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4, 2010

Survey on Fuzzy Clustering and Rule Mining

D.Vanisri

Department of Computer Technology Kongu Engineering College Perundurai, Tamilnadu, India vanisri_raja@rediffmail.com Abstract—The document clustering improves the retrieval

effectiveness of the information retrieval System. The association rule discovers the interesting relations between variables in transaction databases. Transaction data in realworld applications use fuzzy and quantitative values, to design sophisticated data mining algorithms for optimization. If documents can be clustered together in a sensible order, then indexing and retrieval operations can be optimized. This study presents a review on fuzzy document clustering. This survey paper also aims at giving an overview to some of the previous researches done in fuzzy rule mining, evaluating the current status of the field, and envisioning possible future trends in this area Keywords- Fuzzy set, Fuzzy clustering, Fuzzy rule mining, Information Retrieval, Web analysis.

Dr.C.Loganathan

Principal, Maharaja Arts and Science College Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India clogu@rediffmail.com databases, and based on a threshold called support, identifies the frequent item sets. Another threshold, confidence, which is the conditional probability than an item appears in a transaction when another item appears, is used to pinpoint association rules. Association analysis is commonly used for market basket analysis. Clustering is the organization of data in classes. However, unlike classification, in clustering, class labels are unknown and it is up to the clustering algorithm to discover acceptable classes. Clustering is also called unsupervised classification, because the classification is not dictated by given class labels. The remainder of this paper is organized as follows. Section II describes problem formation. Section III discusses some of the earlier proposed research work on fuzzy document clustering and fuzzy association rule mining. Section IV provides a fundamental idea on which the future research work focuses on. Section V concludes the paper with fewer discussions. II. PROBLEM FORMULATION

I.

INTRODUCTION

Fuzzy sets used for optimization result by allowing partial memberships to the different sets. Fuzzy set theory provides the tools need to do the computations in order to be able to deal with different data structure. Data Mining is an analytic process designed to explore data in search of consistent patterns and systematic relationships between variables and then to validate the findings by applying the detected patterns to new subsets of data. The ultimate goal of data mining is extracting rules and clustering the similar objects. The goal of this survey is to provide a comprehensive review of different fuzzy rule mining and clustering techniques in data mining. Clustering is a division of data into groups of similar objects. Each group, called cluster, consists of objects that are similar between themselves and dissimilar to objects of other groups. Representing data by fewer clusters necessarily loses certain fine details, but achieves simplification. Association analysis is the discovery of what are commonly called association rules. It studies the frequency of items occurring together in transactional

Association Rule Mining (ARM) is the process of finding a rule of the form X ∪ Y from the given set of transactions. These transactions contain a set of items which is a subset of items in the set of unique items in the entire database. Association rule generated implies that if X, an item set specific to the domain is present then the probability of finding Y item set is given by confidence. The process of finding the association rules involves two steps namely frequent item set mining and association rule generation. Frequent item sets play an essential role in many data mining tasks that try to find interesting patterns from databases, such as association rules, correlations, sequences, episodes, classifiers, clusters and many more of which the mining of association rules is one of the most popular problems[1]. An association rule is an expression of the form X => Y, where X and

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Y are item sets, and X ∩ Y = {}. Such a rule expresses the association that if a transaction contains all items in X, then that transaction also contains all items in Y. X is called the body or antecedent, and Y is called the head or consequent of the rule.To illustrate the concepts, for example from the supermarket domain. The support of an association rule X => Y in D, is the support of X U Y in D, and similarly, the frequency of the rule is the frequency of X U Y. An association rule is called frequent if its support (frequency) exceeds a given minimal support (frequency) threshold σ. The confidence or accuracy of an association rule X => Y in D is the conditional probability of having Y contained in a transaction, given that X is contained in that transaction:

(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 8, No. 4, 2010

properties of the four most usual kinds of implications: S-, R-,QL-, and D-implications. This is done for the properly fuzzy environment (implications defined on [0,1]) as well as for the discrete case, which is increasingly studied because it allows to avoid numerical interpretations of the linguistic variables used in fuzzy techniques.

C.Y. Suen et al., [3] Handwriting recognition is a complex and important problem. Recognition of handwriting is important for automatic document processing functions such as mail sorting and check reading. Recognition of isolated handwritten digits is no longer a significant research problem. Paul D. Gader and James M. Keller [4] introduced fuzzy set theory to handwriting recognition and suggested a new application to handwritten word recognition. Now-a-days, fraud prevention and detection is a very big category in research issues. Hence need some specific solutions and methodologies for preventing fraud. Mirjana[5] based on science database, fraud prevention has been conducted due to problem domains, fraud detection and prevention are diversified which is indicated by research articles survey. In this work, following applications areas were detected and described: telecommunications, insurance, auditing, medical care, credit card transactions, e-business, bid pricing and identity verification. Fuzzy clustering is a widely applied method for obtaining fuzzy models from data. It has been applied successfully in various fields including finance and marketing. Fuzzy set theory was initially applied to clustering in [6]. The book by Bezdek [7] is a good source for material on fuzzy clustering. The most popular fuzzy clustering algorithm is the fuzzy c-means (FCM) algorithm. The design of membership functions is the most important problem in fuzzy clustering. Different choices include those based on similarity decomposition and centroids of clusters. Eduardo Raul Hruschka et al., [8] gives survey on evolutionary algorithms for clustering. They proposed hard partition algorithms, though overlapping (soft/fuzzy) approaches and discussed key issues on the design of evolutionary algorithms for data partitioning problems, such as usually adopted representations, evolutionary operators, and fitness functions. In particular, mutation and crossover operators commonly described in the literature are conceptually analyzed, giving especial emphasis to those genetic operators specifically designed for clustering problems. Chin-Teng Lin and Ya-Ching Lu,[9] Introduced a system, that has fuzzy supervised learning capability. With fuzzy supervised learning, it has been used for a

confidence (X ⇒ Y, D) =P(Y/X)

P( Y X = support(X ) ∪Y D support(X , ) , D )

The rule is called confident if P(Y|X) exceeds a given minimal confidence threshold γ, with 0 < γ < 1. Based on classical association rule mining, a new approach has been developed expanding it by using fuzzy sets. The clustering problem is expressed as follows: The set of N documents D = {D1,D2,...DN} is to be clustered. Each DiεUNd is an attribute vector consisting of Nd real measurements describing the object. The documents are to be grouped into non-overlapping clusters C = {C1,C2,...CN} (C is known as a clustering), where, K is the number of clusters, C1∪C2∪...∪CK, Ci≠φ and C1∩C2 = φ for i≠j. Assuming f: DxD→U+ is a measure of similarity between document feature vectors. Clustering is the task of finding a partition {C1,C2,...,CK} of D such that ∀i, j∈{1,...K}, j≠i, ∀x∈Ci: f(x,Oi)≥f(x,Oj) where, Oi is one cluster representative of cluster Ci. The goal of clustering is stated as follows: Given: • A set of documents D = {D1,D2,...DN} • A desired number of clusters K • An objective function or fitness function that evaluates the quality of a clustering, the system has to compute an assignment g: D→(1,2,...,K} and maximizes the objective function. III. RELATED WORK

One of the key operations in fuzzy logic and approximate reasoning is the fuzzy implication, which is usually performed by a binary operator, called an implication function or, simply, an implication. M. Mas, et.al.,[2] tries to compile the main basic theoretical

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fuzzy expert system, fuzzy system modeling or rule base concentration. It has been also used for an adaptive fuzzy controller, when learning with numerical values. Raghu Krishnapuram et al.,[10] presented new relational fuzzy clustering algorithms based on the idea of medoids. The worst case complexity of the algorithms was, which happens while updating the medoids in each iteration. This complexity compares very favorably with other fuzzy algorithms for relational clustering. These approach were useful in Web mining applications such as categorization of Web documents, snippets, and user sessions. Chun-Hao Chen et al.,[11] put forward new view called cluster-based fuzzy-genetic mining algorithm for extracting both fuzzy association rules and membership functions from quantitative transactions. It can dynamically adjust membership functions by genetic algorithms and uses them to fuzzify quantitative transactions. It can also speed up the evaluation process and keep nearly the same quality of solutions by clustering chromosomes. Each chromosome represents a set of membership functions used in fuzzy mining. This algorithm first divides the chromosomes in a population into k clusters by using the k-means clustering approach. All the chromosomes in a cluster then use the number of large 1-itemsets derived from the representative chromosome in the cluster and their own suitability of membership functions to calculate the fitness values. The evaluation cost can thus be reduced due to the timesaving in finding 1-itemsets. Hongwel Chen et.al [12], presented a general fuzzy trust problem domain for P2P-based system, and compare Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation method, Fuzzy Rankordering method, and Fuzzy Inference method through a concrete paradigm. In this paradigm, they had applied algorithm to Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation Method for P2P-based trust system, and Blin algorithm to that of Fuzzy Rank-ordering Method, and Mamdani algorithm to that of Fuzzy Inference Method. Results demonstrate that different fuzzy trust method for P2P-based system may deduce different fuzzy results. Zhongze Fan and Minchao Huang, [13] specially makes extension of the conception of the fuzzy rule that the reasoning result may be any of all classes with different degrees though the premise is similar, thus the contradictions among the fuzzy rules can be completely resolved though there are overlaps among the hyper spheres. This idea can be applied for the fault diagnosis fields but also can be used for automata, signal treatment and image treatment etc. FUZZY clustering techniques have been applied effectively in image processing, pattern recognition and

(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 8, No. 4, 2010

fuzzy modeling. The best known approach to fuzzy clustering is the method of fuzzy -means (FCM), proposed by Bezdek [14] and Dunn [15], and generalized by other authors. A good survey of relevant works on the subject can be found in [16]. In FCM, membership functions are defined based on a distance function, and membership degrees express proximities of entities to cluster centers. By choosing a suitable distance function different cluster shapes can be identified [17]–[22]. Another approach to fuzzy clustering due to Krishnapuram and Keller [23] is the possibilistic-means (PCM) algorithm which eliminates one of the constraints imposed on the search for partitions leading to possibilistic (absolute) fuzzy membership values instead of FCM probabilistic (relative) fuzzy memberships. Usana Susana Nascimento et.al.,[24] introduced FCPM frame work called fuzzy clustering with proportional membership model, it says how data are generated from a cluster structure to be identified. This implies direct interpretability of the fuzzy membership values, which should be considered a motivation for introducing datadriven model-based methods. Hamid Mohamadlou et al., [25] spotted about an algorithm based on fuzzy clustering for mining fuzzy association rules using a combination of crisp and quantitative data. L. Bobrowski and J. Bezdek, [26], the reduction in the amount of clustering data allows a partition of the data to be produced faster.

Yücel Saygin and Özgür Ulusoy[27] forward to put some methods for automated construction of fuzzy event sets which are sets of events where each event has a degree of membership to a set. Fuzzy event sets are constructed by analyzing event histories. They have proposed a sliding window algorithm for mining event histories and proposed an automated rule modularization method that does not rely on semantic knowledge. Rafael Alcala et al., [28] based on the 2-tuples linguistic representation model, they have presented a new fuzzy data-mining algorithm for extracting both association rules and membership functions by means of an evolutionary learning of the membership functions, using a basic method for mining fuzzy association rules. Mila Kwiatkowska et al.,[29] reuse and integration of data from heterogeneous data sources requires explicit representation of the predictors, their measures, and their interpretations. They have described a new framework based on semantic and fuzzy logic for knowledge representation and secondary data analysis. Yeong-Chyi Lee et al.,[30] gave an idea about multiple-level taxonomy and multiple minimum supports to find fuzzy association rules in a given quantitative transaction data set. Using different criteria to judge the importance of different items, managing taxonomic relationships among items, and dealing quantitative data sets are three issues that usually occur in real mining applications. This fuzzy mining algorithm can generate

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large itemsets level by level and then derive fuzzy association rules from quantitative transaction data. Yo-Ping Huang and Li-Jen Kao[31] introduced a model to find inter-transaction fuzzy association rules that can predict the variations of events. They proposed algorithm first mapped a quantitative attribute into several fuzzy attributes. A normalization process was taken to prevent the total contribution of fuzzy attributes from being larger than one. In order to mine intertransaction fuzzy association rules, both the dimensional attribute and sliding window concepts were introduced in this approach. Heng-Ming Huang projected a new fuzzy data-mining algorithm for extracting interesting knowledge from object-oriented quantitative transactions. The numbers of fuzzy intra-object association rules are usually smaller than those of fuzzy inter-object association rules because the attribute number is less than the item number in real applications. Finding inter-object association rules thus spends more time than finding intra-object association rules[32]. Tzung-Pei Hong[33] constructed several GAbased fuzzy data-mining methods for automatically extracting membership functions for the rules. All the genetic-fuzzy mining methods first use evolutional computation to find membership functions suitable for mining problems and then use the final best set of membership functions to mine fuzzy association rules. IV. FUTURE ENHANCEMENT In future we plan to investigate various ways of constructing the new fuzzy algorithms and apply different clustering methods. We will also apply a stability-based criterion for determining the optimal number of clusters. The topic of association rules has been studied over a decade. Most of the foundation researches have been done. A lot of attention was focus on the performance and scalability of the algorithms, but not enough attention was given to the interestingness of the rules generated. Although rule mining can help reveal patterns and relationships, it does not tell the user the value or significance of these patterns. These types of determinations must be made by the user. To enhance the performance of the system we can develop some intelligent system using fuzzy technique. V. CONCLUSION

(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 8, No. 4, 2010

called “clustering”. In this article, we discussed about introduction of field of fuzzy data mining. Therefore, we motivated this field of research, and gave more formal definition of the terms used and presented a brief overview of currently available fuzzy clustering and rule mining methods, their properties and their application to specific problems. Even though, it is impossible to describe all algorithms and applications in detail, but our ideas will be interesting to every reader to provoke for their further studies. We already know that “necessity is the mother of invention”, while reading this paper, most of them can have lot of questions in them. This will strive path to have a new invention in the field of fuzzy data mining. REFERENCES

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**(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 8, No. 4, 2010
**

[15]. J. Dunn, “A fuzzy relative of the isodata process and its use in detecting compact, well-separated clusters,” J. Cybernet., vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 32–57, 1974. [16]. J. Bezdek, J. Keller, R. Krishnapuram, and T. Pal, Fuzzy Models and Algorithms for Pattern Recognition and Image Processing. Norwell, MA: Kluwer, 1999. [17]. G. Gustafson and W. Kessel, “Fuzzy clustering with a fuzzy covariance matrix,” in Proc. IEEE Conf. Decision Control, 1979, pp. 761–766. [18]. R. Davé, “Fuzzy shell-clustering and applications to circle detection of digital images,” Int. J. Gen. Syst., vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 343–355, 1990. [19]. L. Bobrowski and J. Bezdek, “c-Means with l and l norms,” IEEE Trans. Syst., Man, Cybern., vol. 21, pp. 545–554, Mar. 1991. [20]. J. Bezdek, R. Hathaway, and N. Pal, “Norm induced shell prototype (NISP) clustering,” Neural, Parallel, Scient. Comput., vol. 3, pp.431–450, 1995. [21]. F. Höppner, F. Klawonn, R. Kruse, and T. Runkler, Fuzzy Cluster Analysis. New York: Wiley, 1999. [22]. F. Klawonn and A. Keller, “Fuzzy clustering based on modified distance measures,” in Proc. 3rd Int. Symp. Advances Intelligent Data Analysis, vol. 1642, J. Kok, D. Hand, and M. Berthold, Eds., 1999, pp. 291–301 [23]. R. Krishnapuram and J. Keller, “A possibilistic approach to clustering,” IEEE Transaction on. Fuzzy System,” vol. 1, pp. 98– 110, Apr. 1993. [24]. Susana Nascimento, Boris Mirkin, and Fernando Moura-Pires, “Modeling Proportional Membership in Fuzzy Clustering ,” IEEE Transactions On Fuzzy Systems, Vol. 11, No. 2, April 2003, PP173-186. [25]. Hamid Mohamadlou, Reza Ghodsi , Jafar Razmi, Abbas Keramati “A method for mining association rules in quantitative and fuzzy data,” 2009 IEEE ,PP.453-458 [26]. BEZDEK, J . C., "Pattern Recognition with Fuzzy Objective Function Algorithms", Plenum Press , New York, NY, 1981. [27]. Yücel Saygin and Özgür Ulusoy, “Automated Construction of Fuzzy Event Sets and Its Application to Active Databases,” IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems, Vol.9, No.3, June 2001, pp.450460. [28]. Rafael Alcala and Jesus Alcald-Fdez and M.J. Gacto and Francisco Herrera, “Genetic Learning of Membership Functions for Mining Fuzzy Association Rules,” 2007 IEEE. [29]. Mila Kwiatkowska, M. Stella Atkins, Najib T. Ayas, and C. Frank Ryan, “Knowledge-Based Data Analysis: First Step Toward the Creation of Clinical Prediction Rules Using a New Typicality Measure,” IEEE Transactions on Information Technology in Biomedicine, Vol.11, No.6, November 2007, DOI: 10.1109/TITB.2006.889693 [30]. Yeong-Chyi Lee, Tzung-Pei Hong, and Tien-Chin Wang “Mining Fuzzy Multiple-level Association Rules under Multiple Minimum Supports,” IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics October 8-11, 2006, Taipei, Taiwan. [31]. Yo-Ping Huang and Li-Jen Kao, “A Novel Approach to Mining Inter-Transaction Fuzzy Association Rules from Stock Price Variation Data,” IEEE International Conference on Fuzzy Systems, 2005, pp-791-796. [32]. Cheng-Ming Huang, Tzung-Pei Hong, and Shi-Jinn Hormg, “Simultaneously Mining Fuzzy Inter- and Intra-Object Association Rules,” IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics October 8-11, 2006, Taipei, Taiwan, PP2778-2783. [33] Tzung-Pei Hong , “On Genetic-Fuzzy Data Mining Techniques ,” IEEE International Conference on Granular Computing,2007, DOI: 10.1109/GrC.2007.160, PP-1-3.

Ms.D.Vanisri has received the Master of Science in Mathematics in 2001 from Madurai Kamaraj University. Then she completed her Master of Philosophy in Mathematics in the year 2003. She has presented many papers in national and international conferences and also guided many UG projects. Now she is doing research in the field of Fuzzy datamining at Mother Terasa Women’s University, Kodaikannal. Currently she is working as a Lecturer in the school of Computer Technology and Applications, Kongu Engineering College,Tamilnadu.

Dr.C.Loganathan qualified basically with B.Sc and M.Sc in Mathematics in 1978 and 1980 respectively from Madras University and subsequently with M.Phil and Ph.D in Mathematics from Bharathiar University has served in various capacities as faculty member and Head of the Department of Mathematics at Kongu Engineering College, Perundurai for more than a decade. He is at present working as Principal, Maharaja Arts and Science College, Coimbatore. His unquenchable thirst for academic achievements had culminated in the publication of series of research papers, numbering more than 12 in the leading-referred national and international journals. As a research guide, he has produced many M.Phil and Ph.D candidates. He is a reviewer of many referred international journals. His areas of interest encompass Applied Mathematics, Control Theory, Numerical Methods, Quantitative Techniques and Neural Networks and fuzzy datamining. He has coauthored the books on “Quantitative Methods in Management, Engineering Mathematics I and Engineering Mathematics II”.

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UsefulNot usefulThe document clustering improves the retrieval effectiveness of the information retrieval System. The association rule discovers the interesting relations between variables in transaction databases...

The document clustering improves the retrieval effectiveness of the information retrieval System. The association rule discovers the interesting relations between variables in transaction databases. Transaction data in realworld applications use fuzzy and quantitative values, to design sophisticated data mining algorithms for optimization. If documents can be clustered together in a sensible order, then indexing and retrieval operations can be optimized. This study presents a review on fuzzy document clustering. This survey paper also aims at giving an overview to some of the previous researches done in fuzzy rule mining, evaluating the current status of the field, and envisioning possible future trends in this area.

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