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Rdvlsioude la pr6sentepublication Revisionof this publication

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bien l'6tat actuel de la technique. reflects current technology.

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En ce qui concerne la terminologie g6ndrale, le lecteur se For general terminology, readers are referred to IEC Publi-
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Srcrrox OuB - GTNSRAL

1. Scope
2. Object
3. General principles
3.1 Measuringsystem ,|
3.2 l{igh-voltage or high-current converting devices T

4. Definitions of general terms related to measurements
4.L Scale factor of a measuring system
4,2 Voltage ratio of a voltage divider 9
4.3 Response G . 9
4,4 StepresponseG(r) 9
4,5 Amplitude frequencyresponseGff) 11
4,6 Response 11
time Z
5. General requirements on measunng systems
5.1 fnstrument characteristics
5,2 Performance tests 11
5.3 Record of performance
5,4 Routine check 13
sncrroN Two - MnqsuRrNG sysr'Ms FoR DrREcr voLTAGEs
6 . Quantities to be measured, accuracies required and requirements
of the measuring system 13
sscrro* Ttnre - MsAsuRrNG sysl,EMs FoR AT.TERNATTNG
7. Quantities to be measured, accuracies requirecl ancl requirements
of the measuring system 15
8. Quantitiesto be measuredand accuracies
8.1 Classification of impulse measuring systems
8,2 Requirementsof measuringsystems t7
8.3 Maximum frequency to be recorded/_u* t7
SrcrroN Frvs -
9. Quantitiesto be measured,accuracies
requiredand requirementsof the measuringsystem

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Part 3t Measuringdevices

l) tne fonnal decisions or agreemnts of the rEc on technical matters, prepared
by Technical committees on which all the National
cornmittees having a special interest therein are reBresented, express,
as nearly as possible, s.
an ru'lvrucrr'
international consensus of opinion
on the subjectsdealt with. _
2) They have the form of recommendations for international use
and they are accepted by the National committees in that sense.
3) rn order to promote international unification, the IEC eKpressesthe
wish that all National cornmittees should adopt the text of
the rEc recommendation for their national rules in so tir as national conditions
rvill permit. Any divergence between tho rBC
recommendation and the corresponding national rules should, as far
as possible, ue ctearty inaicatea-in ih" tott"r,

This publication has beenpreparedby IEC TechnicalComrnillsgNo. 42, High_voltageTestingTechniques.

It constitutesa revision of that part of IEC Publication60, lg62,whichdeals with measuring

devicesused jn
testsinvolving high Yoltagesor high-impulsecurrents,more speciflcallySectionEight of tEC publioatio
n 60:,1962.
IEC Publication 60-4 is in preparation; it will form an Application Guid.ecovering the use of
together with a description of calibration proceduresto satisfy the specifiedrequir-ements
for accuracy.

meetingheld in Bucharestin 1962,a generaldiscussionwas held.ssasslningwhat modificafionsand

addendawere foreseenfor IEC Publication 60, then under printing. Subsequentdraft were
circulated and dis-
cussedin Aix-les-Bainsin 7964,in Tokyo in 1965,in London in 1968and i1 197I.
As a result of
this latter meeting,a draft, Document 42(Central Ofrce)Z4, the National Committees
for approval
under the Six Months' Rule in November 1974.
The following countriesvoted explicitly in favour of publication:
Australia Norway
Austria Poland
Belgium Portugal
. Canada Romania
China South Africa (Republic of)
Denmark Spain
Finland Sweden
France Switzerland
Gglmany Turkey
Israel=-.- Union of Soviet
Italy Socialist Republics
Japan United Kingdorn
Netherlands United States of America

OtherIEC publicationsquotedin thispablicatlon:

Publications Nos' 51: Recommendations for Direct Acting Indicating Electrical Measuring Instruments and their
52:' Recommendations for'Voltage Measurement by Means of Sphere-gaps (One Sphcre Earthed),
60-2: High-voltage Test Techniques, part 2: Test procedures,
60-4: High-voltage Test Techniques, Part 4: Application Guide (in preparation).

-', by the INTERNATIONAL ( I E C)

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Part 3: Measuringdevices


l. Scope

This standard is applicable to devices and to complete systems other than sphere-gaps, used for the measurement
of voltages and currents during dielectric tests with direct voltage, alternating voltage, Iightning and switching
impulse voltages and for tests with high-impulse currents. Voltage measurements with sphere-gaps are dealt with
in IEC Publication 52, Recommendations for Voltage Measurement by Means of Sphere-gaps (One Sphere
Earthed), I
2. Object =
The object of this standard is: !

- to define the terms used; I

-_ to state the requirements which the measuring systems shall meet;
- to describe some of the devices rvhich are used.

A measuring system, which has been sub ected to the performance tests and routine checks specified herein and
has thus been shown to meet the requirements specified.for a particular voltage or imFulse current measurement,
may be.designated approved measuring system".

Specific guidauce on measuring systems suitable for the above-mentioned measurements, and on methods for
verifying their performance and accuracy will be given in the future IEC Publication 60-4, High-voltage Test
Techniques, Part 4: Application Guide (in preparation).

3. General principles

It is generally not practicable to measule high voltages or high-impulse currents directly, and the usual procedure
is to convcrt the quantity to be measured to a low voltage or current which can be handled with conventional
measuring instruments or oscilloscopes.

Most of the measurements considered in this standard cannot be made with a high degree of accuracy, and errors
of the order of 3o/oand more shall be tolerated as indicated in the appropriate sections. Some guidance for evaluating
measuring errors will be glven in the application guide.

3.1 Measuring system

A high voltage or high-impulse current measuring system generally comprises:

* a converting device, for example a voltage divider, a high-voltage measuring impedance or a shunt;

- the leads required for connectingthis deviceto the test object or into the impulse current circuit;
- a measuringcable, together with any attenuating,terminating and adapting impedancesor networks;
- the indicating or recording instrumentation.
Measuring systemswhich eompriseonly someof the abovecomponentsor which arebasetlon differentprinciples
are also acceptableprovided they meet the requirementsstatedbelow.

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3.2 High-voltage or hlglt-current conyerting devices

One of the follorving conyerting devices is generally used, depending on the type of voltage or current to be

a) Voltage divider
A voltage divider is a device which is intended to produce a suitable fraction of the test voltage for measurement.
It usually has two imFedances connected in series across which the voltage is applied. One of them, the high- .
voltage arm, takes the major fraction of the voltage, The voltage across the other, the low-voltage arm, is used
for the measurement. The somponents of the two arms are usually resistors or capacitors or combinations of
these and the device is described by the type and arrangement of the components.

b) Voltage transformer
A voltage transformer is a step-dorvn transformer designed for the measurehent of the amplitudes and shapes
of high alternating voltages.

c) High-voltage meanrring intpedance

A high-voltage measuring impedance is a device which is intended to pass a cur:rent which is proportional to the
test voltage. It is connected in series rvith a gurreqt measuring instrument. It is made of resistors or capacitors, or
combinatious of these, but it should not be referred to as a voltage divider although the elements are similar.

d) Current transformer
A current transformer is a device which is intended to produce a current proportional to the test current. ft usually
consists of two or more magnetically coupled windings. Itis used for the measurement of the amplitudes and shapes
of high altemating cun'enfs.
A wide-band current transformer can be used for the measurement of impulse currents.
A current comparator is a specialized current transformer in which a zero magnetic flux condition is detected
by means of a third wiuding in conjunction with a null detecior. The current comparator can be designed.for the
measurement 6f alternating or direct currents and has the advantage of high ratio accuracy and stability.

e) Shunt
A shunt is a resistor which is intend.ed to provide a voltage proportional at any instant to the current to be
measured. It is rrsually provided with two pairs of terminals, one pair being usedto carry the current to be measured
while the other is used for determining the voltage developed across the shunt.'

4. Detlnitions of general terms relsteil to measurements

4.1 Scale factor of a measuring system

The scale factor of a measuring system is the factor by which the output indication is multiplied to detetmine
the measured value of the input quantity or function. It is in principle a constant, but its validity may be restricted
to a specifi.c duration ot frequency range and this restriction shall be stated.

4.2 Voltage ratio of a voltage divider

The voltage ratio of a voltage divider is the factor by which the output voltage is multiplied to delslmine the
measured value of the input voltage. It is dependent on the load of the output terminal of the divider and the im-
pedance of this shall be stated. In principie, the ratio is a constant but its validity may be restricted to a specific
duration or frequency range and this restriction shall be stated.

4,3 ResponseG

The response G of a measuring system is the output, as a function of time or frequency, when an input voltage
or current is applied to the system.

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4.4 Step responseG(t)
The step responsec(r) of a rneasuringsystemis the responseas
a function of time r when the input is a voltage
or current step' A convenientform is the "unit step rcsponseg(r)",
in which the constant value of the output
magnitude is denotedas unity rvhenthat magnitude,Lultiplied by
the correspondingscalefactor, equalsthe input

4.5 Amplitudefrequency responseG(f)

The amplitude frequencyresponseG(/) of a measuringsystemis the
ratio as a function of the frequency/ of
the output to the input of the systemwhen the inpudis a sinusoid.
A convenientform is the ,,normalizedfrequency
response8(f)", in which the constantvalue of the output amplitude
is denotedas unity rvhenthat am'litude, multi-
plied by the correspondingscalefactor, equalsthe input.

4.6 Responsetime T
The responsetime T of ameasuringsystemis indicative of the errors encountered
when measuringrapidly chang-
lng voltagesor currents:
e,L - Clm

ctr : value of the input function at some specific time
a,1a- measured value of that quantity, with the proviso that the rates
of change of both the input function and the
measured value of that function are constant and equal

Note' - For patticulars conccrningthe tesponsetime and relatedrcsponseparameters,

seerBC publication 60-4 (in preparation).

5. General requlremeuts on nreasuring systems

The measuring accuracy and other characteristics of a measuring system

shall comply with the requirements
given in Sections Trvo, Three, Four or Five according to
the type of voltage o, .urr"oi to be measured.

5.1 Instrument characteristics

When instruments of standard types are employed, they should, where applicable,
comply with rEC publica-
tion 51, Recommendations for Direct Acting Indicating Electrical Measuring
Instrumentr and their Accessories,
and should be of class 0.5 or better' other instrumbnts such as oscilloscopes
and peak voltmeters should comply
with the general requirements on measuring systems given in this standard.

Note' - Generalguidanceon oscilloscopet

.ang peakvoltmelers!o be usedfor high-voltagemeasurements
will be given in the appli-
cation guide.More specificguidanieis under consideration.
5.2 Performance tests

Compliance with the requirements in this standard shall be verifiecl by performance

tests such as those which
will be described in the appropriate sections of the application guide. The results
and the inlerent accuracy of these
tests shall be stated in a "record of performance" (see Sub-clause 5.3). This
record should be retained by the user.

The performance tests usually need to be made once only, but if the system is
modified in any significant respect
(or if its performance is in doubt), they should be repeated in part or
in full. For some of the tests, it is suff.cient
for the test to be made on a single prototype delice.

The tests should determine in particular:

a) the scale factor and its range of validity;
b) the response characteristics (relevant to the Wpes of voltage or current to be
c) the influence of neighbouring objects, either earthed, at high vottage or carrying a high
current on the scal6
factor and the response. The minimum acceptable clearances to such objects shall
inu* Ue determined;


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d) tbe influence of the applied voltage or current amplitude and duration, and- of atmospheric conditions and
surface pollution, if any, on the measured characteristics;
e) the ability of tho measuring systein to operate at its rated maximum voltage or current.

Chatacteristics a/, b) and c) may be determined by tests at low voltage provided that non-lineareffects, due
for example to corona, are not involved when the full voltage or current is applied.

In principle, the characteristics specified in Sub-clause 5.2 should. be determined for the complete measuring
system. They may however be deduced from separate tests made on its individuat components; when this is done,
the methods by which they are cletermined and the results of each of thc individual measurements shall be stated
in the record of performance.
Alternatively, the performance of a measuring system for a particular test affangement may be checked by direct
comparison against an approved measuring system.
Note,-Attention should be drawn to tho fact that measurements performedat Iow voltageor on individnal componentsmay not
include various interactioneflectswhich may exist in the'real test circuit, Sucheffectsmay originatefrom the high-voltage
sourceor from diflerentcompondntsin the circuit other than by their terminals(mutualcoupling,stray capacitanccs, ctc.).
In addition, comparisonrvith an approvedmeasuringdeviceonly demonstrates for the particular
that the systemis acceptable I
test arrangementand impulseshapcbeingtrsed.
5.3 Record of performance I
In addition to the results of the tests specified in Sub-clause 5,2, therecord of performance shall include a general
description of the system, its components, its principal dimensions and other relevant parameters, More specifically,
information on the following items should be given, when appticable:

a) details of the type of ground return system and of the connections to it used during the performance testsl

b) the length, diameter and position of the high-voltage lead;

c) the type, length and position of the measuring cable and also its terminating impedances;
d) the charactetistics of the instrumcnts used while carrying out the performance testsi
e) the response to high-frequency, transient oscillations as a function of frequency and (tbr impulse measuring
systems) the highest frequency /-n* for which the system is suitable.

Furthermore, the recotd of performance should state the allowable variations of the above listed elements for
the application to a specific measurement.

5.4 Routine check

It is recommended that tests should be made periodically, or on request in connection with a particular test, to

the scale factor of the measuring system has not changed from the value determiued io o""oraunce with
b) that the disturbance level is sufficiently low.


6, Quantities to be measued, accuracies requireil anil requirements of the measuring system

The general requirements for direct voltage measurement are:

- to measute the arithmetic mean value of the voltage with an error of not more than 3o/o;
- to measure the ripple amplitude with an error not more than 10% of the actual ripple amplitude or notmore than
7o/oof the arithmetic rTean value of the direct voltage, whichover is the iarger.

Note.- ln certain cascs,it may be necessary

to detectand measuretransientcomponents.No requirementsfor this are given here,
but,someguidancemay be obtainedfrom the secfionof tho applicationguide dealingrvith impulsevoltage.measurements;

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These requirements will be met if the system meets the general requirements of Clause 5
and thc performance
tests specified show that:

a) the voltage ratio of the voltage divider or the value of the high-voltage measuring impedance
is stable and
known with an effor of not more than ro/o (but see note below).
b) the current drawn from the high-voltage source at full voltage is not less than 0.5
c) the frequency response of the system used for measruing ripple voltage is adequate and. known
to within l0%
for frequencies from the fundamentai of the ripple frequency up to five tirnes this frequency.

Note'- In the caseof high-impedancosystemsinvolving cithet a voltagedivider or high-voltagemeasuringimpedance,

itmay not
be possibleto comply'rvithrtem a).rn this case,an error of ul to 3f ts pe3mittcdifa standardinstrument,
Sub-clause 5.1,is usedfor themeasurement of the arithmeticmeanvalue,tut it ir -*y resultin the overallerror sfightlyexceed-
ing 3ft, rvhich is still acceptable.
This shoukl be noted in the test report.


7. Quantities to be measured, accuracics requireil antl requirements of the measuring system

The general requirements for alternating voltage measurement are:

- to measure the peak or r.m.s. value of the voltage with an error of not more than 3yo;
- tomeasurethe amplitude of hatrnonicswithanerrornotmore than I}Yo of theharmonicamplitudeor'not
more than 1Yo of the fundamental, whichever is the larger.

Note,- In ccrtain cases,it may bc neoessary

to measurevoltagetransientssuperimposed
on an alter.natingvoltage.No requirements
' for this are givenhere,but someguidancemay be obtainedfrom thi sectionof the application
;uide dialing rvith impulse

These requirements rvill be met if the system meets the general requirements of Clause 5 and the performa4ce
tests that:

a) the voltage ratio of the voltage divicier.or voltage transformer, or the value of the high-voltage measuring
impedance is stable aud known with an error of less than lYo (but see Note 2 below);
b) the frequency response of the system used for measuring harmonics is adequate and known to within 5%
for frequencies from the fundamental to the n-th harmonic. For rnost systems, n may be taken as 7. However,
for systems depending on meastlrement of the charging current of a capacitor, higher values (for example n - 20)
may have to be considered.

Notes1- - When a wavoanalyseris usedfor the measurement of individualharmonics,its measurjngeffor shouldnot be more than
5 /o for hatmonicsup to the seventhand not more than 10ft for thoseup to the-twenthy-Jeventh.

2. - In the caseof high-impedauce sys-temsinvolvinga voltagedivider or a high-voltagemeasuringimpedance,it may not be

possibleto comply rvith Item a). In this case,an error of up to 3ft is p-ermitted if a standaidinitrulrent, a""oi.liog to
Sub'clause5.1, is usedfor the measurcment of the r.m.s. or peakvalue.of tne voltage,but this may result in the overall
error slightly exceeding3f, rvhichis still acceptable.This shouldbc noted in the test-report.


8. Quantities to be measuredand accuracicsrequirdd

Practical dfficulties prevent the attainment of the same clegreeof accuracy of measurement for all types of impulse
voltages, Consequently, the accuracy tequirements for a measuring system are specffied'in terms of the type of
impulse to be measured.

The general requirements for impulse voltage measurement are:

- to measure the peak value of full impulses and impulses chopped in the vicinity bf the peak or on the tail with
an errot' not exceeding 3Yot

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- to measure the peak value of impulses chopped on the front with an enor A whioh is dependent on the t;me to
chopping Io as follorvs:
' if n>2ps,A {3Yo
if 0.5 ps < To <2 g,s,/ ( 5%

For times to chopping shorter than 0.5 p.s, errors larger than 5Yo shall be permitted, but no general guidance
can be given.
- to measute the time parameters which the impulse shape with an error not exceeding 10%, rvith the
exception of those which define the virtual time of voltage collapse during chopping in a chopped impulse.
Fo[ these latter'time patameters, no specifications for accuracy &re given because of the extreme difficulty of
making accurate measurements of this phenomenon;
- to measure oscillations on an impulse with sufficient accuracy to ensure that they do not exceed the permitted
levels given in IEC Publication 60-2, High-voltage Test Techniques, Part 2: Test Procedures.

8.1 Classiftcation of impulse measuring sy,rtems

Measuring systems for impulse voltages are classifi.edaccording to the number of components in the high-voltage
part of the system. One-, two-and three-component systemsare in use but the two-component system is the most
common. The relevant components are:

a) the voltage divider;

b) the high-voltage lead;
c) any damping resistot at the input end of thb high-voltage lead. Qf the damping resistor is used at the clivider
end of the high-voltage lead, it is treated as part of the divider and the systern is then a two-component system.)

The record of performanoe should state specifically the type of system, the length of the high-voltage lead and
the value of the damping resistor (if any) used in determining the response characteristics.

The following additional components normally complete the measuring system:

- a coaxial cable for transmitting the lorv-voltage output to a measuring instrument (this cable usually fonns a
part of the low-voltage arm of the divider);
* an oscilloscope or a peak voltmeter or both (but see note below) t
-= ? gfound return system.

Note.- When testing with full standardliehtning or switchingimpulses,if previousexperiencewith the particular test equipment
and test objecthas indicatedthat the shspeof the impulseis satisfactory,a peakreadinginstrumentdesignedspecificallyfor
impulse measurements may be usedinsteadof the oscilloscopeto measurethe peakvalne, Such instrumentsshould be re-
calibratedfrequently,Alternatively,suchimpulsesmay be measruedrvith a sphere-gap(seeIEC Publication52).

8,2 Requirements oJ'measuring systems

The requirements of Clause 8 wili be met if the system meets the general requiremcnts of Clause 5 and the pef-
formance tests specifi.edshow that the requirements of Sub-clauses 8.2.1 and 8.2.2 are satisfied,

8.2.1 The acatacy of the scale factor

a) The voltage iatio of the voltage divider should be stable and known with an error not exceeding l7o,

Note,- In general,when dividen of the capacitivetype are connectedto an oscilloscopeor peak voltmeter,the voltageratio will
not be constantfor the wholedurationof the impulseif that durationis verylong. It is sufficientfor the ratio to be constant
to within | /" fot the time requiredfor the impdlsebeingmeasuredto reachits IEak value,provided.that ir is also constant
to within 5"/. up to the time to half the value of the longestimpulseto be measured.

' -

,vright by the INTERNATIONAL ( I E C)

' Mar 02 19:15:32 1997
I E C h 0 P T x 3? t r ! q a=-q r f E i l 0 Q h ! Q q q 5 I
_ t y _

b) The scale factor of the oscilloscope or peak voltmeter (including

attenuators or coupling devices) should be
stable and known with an error not exceeding2%.
c/ The time scale of the oscilloscope should. be stable and known
with an error not exceedng Z%,

8.2.2 Response requirements

a) The response time requirements for measuring systems depend- on the impulse
shapes to be recorded, as
shown in the following table:

TmFulse to be measured

Full 1.2/50 lightning impulses and rightning impulses chopped on the peak or tail
lrl{ 0.2 gs
Linearly rising front choppcd lightning impulses, rise time
I lrl< 0.05Z" and
( 0.2prs
Non-linearly rising Iightning impulses chopped at 2i
I rl < o.osunJ,sl,
(seo Note 1)
All switching impulses
I rl < 0,03?i and
< 0.034r
(but sce Note 2)

Definitions of 2", To and [" are given in r E c publicatio n 60-2.

The response time T generally results in a systematic error, both in the measurement
of the time parameters of
an impulse and jn the measurement of amplitudes of impulses chopped orr the front.
However, since there is
also a random error in the determination of the value of
f, this gives an additional random component of error
in the measurement of. the above parameters.
Notes1' - Lnon-linearly rising impulseis to be approximatedby a numberof closelyfftting sfraightlines.provided
the chopping
is rapid and the last straight
line covers7ol or more of the front, the slopeof this tini so togetherwith the measured
peak value U*o* is usedto determine the requirernentson T. No informaiion can be givei relating to the error in the
measllremc'nt o,ff", For impulsesnot fltting into the abovecategory,someguidancewill be givenin ttre impulso.."tioo
of the applicationguide.
2' - For the,measurement of partial dischargesdttring srvitchingimpulses,the r-esponse
time of the measuringsystemshould
be considerablybetterthan that giveu above.However,no specifications can be given at present.
3' - The abovelimits for the responsctimg if entirelyutilized,may prociucethe maximumpermittcderror
without consider-
ing other typesof errors (seeSub-clause 8.2.1).ft is recognizla tnat under thesecondltionsthe total error may exceed
that specifiedin Clause8. This, however,is still consideredto be acceotable.

b) The response of a measuring system to transient oscillations superimposed.on

an impulse depenrls on the
frequency of the oscillation and on the shape of the step response of the system. is
It recognized.that in general
the transient oscillations cannot be recorded with great accuracy. Therefore,
corrections shall be made to the
recorded amplitudes when necessaryand the corrected values of the oscillation amplifudes
shall then be known
to within +.20% of the maximum permitted values.

In order to ensure that the requirements of Clause 8 for measurement of oscilti.tions

are met, it is necessary
that the required cotrection factor for recorded, oscillations shall not exceed 5 for any
frequency up to ;6** (see
Sub'clause 8'3). One recognized method of determining the correction factor will be grven in
the application guide.

8.3 Maximum frequency to be recorded fro,

The maximum frequency to be recorded is the highest oscillation frequency which can appear
at the test object
or at the high-voltage input terminal of the measuring system, in a given test circuit, with sufficient
amplitude to
affect the shape of the impulse. A conservative value for this is given by:

,f-",:ffi(MHz) -.*

- r s h t b y t h e I N T E R N A T I O N AELL E C T R O T E C H N I CCAOLM M I S S I O N ( I E C )
''ar 02 i.9:15:32 1997
IELb_0=!fI'3_lt .! qaqqBtt, 0 8 1 0 0 0 bI r

2 t *

c :300 rn/ps, the velocity of an electromagnetic rvave in air
H": the height, in metres, of the portion of the impulse generator being used
Ho : the height, in metres, of the front capacitor

Note' - In the caseof impulsegensratingcircuitsemployinga very -Inhigb seriesresistanceas usedwhel generalingswitchingimpulses,

oscillationsof the abovefrcquencyare untikily- to occur. s-uchcases,the maximumfrequency
may be taken as 0.1 of the
abovevalue-This also appliesrvhenthc srvitchingimpulsesare generatedby meansof
a transformer.


9. Quantities to be measured, accuracies required anrl requirements of the measuring system

The general requirements for impulse current measurement are:

- to measure the peak value of standard current impulses with an error of not more tban 3yo;
- to measure the time parameters of impulse currents. with an error of not more than 10%;
- to permit the cletection of oscillations superimposed on a current impulse.

These requirements will be met if the system meets the general requirements of Clause 5 and the performance
tests specified show that:
- the resistance of the shunt or, alternatively, the ratio of the current transforrner is stable and
known with an
error of not more than lyo;
- the response time of the system complies with the requirements set out in the table below:

lmpulse to be measured I n"quirements

E/20ss I lzl <1.6ps

4/10ps | | rl < 0.8ps

- the time to half the value of the responseis consideratrlylonger than the front time and time to half-valueof
the current to be measured.
Note,- Shunts should preferably be of the tubular type which ivill be describedin the application guide.
Shunts of otber typs may
be used if they can be shorvn to furfir the above requirements.

Guidance on methods for determining the responsc of shunts will be given

in the application guide. Note that
the unit step response of ihunts does not in general take the form of a damped

n c -:,ff@,*r14s!.ier# . -i .

i PIiRPU$T'Afil4,ri'
l ^ i s h t b y t h e I N T E R N A T I O N AELL E C T R O T E C H N I CCAOL M M I S S I O (NI E C )
' .ran 02 19:15:32 1997