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Pressure (p)
Force per unit area
Module 1: p = F/A
Introduc5on and Fluid Proper5es Units Pascal (Pa)
1 Pa = 1 N/m2
Lecture 4: Pressure, gases and 1 bar = 100 kPa
standard atmosphere Dimensions: ML-1T-2

Perfect gases Perfect Gas Law

Idealised behaviour
Most gases behave like perfect gases far from
their uid states p
Water vapour behaves like a perfect gas
= RT
Steam at high pressure does not behave like a
perfect gas

In this course, assume all gases are prefect

Some Gas Proper5es Two Oceans Earth

Daltons law of par5al pressures: each gas We live submerged at the bo3om of an ocean of air
exerts own pressure as if its alone - Evangelista Torricelli, 1644

Gases are vary compressible: e.g. air is

20,000 more compressible than water

Source: Wikipedia


Source: Wikipedia
Picture taken from Apollo 17, 1967, Source:

A Third Great Ocean Standard Atmosphere


Standard Atmosphere Standard Atmosphere

Standard atmospheric condi5ons assumed for
standardisa5on purposes
Real atmospheric condi5ons vary
Interna5onal Civil Avia5on Organisa5on
(ICAO) standard atmosphere in Appendix A,
Table A.3


F&F Table A3: ICAO Standard Atmosphere Problem 2.11