You are on page 1of 4

Peter Eka S (15202241025)

Alfat Cakra F (15202241038)

Faiz Rizqi M (15202241046)
Naufal Halim W (15202241077)
Word Class
(A summary of Syntax in Functional Grammar by G. David Morley)
Word is the single unit of language that has meaning and can basically be spoken or written.
Words are classified into some classes. They are : noun, pronoun, article, adverb, adjective,
preposition and conjunction, and determiner. However, determiner is not consider as a word
by some linguists. Below are the explanation of each class of word.

1. Noun
Nouns are known as a part of speech (word class) that define entities. Simply, nouns
are known as words which identify persons, things and places. Noun is classified into
two based on its identified entities form. They are concrete and abstract. Concrete noun
is a noun which identifies a real objecta physical substance, e. g. lion, human, etc.
While the abstract noun is a noun which identifies intangible matter, e. g. love, thought,
etc. Noun can also be classified based on its reference. They are proper noun and
common noun. Proper noun identifies entities that have specific reference such as a name
of a person or a place. While the common noun identifies entities that do not have
specific reference such as animals, plants, or any other substances liquid or solid.
Common noun is devided into two other classes : countable and uncountable. Countable
common noun identies entities that can be counted, e. g. place(s), sertificate(s), etc.
Uncountable noun identifies entities that cannot be counted, e.g. water, air, etc.

2. Verb
Verb is a part of speech (word class) ehich conveys action, occurance, condition and
forming the main part of a predicate of a sentence. Verbs can be inflected by when it is
acted. This is called tense. Verb is devided into some different types. Below are the types
of verb:

a. Physical verb
Physical verb is also known as action verb. Physical verb is a verb which refers to a
real and physical action or event, e.g. run, flip.
b. State Verb
State verb is a verb which refers to an unseen action, e. g. think, believe.
c. Transitive Verb
Transitive verb is a verb which needs an object. It is usually be followed by a noun or
noun phrase, e. g. find, touch.
d. Intransitive Verb
Intransitive verb is a verb which does not need any object. However, it needs an
adverbial modifier, e. g. fall, go.
e. Auxiliary Verb
Auxiliary verb is a verb which is used to form a question or continous tense sentence,
e. g. be (is, am are), have/has.
f. Modal Verb
Modal verb or modal is a verb which is used to talk about ability, permission,
obligation, necessity, possibility and request-offer, e. g. will, must.

3. Adjective
Adjective is a describing word. In a sentence, it has a role in ascribeng property and
feature of a noun. Adjective is devided into different types based in its role and where it
is placed in a phrase. Based on its role, adjective is devided into comparative and
superlative. Comparative is an adjective that has role in comparing between two nouns.
Example : my shoes are cleaner than his shoes.
While superlative adjective is an adjective that has a role in describing the most noun
in a sentence.
Example : my shoes are the cleanest.
Based on where adjective is placed, it is devided into two types : attributive adjective
which is placed before the noun.
Example : A pair of clean shoes
The other one is predicative adjective. It is a type of adjective where the adjective is
placed after the noun in a sentence.
Example : these shoes are clean

4. Adverb
Adverbs have been seen as performing a modifying role in relation to Verbs. The role
is associated with circumtantial adverbs, which are single words marking the circumtances
how, why, when, where of the verbal process.
Here are some of the examples of adverbs in :
1. Verb ~ She sings beautifully/tunefully/clearly.
2. Noun ~ The match tomorrow; an away fixture; our holiday abroad.
3. Adjective ~ She is quite tuneful/ very clever/ extremely kind
4. Nominal Phrase ~ He is rather a nuisance/ almost a teenager/ only a lad
5. Prepsotional phrases ~ He ran almost into the house/ fairly near the river
6. Clauses ~ Therefore the performance should now be better.
7. Politeness/courtesy adverbs ~ Would you pass me the jam, please.
Under the heading of adverb are also included several types of particle :
1. A phrasal verb particle has its meaning, which is typically no longer circumstatial, fused
with that of the main verb, as illustrated by off in She turned off the fire.
2. An infinitive particle to frequently, but not always, accompanies the infinitive form of the
verb. Indeed, in a senctence like I helped John (to) mend his bike the inclusion of the
infinitive particle is optional.
3. The negative particle not is often associated with verbs/ verbal phrases, e.g did not arrive,
and in this context can take the contracted form nt. But the negative can also modify other
classes of word and phrase, e.g Not a single person withheld their support.

5. Preposition
Preposition have the feature of being accompanied, indeed normally followed, by
completive element in the form of a phrase or a clause.
Phrase : in bed; from Mary; at home; for sure; on time
Clause : from what I heard; near where the bus stops
Sometimes the prepositions itself is separated from the competitive element and
placed at the far end of the clause:
Which garage do you go to?
Although all the examples of prepositions given above are single words, there are
several complex prepositions, which comprise more than one word. In the context of
contrast such as:
She went in/outside/past/through the house.

6. Conjuntion
Conjunction have been seen as grammatical connectors and are classified into two
subtypes : coordinating and subordinationg conjunctions.
Coordinationg conjuntions/ coordinatiors have purely logical connective function
principal ones, as illustrated below :
Clause : Ruth plays the flute and Jill sings; Will you go by train or will you drive down?
Phrase : Jill and David sang a duet; Stephen has washed and dried the dishes.
Subordinating conjunctions / subordinators are much more numerous and include. But
in addition to their binding function, they introduce one of two further dimensions of
meaning. On the one hand, they incorporate a circumstantial element in terms of which they
then introduce a particular type of adverbial clause, as illustrated below:
He declined because he has no money
She left after the vote had been taken
They will be relegated if they lose this match
These subordinators thus both introduce the adverbial subordinate clause and mark the
content nature of its circumstantial relantionship.
7. Interjections
Interjections are words which are used to express the speakers exclamation or
emotional reaction without further lexical content and they are generally regarded as a minor
class. They include words like oh, wow, aha, hey, ouch with expletives such damn, golly, etc.

8. Article
Articles are used to mark specifity, generalization, or universality of reference to the
entity denoted by the following noun and the words is the and a/an. For example : The title
has been agreed makes specific reference to a particular noun entity.