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Chapter 3 & 4:

Bipolar Junction Transistors and Applications


Modified by Yuttapong Jiraraksopakun
ENE, KMUTT 2009
Transistor Construction
There are two types of transistors:
pnp
npn
pnp

The terminals are labeled:


E - Emitter
B - Base
C - Collector

npn

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory, 10/e 2 Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
Transistor Operation
With the external sources, VEE and VCC, connected as shown:

The emitter-base junction is forward biased


The base-collector junction is reverse biased

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory, 10/e 3 Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
Currents in a Transistor

Emitter current is the sum of the collector and


base currents:

IE = IC + IB

The collector current is comprised of two


currents:
IC = IC + I CO
majority minority

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Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
Common-Base Configuration

The base is common to both input (emitterbase) and


output (collectorbase) of the transistor.

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory, 10/e 5 Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
Common-Base Amplifier

Input Characteristics

This curve shows the relationship


between of input current (IE) to input
voltage (VBE) for three output voltage
(VCB) levels.

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory, 10/e 6 Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
Common-Base Amplifier

Output Characteristics
This graph demonstrates
the output current (IC) to
an output voltage (VCB) for
various levels of input
current (IE).

I CO = I CBO

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory, 10/e 7 Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
Operating Regions

Active Operating range of the


amplifier.
Cutoff The amplifier is basically
off. There is voltage, but little
current.
Saturation The amplifier is full on.
There is current, but little voltage.

Regions Base-Emitter Collector-Base


Active Forward-biased Reverse-biased
Cutoff Reverse-biased Reverse-biased
Saturation Forward-biased Forward-biased

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory, 10/e 8 Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
Approximations

Emitter and collector currents:

I I
C E

Base-emitter voltage:

VBE = 0.7 V (for Silicon)

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory, 10/e 9 Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
Alpha ()

Alpha () is the ratio of IC to IE :


IC
dc =
IE

Ideally: = 1
I C = I E + I CBO
In reality: is between 0.9 and 0.998

Alpha () in the AC mode:


I C
ac =
I E V = constant
CB

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory, 10/e 10 Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
Transistor Amplification
Omit DC biasing to demonstrate AC response
Assume Ri and Ro from input & output
characteristic curves

Currents and Voltages: Voltage Gain:


V 200mV VL 50V
I E = Ii = i = = 10mA Av = = = 250
Ri 20 Vi 200mV
I I
C E
I I = 10 mA
L i
V = I R = (10 ma )(5 k) = 50 V
L L

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory, 10/e 11 Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
CommonEmitter Configuration

The emitter is common to both input


(base-emitter) and output (collector-
emitter).

The input is on the base and the


output is on the collector.

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory, 10/e 12 Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
Common-Emitter Characteristics

Collector Characteristics Base Characteristics

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Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
Common-Emitter Amplifier Currents
Ideal Currents

IE = IC + IB IC = IE

Actual Currents

IC = IE + ICBO where ICBO = minority collector current

ICBO is usually so small that it can be ignored, except in high


power transistors and in high temperature environments.

When IB = 0 A the transistor is in cutoff, but there is some minority


current flowing called ICEO.
ICBO
ICEO = I B =0 A
1

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory, 10/e 14 Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
Beta ()
represents the amplification factor of a transistor. ( is
sometimes referred to as hfe, a term used in transistor modeling
calculations)

In DC mode:
IC
dc =
IB

In AC mode:
IC
ac = V CE = constant
IB

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory, 10/e 15 Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
Beta ()
Determining from a Graph

(3.2 mA 2.2 mA)


AC =
(30 A 20 A)
1 mA
= V = 7.5
10 A CE
= 100

2.7 mA
DC = V CE = 7.5
25 A
= 108

Both values are usually reasonably close and are often used interchangeably

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory, 10/e 16 Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
Beta ()

Relationship between amplification factors and


= =
+1 1

Relationship Between Currents

I C = IB I E = ( + 1)I B

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory, 10/e 17 Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
CommonCollector Configuration

The input is on the


base and the output is
on the emitter.

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory, 10/e 18 Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
CommonCollector Configuration

The characteristics are


similar to those of the
common-emitter
configuration, except the
vertical axis is IE.

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory, 10/e 19 Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
Operating Limits for Each Configuration

VCE is at maximum and IC is at


minimum (ICmax= ICEO) in the cutoff
region.

IC is at maximum and VCE is at


minimum (VCE max = VCEsat = VCEO) in
the saturation region.

The transistor operates in the active


region between saturation and cutoff.

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory, 10/e 20 Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
Power Dissipation
Common-base:
PCmax = VCB I C

Common-emitter:

PCmax = VCE I C

Common-collector:

PCmax = VCE I E

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory, 10/e 21 Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
Transistor Specification Sheet

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Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
Transistor Specification Sheet

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Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
Transistor Terminal Identification

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Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
Biasing

Biasing: The DC voltages applied to a transistor in


order to turn it on so that it can amplify the AC signal.
V BE = 0 . 7 V
I E = ( + 1 )I B I C
IC = IB

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory, 10/e Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
Operating Point

The DC input
establishes an
operating or
quiescent point
called the Q-point.

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory, 10/e Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
The Three States of Operation

Active or Linear Region Operation


BaseEmitter junction is forward biased
BaseCollector junction is reverse biased

Cutoff Region Operation


BaseEmitter junction is reverse biased

Saturation Region Operation


BaseEmitter junction is forward biased
BaseCollector junction is forward biased

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory, 10/e Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
DC Biasing Circuits

Fixed-bias circuit
Emitter-stabilized bias circuit
Collector-emitter loop
Voltage divider bias circuit
DC bias with voltage feedback

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory, 10/e Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
Fixed Bias

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory, 10/e Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
The Base-Emitter Loop

From Kirchhoffs voltage


law:
+VCC IBRB VBE = 0

Solving for base current:

V CC V BE
IB =
RB

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory, 10/e Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
Collector-Emitter Loop

Collector current:
I C = I B

From Kirchhoffs voltage law:

VCE = VCC I C R C

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory, 10/e Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
Saturation

When the transistor is operating in saturation, current


through the transistor is at its maximum possible value.

V CC
I Csat =
RC

VCE 0 V

This approximation is equivalent to move the region below


VCEsat of the output curves to align on the output current
axis.

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory, 10/e Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
Load Line Analysis

The end points of the load line are:


ICsat
IC = VCC / RC
VCE = 0 V
VCEcutoff
VCE = VCC
IC = 0 mA

The Q-point is the operating point:


where the value of RB sets the value of
IB
that sets the values of VCE and IC
Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory, 10/e Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
Circuit Values Affect the Q-Point

more

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory, 10/e Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
Circuit Values Affect the Q-Point

more

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory, 10/e Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
Circuit Values Affect the Q-Point

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory, 10/e Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
Emitter-Stabilized Bias Circuit

Adding a resistor
(RE) to the emitter
circuit stabilizes
the bias circuit.

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory, 10/e Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
Base-Emitter Loop
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From Kirchhoffs voltage law:


+ VCC - I B R B - VBE - I E R E = 0

Since IE = ( + 1)IB:

VCC - I B R B - VBE - ( + 1)I B R E = 0

Solving for IB:


VCC - VBE
IB =
R B + ( + 1)R E

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory, 10/e Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
Collector-Emitter Loop
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From Kirchhoffs voltage law:


I R +V +I R V =0
E E CE C C CC

Since IE IC:
VCE = VCC I C (R C + R E )

Also:
VE = I E R E
VC = VCE + VE = VCC - I C R C
VB = VCC I R R B = VBE + VE

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory, 10/e Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
Improved Biased Stability

Stability refers to a circuit condition in which the currents and voltages


will remain fairly constant over a wide range of temperatures and
transistor Beta () values.

Adding RE to the emitter improves the stability of a transistor.

Fixed-bias circuit Emitter-stabilized bias circuit


V CC V BE VCC - VBE
IB = IB =
RB R B + ( + 1)R E

I C = I B
IB in fixed-bias circuit cannot change, so change in results in large
change in output current and voltage.

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory, 10/e Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
Saturation Level

The endpoints can be determined from the load line.


VCEcutoff: ICsat:
VCE = VCC VCE = 0 V
I C = 0 mA VCC
IC =
RC + RE

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory, 10/e Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
Voltage Divider Bias

This is a very stable


bias circuit.

The currents and


voltages are nearly
independent of any
variations in .

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory, 10/e Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
Approximate Analysis
Where IB << I1 and I1 I2 :
R 2 VCC
VB =
R1 + R 2

Where RE > 10R2:


VE
IE =
RE
VE = VB VBE

From Kirchhoffs voltage law:

VCE = VCC I C R C I E R E
IE IC
VCE = V CC I C (R C + R E )

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory, 10/e Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
Voltage Divider Bias Analysis

Transistor Saturation Level


V CC
I Csat = I Cmax =
RC + RE

Load Line Analysis


Cutoff: Saturation:
VCC
VCE = VCC IC =
RC + RE
I C = 0mA
VCE = 0V

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory, 10/e Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
Voltage Divider Bias

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory, 10/e Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
Voltage Divider Bias (Exact)

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory, 10/e Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
DC Bias with Voltage Feedback

Another way to
improve the stability
of a bias circuit is to
add a feedback path
from collector to
base.

In this bias circuit


the Q-point is only
slightly dependent on
the transistor beta, .

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory, 10/e Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
Base-Emitter Loop
From Kirchhoffs voltage law:
VCC I C R C I B R B VBE I E R E = 0

Where IB << IC:


I' = I + I I
C C B C

Knowing IC = IB and IE IC, the loop


equation becomes:
VCC I B R C I B R B VBE I B R E = 0

Solving for IB:


VCC VBE
IB =
R B + (R C + R E )

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory, 10/e Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
Collector-Emitter Loop

Applying Kirchoffs voltage law:

IE + VCE + ICRC VCC = 0


Since IC IC and IC = IB:

IC(RC + RE)+ VCE VCC =0

Solving for VCE:

VCE = VCC IC(RC + RE)

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory, 10/e Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
Base-Emitter Bias Analysis

Transistor Saturation Level


V CC
I Csat = I Cmax =
RC + RE

Load Line Analysis


Cutoff: Saturation:
V
VCE = VCC I = CC
C R +R
I C = 0 mA C E
VCE = 0 V

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory, 10/e Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
Transistor Switching Networks

Transistors with only the DC source applied can be used


as electronic switches.

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory, 10/e Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
Switching Circuit Calculations

Saturation current:
VCC
I Csat =
RC

To ensure saturation:
I Csat
IB >
dc

Emitter-collector resistance
at saturation and cutoff:

VCEsat
R sat =
I Csat

VCC
R cutoff =
I CEO

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory, 10/e Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
Switching Time

Transistor switching times:

t on = t r + t d

t off = t s + t f

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory, 10/e Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
Troubleshooting Hints
Approximate voltages
VBE .7 V for silicon transistors
VCE 25% to 75% of VCC
Test for opens and shorts with an ohmmeter.
Test the solder joints.
Test the transistor with a transistor tester or a curve tracer.
Note that the load or the next stage affects the transistor operation.

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory, 10/e Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
PNP Transistors

The analysis for pnp transistor biasing circuits is the same


as that for npn transistor circuits. The only difference is that
the currents are flowing in the opposite direction.

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory, 10/e Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
Homework 3 (Chapter 3)

Common-Base Configuration
3.4 (13)
Transistor Amplifying Action
3.5 (18)
Common-Emitter Configuration
3.6 (23)

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory, 10/e Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky 56 Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
Homework 3 (Chapter 4)

Fixed-Bias Configuration
4.3 (1)
Emitter-Bias Configuration
4.4 (8)
Voltage Divider Configuration
4.5 (13)
Collector-Feedback Configuration
4.6 (23)
Miscellaneous Bias Configuration
4.59 (30)

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory, 10/e Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.
Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky 57 Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.