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RECONFIGURABLE COEFFICIENTS

Ariprasath.S*1,Dr.C.Santhi2

1Pg scholar, Dept of ECE, Government College of Technology, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India

2Associatet professor, Dept of ECE, Government College of Technology, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India

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Abstract -Transpose form finite impulse response configurations, namely direct form FIR filter and

(FIR) filter is naturally a pipelined structure which supports transposes form FIR filter.

the multiple constant multiplications (MCM) technique but

direct form FIR filter structure does not support MCM The Transpose form FIR filter can be constructed from

technique. The MCM is more effective in Transpose form the direct form FIR filter by Exchanging the input and

when the common operand is multiple with the set of

constant coefficients that reduce the computational delay. output and inverting the direction of signal

The implementation of MCM technique is easier in fixed flow.Generally,Transpose form FIR filters are support

coefficient Transpose form FIR filter but complex in multiple constant multiplications (MCM) technique that

reconfigurable coefficients. In fixed coefficients transpose results in saving of computation time. Transpose form

FIR filter, area and delay are reduced by using MCM finite-impulse response (FIR) filters are inherently

technique. The low-complexity design using the MCM

technique is implemented for fixed coefficients transpose pipelined and support multiple constant multiplications

form FIR filters and multiplier-based design is used for (MCM) technique that results in significant saving of

reconfigurable transpose form FIR filter. The implemented computation. However, transpose form configuration

transpose form FIR filter structure achieved less area and does not directly support the block processing unlike

delay than the direct-form FIR filter structure. The XILINX

direct form configuration. Generally,Transpose form FIR

software tool is used for simulation.

filters are support multiple constant multiplications

Key Words:Transpose form FIR filter, multiple (MCM) technique that results in saving of computation

constant multiplications (MCM) technique, Block time. TheMCM is an arithmetic operation that multiplies

processing a set of fixed-point constants (Example: H0, H1, H2,.,

Hn) with the same fixed-point variable (X).

researchers for efficient realization of FIR filters (having

Finite Impulse response (FIR) digital filter is used in Fixed coefficients) using multiple constant

several DSP applications, such as, echo cancellation, multiplication (MCM) and distributed arithmetic(DA)

speech processing, equalization, adaptive noise [6] and methods [7]. DA-based designs use lookup tables

cancellation, and various communication applications, (LUTs) to store pre-computed result stored the

including software-defined radio (SDR), etc. Many of computational complexity.

these applications require FIR filters of large order to

meet the stringent frequency specifications. And this The Transpose form FIR filter only needs N delay units,

filters need to support high sampling rate for high-speed where N is the order of the filter potentially half as

digital communication. The number of multiplications much as direct form. This structure is obtained by

and additions required for their filter output, increases reversing the order of the numerator and denominator

linearly with the filter order. sections of Direct Form, since they are in fact two linear

systems. Then, one will notice that there are two columns

There is no redundant computation available in the FIR of delays that tap off the center net, and these can be

filter, real-time implementation of a large order FIR filter combined since they are redundant. The disadvantage is

in a resource constrained environment is a challenging that Transpose form increases the possibility of

task. Filter coefficients very often remain constant and arithmetic overflow for filters of high Q or resonance.

known a priori in signal processing applications. This This is because, conceptually, the signal is first passed

feature has been utilized to reduce the complexity of through an all-pole filter (which normally boosts gain at

realization of multiplications. FIR filter has two the resonant frequencies) before the result of that is

2017, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 5.181 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1857

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056

Volume: 04 Issue: 03 | Mar -2017 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

often attenuates much of what the all-pole half amplifies). ( ) () ( )

A block of two successive outputs {y(n), y(n1)} that are

in transpose form configuration to take advantage of the

derived from the above DFGs. The product values and

MCM technique and the naturally pipelining for area

their accumulation paths in DFG-1 and DFG-2 are shown

delay efficient realization of large order. The main

in data- flow tables (DFT-1 and DFT-2) of Fig. 3 and 4.

contributions of this paper are as follows.

The arrows in DFT-1and DFT-2 of Fig. 3 and 4, represent

1) The Computational analysis of transpose form FIR the accumulation path of the products. We see that five

filter and derivation of flow graph with reduced register values of each column of DFT-3 are same as those of

complexity. DFT-4 (shown in Gray colour in Fig.3 and 4). These

redundant computations of DFG-1 and DFG-2 can be

2) Block formulation for transpose form FIR filter. avoided using nonoverlapped sequence of input blocks,

as shown in figure 5.

3) Design of transpose form FIR filter block for

reconfigurable applications.

constant multiplications technique for the block

implementation of fixed FIR filters.

FILTER

configuration is discussed in this chapter. The data-flow Fig.3.Corresponding to output y (n).

graphs (DFG) of transpose form FIR filter for filter length

N= 6 as shows below.

output y(n). Fig.4.Corresponding to output y (n 1).

Arrow: accumulation path of the products. Block-

processing method is highly used to derive high-

throughput in hardware structures but also improves

the area-delay efficiency. The formation of block-based

FIR structure is straightforward in the direct-form FIR,

whereas the transpose form configuration does not

Fig.2. DFG 2 of transpose form structure for N =6.For directly support block processing. But, to take the

output y (n-1). computational advantage of the MCM, FIR filter is

required to be realized by transpose form configuration.

The output of an FIR filter of length N can be computed The nonoverlapping input blocks are derived form the

using the relation, block processing. The block doesnot involve redundant

computation. It is easy to find that the entries in gray

cells in below (Fig.5) table correspond to the output

y(n) and correspond to y(n1).

2017, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 5.181 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1858

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056

Volume: 04 Issue: 03 | Mar -2017 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

the Reconfigurable applications are saved. The CSU

stores coefficients of all the filters to be used for the

reconfigurable application. It is implemented using N

ROM LUTs, such that filter coefficients of any particular

channel filter are obtained in one clock cycle, where N is

the filter length. The selection coefficient, usually

2.1RECONFIGURABLE TRANSPOSE FORM FIR FILTER denoted by the letter s, is a measure of differences

in fitness. Selection coefficients are central to the

The coefficients are varying for some applications in DSP, quantitative description of evolution, since fitness

differences determine the change in genotype

which is referred as reconfigurable coefficients. For

frequencies attributable to selection.Pipelining is an

example, Software-defined radio (SDR) channelizer, important technique used in several applications such

Where FIR filters need to be implemented in as digital signal processing (DSP) systems. Consider a 3-

reconfigurable coefficients. The Reconfigurable structure tap FIR filter, Assume the computational time for

for block FIR filter is shown in below for the block size L multiplication units is Tm and Ta for add units.

= 4. It consists of one coefficient selection unit (CSU), one The critical path, representing the minimum

register unit (RU), M number of inner product units time required for processing a new sample, is limited by

(IPUs), and one pipeline adder unit (PAU). The CSU stores 1 multiplication and 2 add function units. The sampling

coefficients of all the filters to be used for the period is given by Tm+2Ta.

reconfigurable application. It is implemented using N 2.2. FIXED COEFFICIENT TRANSPOSE FORM FIR

ROM LUTs, such that filter coefficients of any particular FILTER

channel filter are obtained in one clock cycle, where N is

the filter length. The RU receives xkduring the kth cycle The coefficients of FIR filter are fixed in some application

and produces L rows of S0k in parallel. L rows of S0kare which is known as fixed coefficients. The transpose form

transmitted to M IPUs of the reconfigurable structure. FIR filter is naturally a pipelined structure which

supports the multiple constant multiplications (MCM)

The M IPUs also receive M short-weight vectors from the technique but direct form FIR filter structure does not

CSU, such that during the kth cycle, the (m + 1)th IPU support MCM technique. The MCM is more effective in

receives the weight vector cMm1 from the CSU and L Transpose form when the common operand is multiple

rows of S0k form the RU. Each IPU performs matrix- with the set of constant coefficients that reduce the

vector product of S0k with the short-weight vector cm, computational delay. The implementation of MCM

and computes a block of L partial filter outputs (rmk ). technique is easier in fixed coefficient Transpose form

FIR filter but complex in reconfigurable coefficients. In

fixed coefficients transpose FIR filter, area and delay are

reduced by using MCM technique.

2017, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 5.181 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1859

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056

Volume: 04 Issue: 03 | Mar -2017 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

Transpose form FIR filter is simulated using Xilinx Tool.

The area (no. of LUTs and flip-flops clock buffers and

I/O buffers) and delay were analysed for Fixed and

reconfigurable coefficients. From the analysis, it is

observed that the area and delay reduced when compare

to the direct form FIR filter.

In the below simulation result is for Fixed coefficient

Transpose form FIR filter with 15 coefficients. The input

given to the filter is 0001(1) and the output achieved for

the filter is 1010. The delay for the fixed transpose form

FIR filter is 1.19 ns. The delay of the fixed transpose form

filter is reduced when compare to the direct form filter

delay. The delay of the direct form fir filter is 1.36ns.

L=4

required, since the structure is to be tailored for only one

given filter. Similarly, IPUs are not required. The

multiplications are required to be mapped to the MCM

units for a low-complexity realization. In the following,

we show that the proposed formulation for MCM-based

implementation of block FIR filter makes use of the

symmetry in input matrix S0k to perform horizontal and

vertical common subexpression elimination and to

minimize the number of shift-add operations in the MCM Fig.1.Experimental result for the fixed FIR

blocks.

In the below simulation result is for reconfigurable

To illustrate the computation of 4 tap Fixed FIR and 16 coefficients Transpose form FIR filter. The input given to

coefficients, we write it as a matrix product by using the the filter is 0001(1) and the coefficients given for the

above relation. We can observe that the input matrix filter is, 0000, 0001, 0010, 0011, 0100, and 0101. The

contains six-input samples {x(4k), x(4k 1), x(4k 2), output achieved for the filter is 1111 (15). The total

x(4k 3), x(4k 4), x(4k 5), x(4k 6)}, and multiplied number LUT used for the reconfigurable FIR is 152 and

with several constant coefficients. MCM can be applied in the Flip-flops are 63 and the shift register, clock buffers

both horizontal and vertical direction of the coefficient and I/O buffers are used 27 cells. The LUTs, Flip-flops are

matrix. The sample x(4k3) appears in four rows or four reduced when compare to the direct form FIR filter. The

columns of the above input matrix. Whereas x(4k) delay for the reconfigurable transpose form FIR filter is

appears in only one row or one column. Therefore, all the 1.27 ns. The delay of the fixed transpose form filter is

four rows of coefficient matrix are involved in the MCM reduced when compare to the direct form filter delay.

for the x(4k 3), whereas only the first row of The delay of the direct form fir filter is 1.35ns.

coefficients are involved in the MCM for x(4k). For larger

values of N or the smaller block sizes, the row size of the

coefficient matrix is larger that results in larger MCM size

across all the samples, which results into larger saving in

computational complexity.

2017, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 5.181 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1860

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056

Volume: 04 Issue: 03 | Mar -2017 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

AREA AND DELAY

flip-flops

reconfigurable FIR

reconfigurable FIR

3.1 PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT form FIR filter for fixed coefficient and reconfigurable

coefficients. The transpose form FIR filter is naturally a

TABLE I: COMPARISON TABLE RECONFIGURABLE FIR

pipelined structure which supports the multiple constant

FOR THE AREA AND DELAY

multiplications (MCM) technique. The implementation of

MCM technique is easier in fixed coefficient Transpose

form FIR filter but complex in reconfigurable coefficients.

Delay(ns LUTs and In fixed coefficients transpose FIR filter, area and delay

flip-flops are reduced by using MCM technique. The low-

complexity design using the MCM technique is

implemented for fixed coefficients transpose form FIR

filters and multiplier-based design is used for

Direct form 1.35 368 reconfigurable transpose form FIR filter. The

reconfigurable FIR implemented transpose form FIR filter structure

achieved less area and delay than the direct-form FIR

filter structure. In future, the delay and area will be

Transpose form further reduced in transpose form FIR filter by applying

reconfigurable FIR another technique

1.26 241

5. REFERENCES

PROCESSING: PRINCIPLES, ALGORITHMS

ANDAPPLICATIONSUpper SaddleRiver,NJ,USA: Prentice-

Hall,1996

[2] T. Hentschel and G. Fettweis, SOFTWARE RADIO

RECEIVERS, in CDMA Techniques for Third Generation

Mobile Systems. Dordrecht The Netherlands: Kluwer,

1999, pp. 257283.

2017, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 5.181 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1861

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056

Volume: 04 Issue: 03 | Mar -2017 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

NEW ADAPTIVE NOISE CANCELLATION SCHEME IN THE

PRESENCE OF CROSSTALK [SPEECH SIGNALS],, vol. 39,

no. 10, pp. 681694, Oct. 1995

[4] J. Park, W. Jeong, H. Mahmoodi-Meimand, Y. Wang, H.

Choo, and K. Roy, COMPUTATION SHARING

PROGRAMMABLE FIR FILTER FOR LOW-POWER AND

HIGH-PERFORMANCE APPLICATIONS, IEEE J. Solid State

Circuits, Feb. 2004. p. 16.

[5] K.-H. Chen and T.-D.Chiueh, A LOW-POWER DIGIT-

BASED RECONFIGURABLE FIR FILTER, IEEE Trans.

Circuits Syst. II, , vol. 53, no. 8, pp. 617621, Aug. 2006.

[6] R. Mahesh and A. P. Vinod, NEW RECONFIGURABLE

ARCHITECTURES FOR IMPLEMENTING FIR FILTERS

WITH LOW COMPLEXITY, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 275288,

Feb. 2010

[7] S. Y. Park and P. K. Meher, EFFICIENT FPGA AND

ASIC REALIZATIONS OF A DA-BASED RECONFIGURABLE

FIR DIGITAL FILTER, IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. II, Exp.

Briefs, vol. 61, no. 7, pp. 511515, Jul. 2014.

2017, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 5.181 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1862

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