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UDC

NATIONAL STANDARD
GB
OF THE PEOPLES REPUBLIC OF CHINA

P GB 50265-2010

Design Code for Pumping Station


Issued on: July 15, 2010 Implemented on: February 1, 2011


Jointly issued by the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development
(MOHURD) and the General Administration for Quality
Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine (AQSIQ) of the
Peoples Republic of China
NATIONAL STANDARD
OF THE PEOPLES REPUBLIC OF CHINA

Design Code for Pumping Station



GB 50265-2010

Chief Development Department: Ministry of Water Resources of the People's Republic of


China
Approval Department: Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of the People's
Republic of China
Implementation Date: February 1, 2011

China Planning Press


Beijing, 2011
Announcement of the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural

Development of the People's Republic of China


No. 673

Announcement on Publishing the National Standard of "Design Code for Pumping


Station"
"Design Code for Pumping Station" has been approved as a national standard with a
serial number of GB 50265-2010, and it shall be implemented on February 1, 2011. Articles
6.1.3, 6.3.5 and 6.3.7 are compulsory and must be enforced strictly. "Design Code for
Pumping Station" GB/T 50265-97 shall be abolished simultaneously.
Authorized by the Standard Rating Research Institution, this code is published and
distributed by China Planning Press.

Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of PRC


July 15, 2010
Foreword
According to the requirements of Document Jian Biao [2002] No. 85 issued by the
former Ministry of Construction - "Notice on Printing the Development and Revision Plan of
National Engineering Construction Standards", this code is revised on the basis of "Design
Code for Pumping Station" GB/T 50265-97 by Hubei Investigation & Design Institute of
Water Conservancy & Hydropower jointly with the organizations concerned.
This code comprises 12 chapters and 5 appendixes, covering such main technical
contents as: general provisions, rank and grade of pumping station and standard for flood (tide)
control, main design parameters of pumping station, site selection, general layout, pump
house, inlet and outlet structures, pumping station of other types, hydraulic machine and
auxiliary equipment, electrical equipment, gate, trash rack and hoisting equipment, as well as
safety monitoring.
The revision involves: the flood control standards for Grade 5 buildings and
tide-influencing pumping stations are adjusted according to the current relevant standards; the
determination methods for design flow, characteristic stage and characteristic head are revised;
the relevant requirements for site selection and general layout are revised and supplemented;
pump house layout, seepage control and drainage arrangement, stability analysis, and
foundation calculation/treatment are revised and supplemented; the contents related to
approach channel arrangement and outlet pipe forms are revised and supplemented; the
contents related to pumping station of other types are revised and supplemented; the pressure
grade classification of air compressing system and professional standards of air compressor
are unified; the repairing system of pumping station is simplified; the restriction on adopting
synchronous motors above 630kW is deleted, and the contents related to reactive power
compensation are revised; the articles related to excitation system are added; some outdated
electrical equipments are deleted; the setting articles for testing and repairing equipments are
revised to make repair and test of pumping stations marketization; the area calculation
formula of air vents at the top of outlet flap valve and stop gate passage is revised; the
requirement "nonmetal materials may be used" is added for outlet flap valve materials; the
requirements contents of engineering monitoring are revised and supplemented; the
requirements contents in Appendix A are revised and supplemented, shearing parameters and
friction coefficient value table are added; formula (C.0.2-1) and formula (C.0.2-2) in
Appendix C are simplified.
The provisions printed in bold type are compulsory ones and must be enforced strictly.
The Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development is in charge of the
administration of this code and the explanation of the compulsory provisions; Ministry of
Water Resources is responsible for daily management; Water Resources and Hydropower
Planning and Design of the Ministry of Water Resources is responsible for the explanation of
specific technical contents. All relevant organizations are kindly requested to sum up and
accumulate your experiences in actual practices during the process of implementing this code.
The relevant opinions and advice, whereever necessary, can be posted or passed on to Water
Resources and Hydropower Planning and Design of the Ministry of Water Resources
(Address: No. 2-1, Beixiaojie Street, Liupukang, Xicheng District, Beijing; Post code: 100120;
Fax: 010 - 62056492; e-mail: kjc@mwr.gov.cn) for future reference in revision.

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Chief development organization, participating development organizations, chief drafting
staffs and chief examiners of this code:
Chief development organization: Hubei Investigation & Design Institute of Water
Conservancy & Hydropower
Participating development organizations: Shanxi Investigation & Design Institute of
Water Conservancy & Hydropower
China Water Conservancy and Hydropower Investigation and Design Association
Jiangsu Surveying and Design Institute of Water Resources Co., Ltd.
China Water Resources Beifang Investigation, Design & Research Co. Ltd.
Shanghai Investigation, Design and Research Institute
Guangdong Hydropower Planning & Design Institute
Chief drafting staffs: Bie Dapeng, Sun Wangong, Zhang Pingyi, Sun Weiyue, Zhang
Shijie, Wu Peirong, Shao Jiannan, Yao Yujian, Dou Yisong, Zhou Ming, Li Wenfeng, Chen
Hanbao, Qin Cangbin, Guo Tieqiao, Wang Li, Han Xiang, Yang Jinying, Lu Tianjie, Pei Yun,
Li Zhijian, Chen Dengyi, Liang Xiubao, Liu Xinquan, Dong Liangshan, Yang Guoqing, Li
Shaoquan
Chief examiners: Liu Zhiming, Xu Jianzhong, Lei Xingshun, Ju Zhanbin, Jiang Jiaquan,
Bu Shu, Yun Qinglong, Wang Yingren, Li Xueqin, Zhu Huaguang, Ma Dongliang, Hu Deyi,
Xu Daolong, Chen Hongtao, Ma Pujie, Huang Zhiyong, Huang Rongwei, Hu Fu, Chen
Wuchun, Pang Hui, Wang Guoqin

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Contents
1 General Provisions ..........................................................................................................1
2 Rank and Grade of Pumping Station and Standard for Flood (Tide) Control .....................2
2.1 Rank and Grade of Pumping Station ......................................................................2
2.2 Standard for Flood (Tide) Control..........................................................................3
3 Main Design Parameters of Pumping Station ...................................................................4
3.1 Water Level...........................................................................................................4
3.2 Characteristic Stage...............................................................................................4
3.3 Characteristic Head ...............................................................................................7
4 Site Selection ..................................................................................................................9
4.1 General Requirement.............................................................................................9
4.2 Site Selection for Pumping Station ........................................................................9
5 General Layout.............................................................................................................. 11
5.1 General Requirements ......................................................................................... 11
5.2 Layout Pattern of Pumping Station ...................................................................... 11
6 Pump House.................................................................................................................. 14
6.1 Pump House Layout ............................................................................................ 14
6.2 Arrangement for Seepage Control and Drainage .................................................. 17
6.3 Stability Analysis ................................................................................................ 19
6.4 Calculation and Treatment of Foundation ............................................................ 25
6.5 Calculation of Main Structures ............................................................................ 28
7 Inlet And Outlet Structures ............................................................................................ 31
7.1 Approach Channel............................................................................................... 31
7.2 Forebay and Suction Sump .................................................................................. 31
7.3 Outlet Conduit..................................................................................................... 32
7.4 Outlet Sump and Pressure Tank ........................................................................... 37
8 Pumping Station of Other Types .................................................................................... 39
8.1 General Requirement........................................................................................... 39
8.2 Shaft Pumping Station......................................................................................... 39
8.3 Funicular Pumping Station .................................................................................. 40
8.4 Floating Pumping Station .................................................................................... 41
8.5 Submergible Pumping Station ............................................................................. 42
9 Hydraulic Machinery and Auxiliary Equipment ............................................................. 44
9.1 Main Pump ......................................................................................................... 44
9.2 Inlet and Outlet Passages ..................................................................................... 45
9.3 Inlet and Outlet Pipes in Pump House.................................................................. 47
9.4 Transient Process and Protection Against the Damage ......................................... 48
9.5 Vacuum and Priming System............................................................................... 48
9.6 Drainage System ................................................................................................. 49
9.7 Water Supply System .......................................................................................... 49
9.8 Compressed Air System ...................................................................................... 51
9.9 Oil Supply System............................................................................................... 51
9.10 Hoisting and Repairing System.......................................................................... 52

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9.11 Heating, Ventilation and Air-conditioning .......................................................... 52
9.12 Layout for Hydraulic Machines ......................................................................... 54
10 Electrical Equipment ................................................................................................... 56
10.1 Electrical Power Supply System ........................................................................ 56
10.2 Main Electrical Connection ............................................................................... 56
10.3 Selection of Main Motor and Electrical Equipment............................................ 56
10.4 Reactive Power Compensation .......................................................................... 57
10.5 Unit Starting...................................................................................................... 58
10.6 Service Power of Station ................................................................................... 58
10.7 Layout for Indoor and Out Door Electrical Equipment and Cable laying ............ 59
10.8 Fire Fighting of Electrical Equipment ................................................................ 60
10.9 Over Voltage Protection and Earthing Equipment .............................................. 61
10.10 Lighting .......................................................................................................... 62
10.11 Protective Relaying and Automatic Security Equipment................................... 63
10.12 Auto-control and Signal System ...................................................................... 65
10.13 Measuring Meter ............................................................................................. 65
10.14 Operating Power Supply.................................................................................. 66
10.15 Communication ............................................................................................... 66
10.16 Electrical Test Equipment ................................................................................ 67
11 Gate, Trash Rack and Hoisting Equipment ................................................................... 68
11.1 General Requirement ......................................................................................... 68
11.2 Trash rack and Screen Cleaning Machine........................................................... 69
11.3 Flap and Stop Gate ............................................................................................ 70
11.4 Hoisting Equipment........................................................................................... 71
12 Safety Monitoring........................................................................................................ 72
12.1 Engineering Monitoring .................................................................................... 72
12.2 Hydraulic Monitoring........................................................................................ 72
Annex A Data for Stability Analysis of Pump House......................................................... 74
Annex B Calculation and Treatment of Pump subsoil ....................................................... 76
Annex C Approximate Calculation of Opening Angle of Free Flap ................................... 82
Annex D Approximate Calculation for Closing Impact of Free Flap ................................. 84
Annex E Approximate Calculation for Closing Speed and Closing Impact of Stop Gate.... 87
Explanation of Wording in This Code .................................................................................. 89
List of Quoted Standards ..................................................................................................... 90

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1 General Provisions

1.0.1 This code is developed with a view to unifying the design standards for pumping
station, guaranteeing design quality of pumping station, as well as realizing advanced
technology, safety reliability, and economic rationality of pumping station engineering.
1.0.2 This code is applicable to the construction, extension and renovation designs of large-
and medium-size water supply and drainage pumping station.
1.0.3 Basic data shall be extensively collected and arranged for the design of pumping
station. Basic data shall be analyzed, accurate, reliable and in accordance with the design
requirements.
1.0.4 Pumping stations shall be designed on the basis of practical experiences, necessary
scientific experiments, energy saving, as well as active and careful selection of new
technologies, new materials, new equipments and new processes.
1.0.5 In the area where dynamic earthquake peak acceleration is greater than or equal to
0.10g, seismic design shall be carried out for major buildings. In the area where dynamic
earthquake peak acceleration is 0.05g, seismic calculation may not be carried out but proper
seismic measures shall be adopted for Grade 1 buildings.
1.0.6 Not only the requirements stipulated in this code, but also those in the current relevant
ones of the nation shall be complied with for the design of pumping station.

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2 Rank and Grade of Pumping Station and Standard for Flood (Tide)

Control

2.1 Rank and Grade of Pumping Station

2.1.1 The scale of pumping station shall be determined according to the engineering tasks,
with an emphasis on short-term objectives and in consideration of long-term development
requirements.
2.1.2 The rank of pumping station shall be determined according to Table 2.1.2.
Table 2.1.2 Rank indexes of pumping station
Rank of pumping Scale of pumping Irrigation and drainage pumping station Water supply pumping
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station station Design flow (m /s) Installed power (MW) station for industry and
town

I Large (1) size 200 30 Especially important

II Large (2) size 200~50 30~10 Important

III Medium size 50~10 10~1 Medium

IV Small (1) size 10~2 1~0.1 General

V Small (2) size <2 <0.1

Note: 1 Installed power refers to the index of single station, including standby unit;
2 The rank of the pumping station engineering composed of multi-grade or many pumping stations may be determined
according to the grade indexes of the whole system.
3 Pumping station, belonging to two different ranks according to the grade indexes, shall be subject to the higher rank.

2.1.3 Pumping station buildings shall be graded according to the pumping station rank, their
function and importance in the pumping station; their grades shall be determined according to
Table 2.1.3.
Table 2.1.3 Grade classification of pumping station buildings
Rank of pumping station Grade of permanent buildings Grade of temporary buildings

Major buildings Minor buildings

I 1 3 4

II 2 3 4

III 3 4 5

IV 4 5 5

V 5 5

2.1.4 The grade of buildings where pumping station and embankment body are combined
shall not be less than that of embankment.
2.1.5 As for the new-type Grade 2~5 major buildings which cause huge loss or severe
influence after wreck or adopt less practical experiences, they may be improved one grade
after demonstration; as for the Grade 1~4 major buildings which cause little loss or light
influence after wreck, they may be lowered one grade after demonstration.

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2.2 Standard for Flood (Tide) Control

2.2.1 The standard for flood control of pumping station buildings shall be determined
according to Table 2.2.1.
Table 2.2.1 Standard for flood control of pumping station buildings
Grade of pumping station buildings Standard for flood control [Return period (a)]

Design Check

1 100 300

2 50 200

3 30 100

4 20 50

5 10 30

Note: 1 As for the pumping stations in the plain or by the sea, the standard for flood control check may be determined
after investigation according to the specific conditions and requirements;
2 As for the buildings combined with the embankment beside the river, lake or water reservoir in the plain, their standard
for flood control shall not be less than that of embankment.

2.2.2 As for the tide-influencing pumping station buildings, the return period of
tide-blocking water stage shall be determined based on the building grades and historical
highest tide water stage, according to the design standards specified in Table 2.2.2.
Table 2.2.2 Standard for flood control of tide-influencing pumping station buildings
Building grade 1 2 3 4 5

Standard for tide control [Return 100 100~50 50~30 30~20 <20
period (a)]

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3 Main Design Parameters of Pumping Station

3.1 Water Level

3.1.1 The water level (design flow) of irrigation pumping station shall be determined after
comprehensive analysis and calculation according to the design irrigation assurance factor,
design irrigation rate, irrigation area, utilization coefficient of irrigation water and storage
volume in the irrigated area.
3.1.2 Stagnant water drainage design flow of drainage pumping station and its hydrograph
may be determined after comprehensive analysis and calculation according to the stagnant
water drainage standard, stagnant water drainage mode, design storm, stagnant water drainage
area and storage volume. The waterlogging drainage design flow of drainage pumping station
may be determined after calculation according to the waterlogging drainage modulus and area.
Water drainage design flow of urban drainage pumping station may be determined after
calculation according to the design comprehensive domestic sewage quantity, industrial
sewage quantity and rainwater quantity.
3.1.3 Design flow of water supply pumping station for industry and town shall be
determined comprehensively according to design target year, design assurance factor, water
consumption of water supply object, hourly variation coefficient of water supply in town,
daily variation coefficient and storage volume. Water consumption mainly includes
comprehensive domestic water (including citizen domestic water and public building water),
industrial water, water for spraying roads and greenbelt, water leaked from pipe network,
unpredicted water utilization and fire-fighting water.

3.2 Characteristic Stage

3.2.1 The water stage of irrigation pumping station suction sump shall meet the following
requirements:
1 The flood control water stage shall be determined according to the standard for flood
control specified in Article 2.2.1 and 2.2.2 of this code;
2 Where taking water from river, lake or water reservoir, the design operating water
stage shall take the daily average or ten-day average stage of the years that irrigation period
meets the design irrigation assurance factor. Where taking water from channels, the design
operating water stage shall take the water stage of channels passing design flow. Where taking
water from tidal estuary, the design operating water stage shall be determined according to the
average value of average highest and lowest tide stages during the irrigation periods for many
years;
3 Where taking water from river, lake and tidal estuary, the highest operating water
stage shall take the average daily water stage of flood whose return period is 5~10a. Where
taking water from water reservoir, the highest operating water stage shall be determined after
demonstration according to the reservoir storage performance. Where taking water from
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channel, the highest operating water stage shall take the water stage of channel passing
increasing flow;
4 Where taking water from river, lake or water reservoir, the lowest operating water
stage shall take the lowest daily average stage during the irrigation periods for many years
that water source assurance factor is 95%~97%.Where taking water from channels, the lowest
operating water stage shall take the water stage of channels passing single-pump flow. Where
taking water from tidal estuary, the lowest operating water stage shall take the daily lowest
tide stage during the irrigation periods for many years that water source assurance factor is
95%~97%;
5 Where taking water from river, lake, water reservoir or tidal estuary, the average
water stage shall take the average daily water stage during irrigation period for many years.
Where taking water from channels, the average water stage shall take the water stage of
channels passing average flow;
6 Hydraulic loss from water intake to suction sump shall be deducted from the above
water stages. Where taking water from watercourse with unstable river bed, the influence of
river bed changes shall be taken into consideration for the corresponding characteristic stage
of suction sump.
3.2.2 The water stage of irrigation pumping station outlet sump shall meet the following
requirements:
1 Where outlet sump is connected to the water delivery watercourse, the highest water
stage shall take the flood control water stage of water delivery watercourse; where outlet
sump is connected to the water delivery channel, the highest water stage shall take the water
stage corresponding to the maximum flow of pumping station. As for the pumping station
taking water from overloaded stream, the influence of water delivery channel siltation to
water stage shall be considered for the highest water stage;
2 Design operating water stage shall take the water stage deduced to outlet sump
according to the requirements of irrigation design flow and control elevation in the irrigated
area;
3 Highest operating water stage shall take the water stage corresponding to the
maximum operation flow in the pumping station;
4 Lowest operating water stage shall take the water stage corresponding to the
minimum operation flow in the pumping station. As for the water delivery watercourse with
navigation requirements, the lowest operating water stage shall take the lowest navigable
water stage;
5 Average water stage shall take the average daily water stage during the irrigation
period for many years.
3.2.3 Water stage of drainage pumping station suction sump shall meet the following
requirements:
1 Highest water stage shall take the waterlogging water stage whose return period is
10a~20a after station establishment in the drainage area. The influence of flood control
requirements (if any in the drainage area) shall be considered for the highest water stage;
2 Design operating water stage shall take the water stage deduced from the design
stagnant water drainage water stage in the drainage area to be in front of the station. As for the
pumping station with centralized storage area or in the combined operation with internal

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drainage station, design operating water stage shall take the water stage deduced from the
design water stage in the storage area or in the internal drainage station outlet sump to be in
front of the station;
3 Highest operating water stage shall take the water stage deduced to be in front of the
station according to the requirements of the allowable highest waterlogging water stage in the
drainage area. As for the pumping station with centralized storage area or in the combined
operation with internal drainage station, highest operating water stage shall take the water
stage deduced from the highest storage water stage in the storage area or the highest operating
water stage in the internal drainage station outlet sump to be in front of the station;
4 Lowest operating water stage shall take the water stage deduced to be in front of the
station according to the requirements of reducing the buried depth of underground water or
the allowable lowest water stage in the storage area;
5 Average water stage shall take the same water stage as the design operating water
stage,
3.2.4 Water stage of drainage pumping station outlet sump shall meet the following
requirements:
1 Flood control water stage shall be determined according to the standard for flood
control specified in Article 2.2.1 and 2.2.2 of this code;
2 Design operating water stage shall meet the following requirements:
1) It shall be the average water stage of water drainage period whose return period is
5~10a in the drainage bearing area;
2) It shall be the average tide stage of water drainage period whose return period is
5~10a, where the drainage bearing area is tidal reach;
3) As for the important drainage pumping station, the return period may be improved
properly after demonstration.
3 Highest operating water stage shall meet the following requirements:
1) It shall be the average water stage of water drainage period whose return period is
10~20a, where the water stage variation amplitude is large in the drainage bearing area; Take
the design flood water stage, where the water stage variation amplitude is small in the
drainage bearing area;
2) It shall bee the average tide stage of water drainage period whose return period is
10~20a, where the drainage bearing area is tidal reach;
3) As for the important drainage pumping station, the return period may be improved
properly after demonstration.
4 Lowest operating water stage shall take the average value of lowest water stage or
lowest tide stage during drainage period for many years in the drainage bearing area;
5 Average water stage shall take the average daily water stage or average daily tide
stage for many years in the drainage bearing area.
3.2.5 Water stage of industry and town water supply pumping station suction sump shall
meet the following requirements:
1 Flood control water stage shall be determined according to the standard for flood
control specified in Article 2.2.1 and 2.2.2 of this code;
2 Where taking water from river, lake or water reservoir, the design operating water
stage shall take the daily average or ten-day average stage meeting the design water supply

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assurance factor. Where taking water from channels, the design operating water stage shall
take the water stage of channels passing design flow. Where taking water from tidal estuary,
design operating water stage shall be determined according to the average value of average
highest and lowest tide stages during the delivery periods for many years;
3 Where taking water from river, lake and tidal estuary, the highest operating water
stage shall take the average daily water stage of flood whose return period is 10~20a.Where
taking water from water reservoir, the highest operating water stage shall be determined after
demonstration according to the reservoir storage performance. Where taking water from
channel, the highest operating water stage shall take the water stage of channel passing
increasing flow;
4 Where taking water from river, lake, water reservoir or tidal estuary, the lowest
operating water stage shall take the lowest daily average stage that water source assurance
factor is 97%~99%. Where taking water from channels, the lowest operating water stage shall
take the water stage of channels passing single-pump flow. As for the tide-influencing
pumping station, the lowest operating water stage shall take the daily lowest tide stage that
water source assurance factor is 97%~99%;
5 Where taking water from river, lake, water reservoir or tidal estuary, the average
water stage shall take the average daily water stage for many years. Where taking water from
channels, the average water stage shall take the water stage of channels passing average flow.
6 Hydraulic loss from water intake to suction sump shall be deducted from the above
water stages. Where taking water from watercourse with unstable river bed, the influence of
river bed changes shall be taken into consideration for the corresponding characteristic stage
of suction sump.
3.2.6 Water stage of industry and town water supply pumping station outlet sump shall meet
the following requirements:
1 Highest water stage shall take the checking water stage of water delivery channel;
2 Design operating water stage shall take the water stage corresponding to the design
flow in the pumping station;
3 Highest operating water stage shall take the water stage corresponding to the
maximum operation flow in the pumping station;
4 Lowest operating water stage shall take the water stage corresponding to the
minimum operation flow in the pumping station;
5 Average water stage shall take the water stage of water delivery channels passing
average flow.
3.2.7 The characteristic stage of irrigation and drainage pumping station may be determined
through comprehensive analysis according to the requirements of Article 3.2.1~Article 3.2.4
in this code.

3.3 Characteristic Head

3.3.1 The design head shall be determined according to the design operating water stage
difference between the suction sump and outlet sump of pumping station, counting in the
hydraulic loss, as well as shall meet the requirements of pumping station design flow.
3.3.2 The average head may be determined by the weighted average net head calculated
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according to the following formula and counted into the hydraulic loss, or by the average
water stage difference between the suction sump and outlet sump of pumping station and
counted in the hydraulic loss. Under the average head, the pump shall work in the
high-efficient area.
H i Qi t i
H= (3.3.2)
Qi t i
Where, HWeighted average net head (m);
HiThe ith period operating water stage difference between the suction sump and
outlet sump of pumping station (m);
QiThe ith period pumping flow of pumping station (m3/s);
tiDuration of ith period (d).
3.3.3 The highest head should be determined according to the difference between the
highest operating water stage of pumping station outlet sump and the lowest operating water
stage of suction sump, and counted into the hydraulic loss. Where the encounter probability
between the highest operating water stage of outlet sump and the lowest operating water stage
of suction sump is small, the highest head may be reduced properly by technical and
economical comparison.
3.3.4 Lowest head should be determined according to the difference between the lowest
operating water stage of pumping station outlet sump and the highest operating water stage of
suction sump, counting in the hydraulic loss. Where the encounter probability between the
lowest operating water stage of outlet sump and the highest operating water stage of suction
sump is small, the lowest head may be improved properly by technical and economical
comparison.

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4 Site Selection

4.1 General Requirement

4.1.1 Pumping station site shall be selected through technical and economical comparison
according to the overall plan of irrigation, drainage, industry and town water supply, pumping
station scale, operation characteristics and comprehensive utilization requirements, in
consideration of such factors as topography, geology, water source or drainage bearing area,
power supply, junction arrangement, external transportation, floor space, removal,
construction, environment, management and extension possibility.
4.1.2 Pumping station site in the hilly area should be selected in the area favorable for
engineering arrangement with open topography and proper bank slope.
4.1.3 Pumping station site should be selected on the natural subsoil with solid rock-soil and
favorable hydrogeological conditions; should keep clear of poor subsoil such as soft soil,
running sand, collapsible loess, expansive soil, miscellaneous fill, dispersive soil and
vibratory liquefaction soil; and shall not be set on active rift structure zone and other poor
geological segments. If selected on poor subsoil such as soft soil, running sand, collapsible
loess, expansive soil, miscellaneous fill, dispersive soil and vibratory liquefaction soil,
foundation types and subsoil treatment measures shall be carefully investigated and
determined.

4.2 Site Selection for Pumping Station

4.2.1 As for the irrigation pumping station taking water from river, lake, tidal estuary or
channel, the site should be selected on the area favorable to control the pumping irrigation
scope and economical to arrange the water delivery system. Water intake of irrigation
pumping station should be selected on the reach that can ensure the mainstream stable in
shore and water diversion, in favor of flood control, tide control, sand control, ice control and
dirt control. Water intake of irrigation pumping station (taking water from tidal channel)
should be selected on the reach where the fresh water source is abundant and water quality is
suitable for irrigation.
4.2.2 The site of irrigation pumping station (taking water from water reservoir) shall be
selected on the area with stable bank slope, convenient water intake, close to irrigated area,,
free from or less subject to the influence of silt accumulation and frost, according to the
relative position, geologic conditions and reservoir stage change conditions of irrigated area
and water reservoir, by investigating and demonstrating the technical reliability and
economical rationality of water intake from reservoir area or after the dam.
4.2.3 Drainage pumping station site should be selected on the area with low-lying drainage
area topography, capable of gathering waterlogging in the drainage area, and close to the
drainage bearing area. Water outlet of drainage pumping station shall not be set in the reach
with facing current, caving bank or severe siltation.
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4.2.4 Irrigation and drainage pumping station site should be selected through
comprehensive comparison to be in favor of external water intake and internal water drainage,
as well as meeting water quality of irrigation water source not being influenced and not
causing or aggravating soil salinization, and the requirements of rational arrangement of
irrigation and drainage channel systems.
4.2.5 Water supply pumping station site should be selected on the reach on the upstream of
the intake area, with stable river bed, reliable water source, good water quality and convenient
water intake.
4.2.6 Stair pumping station site shall be selected through comprehensive comparison
according to the topography of each station site, geology, operation and management, and
minimized total power.

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5 General Layout

5.1 General Requirements

5.1.1 The general layout of pumping stations shall realize reasonable layout, construction
convenience, safe operation, easy management, less arable land occupation, investment
saving, as well as aesthetic/harmonious features, according to the conditions like topography
of station site, geology, flow, silt, frost, power supply, construction, land acquisition removal,
water conservancy blood prevention and environment, in combination with the layout of the
whole hydro-junction or water supply system, the requirements of comprehensive utilization,
the unit type, etc.
5.1.2 The general layout of pumping stations shall include that of pump house, inlet and
outlet structures, transformer substation, other junction buildings, houses for engineering
management, internal and external transportation, communication, as well as other
maintenance management facilities.
5.1.3 Station layout shall meet the requirements of labor safety, industrial hygiene,
fire-fighting, environmental greening, as well as water and soil conservation.
5.1.4 Outdoor special transformer substation of pumping station should be arranged close to
the auxiliary machine room to meet the requirements of convenient installation and repair for
transformer equipment, transport channel, incoming line & outgoing line, fire-fighting, as
well as explosion proof.
5.1.5 Station transportation layout shall meet the requirements of electromechanical
equipment transportation and fire vehicle access.
5.1.6 As for the hydro-junction with flood discharge task, separate facilities shall be
installed between the pump house and flood discharge buildings; as for the hydro-junction
with navigation task, sufficient safety distance and safety facilities shall be provided between
the pump house and navigation buildings.
5.1.7 As for the pumping station with floater such as dirt and weed at the water inlet,
dirt-blocking and decontamination facilities shall be equipped at the end of approach channel
or at the entrance of forebay. Station Transportation Bridge should be installed with the trash
rack.
5.1.8 The distance between the pump house and railway, high tension transmission line,
underground pressure pipe, expressway, first-class highway and secondary road should not be
less than 100m.
5.1.9 Suction sump and outlet sump shall be equipped with protection and warning signs.
5.1.10 The layout of large-scale pumping station junction with complex flow conditions
shall be demonstrated with overall hydraulic model test.

5.2 Layout Pattern of Pumping Station

5.2.1 As for the pumping station taking water from river, where the watercourse bank slope
11
is gentle, the water diversion type layout should be adopted and intake gate should be
installed at the head of approach channel; where the watercourse bank slope is steep, bank
type layout should be adopted, the front of intake buildings should be level with the bank or
slightly protrude toward the water source. As for the pumping station taking water from
channel, the check gate should be installed on the channel at the downstream side of water
intake. As for the pumping station taking water from lake and water reservoir, the water
diversion type or bank type layout may be adopted according to the bank topography, water
stage variation amplitude, silt accumulation conditions, as well as the requirements for water
quality and water temperature.
5.2.2 Where drainage pumping station is built on the site with partial self-drainage
conditions, the pumping station should be built together with the drainage sluice; where
drainage sluice was already built at the station-building site, the drainage pumping station
should be separately built with drainage sluice. Drainage pumping station should adopt the
mode of positive-direction water inlet and water outlet.
5.2.3 As for the irrigation and drainage pumping station, where the water stage variation
amplitude is not large or the head is low, bidirectional-passage pump house layout pattern
may be adopted; where the water stage variation amplitude is large or the head is high,
unidirectional-passage pump house layout pattern may be adopted and supporting culvert gate
shall also be built (the supporting culvert gate shall keep proper distance with the pump house,
and its overflowing capacity should be appropriate to the pumping capacity of pumping
station unit).
5.2.4 As for the low-head and large-flow pumping station built at the embankment and with
good subsoil conditions, embankment body type layout should be adopted; as for the pumping
station with higher head, slightly poor subsoil conditions, or built at important embankment,
after-embankment type layout should be adopted.
5.2.5 As for the pumping station taking water from overloaded stream, where it is possessed
of natural flow water diversion desilting and sand flushing conditions, desilting, sand flushing
or dredging facilities shall be arranged on the approach channel; where it is not possessed of
natural flow water diversion desilting and sand flushing conditions, low-head pumping station
may be built on the bank, and desilting, sand flushing or other dredging facilities shall be
arranged.
5.2.6 As for the pumping station where the water source has frost or ice during operation,
ice control, ice elimination and ice diversion facilities shall be installed.
5.2.7 Where pumping station is built in the deep excavation zone, the excavation depth of
pump house shall be determined reasonably, the adverse effect of underground water to
pumping station operation shall be reduced, as well as necessary station drainage and pump
house ventilation, heating and lighting measures shall be adopted.
5.2.8 As for the pumping station built abut against the hillside and stream channel,
engineering measures such as mountain torrent drainage, partial hill landslide prevention and
creeping rubble prevention shall be adopted.
5.2.9 Where it is not economical to build ground pumping station due to the restriction of
topography conditions, underground pumping station may be arranged. As for the
underground pumping station, pump house, auxiliary machine room, transportation,
ventilation and drainage facilities shall be arranged reasonably according to the geological

12
conditions.
5.2.10 As for the pumping station taking water from schistosome affected area, necessary
molluscacidal engineering measures shall be adopted according to the requirements of water
conservancy blood prevention.

13
6 Pump House

6.1 Pump House Layout

6.1.1 Pump house layout shall be determined through technical and economical comparison
according to the general layout requirements of pumping station, geological conditions of
station site, type and parameter of electromechanical equipments, water inlet and outlet
passages (or pipes), power supply incoming line direction, and external transportation, in
favor of pump house construction, unit installation & repair, and engineering management.
6.1.2 Pump house layout shall meet:
1 The requirements for electromechanical equipment arrangement, installation,
operation and repair;
2 The requirements for structural layout;
3 The requirements for ventilation, heating and lighting; the technical requirements for
moisture proof, fire proof, noise proof, energy conservation, labor safety and industrial
hygiene;
4 The requirements on internal and external communications and transportation;
5 The requirements for building pattern, reasonable layout, suitable, esthetic and
harmonious with the surrounding environment
6.1.3 The safe height added at the top of water retaining position in the pump house
shall not be less than the requirements of Table 6.1.3.
Table 6.1.3 Lower limit value of safe height at the top of water retaining position in the pump house
(m)
Application condition Grade of pumping station buildings

1 2 3 4, 5

Design 0.7 0.5 0.4 0.3

Check 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2

Note: 1 The safe height refers to the height from calculation top elevation above of wave and piling wave to the top of
water retaining position in the pump house;
2 Design application condition refers to that of pumping station at the design operating water stage or design flood stage;
check application condition refers to that of pumping station at the highest operating water stage or check flood stage.

6.1.4 Unit spacing shall be determined according to the requirements of electromechanical


equipments and building structure layout, and shall meet the requirements of Articles 9.12.2
~9.12.5 in this code.
6.1.5 Main pump house length shall be determined according to such factors as unit sets,
layout pattern, unit spacing, edge unit segment length, as well as layout of installation and
repair house, and shall meet the requirements for unit lifting and internal transportation of
pump house.
6.1.6 Main pump house width shall be determined according to the layout requirements of
unit, auxiliary equipments and electrical equipments, dimension of water inlet and outlet
passages (or pipes), width of working passage, lifting requirements for necessary equipments
14
beside water inlet and outlet, in combination with the standard span of lifting equipments, in
accordance with the requirements of Article 9.12.7 in this code. Layout requirements of water
catchment and drainage gallery shall be counted in for determining the pump layer width of
vertical-unit main pump house.
6.1.7 Height of each layer in the main pump house shall be determined according to layout
of units, auxiliary equipments and electrical equipments, installation, operation, repair of units,
equipment lifting requirements, as well as requirements for ventilation, heating and lighting in
the pump house, in accordance with the requirements of Articles 9.12.8 ~ 9.12.10 in this code.
6.1.8 Floor elevation of pump layer in the main pump house shall be determined according
to such factors as pump installation elevation and water inlet passage (including water intake
room) layout or pipe installation requirements. Pump installation elevation shall be
determined according to the requirements of Article 9.1.7 in this code, in combination with
topography and geological conditions at the pump house. Floor elevation of motor layer in the
main pump house shall be determined according to such factors as pump installation elevation
as well as length of pump shaft and motor shaft.
6.1.9 As for the auxiliary equipments, electrical equipments, pipes and cable channels
installed around the units, their arrangement should avoid cross interference.
6.1.10 Auxiliary machine room should be arranged abut against one end of main pump
house or at the side of water outlet; its dimension shall be determined according to the
arrangement, installation, operation and repair requirements of auxiliary equipments, and
shall be harmonious with the general layout of pump house.
6.1.11 Installation repair room should be arranged at one end (or side) of the main pump
house with convenient external communications and transportation; its dimension shall be
determined according to the requirements of unit installation and repair, and shall meet the
requirements of Article 9.12.6 in this code.
6.1.12 Strong-noisy or strong-vibratory equipments should not be arranged around the
central control room.
6.1.13 Where main pump house is divided into several layers, lifting holes shall be arranged
in each floor in the same vertical line and within the working scope of lifting equipments.
Dimension of lifting holes shall be determined by adding each side of maximum lifting
component or equipment overall dimension and 0.2m safety distance.
6.1.14 Main pump house shall have at least two exists; one therein shall be able to meet the
requirements for transporting the maximum components or equipments.
6.1.15 Main passage shall be arranged at the water inlet or outlet of motor layer in the
vertical-unit main pump house, and not less than one main passage shall be arranged on each
other layer. The width of main passage should not be less than 1.5m, and the one of common
passage should not be less than 1.0m. Working passage should be arranged at the top of pipe
in the horizontal-unit main pump house. Working passage should be arranged close to the
motor in the slant-unit main pump house. Working passage should be arranged on the above
sub-layer of water inlet and outlet passage in the through-flow-unit main pump house.
6.1.16 Where the main pump house is divided into several layers, not less than 2 passages
shall be arranged on each layer. Main stair width should not be less than 1.0m; the slope
should not be greater than 40 ; the vertical clearance of staircase should not be less than
2.0m.

15
6.1.17 Drainage ditch gathering seepage water into catchment gallery or sump shall be
arranged on each underwater layer in the vertical-unit main pump house, or in the
horizontal-unit, slant-unit and through-flow-unit main pump house.
6.1.18 Permanent deformation joints (including settlement joints and expansion joints) of
main pump house along the flow direction shall be arranged according to the structure form
and subsoil conditions of pump house. The joint distance on the soil matrix should not be
greater than 30m; joint distance on the batholith should not be greater than 20m.Joint width
should not be less than 20mm.
6.1.19 The frame bent (bend) of main pump house shall be arranged according to the
requirements of unit equipment installation and repair and the structural layout of pump house.
The frame bent should be arranged in equal span; columns should be arranged on separation
wall or pier wall. Where permanent deformation joints along flow direction are arranged for
the pump house, bent frame columns shall be arranged at both sides of the joints.
6.1.20 Terrazzo should be laid on the ground of motor layer in the main pump house. Doors
and windows of pump house shall be arranged reasonably according to the requirements of
ventilation, heating and lighting. Double windows shall be adopted in the severe cold zone.
Windows on the sunny side should be provided with sunshade devices. Ground glass may be
adopted for the windows under perpendicular incidence of sunshine.
6.1.21 Thermal insulating layer may be arranged for the pump house roof according to the
local climatic conditions as well as ventilation and heating requirements for the pump house.
6.1.22 The fire hazard type and fire resistance grade of each pumping station building and
structure manufacture shall not be less than those specified in Table 6.1.22.
Fire-fighting devices shall be installed in the pump house in accordance with the relevant
requirements of the national current standard "Code for Design of Building Fire Protection"
GB 50016 and "Code for design of fire protection of hydraulic engineering" SDJ 278.
Table 6.1.22 The fire hazard type and fire resistance grade of each pumping station building and
structure manufacture
Name of buildings and structures Fire hazard type Fire resistance
grade

Major 1 Main pump house, auxiliary machine room and installation room D II
buildings 2 Oil-immersed type transformer room C I
and 3 Dry-type transformer room D II
structures 4 Power Oil loading of single equipment is greater than or C II
distribution unit equal to 100 kg
room Oil loading of single equipment is less than 100 kg D II

5 Bus room, bus gallery and shaft D II

6 Central control room (including lighting interlayer), relay protection C II


screen room, automatic and telecontrol equipment room, communication
room

7 Outdoor transformer yard C II

8 Outdoor switch station and power distribution unit structure D II

9 Assembly electrical switch station D II

10 High tension oil filled cable tunnel and shaft C II

11 High tension dry-type power cable tunnel and shaft D II

16
12 Power cable room, control cable room, cable tunnel and shaft D II

13 Battery room Acid-proof explosion-isolation lead-acid battery C II


room

Alkali battery room D II

14 Acid storeroom, suite and ventilator room C II

15 Charge-discharge board room D II

16 Ventilator room and air conditioning equipment room E II

17 Water supply and drainage pump house E III

18 Fire pump room E II

Auxiliary 1 Oil processing room C II


manufacture 2 Relay protection and automatic device laboratory C II
buildings 3 High-tension laboratory and instrument laboratory D II
and 4 Mechanical laboratory D III
structures 5 Electrician laboratory D III

6 Mechanical repair plant D III

7 Hydraulic observing instrument room D II

Auxiliary 1 General equipment warehouse III


buildings 2 Guard room III
and 3 Garage (including fire warehouse) III
structures

6.1.23 The allowable noise standard at the duty site of main pump house motor layer shall
not be greater than 85dB(A); the one of central control room and communication room in the
unit segment shall not be greater than 70dB(A); and the one of central control room and
communication room out of the unit segment shall not be greater than 60dB(A). If exceeding
the above allowable noise standards, necessary sound reduction, sound elimination or sound
insulation measures shall be adopted.

6.2 Arrangement for Seepage Control and Drainage

6.2.1 As for the arrangement for seepage control and drainage, the complete seepage control
and drainage system shall be arranged according to the geological conditions of station site
and head of pumping station, in combination with the arrangement of pump house, connection
structures at both banks, and inlet and outlet structures.
6.2.2 Where the seepage control length of pump house base on the soil matrix is insufficient,
the reinforced concrete blanket, vertical impervious barrier or both may be set on the base
plate, in combination with the arrangement of outlet sump. Blanket shall be set with
permanent deformation joints in staggered arrangement with permanent deformation joints of
pump house base plate, and shall meet the following requirements:
1 Where subsoil of pump house is medium loam, light loam or heavy sandy loam, the
reinforced concrete blanket should be adopted at the high water stage side of pump house;
2 Where subsoil of pump house is silty soil, silty fine sand, light sandy loam or light
silty sandy loam, the combination layout pattern of blanket and vertical impervious barrier
should be adopted at the high water stage side of pump house. Vertical impervious barrier

17
should be arranged at the high water stage side of pump house base plate. Vertical impervious
barrier arranged under the pump house base plate should form the all-round sealing form on
the silty fine sand subsoil in the seismic zone. Silty soil, silty fine sand, light sandy loam or
light silty sandy loam subsoil shall ensure that seepage average gradient and exit gradient are
less than the allowable values, besides drainage inverted filter must be arranged at the seepage
outlet (including the outlet of lateral seepage at both banks);
3 Where end support stakes are adopted under the base plate of seepage control
segment, the measures preventing base plate basal contact from flushing and seepage shall be
adopted;
4 Adequate drainage holes may be arranged on the base plate of forebay and suction
sump according to the drainage requirements. Drainage inverted filter with good gradation
shall be arranged at the seepage outlet.
6.2.3 Blanket length may be determined according to the seepage control requirements of
pump house foundation, should be 3~5 times the maximum water head difference at the
upstream and the downstream, and shall meet the following requirements:
1 Minimum thickness of concrete or reinforced concrete blanket should not be less
than 0.4m; distance of permanent deformation joints may be 8~20m; joint distance of blanket
close to wing walls should adopt the small values; joint width may be 20~30mm;
2 Thickness of seepage control geomembrane used for blanket shall be determined
according to possible crack width, membrane strain and strength of acting head and soil
capacity under membrane, but should not be less than 0.5 mm. Protective layer shall be
arranged on the geomembrane;
3 In the cold and severe cold zone, distance of permanent deformation joints on the
concrete or reinforced concrete blankets shall be reduced properly.
6.2.4 Where the pump house subsoil is thinner sandy soil layer or sand gravel layer and the
underlying bed is thick relatively-impervious layer, the cutoff trench or impervious wall may
be arranged at the high water stage side of pump house base plate. The depth of cutoff trench
or impervious wall embedded into relatively-impervious layer shall not be less than 1.0m;
where the underlying bed is rock, the depth of cutoff trench or impervious wall embedded into
rock shall not be less than 0.5m. Drainage inverted filter shall be arranged at the seepage
outlet. Where the sand gravel layer of pump house subsoil is thicker, the combination layout
pattern of blanket and suspension-type impervious wall may be adopted at the high water
stage side of pump house, and drainage inverted filter shall be arranged at the seepage outlet.
Where the pump house subsoil is sand gravel layer or coarse gravel & pebble layer with larger
particle diameter, the deep cutoff wall or impervious wall should be arranged at the high
water stage side of pump house base plate, and drainage inverted filter shall be arranged at the
seepage outlet.
6.2.5 Where the underlying bed of pump house subsoil is thick relatively-pervious layer, not
only the requirements of Article 6.2.2 in this code shall be met, but also impermeability and
anti-floating stability of covering layer shall be check calculated. If necessary, drainage well
or drainage ditch embedded into relatively-pervious layer may be arranged at the side of
seepage outlet, and measures preventing siltation shall be adopted.
6.2.6 Where subsoil supporting layer is paper clay and sandy soil interbedding, not only the
requirements of Article 6.2.2 in this code shall be met, but also a streak of vertical impervious

18
barrier should be arranged at the front end of blanket, drainage ditch or drainage shallow well
should be installed at the low water stage side of pump house, and measures preventing
siltation shall be adopted.
6.2.7 As for the pump house on the batholith, cement grout curtain may be arranged under
the cutoff wall at the high water stage side of base plate according to the seepage control
requirements, and then drainage facilities.
6.2.8 As for the pump house in the high-head pumping station, unobstructed natural flow
drainage ditch and slope protection may be arranged on the bank slope according to the
requirements.
6.2.9 Not less than one streak of durable and reliable water stop shall be buried on the
underwater joint segments of all permanent deformation joints along flow direction.
Intersection of vertical water stops and horizontal water stops shall form sealing system.
6.2.10 Arrangement for lateral seepage control and drainage shall be determined through
comprehensive analysis according to pumping station head, soil quality after bank and wing
walls, and underground water stage changes; it shall be appropriate to the arrangement for
positive seepage control and drainage of pumping station.
6.2.11 As for the irrigation and drainage pumping station with bi-directional head, its
arrangement for seepage control and drainage shall be subject to the direction with higher
head, and bi-directional arrangement pattern shall be selected reasonably.

6.3 Stability Analysis

6.3.1 A typical unit segment or a unite segment may be adopted as the calculating unit for
the stability analysis of pump house.
6.3.2 Loads used for the stability analysis of pump house shall include deadweight, water
weight, hydrostatic pressure, uplift pressure, soil pressure, silt pressure, wave pressure, wind
pressure, ice pressure, soil frost heaving force, earthquake load and other loads; their
calculation shall meet the following requirements:
1 Deadweight includes structural deadweight of pump house, filler weight and weight
of permanent equipments;
2 Water weight shall be calculated according to the actual volume and water weight
density. Hydrostatic pressure shall be calculated according to various operating water stages.
As for the overloaded stream, the influence of sediment concentration to water weight density
shall be counted in;
3 Uplift pressure shall include uplift pressure and osmotic pressure. Osmotic pressure
shall be determined through calculation according to subsoil type; water stage composition
conditions under various operating conditions, seepage control at the bottom of pump house
foundation, and arrangement condition of drainage facilities. As for the soil matrix, an
improved resistance coefficient method should be adopted for calculation; as for the batholith,
straight line distribution method should be adopted for calculation;
4 Soil pressure shall be calculated as active earth pressure or earth pressure at rest
according to the subsoil conditions, backfill performance, retaining height, underground water
stage in the filling, and possible deformation condition of pump house structure. Slope angle
on the top surface of filling and overload action shall be counted in calculation;
19
5 Silt pressure shall be determined according to the pump house position and possible
siltation conditions;
6 Wave pressure shall be determined through calculation according to the wind
direction and speed in front of pump house, fetch length, average water depth in the fetch, and
distinguish of actual wave state in front of pump house. Wave elements may be determined
through calculation according to the formulae of Putian experimental station. Where wave
pressure involves in the basic combination of loads, calculation wind speed may adopt the
annual maximum wind speed whose return period is 50a provided by the local weather station;
where wave pressure involves in the special combination of loads, calculation wind speed
may adopt the average annual maximum wind speed of many years provided by the local
weather station;
7 Wind pressure shall be determined through calculation according to the wind
direction, wind speed and wind area of pump house provided by the local weather station. The
influence of topography and physiognomy around the pump house and adjacent buildings
shall be considered for calculating the wind pressure;
8 Ice pressure, soil frost heaving force and earthquake load may be determined
through calculation according to the relevant requirements of the current professional
standard "Specifications for Load Design of Hydraulic Structures" DL 5077;
9 Other loads may be determined according to the actual engineering conditions.
6.3.3 During the design of pump house, various loads that may function at the same time
shall be combined. Earthquake load shall not be combined with check application water stage.
Load combination used for the pump house stability analysis shall be adopted according to
the requirements of Table 6.3.3; if necessary, other possible adverse combination shall be
considered.

20
Table 6.3.3 Load combination
Load Calculation Loads
combination working deadweight water hydrostatic uplift soil silt pressure wave wind ice pressure soil frost earthquake other loads
condition weight pressure pressure pressure pressure pressure heaving load
force

Basic Build
combination Design
application

Frost

Special Construction
combination Repair

Check
application

Earthquake

21
6.3.4 Stability factor of skid resistance for the pump house along foundation base shall be
calculated according to following formula and shall meet the following requirements:

f G
Soil matrix or batholith: Kc = (6.3.4-1)
H

tan 0 G + C0 A
Soil matrix: Kc = (6.3.4-2)
H

f ' G + C' A
Batholith: Kc = (6.3.4-3)
H
Where, KcStability factor of skid resistance;
GAll vertical loads acting above the foundation base of pump house (including
the uplift pressure on the foundation base of pump house, kN);
HAll horizontal loads acting above the foundation base of pump house (kN);
AFoundation base area of pump house (m2);
fFriction coefficient between foundation base and subsoil of pump house, may be
determined according to the test information; without test information, may adopt according
to the requirements of Articles A.0.1 and A.0.3 in Appendix A of this code;
0Friction angle between foundation base and subsoil of pump house on the soil
matrix ();
C0Bonding power between foundation base and subsoil of pump house on the soil
matrix (kPa);
fFriction coefficient between foundation base and subsoil of pump house on the
batholith;
C Shearing bonding power between foundation base and subsoil of pump house on
the batholith (kPa).
1 As for the soil matrix, 0 and C0 may be adopted according to the indoor shear test
information and the requirements of Article A.0.2 in this code. Where 0 and C0 are adopted
according to the requirements of Article A.0.2, the comprehensive friction coefficient between
foundation base of pump house and soil subsoil shall be converted according to the following
formula. As for the clay soil subsoil, if the converted comprehensive friction coefficient is
greater than 0.45, or as for the sandy soil subsoil, if the converted comprehensive friction
coefficient is greater than 0.5, 0 and C0 adopted shall be demonstrated;

tan 0 G + C 0 A
f0 = (6.3.4-4)
G
Where, f0Comprehensive friction coefficient between foundation base of pump house
and soil subsoil
2 As for the batholith, shearing friction coefficient f and shearing bonding power C
between foundation base of pump house and rock subsoil may be adopted according to the
test results, in reference to similar engineering practice experiences and the values listed in
Table A.0.3.But adopted f' and C' shall not be greater than the shearing parameter values of
the pump house foundation concrete itself. As for the important large-scale pumping station,

22
field test shall be carried out;
3 Where the pump house bears the action of bi-directional horizontal force loads, its
stability of skid resistance along resultant direction shall be check calculated, and its stability
factor of skid resistance shall not be less than the allowable values specified in Article 6.3.5 of
this code;
4 Where the subsoil supporting layer of pump house is thicker weak soil layer and has
larger vertical imposed load, the stability of skid resistance of soil capacity where pump house
and partial subsoil along deep sliding surface shall be checked by calculation;
5 As for the batholith, where exists low dip angle weak interlayer or fracture surface
not in favor of the skid resistance stability of pump house, skid resistance stability of pump
house sliding along the possible-combination slide surface shall be check calculated.
6.3.5 The allowable values of skid resistance stability factor for the pump house along
foundation base shall be adopted according to Table 6.3.5.
Table 6.3.5 Allowable value of stability factor of skid resistance
Subsoil type Load combination Grade of pumping station buildings Applicable

1 2 3 4, 5 formulae

Soil matrix Basic combination 1.35 1.30 1.25 1.20 Applicable formula

Special I 1.20 1.15 1.10 1.05 (6.3.4-1) or

combination II 1.10 1.05 1.05 1.00 formula (6.3.4-2)

Batholith Basic combination 1.10 1.08 1.05 Applicable

Special I 1.05 1.03 1.00 formula (6.3.4-1)

combination II 1.00

Basic combination 3.00 Applicable

Special I 2.50 formula (6.3.4-3)

combination II 2.30

Note: Special combination I is applicable to construction condition, repair condition and special application condition;
and special combination II is applicable to earthquake condition.

6.3.6 Stability factor of anti-floating for pump house shall be calculated according to
following formula:

V
Kf = (6.3.6)
U
Where, KfStability factor of anti-floating;
VAll gravity acting above the foundation base of pump house (kN);
UUplift pressure acting above the foundation base of pump house (kN).
6.3.7 The allowable value of stability factor of anti-floating for pump house shall not be
less than 1.10 under the basic load combination; and 1.05 under the special load
combination, regardless of pumping station grade and subsoil type.
6.3.8 Foundation base stress of the pump house shall be determined through calculation
according to such factors as structural layout and stressing conditions of pump house.
1 Where structural layout and stressing conditions are symmetrical, it shall be
calculated according to following formula:

23
G M
Pmax = (6.3.8-1)
min A W

Where, Pmax Maximum value or minimum value of foundation base stress of the pump
min

house (kPa);
MMoment of all vertical and horizontal loads acting above the foundation base of
pump house to the centroidal axis on the foundation base perpendicular to the flow direction
(kNm);
WSectional moment of pump house foundation base to the centroidal axis on the
base perpendicular to the flow direction (m3).
2 Where structural layout and stressing conditions are unsymmetrical, it shall be
calculated according to following formula:

G M x M y
Pmax = (6.3.8-2)
min A Wx Wy
Where, Mx, MyMoment of all vertical and horizontal loads acting above the
foundation base of pump house to the centroidal axis z and y on the foundation base (kNm);
Wx, WySectional moment of pump house foundation base to the centroidal axis z
and y on the base (m3).
6.3.9 Foundation base stress of the pump house under various load combinations shall meet
the following requirements:
1 Average base stress of soil matrix pump house foundation base shall not be greater
than the allowable bearing capacity of subsoil; maximum base stress shall not be greater than
1.2 times of allowable subsoil bearing capacity; calculated value of nonuniformity coefficient
of pump house foundation base stress shall not be greater than the allowable values specified
in Table 6.3.9; allowable bearing capacity of pump house subsoil supporting layer may be
improved properly under the seismic conditions;
2 As for the batholith, the maximum base stress of pump house foundation base shall
not be greater than the allowable subsoil bearing capacity; nonuniformity coefficient of pump
house foundation base stress may not be controlled, but the minimum stress at the edge of
foundation base shall not be less than zero under the non-seismic conditions; the minimum
stress at the edge of foundation base shall not be less than -100kPa under the seismic
conditions.
Table 6.3.9 Allowable value of nonuniformity coefficient
Subsoil quality Load combination

Basic combination Special combination

Soft 1.5 2.0

Medium solid 2.0 2.5

Solid 2.5 3.0

Note: 1 As for the important large-scale pumping station, the allowable value of nonuniformity coefficient may be
reduced properly according to the values listed in the table;
2 As for the earthquake conditions, the allowable value of nonuniformity coefficient may be increased properly according
to the values listed in the special combination column of the table.

24
6.4 Calculation and Treatment of Foundation

6.4.1 Pump house subsoil shall meet the requirements of bearing capacity, stability and
deformation. The load combination of subsoil calculation may be adopted according to the
requirements of Article 6.3.3 in this code. Subsoil calculation shall include the following
items:
1 Subsoil seepage stability check calculation;
2 Subsoil monolithic stability calculation;
3 Subsoil settlement calculation.
6.4.2 Pump house subsoil shall preferentially adopt the natural subsoil. The clay soil subsoil
whose standard penetration blow count is less than 4 and sandy soil subsoil whose standard
penetration blow count is less than or equal to 8 shall not be used as the natural subsoil.
Artificial subsoil may be adopted, where the physical and mechanical performance indexes of
the pump house subsoil rock-soil are poor and the engineering structures are difficult to
coordinate.
6.4.3 Pump house should not be built on the half-rock half-soil or half-hard half-soft subsoil,
otherwise, reliable engineering measures shall be adopted.
6.4.4 Foundation embedded depth of pump house and water intake buildings on the soil
matrix should be 0.5m below the maximum scour depth, which may be improved properly
after adopting protective measures.
6.4.5 As for the pump house and water intake buildings on the soil matrix in the seasonal
frost zone, the embedded depth of foundation shall be greater than the maximum frost soil
depth in this zone.
6.4.6 Shear test methods of subsoil may be adopted according to the requirements of Table
6.4.6.Errors that may be caused during the process of sampling and test operation should be
reduced for indoor test; test index values should be the average one of small values.
Table 6.4.6 Shear test method of subsoil
Type of subsoil Shear test method

Saturated quick shear test Saturated consolidated quick shear test

Clay and loam with standard penetration Check calculating the subsoil strength Check calculating the subsoil strength
blow count 4 with construction period not greater than with application period and construction
1 year during the final constructing period greater than 1 year during the
period final constructing period

Soft soil and soft soil & thin sand with Check calculating the subsoil strength Check calculating the subsoil strength
standard penetration blow count <4 under the state of incomplete under the state of complete
consolidation consolidation

Sandy soil and sandy loam with standard Check calculating the subsoil strength Check calculating the subsoil strength
penetration blow count >8 (direct quick shear test) with with application period and construction
construction period not greater than 1 period greater than 1 year or thinner soil
year or thicker soil layer during the final layer during the final constructing period
constructing period

Loose sand, sandy loam and silty fine Check calculating the subsoil strength
sand & thin soft soil with standard (undrained triaxial shear test) with

25
penetration blow count 8 construction period not greater than 1
year or thicker soil layer during the final
constructing period

Note: 1 The clay soil subsoil in the important large-scale pumping station shall be verified by the triaxial shear test
method with corresponding drainage conditions;
2 Field vane shear test method may be adopted for the soft clay subsoil;
3 Saturated quick shear test method may be adopted for the backfill.

6.4.7 Allowable bearing capacity of the pump house subsoil shall be determined through
calculating according to the formulae listed in Section B.1 of Appendix B in this code, based
on the in-situ test or indoor test data of subsoil in the station site.
6.4.8 Where there is weak soil layer in the supporting layer of pump house subsoil, not only
the allowable bearing capacity of supporting layer shall be met, but also the allowable bearing
capacity of weak soil layer shall be check calculated and calculated according to the following
formula. Allowable bearing capacity calculation of large-scale pump house subsoil on
complex subsoil shall be determined through special demonstration.
pc+pz=[Rz] (6.4.8)
Where, pcWeight stress on the top surface of weak soil layer (kPa);
pzAdditional stress on the top surface of weak soil layer (kPa); foundation base
stress of pump house may be simplified to the vertical uniform distribution, vertical triangular
distribution and horizontal uniform distribution conditions, and determined through
calculation according to the strip or rectangular foundation;
[Rz]Allowable bearing capacity of weak soil layer (kPa).
6.4.9 Where the pump house foundation is influenced by the vibration loads, the allowable
bearing capacity of subsoil shall be corrected according to the following formula:
[R'][R] (6.4.9)
Where, [R']Allowable bearing capacity of subsoil under the action of vibration loads
(kPa);
[R]Allowable bearing capacity of subsoil under the action of static loads (kPa);
Vibration reduction coefficient, may be adopted according to 0.8~1.0.Foundation
of high-head unit may adopt the small value; block base type monolithic foundation of
low-head unit may adopt the large value.
6.4.10 The final settlement of pump house subsoil may be calculated according to the
following formula. The calculation depth of subsoil compressive layer may be determined
according to the condition that the ratio of additional stress to weight stress on the calculation
layer is equal to 0.1~0.2 (for hard subsoil, take the large value; for soft soil subsoil, take the
small value). Where there is still soil layer with large compressibility, the calculation depth of
subsoil compressive layer shall be calculated to the bottom surface of the soil layer.
n
e1i e 2i
S = m hi (6.4.10)
i 1 1 + e1i
Where, SFinal settlement of subsoil (mm);
mCorrection coefficient of subsoil settlement, may adopt 1.0~1.6 (hard subsoil
takes the small value, soft soil subsoil takes the large value);
iSoil layer number;

26
nSoil layer quantity within the range of subsoil compressive layer;
e1iVoid ratio of the ith layer of soil under the pump house foundation base under the
action of weight stress;
e2iVoid ratio of the ith layer of soil under the pump house foundation base under the
combined action of average weight stress and average additional stress;
hiThe thickness of ith layer soil(mm).
6.4.11 Allowable settlement and differential settlement of pump house subsoil, shall be
determined through analysis according to the specific engineering conditions, meeting the
structural safety of pump house and not influencing the normal operation of unit in the pump
house.
6.4.12 If one of the following conditions appear, subsoil settlement calculation may not be
carried out:
1 Rock subsoil;
2 Gravel and pebble subsoil;
3 Medium sand and coarse sand subsoil;
4 Silt, fine sand, sandy loam, loam and clay subsoil of large-scale pumping station
with standard penetration blow count greater than 15;
5 Loam and clay subsoil of medium-scale pumping station with standard penetration
blow count greater than 10.
6.4.13 Subsoil treatment scheme of pump house shall be selected through technical and
economical comparison according to Table B.2.1 of Appendix B in this code, taking
comprehensive consideration of subsoil quality, structural characteristics of pump house,
construction conditions, environment protection and operating requirements. Common subsoil
treatment design such as replacement cushion method, vibrofloatation method, strong tamping
method, soil cement stirring method, pile foundation and open caisson foundation shall meet
the relevant requirements of the current professional standards "Design Specification for
Sluice" SL 265, "Technical code for Ground Treatment of Buildings" JGJ 79, "Technical Code
for Building Pile Foundations" JGJ 94, and "Technical Code for Improvement of Soil and
Foundation of Existing Buildings" JGJ 123.
6.4.14 Soil layer that may suffer from "liquefaction" in the subsoil of pump house should be
excavated. If such soil layer is hard to be excavated out, the treatment measures such as
vibrofloatation method or strong tamping method should be adopted, or sheet pile or
continuous wall enclosure measures may be adopted in combination with the requirements of
subsoil seepage control.
6.4.15 If the pump house subsoil is collapsible loess, treatment methods such as strong
tamping, replacement cushion, lime-soil pile compaction, pile foundation or presoaking may
be adopted, and shall meet the relevant requirements of the current professional standards
"Design specification for sluice" SL 265, "Technical code for Ground Treatment of Buildings"
JGJ 79, "Technical code for Building Pile Foundations" JGJ 94, and "Technical Code for
Improvement of Soil and Foundation of Existing Buildings" JGJ 123.Necessary impervious
facilities shall be provided under the foundation base of pump house.
6.4.16 If the pump house subsoil is expansive soil subsoil, under the premise of meeting the
pump house layout and stable safety requirements, pump house foundation floor space shall
be reduced, embedded depth of foundation shall be enlarged, the expansive soil may also be

27
excavated out to be placed by non-expansive soil cushion layer, or pile foundation may be
adopted.
6.4.17 If the pump house subsoil is rock, loose and broken rock capacity on the surface
layer shall be cleaned up, and mud-intercalated cracks and fault fracture zone shall be treated.
Karst subsoil shall be treated specially.

6.5 Calculation of Main Structures

6.5.1 Main structures such as pump house base plate, inlet and outlet passages, machine pier,
bent and crane beam may be simplified to two-dimensional structure for calculation according
to the actual engineering conditions. If necessary, they may be calculated as three-dimensional
structures.
6.5.2 Loads and load combination used for the calculation of main structures of pump house
shall be adopted according to the requirements of Articles 6.3.2 and 6.3.3 in this code, as well
as dynamic loads of electromechanical equipments, snow loads, variable loads of floor, crane
loads, variable loads of roof, temperature loads, and variable loads of other equipments shall
be counted in respectively according to the actual stressing conditions of structures.
6.5.3 Pump house base plate stress may be calculated as the plate, beam or frame structure
on elastic subsoil according to the stressing conditions and structure supporting form, and
shall meet the following requirements:
1 As for the pump house base plate on the soil matrix, counter force straight line
distribution method or beam on elastic subsoil method may be adopted. As for the sand soil
subsoil with relative density less than or equal to 0.50, counter force straight line distribution
method may be adopted; as for the clay soil subsoil or sand soil subsoil with relative density
greater than 0.50, beam on elastic subsoil method may be adopted. Where beam on elastic
subsoil method is adopted for calculation, corresponding calculation method shall be adopted
according to the ratio of compressible soil layer thickness to half-length of beam on elastic
subsoil. Where the ratio is less than 0.25, it may be calculated according to the bedding value
method (Winkler's assumption); where the ratio is greater than 2.0, it may be calculated
according to the semi-infinite deep beam on elastic subsoil method; where the ratio is
0.25~2.0, it may be calculated according to the infinite deep beam on elastic subsoil method.
Where the length and width of base plate are large and close, it may be calculated according
to the grillage beam on elastic subsoil;
2 Pump house base plate on the batholith may be calculated according to the bedding
value method.
6.5.4 Where the pump house base plate on the soil matrix is calculated by the finite deep or
semi-infinite deep beam on elastic subsoil method, the action of side loads may be considered
according to the following conditions:
1 Where the side loads increase the bending moment of pump house base plate, all
actions of side loads should be counted in;
2 Where side loads reduce the bending moment of pump house base plate, actions of
side load may not be counted in on the clay soil subsoil; 50% of side loads may be counted in
on the sandy soil subsoil.
6.5.5 Stress of elbow and campaniform water inlet passage as well as that of straight pipe,
28
kneel, cat-back and siphoning type water outlet passage may be calculated as single-hole or
multi-hole frame structures according to their respective structural layout, section form and
imposed loads, and shall meet the following requirements:
1 If the passage wall and pump house pier wall are connected to an integral structure
and the sectional dimension is larger, the influence of thickness shall be considered in
calculation;
2 Where elbow water inlet passage and straight pipe water outlet passage are separated
into two-hole rectangular section by diversion diaphragm wall, stress calculation may be
carried out according to the symmetric frame structure;
3 Where the ascending segment of siphoning type water outlet passage bears larger
longitudinal force, not only the lateral stress, but also the longitudinal stress shall be
calculated.
6.5.6 Bi-directional inlet and outlet passage stress may be calculated respectively according
to the elbow water inlet passage and straight pipe water outlet passage.
6.5.7 Concrete spiral casing water outlet passage stress may be simplified to plane "T" type
of rigid frame, annular slab or two-way slab for calculation.
6.5.8 Machine pier structure forms may be adopted according to the unit characteristics and
the structural layout of pump house. Machine pier strength may be calculated respectively
according to normal application and short circuit load combinations. As for the high-head
pumping station, where the computer pier is stable, thrust of water column in the outlet pipe
shall be counted in and necessary thrust-resistant facilities shall be arranged.
6.5.9 As for the vertical unit machine pier, resonance, amplitude and dynamic coefficient
may be check calculated according to the cantilever beam structure of single freedom degree
system. As for the horizontal unit machine pier, only vertical amplitude may be check
calculated. As for the vertical axial pump unit with single-machine power less than 1600kW
and horizontal centrifugal pump unit with single-machine power less than 500kW, the
dynamic calculation may not be carried out for the machine pier. As for the resonance check
calculation, the ratio of difference between forced vibration frequency and natural vibration
frequency of machine pier to natural vibration frequency shall not be less than 20%; as for the
amplitude check calculation, the influence of damp shall be analyzed, the maximum vertical
amplitude shall not be greater than 0.15 mm, and the maximum horizontal amplitude shall not
be greater than 0.20mm; as for the dynamic coefficient check calculation, the influence of
damp may be neglected, and the check calculation result of dynamic coefficient shall be
1.3~1.5.
6.5.10 Pump house bent stress may be calculated according to the stressing conditions and
structure supporting form. As for the dry-chamber-type pump house, where the ratio of
underwater sidewall rigidity to bent frame column rigidity is less than or equal to 5.0, wall
and column may be jointly calculated; where the ratio is greater than 5.0, wall and column
may be separately calculated. Pump house bent shall have sufficient rigidity. Under various
conditions, the lateral displacement on the top of bent shall not be greater than 10mm.
6.5.11 Structure form of crane beam may be adopted according to the structural layout of
pump house, unit installation and equipment lifting requirements. Crane beam with large
loads should adopt prestressed reinforced concrete structure or steel structure and shall meet
the following requirements:

29
1 During the design of crane beam, the influence generated by the crane start,
operation and brake shall be considered, as well as the maximum calculation deflection of
crane beam shall be controlled not greater than 1/600 of effective span (reinforced concrete
structure) or 1/700 (steel structure);
2 As for the reinforced concrete crane beam, the crack development width shall be
check calculated, and the maximum crack width is required not greater than 0.30 mm;
3 The crane beam and column connection shall be designed in accordance with the
requirements of support partial bearing, torsion resistance and overturning resistance;
4 Standard design atlas may be used for the crane beam with not large load weight.

30
7 Inlet And Outlet Structures

7.1 Approach Channel

7.1.1 Pumping station approach channel route shall be selected through technical and
economical comparison according to the selected water intake and pump house position with
topography and geological conditions, and shall meet the following requirements:
1 Approach channel route should keep clear of the segments with complex geologic
structure, strong permeability and potential collapse, as well as frost heave, collapsibility,
expansibility, dispersity, loose slope wash and soluble salt soil. If they cannot be kept clear of,
corresponding engineering measures shall be adopted. Channel body should be located on the
cut subsoil and occupy less arable land;
2 Approach channel route should be smooth and straight. Where curve is required to
be set, curve radius of earth channel should not be less than 5 times of the water surface width
of channel, and the curve radius of stone channel and lined channel should not be less than 3
times of water surface width of channel; there should be a straight segment between the curve
end point and forebay inlet, and the length should not be less than 8 times of water surface
width of channel; where straight segment length is less than 8 times, the engineering measures
should be adopted;
3 Approach channel route shall avoid passing through centralized population center,
high-tension line tower, key protected cultural relics, military communication line, oil & gas
underground pipe network as well as important railways and roads;
4 Approach channel route in the mountainous area should be arranged along the
contour line, in combined arrangement of open channel and free flow tunnel or covered
channel, aqueduct and inverted siphon to avoid deep excavation and high fill.
7.1.2 Longitudinal slope and cross section of approach channel shall be determined
according to topography, geology, hydraulic power, sediment transport capacity and work
quantity, and shall meet the requirements of diversion discharge, water flow safety,
non-scouring and non-silting of channel bed, and small work quantity.
7.1.3 Superelevation of approach channel end segment shall be determined through
calculation according to pent up positive wave of water stage under the combined influence of
back flow water quantity of pressure pipe and water inflow of approach channel during hard
shutdown.
7.1.4 As for the earth approach channel with severe leakage, seepage control measures shall
be adopted; as for the combined approach channel of rock or soil rock with poor slope
stability, protective measures shall be adopted; as for the lined earth approach channel in the
seasonal frost zone, frost heave resistant measures shall be adopted.

7.2 Forebay and Suction Sump

7.2.1 Pumping station forebay arrangement shall meet the requirements of smooth flow,
31
uniform flow rate and not vortex flow in the forebay, as well as should adopt positive
direction water inlet mode. As for the forebay with positive direction water inlet, the spread
angle shall be less than 40 and the base slope should not be steeper than 1:4.
7.2.2 The forebay with lateral water inlet should be equipped with water diversion facilities
and may be verified through hydraulic model test.
7.2.3 The pumping station forebay on the overloaded stream shall be divided into several
water inlet channels by separation piers, and each water inlet channel shall be lead to a
separate suction sump. Inlet gate, sediment trapping or hydraulic power desilting facilities
shall be set at the head of water inlet channel. As for the pumping station equipped with
desilting basin, the allowable particle diameter of silt discharged from the basin should not be
greater than 0.05 mm.
7.2.4 The top height of multi-level pumping station forebay may be determined by the
reserved adjustment height above the highest operating water stage according to the
requirements of flow matching of superior and inferior pumping stations. Emergency
shutdown discharging facilities should be set at the end segment of forebay or approach
channel.
7.2.5 Arrangement pattern of pumping station suction sump shall be determined through
technical and economical comparison according to such factors as subsoil, flow state,
sediment concentration, pump type and unit sets. Open type, half separation pier type, full
separation pier type rectangular sump or circular sump may be selected. Circular sump should
be selected on the overloaded stream; one sump supplies one or two pumps.
7.2.6 Design of suction sump shall make good flow state in the sump, meet the requirements
of pump water inlet, and be convenient for dredging, management and maintenance.
7.2.7 Underwater volume of suction sump may be determined according to 30~50 times
design flow of the pumps sharing this suction sump.
7.2.8 The stability and stress analysis of such buildings as quaywall, wing wall and trash
rack bridge may be carried out according to the relevant requirements of the current
professional standards "Design Specification for Sluice" SL 265 and " Design Specification
for Hydraulic Retaining Wall" SL 379.

7.3 Outlet Conduit

7.3.1 Arrangement of outlet pipe outside of the pump house shall be determined according
to the general arrangement requirements of pumping station, with topography and geological
conditions. Pipe lines shall be short and straight; hydraulic loss shall be small; pipe
construction and operation management shall be convenient. Pipe types, pipe materials and
pipe numbers shall be determined through technical and economical comparison. Outlet pipe
shall keep clear of poor geological segments; otherwise, safe and reliable engineering
measures shall be adopted. As for the pipes laid on the fill, the fill shall be compacted and
drainage facilities shall be well treated. Pipes crossing mountain torrent channels shall meet
the flood control requirements.
7.3.2 Turn angle of outlet pipe should be less than 60 and turn radius should be greater than
2 times of pipe diameter. Where pipes are required to turn in the plane and vertical plane and
the turns are close to each other, the turn angles should be combined to one in one space. Pipe
32
top line should be arranged under the grade line of the minimum pressure which shall not be
less than 0.02 MPa. Where the outlet pipe route is longer, vent valve (gulp valve) shall be set
at the upheave of pipelines, and the quantity and diameter shall be determined through
calculation. Where perpendicular arrangement of pipelines is gentle, a ventilation facility
should be set about every 1000m.
7.3.3 The upper margin of the outlet of outlet pipe shall be submerged in below 0.1m~0.2m
of the minimum operating water stage of outlet sump. Cutoff facilities shall be arranged at the
outlet of outlet pipe.
7.3.4 Exposed pipe design shall meet the following requirements:
1 Where exposed pipe turning, branching point, different pipe material joint and
exposed pipe straight segment are longer, anchor block shall be arranged;
1) As for the anchor block arranged on the exposed pipe straight segment, the spacing
should be less than or equal to 100m;
2) Buttress or pipe seat supporting may be used in the pipes between two anchor
blocks. Subsoil of anchor block, buttress or pipe seat shall be solid and stable;
3) Expansion joints shall be arranged in the pipe between two anchor blocks on the
upper end.
2 The form and spacing of pipe buttress shall be determined through technical analysis
and economic comparison. Except those nearby the expansion joints, other buttresses should
be arranged in uniform spacing. Prestressed concrete pipe shall adopt continuous pipe seats or
2 buttresses on each section;
3 Clear distance between pipes shall not be less than 0.8m; steel pipe bottom shall be
0.6m higher than the pipe chase ground; prestressed concrete pipe faucet bottom shall be 0.3m
higher than the pipe chase ground. Pipe faucet of other materials shall be reserved installation
and repair height;
4 Pipe chase should be arranged with drainage ditch and slope surface should be
embanked. Where the longitudinal slope of pipe chase is steeper, pedestrian staircase service
road (the width should not be less than 1.0m) shall be arranged along the pipeline;
5 Where the pipe diameter is greater than or equal to 1.0m and the pipe is longer, he
inspection holes shall be arranged. The quantity of inspection holes arranged for each pipe
should not be less than 2 and the spacing should be 150m;
6 During the operation in winter in the severe cold zone, frost protection insulation
measures may be adopted for the pipes as required;
7 As for the exposed pipes crossing the embankment, anchor blocks should not be
arranged on the embankment body.
7.3.5 Buried pipe design shall meet the following requirements:
1 Minimum buried depth on the top of buried pipe shall below the cultivate line or
maximum frost soil depth;
2 Buried pipe should adopt continuous shoe, and wrap angle of shoe may adopt 90~
135;
3 Clear distance between pipes shall not be less than 0.8m;
4 Rust prevention treatment shall be carried out for the buried steel pipes; where the
underground water or soil is corrosive to the pipe materials, corrosion-resistant measures shall
be adopted;

33
5 Buried pipes shall be arranged inspection holes which should not be less than 2 on
each pipe;
6 Where buried pipes pass through the natural stream and channel, buried depth should
be 0.5m below the maximum scour depth, which may be improved properly after adopting
protective measures.
7.3.6 Killed steel shall be adopted on the pipe shaft of steel pipes. Electrode performance
shall be appropriate to the parent metal. Defect detecting test and hydraulic test of welded
joints shall be carried out for the welded shaped steel pipes.
7.3.7 Reinforced concrete pipe design shall meet the following requirements:
1 Prestressed reinforced concrete strength grade shall not be less than C40; precast
reinforced concrete strength grade shall not be less than C25; cast-in-situ reinforced concrete
strength grade shall not be less than C20;
2 Spacing of cast-in-situ reinforced concrete pipe expansion joints shall be determined
through calculation according to the longitudinal stress and should not be greater than 20m.
Expansion joints or settlement joints shall be arranged at the junction of soft and hard subsoil.
3 An installation movable joint should be arranged every other 50~100m on the
straight segments of precast reinforced concrete pipe, prestressed concrete pipe and
prestressed concrete cylinder pipe. Steel pipe connection should be adopted and anchor blocks
shall be arranged at the pipe turn and branch.
7.3.8 Action loads on the pipes shall include deadweight, water weight, water pressure, soil
pressure, groundwater pressure, variable load of ground, temperature load, force caused by
nonuniform settlement of anchor block and buttress, construction load and earthquake load.
Load combination for pipe structural analysis may be adopted according to Table 7.3.8.

34
Table 7.3.8 Load combination of pipe structural analysis
Pipe Load Calculation Loads
laying combination condition Pipe Water Normal Highest Lowest Test Soil Groundwater Variable Temperature Nonuniform Construction Earthquake
form deadweight weight water water water water pressure pressure load of load settlement load load
of full pressure pressure pressure pressure ground force of
pipe anchor
block and
buttress

Exposed Basic Design


pipe combination application

Special Check
combination application

I
Check
application
II
Hydraulic
test

Construction

Earthquake

Buried Basic Design


pipe combination application

Pipe
emptying

Special Check
combination application

35
I
Check
application
II

Hydraulic
test

Construction

Earthquake

36
Note: Normal water pressure refers to the internal water pressure acted on the internal wall of pipe under the design
application conditions or seismic conditions; highest and lowest water pressure refers to the maximum and minimum internal
water pressure appearing on the internal wall of pipe during the hydraulic power transient process (check application condition)
such as emergency pump off.

7.3.9 Hydraulic calculation including hydraulic loss and water hammer shall be carried out
for outlet pipe.
7.3.10 The minimum safety coefficient of exposed smooth steel pipe resistant to external
pressure stability may take 2.0, and steel pipe with stiffening ring may be 1.8.
7.3.11 Minimum pipe wall thickness of exposed smooth steel pipe should not be less than
the calculated value obtained by the following formula. Designed and adopted pipe wall
thickness shall be increased 1~2mm according to its calculated value in consideration of the
influence of such factors as corrosion and abrasion. As for the steel pipes suffering silt
abrasion and severe corrosion, the pipe wall thickness shall be demonstrated specially.
D
= (7.3.11)
130
Where, Pipe wall thickness (mm);
DInternal diameter of steel pipe (mm)
7.3.12 Stress analysis for pipe wall, stiffening ring and supporting ring of steel pipes may be
carried out according to the relevant requirements of the current professional standard
"Specifications for design of steel penstocks of hydroelectric stations" SL 281.
7.3.13 Branch pipe arrangement should adopt "Y" form, "" form or three-branch form.
Other forms may also be adopted for the branch pipes with large pipe diameter and high water
head.
7.3.14 Whether to treatment the subsoil of anchor block and buttress or not shall be
determined according to the geological conditions. In the seasonal frost zone, the buried depth
shall be greater than the maximum frost soil depth, and sand gravel materials should be
adopted for the backfill around the anchor block and buttress.
7.3.15 Stability of kid resistance, stability of tipping resistance and subsoil strength check
calculation shall be carried out for the anchor block and shall meet the following
requirements:
1 Stability factor allowable value of skid resistance of anchor block: shall not be less
than 1.30 under the basic load combination; shall not be less than 1.10 under the special load
combination;
2 Stability factor allowable value of tipping resistance: shall not be less than 1.50
under the basic load combination; shall not be less than 1.20 under the special load
combination.

7.4 Outlet Sump and Pressure Tank

7.4.1 Outlet sump position shall be selected according to the station site, pipeline and water
delivery channel. Site with good topographic condition, solid and stable subsoil, small
permeability and little work quantity should be selected. Where the outlet sump must be built
on the fill, the fill shall be rolled and compacted, as well as seepage control measures shall be
adopted.
37
7.4.2 Where it is difficult to connect the adopted outlet sump and water delivery channel
due to the restriction of topographic condition, an outlet tower may be arranged to connect the
water delivery channel with aqueduct.
7.4.3 Outlet sump arrangement shall meet the following requirements:
1 Water flow in the sump shall be smooth and stable, and hydraulic loss shall be small;
2 Where outlet sump is built on the poor subsoil such as expansive soil or collapsible
loess, subsoil treatment shall be carried out;
3 Where the bottom width of outlet sump is greater than that of the channel, the
transition section connection shall be arranged, and the contraction angle of transition section
should be less than 40;
4 Flow rate in the outlet sump shall not be greater than 2.0m/s and hydraulic jump
shall not appear.
7.4.4 Outlet tower shall meet the following requirements:
1 Outlet tower shall be arranged on the stable foundation;
2 Structural dimension of tower body shall meet the arrangement and repair
requirements of outlet pipes; elevation of the outlet pipe opening should be slightly higher
than the water stage in the tower;
3 Stability calculation of foundation and tower body shall be carried out.
7.4.5 Pressure tank shall be built on the solid foundation and shall be firmly connected with
the pump house or outlet pipes. Dimension of the pressure tank shall meet the requirements of
gate installation and repair.

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8 Pumping Station of Other Types

8.1 General Requirement

8.1.1 Where variation amplitude of water source stage is above 10m, pumping station of
other types such as shaft pumping station, the station types like funicular pumping station,
floating pumping station and submergible pumping station may be adopted.
8.1.2 Pumping station of other types may be adopted reasonably through technical and
economical comparison according to the water stage variation amplitude, fluctuation speed
and water flow rate.

8.2 Shaft Pumping Station

8.2.1 Where river bank slop is steep, geological conditions are good, water depth at the bank
side and pumping station lifting flow are large during the flood and drought period, a shaft
pumping station jointly built by sump taking water from the bank and pump house should be
adopted. On the batholith or solid soil matrix, sump and pump house may be arranged in
stepped appearance; in the medium-solid soil matrix, sump and pump house should be
arranged horizontally. Where river bank slop is gentle, geological conditions are poor, the
water depth is sufficient at the bank side and pumping station lifting flow is not large during
the flood and drought period and unit start requirements is not high, the shaft pumping station
separated built by sump taking water from the bank and pump house may be adopted.
8.2.2 No matter jointly built or separately built by the sump and pump house, the
arrangement of the water intake buildings shall meet the following requirements:
1 Design elevation of working platform in the upper of water intake shall be
determined according to check flood stage plus wave height and 0.5m safe height;
2 The height from the bottom edge of lowest water intake to the river bottom shall be
determined according to such factors as river hydrology, silt characteristics and river bed
stability conditions; the height from the bottom edge of lateral water intake to the river bottom
shall not be less than 0.5m, and the height from the bottom edge of front water intake to the
river bottom shall not be less than 1.0m;
3 The sump shall be divided into several meshes, and not less than 2 dirt-blocking and
decontamination facilities shall be arranged for each mesh;
4 Water inlet pipes of the sump should not be less than 2; the pipe diameter shall be
determined through hydraulic calculation according to the water intake requirements during
the lowest operating water stage;
5 Where taking water from the overloaded stream, layered water intake shall be
arranged and desilting facilities shall be arranged in the sump;
6 As for the pumping station where the water source has frost or ice during operation,
ice control, ice elimination and ice diversion facilities shall be installed.
8.2.3 Where the mainstream of water intake reach is not alongside the bank, river bank
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slope is gentle, and water depth at the bank side is insufficient during the drought period, the
shaft pumping station taking water from the river heart may be adopted. Not only the
arrangement of water intake building shall meet the requirements of Article 8.2.2 in this code,
but also the service bridge connected with the river bank shall be arranged.
8.2.4 Circular shaft pump house should be adopted. Unit sets in the pump house should not
be greater than 4. Hoisting transportation equipments shall be arranged on the top of the shaft
wall. Additional repair room may not be arranged in the pump house.
8.2.5 Safe and convenient staircase shall be arranged in the shaft pump house. Elevator
should be arranged in the shaft pump house whose total height is greater than 20m. Windows
of the pump house shall be arranged reasonably according to the requirements of ventilation,
heating and lighting requirements in the pump house. Where natural ventilation quantity is not
sufficient, the mechanical ventilation may be adopted.
8.2.6 Operating room separated with the units shall be arranged in the shaft pump house.
Noise reduction facilities shall be arranged in the operating room.
8.2.7 Structures of shaft pump house such as base plate and shaft wshall all meet the
impermeability requirements and the waterstop measures in the connecting parts shall be
durable and reliable.
8.2.8 Foundation embedded depth of pump house base plate, sump and trestle bridge pier in
the shaft pumping station should be 0.5m below the maximum scour depth, which may be
improved properly after adopting protective measures,
8.2.9 Shaft pump house shall be built on the solid subsoil; otherwise foundation treatment
shall be carried out. The calculation and allowable value for the stability factor of skid
resistance of shaft pump house shall meet the requirements of Article 6.3.4 and Article 6.3.5
in this code; the calculation and allowable value for the stability factor of anti-floating shall
meet the requirements of Article 6.3.6 and Article 6.3.7 in this code; and the ones for the
nonuniformity coefficient of foundation bottom surface stress shall meet the requirements of
Article 6.3.8 and Article 6.3.9 in this code.

8.3 Funicular Pumping Station

8.3.1 Funicular pumping station position shall meet the following requirements:
1 River is smooth and straight, mainstream is in shore, and water depth at the bank
side shall not be less than 1.2m;
2 It shall keep clear of the backwater zone or the protruding segment of rock slope;
3 River bank is stable, geological conditions are good, and bank slope ratio shall be
1:2.5~1:5;
4 Floater shall less, and it shall be difficult to be impacted by the drift log, buoyant raft
or boat.
8.3.2 Funicular pumping station arrangement shall meet the following requirements:
1 Pump trucks shall not be less than 2 and 1 delivery pipe should be arranged for each
pump truck;
2 Power supply cable (or overhead line) and delivery pipe of pump truck shall not be
arranged on the same side;
3 Power transformation and distribution facilities and external transportation road shall
40
be arranged above the check flood stage; winch house position shall be able to move the
pump truck above the check flood stage;
4 Ramp slope shall be close to the bank slope; upstream and downstream natural bank
slope nearby the slope shall be arranged according to the selected ramp slope; the slope
surface shall be 0.3~0.4m higher than the upstream and downstream bank slope; the slope
shall be arranged with scour prevention facilities;
5 Pedestrian staircase service road shall be arranged at both sides of the slope; working
platform shall be arranged at the branch pipe;
6 Dirt-blocking and decontamination facilities should be arranged on the pump truck.
Where taking water from the overloaded stream, additional technical water supply system
supplying the clear water should be arranged.
8.3.3 2 sets of pumps should be arranged on each pump truck and the staggered arrangement
shall be adopted for the units.
8.3.4 Perpendicular arrangement of pump truck body should be in the stepped appearance.
The clear height of pump truck house shall meet the requirements of equipment arrangement
and hoisting. Roller wheels under each row of truss of pump truck should be 2~6 (even
numbers); wheels should select double flange form. Absorbers shall be arranged on the pump
truck.
8.3.5 Static analysis, dynamic analysis, and check calculation of resonance and amplitude
shall be carried out for the structural design of pump truck. The ratio of the difference
between forced vibration frequency and natural vibration frequency to the natural vibration
frequency of structure shall not be less than 30%; the amplitude shall meet the relevant
requirements of the current professional standard "Specification for Vibration Calculation and
Vibration Isolation Design of Building Bearing Structure under the Action of Machine
Dynamic Load" YSJ 009.
8.3.6 Safety devices shall be arranged for the pump truck. According to the traction force,
hook type or bolt splint type safety device may be adopted.
8.3.7 Water pump suction pipe may be arranged according to the slope form and gradient.
Where bridge-type slope is adopted, the suction pipe may be arranged at both sides of the
truck body; where bank-slope-type slope is adopted, the suction pipe should be arranged at
the waterside front face of truck body.
8.3.8 Water pump outlet pipe shall be arranged along the slope. Embedded mode may be
adopted for the bank-slope-type slope; erection mode may be adopted for the bridge-type
slope. Sluice valve shall be installed for the water pump outlet pipe. Outlet pipe shall be
connected with the connection pipe after parallel connection. Connection pipe should be the
crank arm type; where the pipe diameter is less than 400 mm, rubber pipe may be adopted.
Several joint branch pipes shall be arranged on the outlet pipe; the lowest and highest branch
pipe positions shall meet the design water intake requirements. The height difference between
joint branch pipes: may be 2.0~3.0m where the crank arm connection pipes are adopted; may
be 1.0~2.0m where other connection pipes are adopted.

8.4 Floating Pumping Station

8.4.1 Floating pumping station position shall meet the following requirements:
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1 Water flow shall be stable, river surface shall be broad, and water depth shall not be
less than 1.0 during the drought period;
2 It shall keep clear of top scouring, riffle, large reflux, large fetch and the junction
with the tributary, and shall keep certain distance with the main channel;
3 River bank shall be stable, and bank slope shall be 1:1.5~1:4;
4 Floater shall less, and it shall be difficult to be impacted by the drift log, buoyant raft
or boat;
5 There shall be Flat River bank nearby that may be used as the repair site.
8.4.2 The form of floating pontoon shall be selected through technical and economical
comparison according to the importance, operating requirements, material supply and
construction conditions of the pumping station.
8.4.3 Floating pontoon arrangement shall include the unit equipment room, stem and stern.
Where the unit capacity is larger and sets are more, the through unit equipment room should
be adopted. The stem-tern deck length of floating pontoon shall be determined according to
the requirements of safety operation and management, and it shall not be less than 2.0m. The
stem and stern compartments shall be closed and the closed volume shall be determined
according to the pontoon safety requirements.
8.4.4 The equipment arrangement of floating pontoon shall be compact and reasonable, as
well as meet the requirements of hull balance and stability. Where the requirements cannot be
met, balance measures shall be adopted.
8.4.5 The molded lines and main dimensions (including draft, molded breadth, pontoon
length and molded depth) of floating pontoons shall be selected according to the requirements
of the maximum discharge and equipment arrangement, and the design shall meet the design
requirements of inland navigation vessels. In any case, the stability criteria coefficient of
floating pontoon shall not be less than 1.0.
8.4.6 Anchor mode and anchor equipments of the floating pontoon shall be determined
according to the anchorage topography, stream conditions, navigation requirements and
meteorological conditions. Where the flow rate is larger, the anchor cable on the upstream of
floating pontoon shall not be less than 3.
8.4.7 Connection pipes and their joint forms at both ends shall be selected through technical
and economical comparison according to the stream stage variation amplitude, flow rate, draft
quantity and river bank slope.
8.4.8 Slope of delivery pipe should be consistent with that of bank slope. Where the
geological conditions can meet the requirements of pipe foundation, the delivery pipes may be
laid along the bank slope; where the geological conditions cannot meet the requirements, the
foundation treatment shall be carried out and buttress fixation shall be arranged. Where the
joint branch pipes are arranged for the delivery pipes, their positions shall be determined
according to the water stage variation amplitude and river bank slope. Height difference
between joint branch pipes shall take 0.6~2.0m.

8.5 Submergible Pumping Station

8.5.1 Horizontal-type units should be installed in the pump house of submergible pumping
station and the unit sets should not be greater than 4.
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8.5.2 Pump house of submergible pumping station should be arranged to the circular;
single-row or double-row arrangement may be adopted for the electromechanical equipments
in the pump house. Annular hoisting equipments shall be arranged on the top of drum wall
and additional repair room may not be arranged in the pump house. Skylight should be
arranged on the roof. Funicular car arranged in the corridor used for the communications and
transportation may also be used as the air inlet and outlet passages. The running/operation
screen and panel may be arranged in the winch house at the entrance of the corridor.
Electromechanical equipments shall have high automation degree and may be controlled on
the bank.
8.5.3 Structures of pumping station pump house such as base plate, wall and roof shall meet
the impermeability requirements and the waterstop measures in the connecting parts shall be
durable and reliable.
8.5.4 Pump house foundation of submergible pumping station shall be anchored on the solid
foundation. The calculation and allowable value for the stability factor of anti-floating of the
pump house shall meet the requirements of Article 6.3.6 and Article 6.3.7 in this code.

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9 Hydraulic Machinery and Auxiliary Equipment
9.1 Main Pump
9.1.1 The selection of main pump shall meet the following requirements:
1 It shall meet the requirements of design flow, design head and water supply and
different period drainage of pump station.
2 At the mean head, pump shall operate in high-efficient area, and shall be able to
operate safely and steadily within the entire range of operating head. Under the premise of
operating certainly safely, the design flow of the main pump should be calculated according to
the maximum flow at the design head.
3 Where sucking water from silted water sources, the pump shall be considered to be
arranged with anti-abrasion measures; where the water source medium is corrosive, the pump
shall be considered to be arranged with anti-corrosion measures.
4 The products featured in technology mature, performance advanced, economical and
efficient are preferred. Where existing products cannot meet the requirements of the design of
pump station, new pumps may be designed. Newly-design pump shall be carried out with
pump section model test; axial pump and mixed flow pump shall be applied additionally with
equipment model test; after inspection, they may be adopted if qualified. Where foreign
products are adopted, necessary demonstration shall be taken out.
5 Where various pumps are available, such factors as hydraulic performance,
installation, repair, project investment and operating cost etc. shall be comprehensively
analyzed to determine the best.
6 If variable-speed adjustment is adopted, plan comparison and technical/economic
evaluation shall be carried out.
9.1.2 The number of main pumps shall be determined through technical/economical
comparison according to project scale and construction content.
9.1.3 The number of spare unit shall be determined according to the importance of the
project, operation condition and yearly operation hour, and it shall meet the following
requirements:
1 As for important water supply pump stations where the number of working unit is 3
or below, one spare set should be installed with; where it is more than 3, 2 spare sets should
be installed with.
2 As for irrigating pump station, where the number of working unit is 3~9, one spare
set should be installed with; where the number is more than 9, 2 spare sets should be installed
with.
3 As for pump station with low yearly operating hour, spare unit may not be installed
with.
4 As for pump stations in the working environment with large silt concentration water
sources, the number of spare unit may be increased after demonstration.
9.1.4 Large scale axial pump and mixed flow pump shall be provided with model test
materials of equipment, and where the molded line of flow passage components or inlet and
outlet passages of the pump is relatively modified a lot, model test of equipment shall be
carried out again.
9.1.5 As for speed-up operating pump, where the rotation speed is greater than 5 % of

44
design speed, the demonstration of the strength, attrition, cavitation, vibration etc. shall be
taken out.
9.1.6 For the determination of the maximum shaft power of the pump, the following factors
shall be considered:
1 Effects of various operating conditions on shaft power within the operation range;
2 Effects of silt concentration on shaft power.
9.1.7 The installation of elevation shall meet the following requirements:
1 Where the inlet sump is in the minimum operating water stage, it shall meet the
requirements of allowable sucking vacuum height and the net positive suction head required
(NPSHR) of the pump under different operating conditions. Where the rated rotation speed
between motor and pump is different or where sucking water in silty water sources, the
allowable sucking vacuum height and NPSHR of the pump shall be corrected.
2 The minimum submerged depth of base level of vertical axial pump or mixed flow
pump shall exceed 0.5m;
3 No harmful swirls shall be generated in the suction sump.
9.1.8 As for parallel-operating pumps, the design heads of them shall be approximate, and
the number of parallel-operating sets should not exceed 4. If the variation amplitude of flow
or head is relatively large, methods such as collocating large/small pumps or adjusting speed
etc. may be adopted to meet the requirements. The number of parallel connected pump should
be properly reduced where pumping silted water sources. As for serial operating pumps, the
design flow hereof shall be approximate; the number of serial operating pump should not
exceed 2, and the shell of the second stage pump shall be arranged with strength check.
9.1.9 As for fully adjustable pumps which adopt hydraulic operation, the number of
pressure oil equipment should be determined according to operating requirements.
9.1.10 Low head axial pump shall be provided with measures to prevent jumping.
9.1.11 The equipment efficiency of axial pump station and mixed flow pump should not be
lower than 70%~75% where pumping clear water; as for the pump station with a net pump
head less than 3m, the equipment efficiency should not be lower than 60%. The equipment
efficiency of centrifugal pump station should not be lower than 65% ~ 70%. The equipment
efficiency of newly-built pump station should be taken a high value.
9.1.12 The equipment efficiency of pump station may be properly reduced where pumping
silty water.

9.2 Inlet and Outlet Passages


9.2.1 The mode of inlet and outlet water flow passages of pump station shall be determined
by technical economical comparison according to such factors as type of pump, layout of
pump house, head of pump station, water stage variation range of inlet and outlet sump and
settingoff mode etc., Important large pump station should adopt three-dimensional flow data
to calculate and analyze, and carry out equipment model test.
9.2.2 The layout of inlet and outlet passages of pump station shall meet the following
requirements:
1 Passage molded lines shall be smooth, and the variation of each sectional area along
shall be uniform and reasonable;
2 The flow speed and pressure distribution in the outlet section shall be relatively

45
uniform;
3 The flow speed in outlet section should be 0.8m/s~1.0m/s;
4 No vortex band shall be generated under various operating conditions;
5 The inlet shall be installed with repairing facilities;
6 It shall be convenient for construction.
9.2.3 The bottom surface of inlet section of elbow and campaniform inlet passage shall be
made into flat bottom, or be upwarp toward the inlet direction, and the upwarp angle should
not be larger than 12; the upwarp angle of the top plate of inlet section should not be larger
than 30, and the inlet upper margin shall be submerged below the minimum operating water
stage at least 0.5m. Where the width of inlet section is relatively big, water-barrier pier may
be installed in this segment. The main dimension of elbow and campaniform passage shall be
determined according to the structure and overall dimension and the layout of pump house.
9.2.4 The layout of outlet passage of pump station shall meet the following requirements:
1 The type of outlet room connected to the pump guide blade outlet, shall be
determined according to the structure of pump and the general layout of pump station;
2 The variation of passage molded line shall be uniform, and the equivalent diffusion
angle should be 8~12;
3 The outlet flow speed should not exceed 1.5m/s, and where the outlet is equipped
with flap, the speed should not exceed 2.0 m/s;
4 Appropriate settingoff mode shall be provided with;
5 The outlet of straight pipe should be installed with repairing door groove;
6 Shall be convenient for executing.
9.2.5 The settingoff mode of pump station shall be selected according to such factors as the
water stage variation range of outlet sump, the head of pump station, etc., and combined with
outlet passage, and determined after technical economical comparison. Settingoff mode shall
meet the following requirements:
1 Operation shall be reliable;
2 Equipments shall be simple and operation shall be flexible;
3 Convenient for maintaining;
4 Have little effect on unit efficiency.
9.2.6 As for pump station with a outlet sump whose minimum operating water stage is
relatively high, straight pipe outlet passage may be adopted for it; flap or stop gate may be
installed with, and ventilation hole shall be installed with behind the gate; the bottom surface
of straight pipe outlet passage may be made into flat bottom, and the top plate should be
upwarp toward the outlet direction.
9.2.7 As for vertical or inclined axial pump station, siphoning outlet passage combined with
vacuum breaking valve settingoff mode should be adopted for it, where the water stage
variation of the outlet sump is not great. The elevation of hump bottom shall be slightly higher
than the maximum operating water stage of the outlet sump, and the vacuum degree of hump
top shall not be higher than the water column by 7.5m. The section of the hump should be
designed as flat. The pipe shaft seam of siphon pipe shall have fine sealing performance.
9.2.8 As for low head axial pump station, cat-back or shaft stretch outlet passage may be
adopted for it.
9.2.9 The upper margin of the outlet of outlet passage shall be submerged below 0.3m~0.5m

46
of the minimum operating water stage. Where the passage width is relatively big,
water-barrier pier should be installed with, and the distance between the starting point and the
unit center line shall not be less than 2 times of the outlet diameter.
9.2.10 Both of Outlet and inlet passage shall be installed with inspection holes, and the
aperture of inspection hole should not be less than 0.7m.
9.2.11 As for double-passage double-way pump station, blast cone, clapboard etc. should be
installed in the inlet passage, and it shall be carried out equipment model test if necessary.

9.3 Inlet and Outlet Pipes in Pump House


9.3.1 The design flow speed of inlet pipe of centrifugal pump or small caliber axial pump or
mixed flow pump should be 1.5m/s~2.0m/s, and the design flow speed of outlet pipe should
be 2.0m/s~3.0m/s.
9.3.2 The inlet pipe fittings of centrifugal pump shall meet the following requirements:
1 Where the minimum point of pump inlet is below the maximum operating water
stage of inlet sump, closure facilities shall be installed with;
2 The inlet of inlet pipe shall be installed with flare pipe; the flow speed in the flare
opening should be 1.0 m/s~1.5m/s; the diameter of the bellmouth should be equal to or
greater than 1.25 times of the diameter of the inlet pipe.
9.3.3 The distance from the flare opening of water inlet pipe of centrifugal pump, small
caliber axial pump or mixed flow pump to building shall meet the following requirements:
1 The impending height of the center of flare opening shall meet the following
requirements:
1) Where the layout of flare pipe is vertical, it should be (0.6~0.8)D (D is the inlet
diameter of bellmouth);
2) Where the layout of flare pipe is inclined, it should be (0.8 ~1.0)D;
3) Where the layout of flare pipe is horizontal, it should be (1.0~1.25)D;
4) The impending height of the minimum point of flare opening shall not be less than
0.5 m.
2 The submerged depth of the center of flare opening shall meet the following
requirements:
1) Where the layout of flare pipe is vertical, it should be larger than (1.0~1.25) D;
2) Where the layout of flare pipe is inclined, it should be larger than (1.5 ~ 1.8) D;
3) Where the layout of flare pipe is horizontal, it should be larger than (1.8 ~ 2.0) D.
3 The distance between the center of flare opening and the back wall should be
(0.8~1.0)D, and shall meet the requirements of pipe installation.
4 The distance between the center of flare pipe and the side wall should be 1.5 D;
5 The distance between the center of flare pipe and the inlet room shall not be larger
than 4 D;
6 As for pump equipment with relatively big flow speed and flare opening inlet, it
shall take proper whorl-eliminating measures.
9.3.4 Centrifugal pump outlet pipe fittings shall meet the following requirements:
1 Pump outlet shall be installed with service valve and repairing valve;
2 The rated working pressure of the working valve and the operation moment of outlet
pipe shall meet the requirements of the starting of pump closing valve;

47
3 Outlet pipe should not be installed with ordinary inverted valve;
4 Outlet pipe shall be installed with expansion joints, and the installing position shall
be convenient for the installation and dismantlement of pump, pipeline and valve.
5 Where the inlet steel pipe is across the wall, rigid wall pipe should be adopted;
where the outlet steel pipe is across the wall, flexible wall pipe should be adopted.

9.4 Transient Process and Protection Against the Damage


9.4.1 As for pump station which may have water hammer effect on pump station,
emergency pump-off water hammer calculation shall be carried out at all design stages.
9.4.2 Where the transient response parameters of emergency pump-off cannot meet the
following requirements, the protective measures shall be taken.
1 The maximum rollback speed of centrifugal pump shall not exceed 1.2 times of the
rated speed, and the duration shall not exceed 2 min;
2 The working duration of vertical unit in a speed of less than 40% of the rated speed
shall not exceed 2 min;
3 The maximum pressure shall not exceed 1.3~1.5 times of the pump outlet rated
pressure.
4 Any part of water delivery system shall be free from water column fracture.
9.4.3 Vacuum breaking valve shall be with sufficient area of passage, and the operation shall
be accurate and reliable; where flap or stop gate is used as settingoff facilities, the settingoff
time shall meet the requirements of rollback rotation speed control and water hammer
protection.
9.4.4 As for pump station with high head and long pressure pipe, two-stage-closed hydraulic
control valve should be selected as service valve.

9.5 Vacuum and Priming System


9.5.1 Pump station with one of the following condition should be installed with vacuum and
priming system:
1 Axial pump station and mixed flow pump station with siphoning outlet passage;
2 High and medium head centrifugal pump station which requires initial pumping
priming;
3 Where the submerged depth of the impeller center of horizontal pump is less than 3
/4 of the impeller diameter.
9.5.2 Two vacuum pumps should be installed as mutual spared ones, and the determination
of the capacity shall meet the following requirements:
1 The time of axial pump and mixed flow pump vacuuming the maximum air volume
in the passage should be 10min ~20min:
2 The time of centrifugal-pump-single-pump exhausting air and filling water should
not exceed 5min.
9.5.3 As for pump station with siphoning outlet passage, the hump negative pressure of
operated unit can be used to vacuumize the stand-by unit, but the pumping time shall not
exceed 10min ~20min.
9.5.4 Vacuum pumping system shall be sealed tight.

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9.6 Drainage System
9.6.1 Pump station shall be installed with repairing system for units and pump house
seepage water drainage system; where pump station has the requirement of phase-modulation,
phase-modulation shall also be considered to operate drainage. Where repairing drainage and
other drainage are combined as a system, the measures to prevent outside water from back
flow shall be arranged with, and gravity drain mode should be adopted.
9.6.2 The number of drain pump shall not be less than two, and the determination of the
flow shall meet the following requirements:
1 As for pump station without phase-modulation requirement, the flow of repairing
drain pump may be determined according to the sum water drainage of single pump passage
seeper in 4h~6h and the water leakage of the gate in upstream and downstream;
2 As for pump station which adopts impeller dehydration mode as phasing operation,
the flow is determined according to the requirement of drainage for repairing one unit, and for
phase-modulating the rest;
3 Where leaking and draining systems are combined as one, the flow may be
determined according to the draining of seeper in collecting well in 15min ~20minl, and
installed with one spare pump.
9.6.3 Leaking drainage and phase modulating drainage shall implement automatic operation
according to water stage variation; repairing drainage may adopt either automatic operation or
manual operation.
9.6.4 In the operation of impeller dehydration phase-modulation, the water stage in passage
shall be 0.3~0.5m lower than the lower edge of impeller.
9.6.5 Check valve and repairing valve shall be installed on the outlet pipe of drainage pump.
In frost-free area, the upper margin of outlet on drainage pipe of drainage pump should be
lower than the minimum operating water stage; in freezing area, the lower margin of outlet on
drainage pipe of drainage pump should be higher than the maximum operating water stage.
9.6.6 Where collecting gallery is adopted, the dimension shall meet the requirements of
artificial dredge, and the number of gallery outlet shall not be less than 2. Where water
collecting well is adopted, the working volume of the well shall be determined according to
the water leaking volume in 6h~8h.
9.6.7 Escape pipe shall be installed in the lowest point of the inlet and outlet of main pump
or in the bottom of water outlet room. Drainage pipe shall be arranged with the measures to
prevent aquatic creature from blocking.
9.6.8 The produce and drainage of domestic sewage in pump house shall meet relevant
requirements of current national standard GB 8978 Standard for Integrated Discharge of
Wastewater.

9.7 Water Supply System


9.7.1 Pump station shall be installed with technology-used water for the cooling, lubricating,
sealing, fire-protection of main pump unit and auxiliary equipment, and the water supply
system for the operation and management of personnel-used water.
9.7.2 Water supply system shall meet water quality, hydraulic pressure and flow
requirements of water-users, and the number of water intake shall not be less than 2. Where
the silt concentration of water source is high or water quality cannot meet the requirements,

49
the purification treatment shall be carried out, or other water sources shall be used. Drinking
water shall meet the requirements of the current national standard GB 5749 "Sanitary
Standard for Drinking Water".
9.7.3 Where gravity water supply mode is adopted, water may be taken directly from the
outlet pipe of main pump; where pump water supply mode is adopted, automatically working
spare pump shall be installed. If conditions permit, periodical feeding mode may be adopted
for it.
9.7.4 The flow speed in water supply pipe should be selected as 2m/s~3m/s, and the flow
speed of inlet pipe should be selected as 1.5m/s~2.0m.
9.7.5 Where water tower (sump) is adopted to supply water concentratedly, the working
volume shall meet the following requirements:
1 As for axial flow pump and mixed flow pump, water consumption of the entire
station in 15min is taken;
2 As for centrifugal pump station, water consumption of the entire station in 2h~4h is
taken;
3 Satisfy domestic water requirement of the entire station during the idling period.
9.7.6 Each water supply pump shall be provided with separate inlet pipe, and the pipe
mouth shall be provided with dirt blocking facilities, and it shall be easy for decontaminating;
where the water source is with relatively too much dirt, spare inlet pine shall be adopted.
9.7.7 Settling sump or water tower shall be provided with sediment removal
decontaminating facilities, and it shall be provided with frost protecting and warm keeping
measures in cold areas.
9.7.8 Water supply system shall be installed with water filter; reticula water filter shall also
be installed on sealing and lubricating water pipe, and water supply shall not be intermitted
while water filter is doing decontamination.
9.7.9 Fire-protection water supply should be combined with technology water supply and
domestic water supply system, or separated fire-protection water supply system may also be
installed with.
9.7.10 Main pump house, auxiliary machinery room, outdoor substation, open-air oil tank or
out-plant ground oil tank room shall all be installed with fire hydrants. The distance between
fire hydrants on the motor storey in the main pump house should not be larger than 30m; the
distance between outdoor fire hydrants around main pump should not be larger than 80m.
9.7.11 The layout of fire-protection pipe shall meet the following requirements:
1 The number of inlet pipes for a set of fire-protection pump shall not be less than 2,
and where one of them is damaged, the other ones shall be able to transit all the water.
Fire-protection pump should adopt self-irrigation water filling mode;
2 The layout of indoor fire hydrant shall ensure full water column of 2 firefighting
water branches to able to reach any position of the room simultaneously;
3 Indoor fire hydrants shall be installed on obvious and easy-fetch positions, and the
height of fire hydrant mouth to the ground shall be 1.1m, and the angle between water outlet
direction and wall surface shall be 90;
4 The pipe diameter of outdoor fire-protection water supply shall not be less than
100mm.
9.7.12 Indoor fire-protection water consumption shall be calculated by the consumption of

50
simultaneously using two fire water branches, the water consumption of each fire water
branch shall not be less than 2.5L/s. Standard of fire hydrants, fire water branches and water
band in the same building shall be the same, the length of each water band shall not exceed
25m.

9.8 Compressed Air System


9.8.1 Pump station shall be set up with air-consuming air compressed systems such as unit
braking, repairing, frost protection and ice drift, sealing shroud band, oil pressure unit and
vacuum break, according to the structure and requirements of the unit.
9.8.2 Air compressing system shall meet the requirements of air consumption, working
pressure and relative humidity of each air-consuming equipment, and according to needs, it
may be respectively set as low-voltage and medium-voltage system.
9.8.3 Low-pressure system shall be installed with air tank, and its total volume may be
determined by the total air consumption and the minimum allowable pressure where all the
units are operating in the same time.
9.8.4 The capacity of low-pressure air compressor may be determined by the rated pressure
recovery of air tank in 15min ~20min. Low-pressure system should be installed with 2 air
compressors which are mutual spared to each other, or as spared ones in the reduction of
medium voltage system .
9.8.5 Two medium pressure air compressor shall be installed with, and the total capacity
may be determined by the capacity of inflating the pressure oil tank of an oil pressure unit to
the rated working pressure value in 2h.
9.8.6 Air compressor should be designed to be automatic operation, and air tank shall be
installed with safety valve, drainage valve and pressure signal equipments.
9.8.7 Air compressor and air tank should be installed in separated rooms. The main air
supply pipe shall be gradient, and water collector and water drain valve shall be installed in
the lowest point. Oil-water separator shall be installed on the outlet pipe of air compressor.
Under the automatic operation condition, unloaded valve and temperature relay, and
flow-indicating annunciator which monitors the interruption of cooling water shall be
installed with.
9.8.8 The diameter of air supply pipe shall meet the requirements of the interface of air
compressor, air tank, air-consuming equipments, and shall be selected with experience.

9.9 Oil Supply System


9.9.1 Pump station shall be installed with oil-consuming turbine oil oil-supply system for
unit lubrication, blade adjustment, oil pressure start stop etc. The system shall meet the
requirements of oil storing, oil transportation and oil purification.
9.9.2 Turbine oil oil-supply system should be installed with at least 2 oil tanks which are
with the same volume, and respectively used to store clean oil and sump oil. The volume of
each turbine oil tank may be determined by 1.1 times of the maximum oil-using quantity in a
biggest unit, oil pressure unit or in an oil pressure hoisting equipment.
9.9.3 The type, capacity and quantity of oil processing equipment shall be selected
according to oil consumption. Pump station should not install with oil recovery equipment
and oil test equipment.

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9.9.4 Staged pump station or pump station group should be installed with center oil system;
arranged oil analyzing and testing equipments; oil storing and oil purification equipment of
increased the capacity and quantity; and reclaiming equipments according to the different
situations. Each pump station should install an oil-cleaning container which is capable to store
required oil quantity of the maximum unit.
9.9.5 Where the number of units is 4 or more, supplying and draining general pipe should be
installed with. The oil filling time of unit should not be longer than 2h. If the number of unit is
less than 4, oil-consuming equipment may be filled with oil directly through temporary pipe.
9.9.6 As for pump station installed with hydraulic control valve, oil-leaking tanks shall be
installed in those positions lower than oil-consuming equipment, the number may be
determined according to the number of hydraulic valve.
9.9.7 The discharge of oil tank and of transformer in emergency shall not pollute water
source or the environment.

9.10 Hoisting and Repairing System


9.10.1 Pump station shall be install with hoisting equipments, and the rated elevating
capacity shall be determined according to the total weight of the heaviest hoisted component
and lifting tool. The lifting height of crane shall meet the requirements of unit installation and
repairing.
9.10.2 Where the lifting weight is equal or less than 5t and the number of main pump is less
than 4, electric single-girder crane should be selected; where the lifting weight is greater than
5t, electric single or double-girder crane should be selected.
9.10.3 Crane shall adopt light level and slow working system. Braking and electrical
equipment shall adopt medium working system.
9.10.4 The span grading of crane shall be selected as 0.5m, and obstructing equipment shall
be installed on the both ends of crane rail.
9.10.5 Pump station may be installed with simple inspecting and repairing tools.
9.10.6 Pump station may be properly installed with hoisting equipments for repairing and
installation, such as automobile, pulling jack and lifting jack etc. .

9.11 Heating, Ventilation and Air-conditioning


9.11.1 The ventilation and heating mode of pump house shall be determined according to
local climate conditions, type of pump house and requirements of air parameter.
9.11.2 Ground pump house should adopt natural ventilation. Where natural ventilation is
unable to meet the requirements, modes such as natural and machinery combined ventilation,
complete mechanical ventilation and partial air conditioning, etc. may be adopted. If closing
pump house has the condition to use hole to form hot-press pressure to convect air, and meet
parameter requirement of indoor air, it may adopt the mode of natural ventilation or partial
natural ventilation combined with mechanical ventilation. Where the indoor air parameter
cannot meet the requirements, air conditioning equipment may be adopted.
9.11.3 Main motor should adopt pipe ventilation, semi-passage ventilation or air-closed
circulating ventilation. As for such areas with relatively strong sand storm, dust filter screen
may be installed on the air inlet.
9.11.4 The ventilation rate of oil tank room and valve-controlling sealed lead-acid battery

52
room shall not be less than 3 times/h; the ventilation rate of oil purification room and
acid-proof and explode-isolation lead-acid battery room shall not be less than 6 times /h.
Indoor air recycling is strictly forbidden.
9.11.5 Oil tank room, oil purification room and battery room shall respectively be installed
with independent mechanical ventilation system, and negative pressure shall be maintained
indoor. Air outlet of ventilation system shall be 1.5m above the roof. Fan and matching motor
shall be explosion-proof.
9.11.6 The temperature in battery room should be maintained within 10~35. If there is
no heating equipment, the indoor minimal temperature shall not be lower than 0.
9.11.7 Temperature in central control room and communication room should not be lower
than 15; where the requirement cannot be satisfied, heating facilities shall be installed with,
but fireplace shall not be adopted. The motor storey should have the priority to use motor to
heat the air, where the room temperature is below 5, other heating facilities shall be
installed with. Pump station in severe cold areas may be installed with heating equipment
according to the local circumstance in operating period.
9.11.8 The summer indoor air parameters of main pump house and auxiliary machinery
room should be selected according to those specified in Table 9.11.8-1 and Table 9.11.8-2.
Table 9.11.8-1 Summer Indoor Air Parameter Table of Main Pump Room
Position Outdoor-calculated Ground pump house Underground or half underground pump
temperature house
( ) Relative Average air Temperature Relative Average air
Temperature humidity velocity(m/s) ( ) humidity velocity(m/s)
( ) (%) (%)

Working <29 <32 <75 Not specified <75 0.2~0.5


zone of 29~32 Higher than <75 0.2~0.5 Higher than <75 0.5
motor outdoor 3 outdoor2
storey >32 Higher than <75 0.5 Higher than <75 0.5
outdoor 3 outdoor2

Pump storey <33 <80 Not specified <33 <80 Not specified

Table 9.11.8-2 Summer Indoor Air Parameter Table of Auxiliary Machinery Room
Position Outdoor-calculate Ground auxiliary machinery room Underground or half underground auxiliary
d temperature( ) machinery room

temperature( Relative average air Temperature( Relative Average air


) humidit velocity(m/s ) humidit velocity(m/s
y (%) ) y (%) )

Central <29 <32 <70 0.2 <32 70 Not


control room, specified
communicatio 29~32 <32 <70 0.2~0.5 Higher than 70 0.2
n room outdoor2

>32 <32 <70 0.5 <33 70 0.2~0.5

Transformer room for switch room 40 Not Not 40 Not Not


station specifie specified specifie specified
d d

Battery room 35 75 Not 35 Not Not

53
specified specifie specified
d

9.12 Layout for Hydraulic Machines


9.12.1 Hydraulic machine equipment layout of pump house shall meet the requirements of
equipment operation, maintenance, installation and repairing, and it shall be in order and good
looking.
9.12.2 The interval between vertical pump units shall be the bigger value of the following
values:
1 The sum of the external diameter of air flue cover plate of motor and the dimension
of operating passage which is not less than 1.5 m in width;
2 The sum of the maximum width of water inlet flow passage and the thickness
dimension of gate pier of adjacent passages.
9.12.3 The segment length of unit shall be determined according to those specified in
Article 9.12.2.of this code. Where pump house is parting or needs to set up with auxiliary
equipment, the interval may be properly increased.
9.12.4 The distance of center line of water inlet pipe of horizontal pump shall meet the
following requirements:
1 Where it is single row layout, the net distance between adjacent units shall not be
less than 1.8m~2.0m;
2 Where it is double row layout, the net distance between adjacent units shall not be
less than 1.2 m~1.5m;
3 On-site repaired motor shall meet the requirements of loose core of rotor;
4 It shall meet the requirements of the layout of water inlet horn tube, pipeline valve
and hydraulic engineering.
9.12.5 The segment length of unit shall meet the requirements of equipment hoisting and
stairway and transportation way layout .
9.12.6 The length of installation repairing room may be determined according to the
following principles:
1 Vertical unit shall meet the requirements of the installation of one unit or expanding
major repairing. The unit repairing shall make the best of space between units. In the
installing room, except for placing motor rotor, space shall be also left for the transportation
of the heaviest automobile into the pump house, and the length may be 1.0~.15 times of the
segment length of unit .
2 Horizontal unit shall meet requirements of the entering of equipment into pump
house, but its length should not be less than 5.0m.
9.12.7 The width of main pump house shall be determined according to the following
principles:
1 The width of vertical unit pump house shall be determined according to the
maximum size of motor or air flue, equipment layout on upstream and downstream sides and
hoisting, and the required dimension of operating and maintaining passages on upstream and
downstream sides. The upstream and downstream sides of motor storey and pump storey shall
both be arranged with operating and maintaining passages, and the net width should not be
less than 1.5m; where operating panel is arranged on one side, the net width should not be less

54
than 2.0m. The operating passage of pump storey shall also meet the requirements of
equipment transportation;
2 The width of horizontal unit pump house shall be determined according to the
dimension of the pump, valve and other configured fittings, and meet the requirements of
equipment installation, repairing and the layout of operating and maintaining passages or
transporting passage.
9.12.8 The net height above the motor storey of main pump house shall meet the following
requirements:
1 Vertical unit shall meet the hoisting requirements of pump shaft or coupling shaft of
motor rotor. Where the regulating mechanism of impeller is mechanical, it shall also meet the
requirements of the hoisting of regulating stem;
2 Horizontal unit shall meet the requirements of entirety lifting of pump or motor or
entirety loading and unloading from transport equipments;
3 The distance between the peak of crane and the bottom of crossbeam on roof shall
not be less than 0.3m.
9.12.9 The distance between lifting equipment and fixture shall meet the following
requirements:
1 Where rigid lifting tools are adopted, it shall not be less than 0.3 in vertical direction ,
and where flexible lifting tools are adopted, it shall not be less than 0.5 in vertical direction;
2 It shall not be less than 0.4 m in horizontal direction ;
3 Where the main transformer is being repaired, the required height of the loose core
shall not be as a criterion to determine the height of main pump house. Where the lifting
height is not high enough, transformer inspection pit shall be installed with.
9.12.10 The net height of pump storey should not be less than 4.0m, and the net height of
draining pump house should not be less than 2.4m, and the net height of draining gallery
should not be less than 2.2m. The net height of compressor room shall exceed the total height
of air tank, and it shall not be less than 3.5m; the compressor room shall have an enough
pressure relieving area.
9.12.11 Working platforms should be installed around large horizontal unit. The width of
platform passage shall not be less than 1.2m.
9.12.12 Pump house which is installed with vertical unit shall have hanging hole which is
straight through pump storey, and the dimension shall be able to meet he requirements of the
hoisting of guide vane.
9.12.13 In the proper place of the pump house, suspension loop which is convenient for the
transportation or repair of equipments shall be pre-buried, and the required component parts
of repairing platform shall be erected.

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10 Electrical Equipment
10.1 Electrical Power Supply System
10.1.1 The design of power supply system for pump station shall be based on the current
situation of electric power systems on the pump station location, and the development plan;
by the technical and economic evaluation, the mode of wiring in electric power system shall
be determined reasonably.
10.1.2 The load grade of pump station and the mode of power supply shall be reasonably
determined according to the property, scale and the importance of the project. Where
double-loop line is adopted for power supply, it shall be designed according to the bearing of
full capacity by each loop of the pump station.
10.1.3 The special substation for pump station should adopt the power supply management
mode of the pump station and substation in unity.
10.1.4 The power supply system for pump station shall be provided with daily-used
electricity, and separately set it apart from service power of station.

10.2 Main Electrical Connection


10.2.1 The design of main electrical connection shall be reasonably determined according to
the property, scale, operating mode, power supply wiring and the importance of pump station.
Wiring shall be simple and reliable, convenient for repairing, and save investment cost. Where
pump station is constructed by a staged manner, it shall be convenient for transition.
10.2.2 The power supply side of electrical main connection should adopt single busbar
wiring; multi-unit, large capacity and important pump station may also adopt single busbar
segmental wiring.
10.2.3 The voltage side of motor should adopt single busbar wiring or single busbar
segmental wiring.
10.2.4 The inlet wire of voltage busbar of motor shall be installed with breaker. Breaker
shall also be adopted for connection where busbar is segmental.
10.2.5 Service transformer of station should be connected on the side of inlet wire breaker
of the power supply line, and also may be connected on the voltage busbar dagger of the main
motor. Where two or more service transformers for stations are installed with and reliable
external power supply is provided, one of the transformers should be connected to the
external power.

10.3 Selection of Main Motor and Electrical Equipment


10.3.1 The selection of electrical equipment for pump station shall be complied with the
following principles:
1 High performance, high reliability and long life;
2 Give priority to energy conservation, environmental protection products;
3 Reasonable functioning, economical and applicable;
4 Small size, lightweight, complete set, and little space occupation;
5 Convenient for maintenance and repairing, unlikely to mis-operate;
6 Ensure personal safety of personnel who do operation and maintenance job;
7 Convenient for transportation and installation;

56
8 As for environmental hazards such as sand storm, pollution, corrosive gas, humid,
condensation, snow, earthquake etc., protective measures shall be provided with.
9 The equipment noise shall meet the relevant regulations of the current national
standard GBJ 87 "Codes for Design of Noise Control System in Industrial Enterprises".
10.3.2 The selection of main motor for pump station shall meet the following requirements:
1 The capacity of main motor shall be selected according to the possible maximum
shaft power of pump operation, and remained certain reserves; the reserve coefficient should
be 1.10~1.05. The capacity of motor should adopt standard series;
2 The model, standard, electric performance of main motor shall be selected after
technical economical comparison.
3 Where the technical economy condition is close, the rated voltage of motor should
give priority to 10kV.
10.3.3 Synchronous motors shall adopt static exciting equipment. Excitation regulator
should adopt microcomputer control, and be equipped with manual excitation current closing
loop feedback regulatory function.
10.3.4 The capacity of main transformer shall be determined according to the total load and
unit starting and operating mode of pump station, and meet the following requirements:
1 Where two or more transformers are adopted, the same model and capacity of
transformers should be selected.
2 Where different capacity and model of transformers are adopted, and needed to
operate in parallel, paralleling operating conditions of transformer shall be met.
10.3.5 Where the voltage excursion of supply network cannot meet the requirements of
pump station, loaded regulating transformer should be adopted.
10.3.6 As for service transformer of station, excitation transformer and compensating
capacitor which are installed indoor should select dry type.
10.3.7 Motor breaker with 6kV ~10kV shall be selected according to loop load current,
short-circuit current and operation short circuit capacity, and operation mechanism shall be
selected according to operation frequency .
10.3.8 In addition to those specified in this code, the selection and verification of conductor
and electrical equipment shall meet the relevant requirements of the current professional
standard SDGJ14 "Technical Code for Selection and Design of Conductor and Electrical
Equipment" and SDJ5 "Technical Code for Designing High Voltage Electrical Power
Distribution Equipment".

10.4 Reactive Power Compensation


10.4.1 The capacity of reactive power compensation and compensation may be determined
according to specific requirements of power grid.
10.4.2 As for reactive power compensation which is conducted by static capacitor, the
capacitor shall be grouped, and be able to start or stop operating in time as required. Capacitor
compensation equipment should select a complete set of capacitor panel, and be installed with
special controlling, protecting and discharging equipments. The long-term allowable current
of the current-carrying part of equipments shall not be less than 1.3 times of the rated current
value of the capacitor bank.

57
10.5 Unit Starting
10.5.1 Unit shall preferentially adopt full-voltage direct-starting mode, and shall meet the
following requirements:
1 Voltage drop of busbar should not exceed 15% of the rated voltage;
2 Where the voltage fluctuation caused by the starting of motor cannot destroy the
normal operation of other electric equipments and the starting electromagnetic moment is
larger than static moment, the voltage drop may be free from the restriction of 15% the rated
voltage;
3 Where system voltage fluctuation has special requirements, other starting modes
may also be adopted;
4 Carry out starting analysis if necessary, calculate the starting time and check the
thermal stability of main motor.
10.5.2 The calculation of motor starting shall be carried out according to the minimum
operating mode of power supply system and the most unfavorable operating combination
type:
1 Where the same busbar is all connected with synchronous motors, the starting
calculation shall be carried out according to the first starting of the maximum unit;
2 Where the same busbar is all connected with asynchronous motors, the starting
calculation shall carried out according to the starting of the last maximum unit;
3 Where the same busbar is all connected with synchronous motors and asynchronous
motors, the starting calculation shall be carried out according to the condition of putting all
asynchronous motors into operation, and then start the maximum synchronous motors.

10.6 Service Power of Station


10.6.1 The design of service power of pump station shall be determined by technical
economical comparison according to electrical main connection and operating mode, the
layout condition of junctions, and the characteristics of pump station.
10.6.2 The number of service transformer of station shall be comprehensively determined
according to such factors as load property of station service power, wiring/repairing mode etc.;
the number should not exceed 2.
10.6.3 The capacity of service transformer of station shall satisfy the possible maximum
load of service power of station. Where two service transformers of station are adopted, if one
of them stops operating, the other one shall be able to bear the load of important service
power of station or a short time maximum load.
10.6.4 Service power pressure of station shall adopt 380/220V three-phase four-wire system
(or three-phase five-wire system). Where two service transformers of station are adopted, the
busbar of station service power should be adopted with single busbar segmental wiring, and
installed with standby-power automatic switching equipment. The low voltage side of two
station service transformers powered by different voltage classes shall not run in parallel, and
reliable blocking equipment shall be installed with. As for service transformer of station
which is connected with synchronous motors excitation source, the high-voltage side and the
motor should be connected on the same busbar segment.
10.6.5 Concentrated low-voltage electrical equipment of station service power shall adopt a
complete set of low-voltage distribution board. The load of service power of station, which is

58
relatively far away from low voltage electrical equipment, shall be installed with power
distributing cabinet in the center of the load to supply power.

10.7 Layout for Indoor and Out Door Electrical Equipment and Cable laying
10.7.1 The layout of electrical equipments for pump station shall meet the following
requirements:
1 It shall be arranged according to the overall planning of pump station junction,
construction access road, terrain, geologic conditions; and characteristics of natural
environment and hydraulic structure to do layout, reduce floor area and civil work quantity
and reduce construction cost;
2 The layout shall be compact, and in favor of the electrical connection between main
electrical equipments and safe operation, and convenient for repairing and maintaining.
Transformer substation shall be close to main pump house and auxiliary machinery room;
3 Where pump station is constructed by stages, it shall be determined according to
staging implementation plan.
10.7.2 6kV~10kV high voltage electrical equipment and 380/220V low voltage electrical
equipment should be arranged in separate high and low-voltage power distribution room. The
inlet and outlet hole of high- and low-voltage power distribution room, central control room,
and cable trench shall be provided with facilities to prevent small animals from entering, and
rain and snow from flying into.
10.7.3 Where the length of power distribution room is larger than 7m, two outlet shall be
installed; where it is larger than 60m, one more outlet shall be installed.
10.7.4 Where the unit capacity of motor is 630 kW or more and the number of unit is two or
more; or where the unit capacity is below 630kw and the number of sets is 3 and above,
central control room shall be arranged.
10.7.5 The design of central control room shall meet the following requirements:
1 Convenient for operation and maintenance;
2 Where condition permits, install window or platform which can watch unit from
central control room;
3 The area of central control room shall be determined according to such factors as the
scale of pump station, automation level etc.;
4 Noise, temperature and humidity of central control room shall meet the requirements
of working and equipment operating environment.
10.7.6 As for oil filling equipment of oil-immersed station and excitation transformer etc., if
arranged indoors and the oil capacity is above 100kg, they shall be installed at separate
explosion-proof special small rooms. The station service transformer should be arranged close
to low voltage electrical equipment.
10.7.7 Dry- transformer may not set up with separate transformer small rooms. Dry-
transformer without outer cover shall be set up with safety protection facilities.
10.7.8 The upper space of oil immersed transformer shall not adopted as cable channel
which is irrelevant to it. The upper part of dry- transformer may be across cable, but the
distance between cable and the top of transformer shall not be less than 2m.
10.7.9 Where the unit automatic screen, excitation panel etc. are arranged beside the unit,
the same type of screen should be selected, and inline layout should be adopted.

59
10.7.10 Concentration compensatory high voltage capacitor should be set up in separate
capacitor rooms.
10.7.11 The cables in central control room, main pump house and high and low-voltage
power distribution room shall be laid on the bracket of cable or on the inside bracket of cable
trench. Cable trench shall be installed with high strength, light quality, and fireproof cover
plates convenient for moving.
Where weak-current cables for microcomputer protection, computer supervision and
control systems, and video monitoring system etc. are laid with power cable side by side, they
shall be far away from each other within reasonable range.
10.7.12 Drainage facility shall be installed in cable trench, and the drainage slope should not
be less than 2%. The inlet and outlet of cable pipe shall adopt measures to prevent water from
coming into the pipe.
10.7.13 As for outdoor direct-buried cables, the buried depth should not be less than 0.7m.
Where the thickness of frozen soil layer is greater than 0.7m, measures to prevent damages of
cable shall be adopted.
10.7.14 In addition to those specified in this code, the cable laying shall meet relevant codes
of the current national standard GB 50217 "Code for Design of Cables of Electric Work".

10.8 Fire Fighting of Electrical Equipment


10.8.1 Buildings on the ground of station area, outdoor electrical equipment surroundings
and main pump house, auxiliary machinery room shall all be installed with fire hydrants.
10.8.2 As for oil-immersed transformers with 2500kg above oil capacity, the net distance
between them shall meet the following requirements:
1 Where the voltage is 35kV and below, it shall not be less than 5m;
2 Where the voltage is 110 kV, it shall not be less than 8m;
3 Where the voltage is 220kV, it shall not be less than 10m.
10.8.3 Where the fire break between two adjacent oil-immersed transformers cannot meet
the requirements, fire shall all be installed with. The top of partition shall all not be lower than
the elevation of the top of expansion tank of transformer, and the wall length shall not be less
than the sum of both ends of transformer oil-storing sump plus 0.5 m respectively.
10.8.4 Oil-immersed transformer with unit oil capacity is greater than 1000 kg and other
oil-filled electrical equipments shall be installed with oil-storing sump and public oil basin,
and service transformer of station with unit set oil capacity is greater than 100 kg and other oil
filling equipments shall be installed with oil sump or oil-blocking bar.
10.8.5 Power cable and control cable shall be laid in layers. The cable stories in the way of
non-flame retardance layering shall be adopted with the clapboard (to separate the cable
stories) whose fire resistance is not less than 0.5h.
10.8.6 The following positions of cable tunnel and channel shall be installed with fire
separation facilities:
1 Where it is through the external wall of pump house;
2 Where it is through control room and electrical equipment room;
3 Branches of public main channels;
4 Per 150 m between power supply cable and control cable tunnel.
10.8.7 Fire separation object shall adopt non- incendiary material, and the fire endurance

60
shall not be less than 0.75 h.
10.8.8 The power supply of firefighting equipments shall be designed according to
second-class load, and adopt separate power supply loops.
10.8.9 Fire-fighting controlling equipments should be installed in central control room, and
where adopt fire pump to supply water, fire pump initiate button shall be installed beside fire
hydrant.

10.9 Over Voltage Protection and Earthing Equipment


10.9.1 Important facilities such as outdoor power distribution equipment, overhead inlet
wire, bus-bar bridge, open-air oil tank etc., shall all be installed with protective equipments
against direct lightning strokes.
10.9.2 On the roof of pump house, frames of transformer, frames of high voltage electrical
equipments with 35kV or below shall not be installed with lightning arresters.
10.9.3 Reinforced concrete structure main pump house, central control room, power
distribution room, oil purification room, large electrical equipment repairing room etc., may
not set up with special protective equipments against direct lightning strokes, but the steel
bars on the roof of building shall be welded as a grid, and connected with earthing grid. The
metal member, metallic protection grid, metal shell of equipments, metal sheet of cable etc.,
shall all be earthed reliably, and connected with the general earthing grid.
10.9.4 In the power grid directly earthed on the neutral point of 1kv or lower level, the
metal shell of power equipment should be connected with grounded neutral wire (null line)of
transformer.
10.9.5 As for motor which is directly connected with overhead line shall be installed with
arrester and capacitor bank on busbar. Where the distance between arrester, capacitor bank
and motors is more than 50m, a set of arresters shall be installed additionally on terminal of
inlet wire. As for motor whose neutral point is with outgoing lines, an arrester shall be
installed additionally at the neutral point. Special arrester which can protect rotating motor
shall be selected. In the inlet wire segment of overhead line, corresponding coil-in protective
equipments which can protect rotating motor shall be installed additionally.
10.9.6 Pump station shall install safety earthing equipment which can protect the safety of
human and equipments. Earthing equipment shall make the best of the metal pieces such as
steel bars, penstocks, gate slots, trashrack slot, and other metal constructions etc. as well as
natural earthed bodies which are directly buried into the ground. Where the earthing
resistance of natural earthed bodies can perennially meet the relevant requirements, artificial
earthed bodies should not be set up additionally; otherwise, artificial earth equipments shall
be set up additionally. Earthing bodies shall be welded to connect with each other.
10.9.7 The connecting points between natural earthed bodies and artificial earthing grid
shall not be less than 2, and the joints shall be set up with earthmeter well.
10.9.8 As for low current earthing systems, the earthing resistance value of earthing
equipment should not exceed 4. As for pump stations which use computer control to connect
with earthing system, the earthing resistance value should not exceed 1. As for heavy
current earthing systems, the ground resistance value of earthing equipment shall be
calculated according to the following formula:

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2000
R (10.9.8)
I
Where,
R Earthing resistance value of earthing equipment ();
I Earthing short-circuit current which is used for calculation and flows through the
earthing equipment, (A).
Independent lightning arrester (line) should be installed with independent earthing
equipment. In high soil resistivity areas, it may be connected with main earthing grid, but the
length of connecting wire in the ground shall not be less than 15m.
10.9.9 In addition to those specified in this Section, the over voltage protection and earthing
equipments for pump station shall also meet the relevant requirements of the current national
standards GBJ 64 "Codes for Design of Over-voltage Protection of Industry and Civil Power
Equipments" and GBJ65 "Codes for Design of Earthing (Earthing) of Industrial and Civil
Electric System "

10.10 Lighting
10.10.1 Pump station shall install normal operation lighting, emergency lighting and
necessary safety lighting equipments.
10.10.2 The power supply of operating lighting shall be supplied by 380/220V three-phase
four-wire system (or three-phase five-wire system) of station service electrical system, and the
voltage of lighting equipment should adopt AC 220V; emergency lighting power supply shall
be supplied by storage battery or other fixed and reliable power supply. Where the installation
height is less than 2.5m, the measures to avoid electric shock shall be taken or
12V~36Vsafety voltage lighting shall be adopted.
10.10.3 The minimum lighting standard values at places in pump station shall comply with
those specified in Table 10.10.3
Table 10.10.3 The Minimum Lighting Standard Values of Various Places of Pump station
Location of workplace Name of working Specified Operating lighting (lx) Emergency
area lighting Mixed General lighting (lx)
working plane

1 Main pump house and auxiliary machinery room

1. Main pump house(no natural Layout of 0.8 m above 500 150 10


lighting) equipment and horizontal plane
servicing area

2. Main pump room(with natural Layout of 0.8 m above 300 100 10


lighting) equipment and horizontal plane
servicing area

3. Central control room (within Watch hand Vertical plane 200 30


range main ring) operation screen of watch hand 500
platform on on control panel
control panel , and horizontal
attendant console plane of control
desk console

4. Relay protection panel room, Front screen and 0.8 m above 100 5

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control board back screen horizontal plane

5. Computer room, On equipment 0.8 m above 200 10


communication room horizontal plane

6. High and low voltage electrical Layout of 0.8 m above 75 3


equipments, busbar room and equipment and horizontal plane
transformer room servicing area

7. Electrical laboratory 0.8 m above 300 100


horizontal plane

8. Machine repairing room Layout of 0.8 m above 200 60


equipment and horizontal plane
servicing area

9. Main stairway and passage ground 10 0.5

2 Outdoor

1. 35kV and above electrical Vertical plane 5


equipment

2. Main passage and lane ground 1

3. Hydraulic structure ground 5

10.10.4 The lighting inside and outside pump station shall adopt new type light fixture with
good optical property and energy conservation characteristics, and the installed light fixtures
shall be easy for repair and replacement.
10.10.5 As for places where personnel are still working and those main passages operating
personnel may walk through after normal operation lighting doesn't work, shall all be
installed with emergency lighting.

10.11 Protective Relaying and Automatic Security Equipment


10.11.1 The power equipments and feeder line of pump station shall be installed with main
protection and backup protection. Where the main protection or breaker fail to act, the failure
shall be respectively cut off by the own backup protection of the component or the protective
equipment of adjacent component.
10.11.2 Relay protective equipment shall meet the requirements of reliability, selectivity,
excitability and rapidity. The time limit range of the action of protective equipment may be
0.5s~0.7s; where microcomputer protective equipment is adopted, it may be 0.3s~0.4s.
10.11.3 The sensitivity coefficient of protective equipment shall be calculated and
determined according to the most unfavorable operating mode and failure mode, the
sensitivity coefficient Km shall not be less than those specified values in Table 10.11.3.
Table 10.11.3 Sensitivity Coefficient of Protective Equipment
Protection type Constituent element Sensitivity Remarks
coefficient

Transformer, motor longitudinal Spill current element 2


differential protection

Transformer, motor line current Current element 2


quick break protection

Current protection or voltage Current element and 1.3~1.5 May be 1.2 where backup protection
protection voltage element

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Backup protection Current voltage element 1.5 Calculated according to terminals of
adjacent protection area

Zero sequence current protection Current element 1.5

10.11.4 The inlet wire of busbar of main motor voltage of pump station shall install the
following protections:
1 With time limit current quick-breaking protection. The setting value shall exceed the
current value where one unit starts, other units operate in normal and station service power of
is full load; and it acts on the disconnection of inlet wire-breaker. Where the busbar is
equipped with segment breaker, it may be installed with time limited current quick break, and
it delays a time limited move compared with the bus coupler breaker;
2 With time limit low voltage protection. The voltage setting value shall be 40% ~50%
of rated voltage; the time limit should be 1s, and the inlet-wire breaker shall be disconnected;
3 Busbar single-phase earthing fault shall act on signal.
10.11.5 For the short circuit between motors, the following protection modes shall be
adopted:
1 Motor with a rated capacity of 2000 kW or more shall adopt longitudinal differential
protection equipment
2 Motor with a rated capacity of below 2000 kW shall adopt two-phase current quick
break protection equipment. Where two-phase current quick break protecting equipment
cannot meet the requirements of sensitivity coefficient, it shall adopt longitudinal differential
protection equipment. The above-mentioned protective equipments shall all act on the
disconnection of motor breakers.
10.11.6 Motor shall install low voltage protection. The voltage setting value shall be 40%
~50% of rated voltage; the time limit should be 1s, and it shall act on the disconnection of
motor breaker.
10.11.7 As for motor single-phase earth fault, where the earthing current is bigger than 5A,
selective single phase earth-fault protection shall be installed. Where the single-phase earthing
current is not bigger than 10A, it may act on the disconnected motor breaker or signal; where
the single-phase earthing current is greater than 10A, it shall act on the disconnection of
motor breaker.
10.11.8 Motor shall be installed with overload protection. Overload protection of
synchronous motors shall be with two stages of time limit: the first limit shall act on signal,
and the second one shall act on the disconnection of breaker. The overload protection of
asynchronous motor should act on signal or may be on the disconnection of motor breaker.
The action time limit shall all not exceed the starting time of unit or lock it up where the unit
starts.
10.11.9 Synchronous motors shall be installed with step-out and excitation loss protection.
Loss synchronism protection shall be provided with time limit breaker to disconnect motors
Excitation loss protection shall instantaneously disconnect motor breaker and loss
synchronism protection may adopt one of the following manners:
1 AC component appeared in reaction rotor loop;
2 The variation of phase angle between reaction stator voltage and current;
3 The motor whose short-circuit ratio is 0.8 or above shall adopt reaction stator
overload

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10.11.10 Unit shall be installed with protection of bearing temperature increase and too high.
Temperature rise acts on signal, and too high temperature acts on the disconnection of motor
breaker.
10.11.11 Special power supply line for pump station shall not set up with automatic
reclosing equipment.
10.11.12 Automatically operating emergency power supply for station service power shall
meet the following requirements:
1 Where any segment of low voltage busbar has lost voltage, it shall be able to work;
2 Electrical lock or mechanical lock shall be installed, and after the power supply of
busbar is cut off, emergency power supply may be allow to operate.
3 The automatically operate equipment of emergency power supply shall only be
operated once.
10.11.13 The protective equipment of reversible motor for pump station, station and
transformer combination receiving substation and static capacitor shall meet the relevant
requirements of the current national standard GB 50062 "Codes for Design of Relay
Protection and Automatic Equipment of Power Equipment"

10.12 Auto-control and Signal System


10.12.1 The degree of automation of pump station and scope of telemechanization shall be
determined according to requirements of pump station dispatch and operation management.
10.12.2 Large, medium size pump station shall adopt computer supervision and control
systems to control according to the control mode of "no man is on duty (little man watching)".
10.12.3 Where the main set of pump station and auxiliary equipment are designed as
automatic control, it shall meet the following requirements:
1 A command pulse shall be used to start and stop the unit in the specified sequence,
and give off signal indication at the same time;
2 Auxiliary equipment of unit including oil, gasses, water system etc., all of them shall
be able to implement automatic and manual operations.
10.12.4 The signal system set by pump station shall be able to given off sound and signal
which are distinguished in malfunction and emergency ones. As for pump stations which
adopt computer supervision and control systems, the functions shall be completed by
computer monitoring system.
10.12.5 Large pump station should installed with video monitoring system to monitor
operational state of major equipments such as unit, depressurization station, gate, auxiliary
machinery, etc.

10.13 Measuring Meter


10.13.1 High-voltage asynchronous motor of pump station shall be installed with active
power meter, amperemeter or multifunctional meter. Stator loop of high voltage synchronous
motor shall be installed with amperemeter, active power meter, reactive voltampere meter,
power factor meter, active kW hour meter and reactive component meter. Rotor loop shall be
installed with excitation current meter and excitation voltage meter, and power factor meter
may also be installed in central control room. As for electric machine loop of installing,
designing, measuring and protecting integrated equipment, under the circumstance of non-set

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screen installation, the above meters may not be installed.
10.13.2 According to inspecting and controlling requirements of pump station, automatic
scanning equipment and remote supervision system may be installed.
10.13.3 Main transformer or inlet wire shall be installed with amperemeter, voltmeter, active
power meter , reactive voltampere meter, frequency meter, power factor meter, active kilowatt
hour meter and reactive component meter reactive component meter. The unit with phase
regulation task shall be installed additionally with bi-directional active and reactive volt
ampere hour meter with timesharing metric function.
10.13.4 Voltage meter with change-over switch, which measure the phase voltage and
voltage between phases shall be installed on the voltage busbar of main motor.
10.13.5 The general loop of static capacitor equipment shall set up with amperemeter in
split phase, only one amperemeter may be set up in grouping loop. The general loop shall be
installed with reactive voltampere meter and reactive volt ampere hour meter.
10.13.6 The low voltage side of station service transformer of shall be installed with active
kilowatt hour meter, amperemeter and voltage meter with change-over switch.
10.13.7 DC system shall be installed with DC galvanometer, DC voltmeter and insulation
monitoring instrument.
10.13.8 In addition to the above-mentioned requirements, the design of measuring
instruments and instrumental equipments for pump station and the arrangement of electric
energy metering equipment shall meet the relevant requirements of the current national
standard GB 50063 "Codes for Design of Electrical Measuring Instrumental equipment of
Power Equipment".

10.14 Operating Power Supply


10.14.1 Operating power supply shall guarantee the continuous and reliably power supply to
load of relay protection, automatic control, signal channel etc.
10.14.2 Operating power supply of pump station should adopt DC system with only one set
of storage battery, and operate in the mode of float charging. The DC operating voltage may
be 110Vor 220V, and other required DC voltage may be supplied by converting with DC /DC
equipment.
10.14.3 The capacity of storage battery set shall meet the following requirements:
1 The power utilization capacity of the whole station where in accidental power failure,
the power off time should be calculated in according to 1h;
2 The maximum impact load capacity of the whole station.

10.15 Communication
10.15.1 Pump station shall be installed with facilities for water and electricity dispatching
communication and administrative management communication which mode shall be planned
and designed according to such factors as scale of pump station, requirements of local power
supply system, production management system, position of living area etc. Pump station
should adopt such communication modes as optical fiber, wired, wireless, electric power
wave carrier etc. As for pump station with flood prevention task, it shall also meet the
requirements of flood prevention communication.
10.15.2 The production dispatching communication and administrative communication of

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pump station may be set together or separated. Staged pump station should be arranged with
separate dispatch communication facilities, and the arrangement hereof shall match the
dispatch operating mode.
10.15.3 The capacity of communication equipment shall be determined according to such
factors as the scale of pump station, layout of junction and degree of automation and
mechanization.
10.15.4 The connection between pump station and electric power systems should adopt
electric power wave carrier or optical fiber communication.
10.15.5 Communication equipment shall install power supply which is not less than 48h.

10.16 Electrical Test Equipment


10.16.1 Staged pump station, centralized-management pump station group and large pump
station may be set with central electrical laboratories, and the laboratories shall meet the
following requirements:
1 They shall be able to repair, debug and calibrate electrical equipments of the station
and the electrical equipments of each pump station within the sphere of jurisdiction.
2 They shall be able to carry out preventative test for 35kV and under electrical
equipments.
10.16.2 Electric test equipments should be equipped for pump station which is relatively far
away from the center of electric test center or with poor traffic.

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11 Gate, Trash Rack and Hoisting Equipment
11.1 General Requirement
11.1.1 The water inlet side of pump station shall be installed with dirt blocking equipments
and bulkhead gate, and the side of water outlet shall be installed with cutoff equipments such
as flap, stop gate, butterfly valve or vacuum breaking valve etc. Where water intake structure
has the requirements of silt-preventing or water stage control, the working gate (valve) shall
be installed.
11.1.2 Trash rack shall be arranged reasonably in consideration of such factors as dirt
quantity, dirt property, pump station layout and pump type, and it meet the requirements in
Article 5.1.7 of this code. Where trash rack is arranged in the inlet of the front tank, guard
fence shall be installed in the inlet of pump station. Trash rack should be equipped with lifting
equipment, and proper decontamination measures - either artificial or bar decontamination.
Where the quantity of dirt is large, machinery decontamination shall be adopted.
Decontamination platform should be arranged with the combination of traffic bridge, and it
shall meet the requirements of dirt transportation.
11.1.3 As for pump stations which adopt flap or stop gate to shut off water, the water outlet
side shall be installed with emergency gate or set bulkhead gate after demonstration; as for
pump stations which adopt vacuum breaking valve to shut off water, the floodgate or
bulkhead gate may be determined to be set according to the condition of water stage; if it
doesn't set gate, it shall be sufficiently demonstrated.
11.1.4 Ventilation hole shall be installed in the back of flap, stop gate and emergency gate,
and the ventilation hole shall be provided with protecting facilities. Ventilation hole area may
be calculated according to the following formula:
S(0.015~0.03)A (11.1.4)
2
Where, S- Ventilation hole area (m );
A - Orifice (pipe) area (m2).
11.1.5 Pump off and closing operations of flap or stop gate should be automatic controlled
with emergency gate, and guarantee the emergency gate close and shut off water in time
where accident occur. Flap, stop gate and hoisting equipment of emergency gate shall be able
to do on-site operation and remote control operation, and shall be installed with stand by
operation power supply.
11.1.6 The number of bulkhead gate shall be determined according to such factors as the
unit number, project significance and repairing condition etc. In general, 3~6 units should be
set up with 2 sets, and as for 6 and above units, where every 4~6 units are added, and 1 set
may be added. In particular case, it may be increased or decreased after demonstration
11.1.7 Back water-stop bulkhead gate should adopt reverse-direction prepressing equipment
11.1.8 Bulkhead gate and emergency gate should be installed with filling water surge
suppressor.
11.1.9 Operational work waves and emergency gate shall be provided with anti-icing
measures in severe cold area during ice period.
11.1.10 The distance between two gate recesses and the distance between gate groove and
trashrack slot shall meet the requirements of installation and repair of gate and trash rack, and
the layout of hoisting equipments; the minimum net distance should be larger than 1.5 m. The

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minimum net distance between outer-edge of flap and pier or bottom sill should be larger than
0.20m.
11.1.11 The installation of gate, trash rack and the embedded parts of the hoisting equipment
shall be should adopted second-phase concrete placement mode. As for multi-hole sharing
bulkhead gate, the installation accuracy of the gate groove embedded parts shall meet the
using requirements of one door with multi-hole.
11.1.12 Gate, trash rack and hoisting equipments and embedded parts shall be adopted
effective anti-corrosion measures according to water quality condition and application
condition. Pump stations which intake water from silty water sources shall be provided with
silt-preventing measures.
11.1.13 The dimension of orifice of strobe may be selected according to the series standard
of orifice dimension of gate and design head specified in current professional standard
SL74"Code for design of steel gate of Hydraulic and hydroelectric engineering".
11.1.14 Design calculation of gate, trash rack and calculation of hoisting force shall be
implemented according to the relevant requirements of current professional standard SL
74"Code for Design of Steel Gate of Hydraulic and Hydroelectric Engineering"
11.1.15 Hoist room shall be set up for fixed hoist. The elevation and operating space of hoist
room and repairing platform shall meet installing, operating and repairing requirements of
gate, trash rack and hoist.
11.2 Trash rack and Screen Cleaning Machine
11.2.1 Where artificial decontamination is adopted, the gate current speed should be
0.6m/s~0.8m/s; where machinery decontamination is adopted, the gate current speed should
be 0.6m/s~1.0m/s
11.2.2 Trash rack should adopt movable. The rack may either be arranged erective or
inclined. Where it is arranged inclined, the included angle of the rack and horizontal plane
should be 70~ 80. As for trash rack which adopts machinery decontamination, inclined or
erective layout may be adopted for it according to the of trash remover.
11.2.3 The design water head of trash rack may be selected according to 1.0m ~ 2.0m, it
may be increased and decreased according to circumstances in particular cases. Where there is
ice drift and it is used in ice-drift period, the effects of obstructing ice shall be counted into.
11.2.4 The net distance between screen racks shall be determined according to the pump and
operating condition, but the minimum net distance shall not be less than 50mm. Under the
premise of pump unit is being protected, the net distance between screen racks may be
properly increased.
11.2.5 Screen rack should be made by flat steel. The Structure of rack shall meet the
requirements of decontamination.
11.2.6 As for pump stations arranged with machinery decontamination, it may select
hydraulic grab, scraper bucket or rotary trash remover according to such factors as dirt
quantity, dirt property and hydraulic engineering layout etc. Trash remover shall be of reliable
operation, easy operation and simple structure.
11.2.7 Trash remover shall be installed with overload protective equipment and automatic
operating equipment.
11.2.8 As for pump stations which intake water from silty water sources, the components
of trash remover underwater shall be provided with wear-resisting and silt-preventing

69
measures.

11.3 Flap and Stop Gate


11.3.1 The selection of flap and stop gate shall be determined according to such factors as
units, pump head, diameter, flow channels, automatic priming mode and dimension of gate
orifices etc. Where single pumping capacity is 8m3/s or below, integral free flap may be
selected; where single pumping capacity is larger than8m3/s, stop gate, binodal free style flap
or integral controlled flap may be selected.
11.3.2 Pump off and closing time of flap and stop gate accidents shall meet the requirements
of unit protection.
11.3.3 Under the design condition, the opening angle between integral free-style flap shall
exceed 60; the opening angle of upper segment gate of binodal free flap should be larger than
50, and the opening angle of the lower segment gate should be larger than 65. The range of
opening angle between upper and lower gate should not be larger than 20. Enlarging the
opening extent of flap may be realized by such measures as reducing the weight of gate,
adjusting gravity center, adopt emptied case structure or filling light materials into empty case.
Where measure of adding balancing weight is adopted, sufficient demonstration shall be
arranged.
11.3.4 The lower segment gate of binodal flap should adopt partial or complete empty case
structure. The height ratio of upper and lower gate may be 1.5 ~ 2.0.
11.3.5 Stop gate for axial pump unit or where controlling flap is adopted as shut off
equipment, safe drainage facilities shall be provided with. Drainage facilities may be arranged
on the gate or on the parapet wall. The area of drainage orifice may be determined according
to requirements of safe starting of unit, and the calculation according to the formula of
hydraulics orifice flow.
11.3.6 The structure of flap, stop gate shall guarantee sufficient strength, rigidity and
stability; load calculation shall consider the impact force caused by pump off.
11.3.7 Flap, stop gate should be made of welded steel structure, after calculated
demonstration, flap which plan view size is less than 1.2 m may adopt cast iron or nonmetal
material with shock resistance.
11.3.8 The hinged support of flap shall be made of cast steel. Lifting lug hole should be set
up additionally wear-resistant bushing, and should be made into oblong; the distance of
centers may be 10mm ~20mm.
11.3.9 Flap, stop gate shall be installed with buffer unit.
11.3.10 Water-stop rubber and buffering rubber of flap should be installed on the door frame,
and shall be convenient for installation and replacement.
11.3.11 Flap should be arranged inclined, and the inclination angle may take about 10.
Water-stop working surface of flap should be carried out integral machining with door frame.
11.3.12 Hinged support of flap should be made in complete set with door frame. Gate frame
should adopt second-phase concrete placement. As for complete set supply of flap, the door
frame and pipe may be adopted flange connection or welding.
11.3.13 The opening angle between free flap and closing impact force may be calculated
according to Annex C and Annex D of this standard.
11.3.14 Door closing speed of stop gate and closing impact force may be calculated

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according to Annex E of this code.

11.4 Hoisting Equipment


11.4.1 Hoisting equipment shall be selected by technical economical comparison according
to the layout of pump station, gate (trash rack) type, orifice dimension, quantity, hoisting time
requirement and operation condition etc. Work gate and emergency gate should adopt
installed hoist, and controlling flap should adopt hydraulic stop gate hoist; stop gate adopt
either hydraulic stop gate hoist or winching stop gate hoist; repairing gate and trash rack
should adopt winching hoist, screw rod hoist or electric block; where the quantity of orifice is
larger, then movable hoist or movable electric block should be adopted.
11.4.2 The design of hoist shall be implemented according to the relevant requirements of
current professional standard SL41"Code for Design of Hoists of Hydraulic and Hydroelectric
Engineering"
11.4.3 Winching and hydraulic stop gate hoist shall be installed with on-site emergency
manual tripping equipment.
11.4.4 Winching hoist should be adopt galvanized steel wire rope.
11.4.5 Hoist room should be installed with proper repairing lifting facilities or equipments.
The net distance between hoist and wall surface of machine room, and between two hoists
shall all not be less than 0.8m.

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12 Safety Monitoring
12.1 Engineering Monitoring
12.1.1 According to project grade, subsoil condition, project application and the design
requirements, pump station arrange monitoring programs such as deformation, fusion and
water stage etc., and shall arrange stress and silt monitoring programs, vibration special
monitoring shall also be arranged if necessary.
12.1.2 Vertical displacement should be measured with leveling method by embedding
benchmark; and horizontal displacement should be observed and measured with methods such
as pointing line and interjunction by arranging horizontal displacement observation post.
Working and verification benchmarks for vertical and horizontal displacement monitoring
shall be arranged, and on the firm base of observing convenience outside the area with
modifying effect of buildings on both sides, respectively one on both sides.
12.1.3 Uplift pressure monitor may be carried out by the piezometer tube which is built in
under constructions or osmometer. Monitoring point shall be arranged on the transverse
monitoring segment which is perpendicular to the axe of main pump house. The number of
monitoring point on each cross segment should not be less than 3, and monitoring points shall
be arranged on at least three cross segments.
12.1.4 Silty water source pump station shall monitor the position and the height of silt
accumulation in suction sump, and select a straight segment with a length of not less than 50
on effluent channel, and arrange 3 monitoring segments to make measurement and analyze
the silt concentration of water flow, sediment discharge quantity of channel and silting
condition.
12.1.5 Corresponding monitoring equipments shall be built or installed in the maximum
positions of structural stress and vibration displacement according to theoretical calculation.

12.2 Hydraulic Monitoring


12.2.1 Pump station shall install hydraulic power monitoring system, and arrange
monitoring programs such as water stage, pressure, flow according to properties and
characteristics of pump station.
12.2.2 Inlet and outlet sump of pump station shall install watergauge, it may additionally
install level sensor or water stage alarm equipment according to requirements of pump
station management. Pump station with dirt in the water shall monitor the fore and aft water
table drop of trash rack.
12.2.3 The vacuum or pressure monitoring equipment shall be arranged on the inlet/outlet of
pump and the hump top of siphoning water outlet flow channel, and the precision grade of
vacuum gauge should be selected as 1.5. According to the requirements of pump station,
corresponding pressure sensors may be simultaneously installed.
12.2.4 Pump station shall install monitoring equipments which calculate water volume and
single pump capacity, and arrange required facilities which demarcate flow monitoring
equipments in proper position.
12.2.5 As for large pump station with elbow, campaniform or tapered flow channels, the
flow rate hereof may be measured by water inlet flow channel pressure differential method
combined with water column differential pressure gauge or pressure differential flow

72
transmitter. In the design, embedded parts shall be arranged according to the specified
requirements, and the burry pressure sampling pipe can lead it to the lower storey of the pump
house. As for pump station with segment pipe (flow channel), the pressure differential flow
meter may be calibrated by measuring flow speed; as for pump station with irregular passage
segments, the salt concentration method may be used to calibrate pressure differential flow
meter.
12.2.6 Axial pump station with water inlet flare tube, its flow may be measured and
monitored by bell mouth pressure differential method combined with water column
differential pressure gauge or pressure differential flow transmitter. The position of pressure
measuring hole shall be selected between the entrance point of blade and the tip of bellwether
cone, and four pressure measuring holes should be arranged symmetrically, forming a 45
angle from the approach flow direction symmetry, which are connected to form a junk-even
ring. The calibration of pressure differential flow meter should be carry out in the
manufacturing plant of pumps or in the flow demarcating station. Where the calibration is
carried out on-site in pump station, it shall select calibrating method according to the current
professional standard SD 140 "Code for On-site Testing of Pump Station" and the actual
conditions of pump station. In the design, necessary embedded parts shall be arranged
according to the requirements of calibration measuring.
12.2.7 As for pumping equipment whose inlet and outlet pipe system without stable
pressure differential supply, where pipe is relatively long, Venturi tube welded by steel sheet
may be installed on the outlet pipe to measure flow, and properly select flow measuring
instruments. Ultrasonic method may also be considered to measure flow.
12.2.8 As for medium size horizontal centrifugal pump or mixed-flow pump station whose
water inlet pipe is equipped with 90 or 45 elbow or outlet pipe is equipped with 90 elbow,
it may use the flow pressure difference and combine with water column differential pressure
gauge or pressure differential flow transmitter to monitor flow. The flow coefficient of elbow
shall be calibrated in laboratory or in pump station on site.

73
Annex A Data for Stability Analysis of Pump House
A.0.1 The frictional value between foundation and subsoil of pump house may be adopted
according to those specified in Table A.0.1
Table A.0.1 Frictional Value
subsoil Friction coefficient f

clay Soft 0.20~0.25

Medium solid 0.25~0.35

solid 0.35~0.45

Loam, silt loam 0.25~0.40

Sandy soil and silty soil 0.35~0.40

Fine sand, very fine sand 0.40~0.45

Medium sand and coarse sand 0.45~0.50

Sand gravel 0.40~0.50

Gravel and pebble 0.50~0.55

Gravel soil 0.40~0.50

A.0.2 The frictional and cohesive force value between foundation and subsoil of pump
house on soil matrix may be adopted according to those specified in Table A.0.2
Table A.0.2 Friction Angle and Cohesive Force Value
Subsoil Friction angle () cohesive force C0(kPa)

Cohesive soil 0.9 (0.2~0.3)C

Sandy soil (0.85~0.9) 0

Note: In this Table is the measured internal friction angle value () of indoor saturation consolidation
quick shear test (cohesive soil) or saturation quick shear test (sandy soil). C is the measured cohesive force value
(kPa) obtained by indoor saturation consolidated quick shear test.
A.0.3 The shear resistant cohesive force value and frictional value between foundation
bottom on soil matrix and subsoil of rock may be adopted according to those specified in
TableA.0.3. If weathered rock, weak structural plane, soft stratum (strip) or fault exist in rock
subsoil, the shear resistant friction coefficient and shear resistant cohesive force value shall be
adopted according to the relevant requirements specified in the current national standard GB
50287 "Code for Geologic Examination of Hydraulic and Hydroelectric Engineering"
Table A.0.3 Shear Resistant Frictional Value and Shear Resistant Cohesive Force Value between
Foundation Bottom of Pump House on Soil Matrix and Subsoil of Rock
Rock capacity classification Shear resistant friction Shear resistant cohesive force Shear resistant friction
coefficient C'(MPa) coefficient f

1.50~1.30 1.50~1.30 0.85~0.75

1.30~1.10 1.30~1.10 0.75~0.65

1.10~0.90 1.10~0.70 0.65~0.55

0.90~0.70 0.70~0.30 0.55~0.40

0.70~0.40 0.30~0.05 0.40~0.30

Note: 1 In this Table rock capacity is rock bed, and the rock capacity classification standard shall be
implemented according to those specified in current national standard GB 50287 "Code For Geologic Examination
of Hydraulic and Hydroelectric Engineering".
2 Parameters in this table are restricted to hard rock, and the parameters of soft rock shall be reduced
74
according to softening coefficient.

75
Annex B Calculation and Treatment of Pump subsoil
B.1 Allowable Bearing Pressure of subsoil of Pump House
Where it is only with the action of vertical symmetrical load, the expanding depth of
restricted plastic area may be calculated according to the following formula:
[R1/4]=NBBBNDDDNCC (B.1.1)
Where,
[R1/4]Expanding depth of restricted plastic area, which is the allowable bearing
pressure (kPa) of subsoil where it is 1/4 of the width of foundation bottom of pump house;
BWidth of foundation bottom of pump house, calculated according to the short side
of foundation (m);
DEmbedded depth of foundation of pump house (m);
CCohesive force of subsoil (kPa);
Bgravity density(kN/ m3)of soil below the foundation bottom of pump house, and
below underground water stage shall take effective gravity
DWeighted average gravity density (kN/m3)of soil above the foundation bottom of
pump house, and below underground water stage shall take effective gravity density;
NB, ND, NCBearing capacity coefficient; See Table B.1.1
Table B.1.1 Bearing Capacity Coefficient
() NB ND NC () NB ND NC () NB ND NC
0 0.000 1.000 3.142 9 0.160 1.641 4.048 18 0.431 2.725 5.310

1 0.014 1.056 3.229 10 0.184 1.735 4.168 19 0.472 2.887 5.480

2 0.029 1.116 3.320 11 0.209 1.834 4.292 20 0.515 3.509 5.657

3 0.045 1.179 3.413 12 0.235 1.940 4.421 21 0.561 3.243 5.843

4 0.061 1.246 3.510 13 0.263 2.052 4.555 22 0.610 3.439 6.036

5 0.079 1.316 3.610 14 0.293 2.170 4.694 23 0.662 3.648 6.238

6 0.098 1.390 3.714 15 0.324 2.297 4.839 24 0.718 3.872 6.449

7 1.117 1.469 3.821 16 0.358 2.431 4.990 25 0.778 4.111 6.670

8 0.138 1.553 3.933 17 0.393 2.573 5.146 26 0.842 4.366 6.902

27 0.910 4.640 7.144 32 1.336 6.343 8.550 37 1.954 8.815 10.371

28 0.984 4.934 7.399 33 1.441 6.765 8.876 38 2.109 9.437 10.799

29 1.062 5.249 7.665 34 1.555 7.219 9.220 39 2.278 10.113 11.253

30 1.147 5.588 7.946 35 1.678 7.710 9.583 40 2.462 10.846 11.734

31 1.238 5.951 8.240 36 1.810 8.241 9.966

B.1.2 With the action of both vertical load and horizontal load, it may be calculated
according to following formula:
1
[ Rh ] = (0.5 B BN r S r i r + qN q S q d q iq + CN C S C d C iC ) (B.1.2-1)
K
B
S r = 1 0.4 (B.1.2-2)
L
B
S q = S C = 1 + 0.2 (B.1.2-3)
L

76
B
d q = d C = 1 + 0.35 (B.1.2-4)
L
Where, [Rh] Allowable bearing pressure of subsoil (kPa);
KSafety coefficient; as for shear strength index of consolidated quick shear test ,k
may be 2.0~3.0 (as for important large pump station or pump station on soft soil foundation, k
may be the big value; as for medium size pump station or pump station on relatively solid
ground, k may be the small value);
qEffective lateral load above foundation bottom of pump house (kPa);
Nr, Nq, NCBearing capacity coefficient; See Table B.1.2-1.
Table B.1.2-1 Bearing Capacity Coefficient
() Nr Nq NC () Nr Nq NC () Nr Nq NC

0 0 1.00 5.14 14 1.16 3.58 10.37 28 13.13 14.71 25.80

2 0.01 1.20 5.69 16 1.72 4.33 11.62 30 18.09 18.40 30.15

4 0.05 1.43 6.17 18 2.49 5.25 13.09 32 24.95 23.18 35.50

6 0.14 1.72 6.82 20 3.54 6.40 14.83 34 34.54 29.45 42.18

8 0.27 2.06 7.52 22 4.96 7.82 16.89 36 48.08 37.77 50.61

10 0.47 2.47 8.35 24 6.90 9.61 19.33 38 67.43 48.92 61.36

12 0.76 2.97 9.29 26 9.53 11.85 22.25 40 95.53 64.23 75.36

77
Sr, Sq, SCShape coefficient; for rectangular foundation, calculated according to
formula (B.1.2-2); and formula (B.1.2-3) for strip foundation, taking Sr=Sq=SC=1;
LFoundation bottom length of pump house (m);
dq, dCDepth coefficient; calculated according to formula (B.1.2-4);
ir, iq, iCIncline coefficient; see Table B.1.2-2; where the inclined ratio tan=0,
ir=iq=iC=1;
Load inclination ().

78
Table B.1.2-2 Load Incline Coefficient
() tan

0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4

ir iq iC ir iq iC ir iq iC ir iq iC

6 0.64 0.80 0.53

8 0.71 0.84 0.69

10 0.72 0.85 0.75

12 0.73 0.85 0.78 0.40 0.63 0.44

14 0.73 0.86 0.80 0.44 0.67 0.54

16 0.73 0.85 0.81 0.46 0.68 0.58

18 0.73 0.85 0.82 0.47 0.69 0.61 0.23 0.48 0.36

20 0.72 0.85 0.82 0.47 0.69 0.63 0.26 0.51 0.42

22 0.72 0.85 0.82 0.47 0.69 0.64 0.27 0.52 0.45 0.10 0.32 0.22

24 0.71 0.84 0.82 0.47 0.68 0.65 0.28 0.53 0.47 0.13 0.37 0.29

26 0.70 0.84 0.82 0.46 0.68 0.65 0.28 0.53 0.48 0.15 0.38 0.32

28 0.69 0.83 0.82 0.45 0.67 0.65 0.27 0.52 0.49 0.15 0.39 0.34

30 0.69 0.83 0.82 0.44 0.67 0.65 0.27 0.52 0.49 0.15 0.39 0.35

32 0.68 0.82 0.81 0.43 0.66 0.64 0.26 0.51 0.49 0.15 0.39 0.36

34 0.67 0.82 0.81 0.42 0.65 0.64 0.25 0.50 0.49 0.14 0.38 0.36

36 0.66 0.81 0.81 0.41 0.64 0.63 0.25 0.50 0.48 0.14 0.37 0.36

38 0.65 0.80 0.80 0.40 0.63 0.62 0.24 0.49 0.47 0.13 0.37 0.35

40 0.64 0.80 0.79 0.39 0.62 0.62 0.23 0.48 0.47 0.13 0.36 0.35

79
B.1.3 Where it is with the action of both vertical load and horizontal load, the integrity
stability of subsoil of pump house may also be calculated according to following formula:

Oy x + x
2

+ xy2 y sin
2 2
Ck = (B.1.3)
cos
Where, Ck the required minimum cohesive force where limiting equilibrium condition is
satisfied (kPa);
friction angle of subsoil();
y, x, xyVertical stress of checked point, horizontal stress and shear stress (kPa),
calculated respectively by simplifying the loading on the foundation bottom of pump house to
vertical uniform distributed condition, vertical triangular distributed condition, horizontal
uniformly distributed condition and vertical semi-infinite uniformly distributed condition, etc.,
and inquiring out the stress coefficient according to the ratio of checking point coordinate to
the width of the foundation bottom. Stress coefficient may be selected according to the
requirements in the current professional standard SL 265 "Design Code for Water Gate.
1 Where the minimum cohesive force value calculated according to formula (B.1.3) is
less than the cohesive force value of checked point, so the point is in a stable state; where the
calculated minimum cohesive force value is equal to the cohesive force value of checked
point, so the point is at a limit equilibrium state; where the calculated minimum cohesive
force value is larger than the cohesive force value of checked point, so the point is at a plastic
deformation state. After calculation of multi-points, all the points at the state of limit
equilibrium may be jointed up to draw out the scope of the plasticity expanding area of pump
house subsoil.
2 The maximum developing depth of the allowable plasticity developing area on the
pump house subsoil may be controlled according to the condition that the vertical plastic
deformation developing depth under the foundation edge on water inlet side is not larger than
1/4 the width of the foundation bottom. Where the above controlling conditions are
dissatisfied, the size or distribution of imposed load above foundation bottom of pump house
may be reduced or adjusted.
B.2 Common Treatment Methods of Subsoil
B.2.1 Common Treatment Methods of Subsoil see B.2.1.

80
Table B.2.1 Common Treatment Methods of Subsoil
Treatment methods Basic Function Applicable conditions Explanation
of soil subsoil

Cushion Improve stress distribution of subsoil, reduce settling volume, improve Soft subsoil on superficial layer and If it is used for deep layer soft subsoil, still has relatively big settling volume
replacement integrity stability and of subsoil and seepage stability of subsoil non-uniform subsoil;
method Cushion thickness should not exceed
3.0m

Strong compaction Improve bearing capacity of subsoil, reduce settling volume, improve Soft subsoil with good water permeability, If it is used or mud or muddy soil subsoil, its applicability and treatment
method antivibration-liquefied capacity of subsoil especially gravel soil or slightly dense sandy effect shall be determined according to on-site test.
soil, miscellaneous fill, partial saturation
cohesive soil and collapsible loess subsoil.

Vibration method Improve bearing capacity of subsoil, reduce settling volume, improve All kinds of soft subsoil, especially breaking After treatment, conditions of uniformity and seepage deformation
antivibration-liquefied capacity of subsoil up sand, or soft sandy loam, medium sand prevention are relatively bad.
and coarse sand If it is used for soft subsoil, the treatment effect is not obvious

Soil cement Improve bearing capacity of subsoil, reduce settling volume, strengthen Normal consolidation muddy soil, silty soil, Not suitable for saturation sandy soil with fluid underground water;
pudding method seepage prevention of subsoil, improve integrity stability and saturation loess, plain fill and cohesive soil Strengthening depth should be within 15m;
antivibration-liquefied capacity of subsoil Adopted as composite foundation, cushion layer shall be set up between
pile top and foundation.

Pile foundation Improve bearing capacity of subgrade, reduce settling volume , improve Relatively deep and soft subsoil, especially Friction pile with the pile tip without imbedding into solid soil still have
slide resistance stability subsoil with an upper part of soft soil layer, certain settling volume;
and the lower part of solid soil. If it is used for breaking up sand, sandy loam subsoil, the seepage
deformation of subsoil shall be paid attention to.

Open caisson Improve bearing capacity of subgrade, reduce settling volume, improve Subsoil with a upper part of soft soil layer or Not suitable for soft subsoil with a upper part which is mixed with boulder,
foundation slide resistance stability, and favorable to the prevention of seepage silty sand, fine sand layer , and a lower part tree root etc. sundries, or rock subsoil with a lower part of a large
deformation of subsoil. of clay pan or rock strata inclination of top surface

Note: After demonstration, other treatment methods such as high pressure jet grouting may also be adopted.

81
Annex C Approximate Calculation of Opening Angle of Free Flap
C.0.1 Integral free flap opening angle (Figure C.0.1): where the front pipe (passage) of flap
is in random layout, and there is no sidewall on the both sides outside the gate, it may be
calculated according to formula (C.0.1-1); where the front pipe (passage) of flap is in
horizontal layout, and there are sidewalls on the both side outside the gate, it may be
calculated according to formula (C.0.1-2). Parameter m is calculated according to formula
(C.0.1-3).
m
sin a = cos 2 (a a B ) (C.0.1-1)
2
m cos 3 a
sin a = (C.0.1-2)
4 (1 cos a ) 2

2 QVLc
m= (C.0.1-3)
GL g WLw

Where, aOpening angle of flap ();


aBIncluded angle between pipe and horizontal plane ();
mParameters relevant to operating condition of the pump, dimension of pipe
(passage), design parameter of flap;
Water density (kg/m3);
QPump flow (m3/s);
VOutlet flow speed of pipe (passage) (m/s);
GDeadweight of flap (N);
WFlotage of flap (N);
LcDistance between plane centriod of water flow impulsive force and gate hinge
axis (m);
LgDistance between gravity center of flap and gate hinge axis. (m);
LwDistance between floatation centre of flap and gate hinge axis. (m).
C.0.2 Opening angle (Figure C.0.2) of binodal free flap, it may be calculated according to
formula (C.0.2-1) and formula (C.0.2-2) to make simultaneous formula and by numerical
calculating method. Parameters m1, m2 and m3 in formulas shall be respectively calculated
according to formula (C.0.2-3), formula (C.0.2-4) and formula (C.0.2-5).
cos(a 2 a B )[cos(a1 a B ) + sin( a 2 a1 )]
sin a1 = m1 cos 2 (a1 a B ) + m3 2
(C.0.2-1)
h1
41 cos(a1 a B )
h1 + h2
cos 2 (a 2 a B )
sin a 2 = m 2 2
(C.0.2-2)
h1
41 cos(a1 a B )
h1 + h2
QVLc1 h1
m1 = (C.0.2-3)
(h1 + h2 )[G1 L g1 W1 Lw1 + (G 2 W2 )h1 ]

82
QVLc 2 h2
m2 = (C.0.2-4)
(h1 + h2 )(G2 L g 2 W2 Lw 2 )

QVh1h2
m3 = (C.0.2-5)
(h1 + h2 )[G1 Lg1 W1 Lw1 + (G2 W2 )h1 ]
Where, a1,a2Respectively opening angle between upper segment flap and lower segment
flap ();
h1,h2Respectively height of upper segment flap and lower segment flap (m);
m1,m2,m3Parameters relevant to operating condition of the pump, dimension of pipe
(passage), design parameter of flap;
G1,G2Respectively deadweight of upper segment flap and lower segment flap (N);
W1,W2Respectively flotage of upper segment flap and lower segment flap (N);
Lg1,Lg2Respectively distance between gravity center of upper segment flap and
lower segment flap and gate hinge axis (m);
Lw1,Lw2Respectively distance between floatation center of upper segment flap and
lower segment flap and gate hinge axis (m);
Lc1,Lc2Respectively distance plane centroid of impulse force of upper segment flap
and lower segment flap and corresponding gate hinge axis (m).

Figure C.0.1 Opening angle of flap

Figure C.0.2 Opening angle of binodal flap

83
Annex D Approximate Calculation for Closing Impact of Free Flap
D.0.1 After pump off, the time of corotation drag flow and corotation contraflow may be
calculated according to formula (D.0.1-1) and formula (D.0.1-2).

T1 = [ J ( w02 w 2 ) + MQ 2 ] (D.0.1-1)
gQH

w
T2 = T1 (D.0.1-2)
w0 w
Where, T1Corotation drag flow time of pump off (s);
T2Corotation contraflow time of pump off (s);
Water density (kg/m3);
gGravity acceleration(m/s2);
HPump operating head before pump off (m);
QPump flow before pump off (m3/s);
Pump operating efficiency before pump off;
JRotary inertia of rotatable parts of unit (kgm2);
w0 Pump rated angular speed (rad/s);
wPump angular speed where corotation drag flow (rad /s), w may be acquired by
the complete characteristic curve of the pump, or w=(0.5~0.7)w0 for axial pump;
w=(0.4~0.5)w0 for mixed-flow pump and centrifugal pump;
L
dl
MParameters relevant to dimension of pipe (passage), M = 0
f (l )
; where the

dimension of pipe (passage) segment is constant, M=L/A;


LTotal length of pipe (passage) inlet to outlet (m);
f(l)Function of pipe (passage) segmental area with length change;
APipe (passage) segmental area (m2).
D.0.2 Pump-off dropping movement of integral free flap: movement in drag flow stage is
solved by formula (D.0.2-1), and movement in contraflow stage is solved by formula
(D.0.2-2). Constants a, b, c1 and c2 in the formulas are respectively calculated according to
formula (D.0.2-3) to formula (D.0.2-6).
t 2
a " = aa ' 2 b sin a + c1 (1 ) cos 2 a (D.0.2-1)
T1

t
a " = aa ' 2 b sin a c 2 (D.0.2-2)
T2

1
a= KB[( h + e) 4 e 4 ] (D.0.2-3)
4J P

GL g WLw
b= (D.0.2-4)
JP
84
c1 = QVLc / J P (D.0.2-5)

c 2 = gHbhL y / J P (D.0.2-6)

Where, aInstantaneous position angle of flap (rad);


a'Moving angular speed of flap (rad/s);
a"Moving angular acceleration of flap (rad/s2);
tTime(s);
T1, T2Duration of corotation drag flow and corotation contraflow after pump off (s);
a,b,c1,c2Constants relevant to operating condition of water pump, dimension of pipe,
design parameter of flap valve;
BFlap width (m);
hFlap height(m);
EDistance between the top of flap valve and gate hinge axis (m);
JpRotary inertia of flap winding hinge axis (kgm2);
KResistance to motion coefficient of flap, it may be 1~1.5;
GDeadweight of flap (N);
WFlotage of flap (N);
LgDistance between gravity center of flap valve and gate hinge axis (m);
LwDistance between floatation center of flap valve and gate hinge axis (m);
Water density (kg/m3);
gGravity acceleration (m/s2);
QPump flow before pump off (m3/s);
VOutlet flow speed of pipe (passage) before pump off (m/s);
LcDistance between plane centriod of water flow impulsive force of flap and gate
hinge axis(m);
LyDistance between plane centriod of reverse direction water flow impulsive force
of flap and gate hinge axis (m).
D.0.3 Flap pump-off dropping motion formula may be solved by Breese approximate
integration, Rongger Kuta method or other numerical calculation methods.
D.0.4 Impact force of valve may be calculated according to formula (D.0.4-1)~formula
(D.0.4-3).

1 1 1 SE 2
N= ( M y M R ) + ( M y M R ) +
2
J p wm2 Ln (D.0.4-1)
Ln 2 2
1
My = gHh 2 B (D.0.4-2)
2
1
M R = KBh 4 wm2 (D.0.4-3)
4
Where, NImpact force of flap (N);
LnDistance between impact force action point and gate hinge line axis (m);
MyMoment of flap water pressure winding gate hinge axis (Nm);
MRMoment of flap motion resistance winding gate hinge axis (Nm);
HAcquired acting head by the calculation of flap dropping movement (m);

85
wmAcquired closing angular speed by the calculation of flap dropping movement
(rad/s);
SImpact contacting area of flap bumping block (m2);
EElastic modulus of bumping block (N/m2);
Thickness of bumping block (m).

86
Annex E Approximate Calculation for Closing Speed and Closing

Impact of Stop Gate


E.0.1 Stop gate pump off dropping speed (figure E.0.1) may be calculated according to
formula (E.0.1-1).Among which, as for the free dropping gate of winching hoist, a may be
calculated according to formula (E.0.1-2); as for damping dropping gate of oil pressure hoist,
a may be calculated according to formula (E.0.1-3), b and c may be calculated respectively
according to formula (E.0.1-4) and formula (E.0.1-5)

2ac + bm
V = 2
(1 e 2ax / m ) bx / a (E.0.1-1)
2a

a = KB (E.0.1-2)

0 n
L
a = KB + ( D 2 d 2 ) 3 i 5 i + 4i (E.0.1-3)
8 1 di di
(i=1,2,3n)

h H
b = mg + gB f (hH + H 2 / 2) (E.0.1-4)
2


c = gB Hf (E.0.1-5)
2
where, VDropping speed of gate (m/s);
xDropping height of gate from original position (m);
mGate capacity (kg);
a, b, cConstants relevant to design parameter of gate and hoist;
,0Respectively density of water and oil (kg/m3);
gGravity acceleration (m/s2);
KMovement damping coefficient of gate, it may be 1;
BGate width (m);
HGate height (m);
Gate thickness (m);
fFriction coefficient of gate seal gate seal rubber and gate groove;
diDiameter or equivalent diameter of i segment pipe of oil pressure hoist system oil
supply and oil return(m);
LiLength or equivalent length of I segment pipe (m);
ifriction resistance coefficient of i segment pipe;
iLocal resistance coefficient of i segment pipe;
dPiston rod diameter of oil pressure hoist (m);
DInternal diameter of oil cylinder of oil pressure hoist (m);
hSubmerging depth of the top of gate in original position (m).

87
Figure E.0.1 Stop gate dropping movement
E.0.2 Impact force of stop gate to the bottom plate of gate groove may be calculated
according to following formula:
V2
N = mg 1 + 1 + m (E.0.2)
g c
Where, NImpact force of gate (N);
VmCalculated closing speed of damper dropping (m/s);
cMaximum compression deformation of cushioned rubber of gate bottom under
the action of damper deadweight (m).

88
Explanation of Wording in This Code
1 Words used for different degrees of strictness are explained as follows in order to mark the
differences in executing the requirements in this code::
1) Words denoting a very strict or mandatory requirement:
"Must" is used for affirmation; "must not" for negation;
2) Words denoting a strict requirement under normal conditions:
"Shall" is used for affirmation; "shall not" for negation;
3) Words denoting a permission of a slight choice or an indication of the most suitable
choice where conditions permit:
Should is used for affirmation, should not for negation;
4) "May" is used to express the option available, sometimes with the conditional permit.
2 Shall meet the requirements of" or "shall comply with" are used in this code to
indicate requirements stipulated in other relative standards and codes shall be complied with.

89
List of Quoted Standards
GB 50016 "Code of Design on Building Fire Protection and Prevention"
GB 50062 "Design Code for Relay Protection and Automatic Equipment of Power
Installation"
GB 50063 "Design Code for Electric Measuring Instrumentation of Power Installation"
GBJ 64 "Design Code for Over Voltage Protection of Industrial and Civil Electric
System"
GBJ 65 "Design Code for Earthing of Industrial and Civil Electric System"
GBJ 87 "Design Code for Noise Control System in Industrial Enterprises"
GB 50217 "Design Code for Cables of Electric Work"
GB 50287 "Geologic Examination Code for Hydraulic and Hydroelectric Engineering"
GB 8978 "Standard for Integrated Wastewater Discharge"
GB 5749 "Standards for Drinking Water Quality"
JGJ 79 "Technical Code for Ground Treatment of Buildings"
JGJ 94 "Technical Code for Pile Foundation Treatment of Buildings"
JGJ 123 "Technical Code for Improvement of Subsoil of Existing Buildings"
DL 5077 "Design Code for Load of Hydraulic Structures"
SL 265 "Design Code for Water Gate"
SL 379 "Design Code for Hydraulic Engineering Retaining Wall"
YSJ 009 "Design Specification for Vibration Calculation and Vibration Insulation of
Building Bearing Structure under the Action of Machinary Dynamic Load"
SDGJ 14 "Technical Code for Option and Design of Conductor and Electrical
Equipment"
SDJ 5 "Technical Specification for Design of High Voltage Electrical equipment"
SL 41 "Design Code for Hoist of Hydraulic and Hydroelectric Engineering"
SL 74 "Design Code for Steel Gate of Hydraulic and Hydroelectric Engineering"
SDJ 278 "Design Fire Prevention Code for Hydraulic and hydroelectric Engineering"
SL 281 "Design Code for Penstock for Hydropower Plant"
SD 140 "On Site Testing Code for Pump Station"

90