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7/8/2014

bio (“life”) + logos (“study”)

Chapter 01:
Anatomy ____________
______________ Microbiology
The Science of
______________ Mycology
Biology
Botany _____________
(with parts of Chapters 20,
21 & 26) Cell Biology _____________
Ecology Physiology
Entomology Phycology
_____________ Zoology
_____________ Genetics
M. Bahrami M. Bahrami
UST Biology UST Biology
AY 2013-14 Evolutionary Biology Pathology AY 2013-14

(1)Cellular organization 2) Homeostatsis (3) Growth & development (4) Energy utilization
& ordered complexity

(5) Sensitivity (6) Reproduction (7) Evolutionary adaptation
& Heredity

M. Bahrami ,
UST Biology
AY 2013-14

CELLULAR LEVEL ORGANISMAL LEVEL
Atoms Molecule Macromolecule Organelle Cell Tissue Organ Organ system Organism

O

C

H
N

O

H
N
C

O
, ,
0.2 µm 6
100 µm

1

7/8/2014 POPULATIONAL LEVEL CELLULAR LEVEL Population Species Community Ecosystem Biosphere Atoms Molecule Macromolecule Organelle Cell O C H N O H N C O . 2 . 0. . . . .2 µm .

." (_________________.Franceso Redi . . . . 7/8/2014 -.) .Sexual VS Asexual -. 3 . .Balance between ______and _________ Omne vivum ex ovo.

. 7/8/2014 Unequal reproductive success due to: 1) Overproduction and competition (Thomas Malthus) 2) Individual variation . . . . . 4 .

. Evolution.record of descent with modification Natural selection. 7/8/2014 1) Population with varied inherited traits 2) Elimination of individuals with certain traits .MECHANISM of evolution. . 3) Reproduction of survivors “DOMESTICATION” Peter and Rosemary Grant: Dry years (less small seeds) – ____________ Wet years (more small seeds available) – ________________ . . others are: Multidrug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis . 5 .

hind limb . . 7/8/2014 . Balaena (recent whale ancestor) – The geographic distribution of species.Earth is 4. Humerus Radius Ulna Carpals Metacarpals Phalanges . 6 . . The rest of the Philippines are Palawan is a continental island oceanic islands .5 BYA Pakicetus (terrestrial) Rhodocetus (predominantly aquatic) Pelvis and Dorudon (fully aquatic) hind limb Pelvis and Is there a conflict?? . suggested to Darwin that organisms evolve from common ancestors.

. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Number of Amino Acid Differences in a Hemoglobin Polypeptide . Inc. . Permission required for reproduction or display. . Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. 7/8/2014 Pharyngeal pouches Post-anal tail Chick embryo Human embryo . 42 • Compare genomes or proteins of different organisms 7 . .

____________________________________________________ 8 . . 7/8/2014 . Observed evolution almost a century before Darwin. ._______________________________________________________ . . Natural selection. . Lamarckism.

9 . _____________________________ Specific results to predict general principles . confirmed General principles to predict specific results Hypothesis.a tentative explanation for an observed phenomenon Theory. •Evolution • All organisms composed of cells • ________are life’s basic units •The _________________________ • All cells come from ______________ • Molecular basis for inheritance (_______) •Diversity of Life •Relationship between _______and ________ • Life is in a ______________ state .a hypothesis with a broader scope that has withstood the test of time. . 7/8/2014 Observation Question Hypothesis 1 Potential Hypothesis 2 Reject hypotheses Hypothesis 3 Experiment hypotheses A factor in the experiment that ________________ Hypothesis 4 1 and 4 Hypothesis 5 Remaining Hypothesis 2 Reject possible Hypothesis 3 Experiment hypotheses hypotheses Hypothesis 5 2 and 3 Last remaining A factor in the experiment that is _______________ possible Hypothesis 5 hypothesis Modify hypothesis Predictions Experiment 1 Experiment 2 Experiment 3 Experiment 4 A process where a scientist conducts parallel tests- _____________________________________ Predictions . . .

. Key Dermal tissue system Ground tissue system Vascular tissue system Eudicot leaf Cuticle Upper epidermis Xylem Vein Phloem Mesophyll Guard cells Lower epidermis Stoma Sheath .guanine T.Thymine Pairing: A-T C-G . (b) Single strand of DNA DNA in nucleus (a) DNA double helix Domain Eukarya Domain Bacteria Bacteria (multiple kingdoms) Protists (multiple kingdoms) Kingdom Plantae Domain Archaea Archaea (multiple kingdoms) .adenine C. 10 .cytosine G. Kingdom Fungi Kingdom Animalia . . 7/8/2014 Nucleus DNA Nucleotide “naked” DNA A.

Comparative embryology (vestigial structures) . _____________________ . Sensitivity .Biology and its fields Producers . Life is NOT in an equilibrium state .Scientific method . Cellular organization/complexity of .Lamarckism & Darwinism . _____________________ Consumers (such as animals) Heat Evidence for evolution Fossil record _____________________ Decomposers Comparative anatomy (in soil) . Diversity of Life (__ kingdoms + __ domains) . DNA . Growth & Development Chemical energy . 11 . Relationship of structure and function . _____________________ chemical nutrients .Properties of life Cycling (such as plants) Heat . Energy utilization . _____________________ . 7/8/2014 Ecosystem Sunlight . Evolution . _____________________ .Unifying themes in biology .