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Concrete Design

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As = ?

H d=?

Hd=

b=?

cover + radius of bar

SCHOOL OF SUSTAINABLE ENGINEERING AND THE BUILT

ENVIRONMENT

ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY

CEE 421: Concrete Structures

Fall 2016

Designing a Concrete Beam

A typical question might be:

boundary conditions. The beam must support a concentrated

live load of 50 kips at 10 feet from the left support, a

distributed live load of 1 kip/ft, a concentrated dead load of

30 kips 5 feet from the right support, and its own weight.

Design a cross section to handle the largest factored moment

assuming you can only purchase 75 ksi reinforcing steel and 6

ksi concrete.

Design principles. Why?

Designing a Concrete Beam

Whats the difference between this and analysis?

Analysis:

dimensions and asked to calculate capacity by finding the

nominal strength and comparing stresses and or strains in the

concrete or steel to limit values.

Design:

moment to determine the cross sectional dimensions and rebar

layout.

Designing a Concrete Beam

As = ?

Generally, we are always given

enough information to draw our

d=? shear and moment diagrams.

b=?

Typically, we have 3 unknowns: b, d (and/or H) and As (or ), although H

is usually approximated as d + Cover (usually 2-3 inches). Because of

this, approximations or relationships between these variables are often

made.

Mu

What then are our knowns? = M n , fc, f y , 1

Remember, Mu comes from factored loads! If we know all those variables,

what else do we know??

Designing a Concrete Beam

Balanced Reinforcement Ratio!:

bal = = b = =

fy s + cu fy 87000 + f y

(0.85) ( fc) ( 1 ) 87

fy 87 + f

y psi

ksi

so a is not really an unknown, it is calculated. The easiest type of

design question is when you only have to solve for one of the

unknowns.

Lets look at a simplified design procedure:

Designing a Concrete Beam

Typical Steps to designing one parameter, say As:

This is relatively straight forward and there are many ways to do it.

One crucial item is to follow the limits set forth by ACI in section

9.6 (more specifically, section 9.6.1.2) on the minimum steel

reinforcement ratio As:

3 fc 200

As,min (bw ) ( d ) As,min (bw ) ( d )

fy fy

for As, b and or d. Note that these also set up limits on as well!

As,min 3 fc As,min 200

= min = min

(bw ) ( d ) fy (bw ) ( d ) fy

psi

Designing a Concrete Beam

Typical Steps to designing one parameter, say As:

As f y

C =T a=

(0.85) ( fc) (b)

Step 2: Now, we have our moment capacity equation

a a

M u M n = As f y d = ( 0.85) ( fc) ( a ) ( b) d

2 2

Lets focus on the capacity equation for steel and the equilibrium

equation and solve both for As:

Mu a ( 0.85) ( fc) ( b)

As = As

a fy

fy d

2

Designing a Concrete Beam

Now, we have 2 equations and 2 unknowns:

Option 1: set these two equations equal to each other and solve

for a

Mu a ( 0.85) ( fc) ( b) Mu a

ad

=

a fy ( 0.85) ( fc) ( b) 2

fy d

2

Now, lets take the limiting case and change the inequality to an

equality.

Mu

(0.5) a 2 ad + =0

( 0.85) ( fc) ( b)

Designing a Concrete Beam

Now, we have 2 equations and 2 unknowns:

Option 1: set these two equations equal to each other and solve

for a

2 2M u

Now, we rely on the quadratic formula: a = d d

( 0.85) ( fc) ( b)

sense, so finally we get: 2 2M u

a=d d

( 0.85) ( fc) ( b)

a ( 0.85) ( fc) ( b)

Now we plug this back into equilibrium & we get: As =

fy

Note we can also do the same thing by first solving each equation

for a, then setting up another quadratic for As, but it becomes

unclear which root of the quadratic should be taken. The math is a

little messy as well.

Designing a Concrete Beam

Now, we have 2 equations and 2 unknowns:

Option 2: we can iterate to get As, this is often quicker and a little

easier.

Stress Diagram

0.85(fc)

a C

N.A.

d-a/2~jd

T

a Mu Mu

M u M n M u As f y d As

2 a fy ( j ) (d )

fy d

2

Now, assume j ~ 0.9 for beams with narrow compression zones

Designing a Concrete Beam

Now, we have 2 equations and 2 unknowns:

Option 2: we can iterate to get As, this is often quicker and a little

easier.

Now, plug this first estimate of As into the internal equilibrium

equation to get a:

As f y

a=

(0.85) ( fc) (b)

Now, take the newly estimated a and plug back into external

equilibrium to get a better estimate of As.

Mu

As

a

fy d

2

Now, the more iterations the better, but usually after 2, you

converge pretty quickly.

Designing a Concrete Beam

Now we move towards no dimensions given:

In this case, we again have 2 more popular options, lets look at

these in some detail:

1) Assume a reinforcement ratio, calculate relationship between

dimensions of cross section

As = bd

Plug this into the internal equilibrium equation by setting C=T, then

plug this into external equilibrium equation

As ( f y ) d ( fy )

a= =

0.85 ( fc) b 0.85 ( fc)

a d ( fy )

M n = As ( f y ) d bd ( f y ) d

2 2 ( 0.85 ) ( f )

c

Designing a Concrete Beam

We find a relationship between b and d:

Assume a reinforcement ratio, calculate relationship between

dimensions of cross section

Lets clean up the equation

( fy ) Mu

2

M n = bd ( f y ) 1 ( 0.59 ) bd 2 =

( fc) ( fy )

f y 1 ( 0.59 )

( f c)

Now, just like with the balanced steel reinforcement ratio, we have

an equation just considering the material properties and the

moments arising from the externally applied loads.

Now, lets use this to help design a beam. Consider the following

procedure and example:

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