupted flow to tractors towing baggage containers. During servicing of aircraft. All motorised and non-motorised equipment. 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 67 . All drivers operating in the airside unescorted must possess a __________. ‘NO PARKING’ area painted in front of aircraft stands mean do not __________ airtugs movement to push back aircraft. The markings for roadways behind aircraft parking stands are demarcated by __________ lines. Vehicles shall stay clear of the No Parking Area located on the ___ at all times. A driver who accumulates __________ demerit points within 12 months of the first offence will have his Airfield Driving Permit suspended. You can park your __________ equipment in the Equipment Staging Area prior to the arrival of an aircraft. All vehicles must give way to fire vehicles. The __________ in front of the aircraft stand is meant for transport vehicles. The Equipment Staging Area painted with __________ on the aircraft stand is for Ground handling equipment. All drivers and personnel. must use the ___________ at all times. loaded or empty.

You are allowed to park your bicycle on the __________ beside the apron floodlights of the aircraft parking stand. report to CAAS Apron Control Centre and Airport Police. The height clearance at Terminal 2 baggage handling area is __________. the vehicle forks should be raised not more than __________ from the ground. Parking or waiting __________ in the tunnel roadways. drivers shall call for an ambulance. below the passenger loading bridges.97 All tall vehicles not exceeding 4m in height shall travel on __________ roadway. your vehicle’s headlights must be __________. driver must report to CAAS Apron Control Centre immediately and do not leave vehicle __________. All vehicles except for the prohibited ones. For __________. Which of the following shall have precedence over all vehicular traffic? When driving a forklift. 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 68 . The Speed Warning Device fitted on vehicles will be activated when the vehicle exceeds the speed of __________. Before starting the vehicle. In hours of darkness. The height clearance at Terminal 1 baggage handling area is __________. traveling between the cargo buildings and passenger terminals are to use the __________ at all times. In the event of a vehicle breakdown on taxiway. The speed limit on perimeter roadways is __________. Drivers proceeding to park their vehicles at the Equipment __________ shall use the marked roadways and cross the unbroken white roadway edge lines with due care. It is the responsibility of the all drivers to ensure that the vehicles they drive is in __________ condition. the __________ must check and ensure that his vehicle is in roadworthy condition. What is the maximum number of trailer/trolleys allowed to be towed by a tractor? All vehicles or equipment. container trailer / baggage trolley are not allowed to enter the __________ areas. All drivers shall not enter the tunnel when the _______ at the gantry is activated. __________ shall park the bicycle on the kerb areas beside the apron floodlights when attending to flights. except baggage tractors.

Vehicles with Temparory Entry Permit are not allowed to enter any ___________. The steersman must ensure that __________ is displayed at the highest point of a vehicle with Temporary Entry Permit vehicle. All drivers must ensure that the Airfield Vehicle Permit of the vehicle has __________ before entering the Equipment Retraint Area. The height limit of the PLB above the holding strip is__________. 119 120 121 122 123 124 Answers on next page 69 . The steersman of a vehicle with Temporary Entry Permit must have a valid ____.117 118 In the event of a vehicle breakdown. do not leave vehicle __________. Vehicle with Temporary Entry Permit must display __________ on the highest point of the vehicle when operating at night. Vehicles entering the airside with driver not possessing Airfield Driving Permit must be escorted by __________ with a valid Airfield Driving Permit.

aircraft stands. 23. runways and taxiways Category 2 2 minor accidents 25 km/hr. 14. 10.7. 28. 25. 30. 15. 8. 18. 4. 19.5 metres Vehicles 70 . 6. 3.2 Airfield Rules Test Answers 1. 9. 26. 2. 16. 22. 20. 13. 24. anti-collision lights moving aircraft 5 metres wing tip Engine 76 metres Minimum from the rear 7. 7. 27. 5. 10 metres more than 5 km/h not allowed Overtaking Emergency/Guide vehicles / Follow Me including vehicle they escort seat belts retracted / lowered Equipment Restraint Area 25 km/h Height restriction at an angle not allowed aircraft stands and the manouevring aircraft’s engines are running. 11. 29. 17. 40 km/h. 12. 21.

37. 43. 44. 58. 47. 45. 41. 56. 48. Only when directed.31. 42.5 metre radius drive over marshaller or guideman. 34.5 metres secondary roadway hold entrances WARNING GIVE WAY TO AIRCRAFT 71 . 54. 51. Crossing rear of the taxiing 250 metres safety distance edge of the taxiway. 35. 60. 39. 59. 32. 36. 50. 38. 46. 33. 61. reversing unattended switch off first before approaching. 57. 53. ground engineer at all times stopped not allowed not drive or park pushed back give way Service roadways Secondary roadways 4. 52. 55. 38 metres 15 metres 15 metres aircraft refuelling 2. 49. 40.

82.62. 67. 65. 73. 81. 71. 88. 64. 63. 69. 83. 89. 77. 68. 75. 70. ground Taxiway give way Cross Authorized red obstruction Yellow flashing light yellow flashing light at the airside Airport Emergency Services 15 metres Driving Red Apron Boundary Line uninterrupted red Equipment Restraint Area vehicles/equipment continuous white line Equipment Staging Area motorised and non-motorised 20 mins NO PARKING Obstruct Holding Strip Transport Holding Strip Airfield Vehicle Permit vehicles and motorized equipment valid Airfield Driving Permit 12 on call 72 . 72. 85. 84. 91. 74. 66. 80. 78. 90. 92. 86. 79. 87. 76.

95. 114. 107. 116. 100.4 metres 2. 111.3 metres 4 baggage trolleys. 122. 4 container dollies or 3 pallet dollies baggage handling Parking Area 50 km/hr dipped at all times Driver Roadworthy Aircraft passengers 10 cm kerb area Cyclists accidents with injuries Unattended Unattended a steersman an aircraft logo stamp yellow flashing light Airfield Driving Permit chequered flag aircraft stand 73 . STOP and GIVE WAY Interrupted white lines aircraft stand. 103. 110. 106. 117. 123. 105. 118. Tunnel Service 40 km/h vehicular tunnels red light is not allowed 2. 101. 120. 97. 108. 98. 109. 104. 112. 113. 119. 102. 96. 94. 121.93. 115. 99.

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