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Pressure (p)
Force per unit area
Module 1: p = F/A
Introduc5on and Fluid Proper5es Units Pascal (Pa)
1 Pa = 1 N/m2
Lecture 4: Pressure, gases and 1 bar = 100 kPa
standard atmosphere Dimensions: ML-1T-2

Perfect gases Perfect Gas Law


Idealised behaviour
Most gases behave like perfect gases far from
their uid states p
However,
Water vapour behaves like a perfect gas
= RT
Steam at high pressure does not behave like a
perfect gas

In this course, assume all gases are prefect

Some Gas Proper5es Two Oceans Earth


Daltons law of par5al pressures: each gas We live submerged at the bo3om of an ocean of air
exerts own pressure as if its alone - Evangelista Torricelli, 1644

Gases are vary compressible: e.g. air is


20,000 more compressible than water

Source: Wikipedia

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Source: Wikipedia
Picture taken from Apollo 17, 1967, Source: ww.gkweb.net/index.php

A Third Great Ocean Standard Atmosphere

Sources
h\p://www.marinebio.net/marinescience/02ocean/mgtectonics.htm;
h\p://www.explorevolcanoes.com/Platetectonics.html

Standard Atmosphere Standard Atmosphere


Standard atmospheric condi5ons assumed for
standardisa5on purposes
Real atmospheric condi5ons vary
Interna5onal Civil Avia5on Organisa5on
(ICAO) standard atmosphere in Appendix A,
Table A.3

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F&F Table A3: ICAO Standard Atmosphere Problem 2.11