You are on page 1of 34

Introduction to Geotechnical

Engineering
g g

groundd

SIVA 1
Typical Geotechnical Project

Soils Laboratory Design Office


soil properties
~ for testing ~ for design & analysis

SIVA Copyright2009Proposed construction site 2


Shallow Foundations
~ for transferring building loads to underlying ground
~ mostly for firm soils or light loads

firm
ground

SIVA Copyright2009
bed rock 4
Shallow Foundations

SIVA Copyright2009
Deep Foundations
~ for transferring building loads to underlying ground
~ mostly for weak soils or heavy loads

P
I
L
E
weak soil

bed rock
SIVA Copyright2009 6
Deep Foundations

Driven timber piles, Pacific Motorway, Australia


SIVA Copyright2009 7
Pier Foundations for Bridges

Millau Viaduct in France (2005)


Cable-stayed
C bl db bridge
id
Supported on 7 piers, 342 m apart
Longest pier (336) in the world

SIVA Copyright2009 8
Pier Foundations for Bridges

Millau Viaduct in France (2005)


SIVA Copyright2009 9
Pile driving
Hammer
Pile

At Ross River Dam, Townsville, Australia


SIVA Copyright2009 10
Pile group for bridge abutment

A pile group

SIVA Copyright2009 11
Pile Load Test

SIVA Copyright2009 12
Retaining Walls
~ for retaining soils from spreading laterally

retaining
wall

Road
Train

SIVA Copyright2009 13
Earth Dams
~ for impounding water

reservoir
clay
core shell

soil

SIVA Copyright2009 14
Concrete Dams

reservoir
concrete dam

soil

SIVA Copyright2009 15
Concrete Dams

Three Gorges Dam, Hong Kong


SIVA Copyright2009 16
Concrete Dams

SIVA Copyright2009 17
Earthworks
~ preparing the ground prior to construction

Roadwork, Pacific Motorway 18


SIVA Copyright2009
Geofabrics
~ used for reinforcement, separation, filtration and
drainage
g in roads, retaining
g walls, embankments

Geofabrics used on Pacific Motorway 19


SIVA Copyright2009
Reinforced Earth Walls
~ using geofabrics to strengthen the soil

SIVA Copyright2009 20
Tunneling

MSE (Mechanically
stabilised Earth) wall

Chile (2006)
SIVA Copyright2009 21
Tunneling

SIVA Copyright2009 22
Soil Nailing
~ steel rods placed into holes drilled into the walls
and grouted
g

SIVA Copyright2009 23
Retaining Walls

Rock anchors to support the vertical walls


SIVA Copyright2009 24
Sheet Piles
~ sheets of interlockingsteel or timber driven into
the ground
ground, forming a continuous sheet

warehouse

ship

sheet pile

SIVA Copyright2009 25
Sheet Piles
~ resist lateral earth pressures
~ used in excavations, waterfront structures, ..

SIVA Copyright2009 26
Sheet Piles
~ used in temporary works

SIVA Copyright2009 27
Sheet Piles
~ interlocking sections

SIVA Copyright2009 28
Sheet piles

..in Townsville, Australia


SIVA Copyright2009 29
Cofferdam
~ sheet pile walls enclosing an area, to
prevent water seeping in

SIVA Copyright2009 30
Cofferdam
~ sheet pile walls enclosing an area, to
prevent water seeping in

SIVA Copyright2009 31
Slope Stability

SIVA Copyright2009 32
Shoring
propping and supporting the exposed walls to
resist lateral earth pressures

SIVA Copyright2009 33
Excavations

Chile (2006)
SIVA Copyright2009 34