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Genki II Chapter 13

Textbook Notes

1. Potential Verbs

ru-verbs: Drop 'ru' add 'rareru'

u-verbs: Drop 'u' add 'eru'

* Potential Verbs conjugates like a ru-verb

* For potential counterpart of verb , which is , it uses particle replacing almost


all the time

* Other potential counterparts of verbs can take either or

* There are potential verbs that use .

2.

When you want to mention not just one, but two or more reasons, you can use in place of
usually follows a predicate in the short form.

(reason1) (reason2) (situation)

I really like my Japanese class, because Japanese language is interesting, and our teacher is good.

Yesterday was a great day - a letter came from my family, and I talked with my boyfriend on the
phone.
* You can use just one clause, implying that it is not the only reason for the situation.

Life in this city is an easy-going one. Things are inexpensive, for one thing.

* Sometimes the clause follows the description of the situation explained.

Professor Yamashita is a great teacher. He is good at teaching, and he is kind.

* Note that follows short forms. In present tense sentences, this means that appears with
adjectives and nouns, but not with adjectives.

adjective

adjective

noun +

* When we say ~, we are guessing what something is like on the basis of our impressions

* To form sentences, drop the final with adjectives, or just drop for
adjectives.

* The only exception is with --> before

Examples:

This apple looks delicious

It looks like the weather will be fine tomorrow.

It looked like Mary was fine


* Can use with negative adjectives too, --> before

* Can use adjective + combination to qualify a noun.

* Guesswork done on basis of visual impressions, but not always, we use it when we lack conclusive
evidence.

* With an adjective with which visual evidence is crucial i.e. , we do not use . If it
looks good, already enough conclusive evidence.

4.

* Use the te-form of a verb and helping verb miru together --> used to express "Doing
something tentatively" or "trying something"

* You are not sure of the outcome of your action, but do it and see what effect it might have.

I did not know the kanji, so I tried asking my Japanese friend of mine.

My friend says that the cake at the shop is good. I will have a piece one of these days (and see if it
really lives up to its reputation)

* comes fromthe verb and conjugates as a regular ru-verb.

5.

* A statement of form "noun A predicate X" says that the predicate X applies to only A, and is
not more generally valid.

* The main idea of a sentence is limitations and contrast.

6.
* You can describe the frequency of events over a period of time by using the following framework:

(period) (frequency) (frequency) per (period)

I shampoo three times a week.