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You are on page 1of 64

HARVEY ABRAMOWITZ

Harvey Abramowitz received a BS in Materials Science, and MS and EngScD degrees in

Extractive Metallurgy/Mineral Engineering, all from Columbia University. After graduating, he

was a Research Engineer for Inland Steel, where he worked on metal recovery from waste

streams. He is currently Professor of Mechanical Engineering at Purdue University Calumet. Prof.

Abramowitz teaches courses in materials science and engineering, solid waste management,

introduction to engineering design, and the freshman experience.

Page 13.248.1

Basswood Bridges

Abstract

The Elementary Engineering Design course for freshmen students at Purdue University

Calumet consists of two components: one ME and one EE. Due to the two part structure and in

order to expose the students to the faculty, it is also team taught. The course counts as two

credits, with the format one hour lecture and three hours lab. The basswood bridge is the major

project of the ME half and counts for one quarter of the total course grade. The object, as is

usual with bridge projects, is to design, build and test a truss bridge having a high strength to

weight ratio. The design process includes statics analysis in combination with the tensile and

compressive properties of the basswood. The details of the project from initial design to final

testing are provided.

Background

At Purdue University Calumet (PUC), freshmen engineering students have been required to take

the course Elementary Engineering Design (ENGR190) for over three decades. The goals of

the course are:

challenge inherent in design engineering through the medium of

individual design and construction projects.

2. To provide insight into what design engineers do.

The course is a two credit course that consists of a one hour lecture and a three hour laboratory.

Every semester the course is given. The Fall semester, which is the first semester for a typical

freshman entering college directly from high school, will have two to three sections. Each

section can handle 25 students, so for the Fall a maximum of 75 students can take the course.

For the Spring semester, the course is scheduled for late afternoon or evening to accommodate

students who work full time. One to two sections are usually on the schedule, so up to 50

students can fulfill the requirement in the Spring.

For many years, the laboratory projects were strictly mechanical in nature: a basswood bridge

and a mousetrap spring driven car. Since the projects were in a single discipline, the course was

taught by a single instructor for both the lectures and laboratories, with additional instructors

added to laboratory sections as needed. Around ten years ago, it was decided to split the course

in two, with half being oriented to mechanical engineering and the other half to electrical

engineering. This made sense since the Department of Engineering offered majors in

mechanical, electrical and computer engineering, and student surveys indicated a desire for an

electrical component in the course. In recent years, the single Department has been divided into

a Department of Mechanical Engineering and a Department of Electrical and Computer

Engineering. Therefore, it was decided to team teach the course using instructors from the

Page 13.248.2

different disciplines. The first time this was tried, five instructors were used with each teaching

for 3 weeks. The three from ME had expertise in structures, heat transfer and fluid flow, and

materials. Those from EE/CompE specialized in circuit design and electronic digital systems.

Each professor gave lectures and designed accompanying laboratory exercises. The use of five

instructors meant frequent changes in personnel and teaching methods. These changes were too

many for the students and the feedback asked for fewer instructors. Based on student surveys, a

professor from ME and one from EE were chosen to further develop the course.

Learning Objectives

Once the team teaching concept was established, specific learning objectives were set so that the

goals could be met. By the end of the course, each student should be able to:

1. Solve simple statics problems.

2. Analyze forces on trusses.

3. Design a basswood bridge, using statics analysis and material properties, that will have a

high strength to weight ratio.

4. Show that the design process is iterative in nature.

5. Write a technical laboratory report.

6. Determine simple types of equations that can represent a set of data, using x-y, semilog

and log-log plots.

7. Use EXCEL for analyzing data. Make x-y, semilog and log-log plots.

8. Solve simple DC circuits for voltage, current and power. This will include the use of

Ohms Law, series and parallel reduction, passive sign convention and Kirchoffs

voltage and current laws.

9. Simulate simple DC circuits in PSpice.

10. Design timer circuits based on the LM555 timer.

11. Construct Truth Tables necessary for small scale design problems.

12. Implement logic functions with AND OR and NOT gates.

13. Perform longhand binary arithmetic operations including addition, subtraction using

complements, and multiplication.

Topics Covered

In order for the learning objectives to be met, the following are the lecture and laboratory topics

covered:

1. Introduction/Statics Statics Problem Set

2. Truss Calculations Bridge Problem Set

3. Bridge Design I Sample Truss Design

4. Bridge Design II Bridge Design Check-in

5. Determination of Tin M.P. Tin M.P. or Viscosity of Glycerin1

Experiment

Truss Completion Check-in

6. Data Analysis I Bridge Completion Check-in/

Bridge Testing

7. Data Analysis II Data Analysis/Bridge Critique Due

Page 13.248.3

9. DC Circuits 1 DC circuit lab, Pspice simulation

10. RC circuits, 555 Timer, BCD counter 555 clock and 7447 BCD counter

11. Digital Logic 1 Counter with 7 segment display

12. Digital Logic 2 Gate implementation of adder circuit

13. System level engineering design Case study of 2 engineering

design processes

14. Review for Electrical final No Lab

Grading Policy

The final grade is based on an average of the electrical and mechanical engineering halves.

Bridge Design 50%

Tin Melting Point or Viscosity of Glycerin 15%

Data Analysis Using EXCEL 15%

Exam 20%

Total 50%

Material for the electrical component (50% of Total) consists of:

Electrical Labs 25%

PSpice Simulations 5%

Electrical Homework 5%

Test over Electrical Material 15%

Total 50%

The focus of this paper is to describe the bridge project from inception to final testing and

evaluation.

A basswood bridge is to be designed, constructed, tested and critiqued. The design parameters

for the bridge are:

Design Parameters

(a) Truss type bridge consisting of two vertical parallel truss structures for the sides of the bridge

with necessary cross members and bracing to hold the sides in place.

(b) Top and bottom chords of the truss structures are to be parallel.

(c) Bridge is to span a 22 inch space between supports, so the length of the bridge should

be 24 inches.

(d) No bridge floor is required.

(e) A 3 inch x 3 inch block must be able to pass through the bridge with clearance.

(f) The load will be applied at the middle of the bridge using one or two or inch diameter

steel rods.

(g) Maximum design load for credit is 100 lb.

Page 13.248.4

(h) Best bridge is one with the highest Performance Value (PV) defined as L/W where L

is the test load (lb) and W is the weight of the bridge (gm).

Bridge Grade

The bridge project counts for of the grade for the mechanical engineering half. The project

grade is divided as follows:

%

Design Check In 10

Truss Check In 10

Bridge Check In 10

Bridge Testing 65

Bridge Critique 5

Total 100

Prerequisite Knowledge

The level of the course has been set to allow both those taking calculus and those taking pre-

calculus to succeed. Therefore, all the problem sets and designs can be calculated using

elementary algebra and similar triangles. Knowledge of trigonometry, while useful, is not a

requirement. By doing this, an attempt is made to encourage any student to major in

engineering.

Class Schedule

In the Topics Covered section the full semesters lectures and laboratories were given. While

there are only four lectures necessary to learn how to make the bridge, it takes a full seven weeks

to finish the bridge project. Additional time may be required, if the bridge needs to be retested.

In Week 3 an assignment to design a bridge is given. The check-in and review of the design

takes place in the laboratory session of Week 4. The next week (5) an experiment is done in lab.

While this is being done, a truss completion check-in is made. Only one truss is to be

constructed. The check-in prevents erroneous construction. In Week 6, the completed bridge is

checked-in and tested. The following week (7) the bridge critique is due. The critique will be

delayed if the bridge needs to be retested. Retesting can be done if the bridge fell apart due to

glue failure, or there was a bad piece of wood that broke long before it should have.

For the introductory lecture (Appendix A), the students do not need knowledge of vector algebra.

In recent years, many of the students have taken physics in high school and do have this

understanding. Concepts covered are: (1) Parallelogram law; (2) Equilibrant; (3) Components of

a vector or force; (4) Determination of tension or compression in a member; (5) Definition of a

truss; (6) Free body diagrams; and (7) Method of similar triangles. The use of similar triangles

alleviates the need for using trigonometry and allows students with a variety of mathematical

Page 13.248.5

levels to participate in the project. A number of examples are provided showing how to

determine the forces in members of simple trusses using free body diagrams. Details for Lecture

1 are found in Appendix A. Problem Set 1 (Appendix B) consists of 2 simple statics problems.

They are similar to the examples given at the end of Lecture 1.

This lecture (Appendix C) is focused on understanding trusses and truss bridges. Three basic

types of bridges are introduced Pratt, Howe and Warren bridges. Bridges to be analyzed have

parallel top and bottom chords. Arch bridges are not allowed for the project. Examples using

free body diagrams to find the forces in the side trusses of each type of bridge are given.

Problem Set 2 (Appendix D) has three truss problems; one for each type of truss.

Lecture 3 (Appendix E) gives the steps needed to design and build the side trusses of the bridge.

The procedure to follow is: (1) Assume a design load; (2) Choose a truss design; (3) Calculate

forces in the members; (4) Determine which size basswood sticks to use, based on the load on

the member and whether it is in tension or compression; (5) Calculate the weight of one truss; (6)

Determine cross member size; (7) Calculate weight of the bridge; (8) Increase load to maximize

PV; and (9) Calculate final design PV. If the final design PV is not 2 or above, the design or

design load needs to be changed.

Additional information about past successful designs, materials allowed, material properties,

construction, and supplies and suppliers are also provided.

Based on this lecture, the student is to design a bridge and have the design checked during the

laboratory of week 4.

The construction lecture (Appendix F) covers all remaining items on the bridge construction,

with recommendations based on what has previously worked. Content includes: (1) Plates for

stressed joints; (2) Plates where loading rods are placed; (3) Cutting plates, (4) Cross members;

(5) Glues and gluing; and (6) Assembly.

Testing of Bridges

Testing Apparatus

Old

A homemade testing apparatus (Figs.1-3) was used until a few years ago. It consisted of a

hydraulic bottle jack for one support, with the other being a wooden stand which was sat on a

bathroom scale. Steel rods were placed in the middle of the bridge bottom. The rods were

attached to a plate under it by hooks and chains or ropes. The jack was pumped up and that side

moved upwards, with a force pulling the bridge in the middle. The scale showed the force on

Page 13.248.6

one support. That number was doubled to find the total load on the bridge. The student

controlled the rate of loading. Since the student was in control, there were many hesitating,

anticipatory and exciting moments while testing. Unfortunately, the load was not always applied

evenly, and sometimes the results were less than expected.

Fig. 1 Old Test Apparatus Overall View Fig. 2 Old Test Apparatus Steel Rod

Attachment and Scale Used to Measure

Loading

Fig. 3 Old Test Apparatus Hydraulic Bottle Jack Used to Load Bridge

New

A 1000lb Q-Test tensile/compression machine was adapted for use in the bridge testing. The

bottom grip is removed and a support structure put in its place. This structure has a span of 22

inches to accommodate the 24 inch long bridge. The upper grip is replaced with a welded steel

U- shape. On the bottom of the U are openings for insertion of the steel rod(s). The machine is

then put into compression mode at a constant speed. The software controlling the machine is

Testworks 3 from MTS. The loading is much smoother than before and the bridge top stays

parallel to the ground. Since using this new method, the students are happier with the testing

procedure. More A grades have resulted than with the old tester. The new tester is shown in

Page 13.248.7

Figs.4 and 5. Adaptation of this machine is also being used for basswood bridge testing at

Baylor University.2

Fig. 4 New Test Apparatus Structure Fig. 5 New Test Apparatus - Support Structure

and U for Holding Steel Rods

A PV value of 2 will receive a numerical grade of 100 or an A. For a PV of 1.75, the grade is a

B or 85. A C or 75 is gotten for a 1.50 value. The numerical grades for PVs from 0.19 and

above are listed in Appendix G. This grade constitutes 65% of the bridge project grade.

Bridge Critique

Once the student has finished testing the bridge, a bridge critique is required. The critique

consists of writing about the good and bad points of design, construction and performance;

stating what would be done differently if another bridge was to be built; and including the design

drawing and calculations. The critique (Appendix H) counts for 5% of the bridge project grade.

One thing that the students need to learn is that an engineer has to make it work. The proof of

the design is in the performance. So attention to the details in every aspect of the project is

required to achieve a high PV. If the bridge is not built squarely, for example, the PV will be

low.

To specifically assess the bridge project, two methods are being used. One is to survey the

students about fulfillment of the course objectives. As an example, the results of the Spring 2006

survey are listed in Table I. The course/learning objectives (1-4) for the bridge project, were

rated on a scale of 1-5, with 5 the highest. The scores ranged from 4.10-4.53, with an overall

average of 4.32, based on a survey population of 49 students.

The other method used is an Outcome Assessment Table. Such tables are prepared for all

courses in order to satisfy ABET requirements.3 For the ME half of the Design course the

Assessment Table (Table II) shows that the level of student achievement for the bridge project

ranges from 82-100%. Learning objectives 1, 2, 3 and 4 have been met. That is in

Page 13.248.8

contradistinction with objective 5, writing a technical laboratory report, which only registered

62% achievement. Thus the bridge project has been successful in helping to meet ABET progam

Table I Student Survey Spring 2006 - Meeting Course Objectives for ME Half

Instructor Survey

Sec. 1 Sec. 2 Total Total

Total number of Surveys 22 27 49 49

Course Objectives:

By the end of the course, each student should be able to: AVE AVE AVE AVE 1-4

4.32

1) Solve simple statics problems. 4.14 4.07 4.10

2) Analyze forces on trusses. 4.64 4.44 4.53

3) Design a bass wood bridge, using statics analysis 4.55 4.33 4.43

4) Show that the design process is iterative in nature. 4.23 4.19 4.21

5) Write a technical laboratory report. 3.82 3.74 3.78

6) Determine simple types of equations that can represnet 4.05 3.74 3.88

7) Using EXCEL for analyzing data. Make x-y, semilog and log-log plots 4.18 3.89 4.02

Rating Explanation

1= Strongly Disagree

2= Disagree

3= Undecided

4= Agree

5= Strongly Agree

outcomes a (an ability to apply knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering), c (an

ability to design a system, component, or process to meet desired needs) and e (ability to

identify, formulate and solve engineering problems). It is perhaps the most successful, in terms

of student achievement, of all the ME half activities. It is also, from personal discussions with

students, the most fun and enjoyable of all the ME activities. Alumni, years later, will still talk

about their bridges.

Conclusions

The methodology for designing, constructing and testing a basswood bridge having a high

strength to weight ratio is provided. Students only need to know basic algebra to successfully

complete the project. An outcome assessment shows that the project contributes to fulfilling

ABET progam outcomes a, c and e. Student surveys also show that the learning objectives for

the project are being met.

Page 13.248.9

Bibliography

Educators Workshop New Update 2000 Standard Experiments in Engineering, Materials

Science, and Technology, Kettering, OH, Oct./Nov. 2000, pp.183-196.

2. Skurla, C., Thomas, B. and Bradley, W.L., Teaching Freshman Engineering Using Design Projects and

Laboratory Exercises to Increase Retention, Proceedings of the 2004 American Society for Engineering

Education Annual Conference & Exposition, Salt Lake City, Utah, June 2004.

3. Houshangi, N., Curriculum Outcome Assessment and Implementation Challenges, Proceedings of ASEE 2006

Illinois-Indiana and North Central Joint Section Conference, Fort Wayne, Indiana, March 2006.

Appendices

Appendix B Bridge Design Problem Set 1

Appendix C Bridge Design Lecture 2

Appendix D Bridge Design Problem Set 2

Appendix E Bridge Design Lecture 3

Appendix F Bridge Design Lecture 4

Appendix G Bridge Testing Grades

Appendix H Bridge Critique

Page 13.248.10

TABLE II OUTCOME ASSESSMENT TABLE

(See notes at end of table to explain abbreviations)

Course Number: ENGR190 Course Name: Elementary Engineering Design

Evaluator: Semester Assessed: Spring 2006

Outcome Expected Performance Criteria Course Learning Objective Assessment Tool Student Level

(ABET) Level of BE VERY SPECIFIC of

Contribution (eg. Problem 1 & 3 of Test 1, Quiz 2, or Achievement

(1, 2 or 3) Experiment 5) (in percent)

a 3 Use appropriate 1. Solve simple statics 1. Statics Problem Set. 100

mathematical tools to problems.

solve equations 2. Analyze forces on 2. Bridge Problem Set. 100

trusses. Sample Truss Design 92

6. Determine simple types Bridge Design Check-in 93

of equations that can 6. Data Analysis Problem Set 63

represent a set a data , using

x-y, semilog and log-log AVE:90

plots.

a 2 Use concepts from 3. Design a bass wood Bridge Design Check-in 93

science to solve bridge, using statics Truss Completion Check-in 85

engineering problems. analysis and material Bridge Completion Check-in 97

properties, that will have a Bridge Testing 82

high strength to weight

ratio. AVE:89

b 3 Conduct an experiment 5. Write a technical Tin melting point experiment 94

and compare experimental laboratory report. Tin melting point experiment report 62

with predicted or expected

results. AVE:78

b 3 Prepare reports that 5. Write a technical Tin melting point experiment report 62

present the data from an laboratory report.

experiment, interpret the

data/results, draw

conclusions, and make

recommendations.

c 3 Design components that 3. Design a bass wood Sample Truss Design 92

meet specifications and bridge, using statics Bridge Design Check-in 93

constraints. analysis and material Truss Completion Check-in 85

Page 13.248.11

properties, that will have a Bridge Completion Check-in 97

high strength to weight Bridge Testing 82

ratio.

4. Show that the design AVE:90

process is iterative in

nature.

d 3 Function as a team leader 5. Write a technical Tin melting point experiment 94

and/or team member in laboratory report. Tin melting point experiment report 62

laboratory and problem-

solving activities. AVE:78

e 3 Create sketches, figures, 1. Solve simple statics 1. Statics Problem Set. 100

flow-charts, and free-body problems.

diagrams. 2. Analyze forces on 2. Bridge Problem Set. 100

trusses. Sample Truss Design 92

3. Design a bass wood 3. Bridge Design Check-in 93

bridge, using statics

analysis and material AVE:96

properties, that will have a

high strength to weight

ratio.

e 2 Show understanding of the 6. Determine simple types Data Analysis Problem Set 63

applicable theories and of equations that can

principles by represent a set a data , using

demonstrating the use of x-y, semilog and log-log

relevant formulae and plots.

relationships.

g 3 Write documents that are 5. Write a technical Tin melting point experiment report 62

well organized, properly laboratory report.

formatted, and clear.

g 3 Convey technical 5. Write a technical Tin melting point experiment report 62

information through the laboratory report. Bridge Critique 60

use of data plots, graphs,

calculations, drawings, and AVE:61

equations.

Page 13.248.12

Notes for Outcome Assessment Table

Outcome One of the ABET outcomes

Level of Contribution 1 = Slightly, 2 = Moderately, 3 = substantially

Performance Criteria Performance Criteria for an outcome as given by ABET

Student Level of Achievement Average of the student scores for the specific assessment tool

Page 13.248.13

Appendix A - Bridge Design Lecture 1

ENGR 190 BRIDGE DESIGN LECTURE 1

1. Parallelogram Law

R

A

B

O

)))& )))& )))&

Forces OA and OB can be replaced by OR , their resultant.

PARALLELOGRAM LAW

2. Equilibrant

R

A

B

O

E

To put force system in equilibrium, add force equal and opposite

)))& )))&

to OR . OE is equilibrant.

Page 13.248.14

ENGR 190 BRIDGE DESIGN LECTURE 1

)))&

3. Component(s) of force OR

R

A

B

O

More useful in machine and structural design, since many members are

vertical or horizontal.

R

Vertical

Component

)))))&

OR V

O

Horizontal Component

)))))&

OR H

Page 13.248.15

ENGR 190 BRIDGE DESIGN LECTURE 1

Rope has tension

force (stress) in it Rope is in tension

Weight

has compression Forces acting

force (stress) in it on member

Member is in

compression

Page 13.248.16

ENGR 190 BRIDGE DESIGN LECTURE 1

Newtons 3rd Law

For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction

&

F1 =M1g

M1

Force of M2 on M1

M2

Member in Tension

Member in Compression

Since there are equal and opposite reactions occurring, the members will

Exert forces on the connecting pins (joints) that will be equal and opposite

Comrpression

(C)

Tension

(T)

Page 13.248.17

ENGR 190 BRIDGE DESIGN LECTURE 1

Stretch rubber band between thumbs

What do your thumbs (pins or joints) feel?

Compression Use springs

Compress spring between thumb and forefinger

What do your fingers (pins or joints) feel?

5. Truss Structures

To solve for forces in a typical joint of a truss structure [(define truss) show

bridges from past semester] draw a free body diagram(FBD).

For example, below is the free body diagram for joint O. Joint O is in

equilibrium, which means that it is not moving.

O

o

B

45

D

)))& )))&

What are forces OB and OD ?

)))&

Given: (1) OA is 10 lbf or 10#

(2) the hypotenuse of a 45-45-90 right triangleis

2 = 1.4141 1.4

45o

2

1

45o

Page 13.248.18

1

ENGR 190 BRIDGE DESIGN LECTURE 1

)))& )))&

The FBD is solved as follows, so that forces OB and OD can be

determined:

Step 1

Draw vertical (y direction) and horizontal (x direction) components for the

slant member (OD) as shown.

O

o

B

45

V

D

H

)))&V and H.

V stands for the vertical component of OD , and

)))&

H stands for the horizontal component of OD .

Step 2

The sum of the forces in any direction must equal zero for equilibrium to

exist.

Solve for V by setting the sum of the forces in the y direction to zero.

Fy = 0&

&

+10# + V = 0

)))& &

OA + V = 0

&

V = -10# (-) = negative y direction

&

If the direction of V is known , then:

+10# - V = 0 V known to act in negative

V = 10# y direction

Page 13.248.19

ENGR 190 BRIDGE DESIGN LECTURE 1

Step 3

&

Solve for H by setting the sum of the forces in the x direction to zero.

&

Fx = 0

& )))&

H + OB = 0

&

can a value for H be found?

& )))&

No, there are two unknowns ( H & OB ) and only 1 equation

Step 4

&

Use geometry and trigonometry to solve for H .

Each side of a 45-45-90 right triangle has the same magnitude.

(See diagram in point 5)

&

So by proportion, method of similar triangles, H can be found

& &

H 1 H 1

& = ; = .

V 1 10 1

H = 10

&

H = 10# magnitude of H

& &

Since V=-10# , H is acting to the left, or negative x direction

&

Thus H = -10#

Step

)))& 5

OD can now be found, using the similar triangle method

)))& )))&

OD 1.4 OD 1.4

& = ; =

H 1 10 1

)))&

OD = 14 # Direction is SW, as shown on diagram

Alternatively:

)))& )))&

OD 1.4 OD 1.4

& = ; =

V 1 10 1

)))&

OD = 14 #

since both sides of the triangle are equal

Step 6)))&

Find OB

We can now go back to Step 3

&

Fx = 0

Page 13.248.20

& )))&

H + OB = 0

ENGR 190 BRIDGE DESIGN LECTURE 1

)))&

-10# + OB = 0

)))&

OB = 10# positive x direction, or to the right

6. Other Triangles

Other triangles that will be used,

5

3

13

5

12

3 1.73

Page 13.248.21

ENGR 190 BRIDGE DESIGN LECTURE 1

Most solutions can be found using the method of similar triangles.

Trigonometry can also be used.

Vertical and horizontal components of a slant member do the same thing as

the slant member, so directions of arrow heads are consistent. For instance,

arrow heads are up and to the right for both the slant member and its

components.

slant member

tail

components

Arrow heads for components are always head, or tip, to tail; leading

around the corner such as:

or

or

Page 13.248.22

confusion. A different thickness line or a different color also can be used.

ENGR 190 BRIDGE DESIGN LECTURE 1

9. Example 1

Solve for force in OB and determine the maximum weight that can be held.

A

Maximum force

1400# (tension)

45o

O

Weight

Solution

Step 1

Draw Free Body Diagram of joint O.

Remember that the triangle below is the applicable triangle.

45o

2 1.4

1

45o

1 Page 13.248.23

ENGR 190 BRIDGE DESIGN LECTURE 1

1400#

weight (w)

The arrows are drawn for member OA and the weight due to the problem

statement. OA is in tension, which means that it is pulling joint O.

Step 2

Add components for all slant members.

Here only OA is a slant member.

)))))&

A OA H = 1000#

1400#

)))))&

OA V = 1000#

O

B

weight (w)

Since the arrowhead was drawn on OA , the arrowheads for OA V and OA H

can be drawn.

Page 13.248.24

ENGR 190 BRIDGE DESIGN LECTURE 1

Step 3

Sum up forces in x or y direction or determine value for slant member or

Components using ration of sides of triangle. In this case, components are

each 1000#. Label component values see previous diagram.

Step 4

Solve for weight

&

F y = 0

)))))&

OA V + w = 0

1000 + w = 0

w = -1000# (-) sign means negative y direction

w = 1000#

Step 5 )))&

Solve for OB

&

F =0

x

)))))& )))&

OA H + OB = 0

)))&

-1000 + OB = 0

)))&

OB = 1000# Direction: positive x, or right

The force in OB is 1000# to the right, which means it is pushing on O.

So its in compression.

)))))&

A OA H = 1000#

1400#

)))))&

OA V = 1000#

O

B = 1000#

Page 13.248.25

is in C.

ENGR 190 BRIDGE DESIGN LECTURE 1

Step 6

Finished problem should have notation as shown (no arrowheads)

1400# T

45o

O

B 1000# C T

Weight

1000#

Page 13.248.26

ENGR 190 BRIDGE DESIGN LECTURE 1

10. Example 2

Find the magnitude of the forces in members OA and OB. Also determine

If the member is in tension or compression.

A 3

5

w = 60#

Step 1

Draw Free Body Diagram at Joint O. This time you may leave out the # signs.

A 3

5

60

By inspection, the arrow heads can be drawn, since the force from w is in

the negative y direction.

Page 13.248.27

ENGR 190 BRIDGE DESIGN LECTURE 1

Step 2

Draw components for slant member.

)))&

OA H 80

4

A 5 3

)))))&

OA V 60

100

80 B

60

Step 3

By inspection, solve for forces.

or: )))))&

)))))&

OA V = 60

solve for OA V ;

)))&)))& 4 ))

OA H = 60 = 80

solve for OA H ;

3

)))& 5 5

solve for OA; OA = 60 = 80 = 100 (NW direction)

3 4

summing forces horizontally,

&

Fx = 0

)))& ))&

OB = 80

Page 13.248.28

ENGR 190 BRIDGE DESIGN LECTURE 1

Step 4

Completed solution

100T

B

O

80T

T

w = 60

Page 13.248.29

Appendix B Bridge Design Problem Set 1

NAME______________________________ DATE____________

2. If force in AB is 1560 lbs T, find W. Also forces in BC, BE, and CD. Note

whether tension or compression.

Page 13.248.30

3. Determine forces in members AB, AC, BC, BD, CD, CE, DE, DF, EF and EG.

Note whether tension or compression.

Page 13.248.31

Appendix C Bridge Design Lecture 2

1. Trusses

A truss structure is one in which any loads are applied at joints only and are

Comprised of one or more triangles such as:

Force

or

Force

2. Truss Bridges

Bridge will be composed of the two identical vertical sides plus necessary

crosspieces, etc., to hold it all together.

Page 13.248.32

ENGR 190 BRIDGE DESIGN LECTURE 2

3. Side Trusses

Typical side trusses:

In members.

Page 13.248.33

ENGR 190 BRIDGE DESIGN LECTURE 2

Find forces in the members and indicate whether the member is in

tension or compression. There is a force of 1600 lb acting on joint G.

3

B D F

4 5

A

C E G

(given)

Solution

Step 1

Apply forces in upward (positive y) direction of 800# to joints A and Al

(mirror image joint). The supports each carry half the force that is being

applied downward at the middle joint.

Page 13.248.34

ENGR 190 BRIDGE DESIGN LECTURE 2

Step 2

Draw a Free Body Diagram for each joint and solve for the force in each

member.

Joint A Joint C

600 B

0 B

800

1000

600 600

A C A E

600 C

800

Joint B Joint E

B 1200

600 B D

600 1000

800 0 800 800 800

1000 600

Joint D Joint F

D F D|

B 1200 1800 F D

1200 1200

600

0

800 800

1000

G

E G

Page 13.248.35

ENGR 190 BRIDGE DESIGN LECTURE 2

Step 3

Write solution on diagram of truss indicating tension or compression

3

D F

B

4 5 1200C 1800C

1000T 1000T

1000C 0

0 800C

A

600T 600T 1200 G

C E T

800 1600# 800

(given)

Page 13.248.36

ENGR 190 BRIDGE DESIGN LECTURE 2

tension or compression. There is a force of 1000 lb acting on joint G.

1

1.4 B D F

45o

A

C E G

(given)

Solution

Step 1

Apply forces in upward (positive y) direction of 500# to joints A and Al

(mirror image joint). The supports each carry half the force that is being

applied downward at the middle joint.

Page 13.248.37

ENGR 190 BRIDGE DESIGN LECTURE 2

Step 2

Draw a Free Body Diagram for each joint and solve for the force in each

member.

Joint A Joint B

B

500 500 500

B D

500

A

C A

500 C

500

Joint C Joint D

D

B D 500 1000

B F

500 700 700

500 500

500 500

500

A E C

C 1000 500 E

Joint E Joint G

D F F

500

1500 1500

E E|

C 1000 E 1500 G G

1000

Page 13.248.38

ENGR 190 BRIDGE DESIGN LECTURE 2

Step 3

Write solution on diagram of truss indicating tension or compression

1

1.4 B 500C D 1000C F

500T 500T 1000T

45o

A

500T C 1000T E 1500T G

(given)

Page 13.248.39

ENGR 190 BRIDGE DESIGN LECTURE 2

tension or compression. There is a force of 1000 lb acting on joint G.

1

B D

1.73

2

A

C E

(given)

Solution

Step 1

Apply forces in upward (positive y) direction of 690# to joints A and Al

(mirror image joint). The supports each carry half the force that is being

applied downward at the middle joint.

Page 13.248.40

ENGR 190 BRIDGE DESIGN LECTURE 2

Step 2

Draw a Free Body Diagram for each joint and solve for the force in each

member.

Joint A Joint B

B

400 800

B D

400

800

690 690 690

800 800

400

A C A C

690

Joint C Joint E

B 400 400 D D

800 C E|

E

400

A

C 1200

1380

Page 13.248.41

ENGR 190 BRIDGE DESIGN LECTURE 2

Step 3

Write solution on diagram of truss indicating tension or compression

1

B 800C D

1.73

2 800C 800C 1380T

800T

A

400T C 1200T E

(given)

Page 13.248.42

Appendix D Bridge Design Problem Set 2

NAME______________________________ DATE____________

1. All angle member 45 degrees. Find forces in all members on left half of

truss and in FG. List solutions on truss members. Note if Tension or

Compression.

Page 13.248.43

2. All panels are 3,4,5 proportion. Find forces in all members on left half of

truss and in FG. List solutions on truss members and state whether Tension

or Compression.

Page 13.248.44

3. Length of each member is 16 feet. Determine the forces in all members

between joints that are labeled. Indicate whether Tension or Compression.

Page 13.248.45

Appendix E Bridge Design Lecture 3

Design Parameters

(a) Truss type bridge consisting of two vertical parallel truss structures for

the sides of the bridge with necessary cross members and bracing to

hold the sides in place.

(b) Top and bottom chords of the truss structures are to be parallel.

(c) Bridge is to span a 22 inch space between supports, so the length of the

bridge should be 24 inches.

(d) No bridge floor is required.

(e) A 3 inch x 3 inch block must be able to pass through the bridge with

clearance.

(f) The load will be applied at the middle of the bridge using 1 or 2

or inch diameter steel rods.

(g) Maximum design load for credit is 100 lb.

(h) Best bridge is one with the highest Performance Value (PV) defined as

L/W where L is the test load (lb) and W is the weight of the bridge (gm)

for example - 36#

see truss chosen below

Steps 1 and 2 can be reversed

4

B 12C D

3

5

15C

15C 9T 18T

12T 24T

A

6 C 6 E 6 6

9# 18# 9#

total load

Page 13.248.46

ENGR 190 BRIDGE DESIGN LECTURE 3

Draw FBDs for joints A,B,C,D and E

Joint A Joint B

12 12 B 12 D

B

9 9

15 9

15

A C A

12 C

9

Joint D

Joint C

B B|

B 12 D 12 D 12

9 9

12 12

15 9 9

15 15

12 24

A E

C E

Joint E

18

24 24

C E C|

Page 13.248.47

ENGR 190 BRIDGE DESIGN LECTURE 3

Indicate on the structure use information given

Member Force Length (inch) Size Max Load (lb) Weight (g)

AB 15C 6/4 x 5 = 7 1/2 3/16 25 (.24)(7.5) = 1.80

BC 9T 6/4 x 3 =4 1/2 3/32 20 (.06)(4.5) = 0.27

AC 12T 6 3/32 20 (.06)(6) = 0.36

BD 12C 6 5/32 22 (.17)(6) = 1.02

CE 24T 6 1/8 35 (.11)(6) = 0.66

DE 18T 4 1/2 3/32 20 (.06)(4) = 0.27

CD 15C 7 1/2 3/16 25 (.24)(7.5) = 1.80

Since only 1 member (DE) is loaded to near its capacity at the 36 lb design load, the load can be

increased. Try a load increase. To determine the increase, notice the ratios of maximum load

(lb) / Force.

AB = 25/15 = 1.67

BC = 20/9 = 2.22

AC = 20/12 = 1.67

BD = 22/12 = 1.83

CE = 35/24 = 1.46

DE = 20/18 = 1.11

CD = 25/15 = 1.67

Increasing the force/load by 1.11 (DE) will not maximize efficiency of loading. Go to 1.67 ratio

(AB, AC & CD). So load is now increased by the factor of 1.67.

18 x 1.67 = 30# On the diagram, forces on the right side of the structure are for a 60# load.

Members will now be more efficiently loaded.

15C

15C 9T 30T 25C

3/16-25

3/16-25 3/32-20 25C 15T

18T

12T 24T 3/32-20

A

3/32-20 C 1/8-35 E 40T 20T

9# 18# 30# 9#

total load

Page 13.248.48

ENGR 190 BRIDGE DESIGN LECTURE 3

((1.80 + .27 + .36 + 1.02 + .66 + .27 + 1.80) x 2) - .27 = 12.09

Member Force Length (inch) Size Max Load (lb) Weight (g)

AB 25C 6/4 x 5 = 7 1/2 3/16 25 (.24)(7.5) = 1.80

BC 15T 6/4 x 3 =4 1/2 3/32 20 (.06)(4.5) = 0.27

AC 20T 6 3/32 20 (.06)(6) = 0.36

BD 20C 6 5/32 22 (.17)(6) = 1.02

CE 40T 6 5/32 54 (.17)(6) = 1.02

DE 30T 4 1/2 1/8 35 (.11)(4) = 0.495

CD 25C 7 1/2 3/16 25 (.24)(7.5) = 1.80

((1.80 + .27 + .36 + 1.02 + 1.02 + .495 + 1.80) x 2) - .495 = 13.035

Page 13.248.49

ENGR 190 BRIDGE DESIGN LECTURE 3

The following table and figures gives the size of cross members to choose

based on the type of cross member and the total design load.

Can be 1/64 for less than 50#

D

0

0 0

600 About

5.19

600 600 tall

24

If you are doing this design, discuss cross

members with the instructor. B type cross

members may be too long and an X type

of bracing may be needed.

Page 13.248.50

ENGR 190 BRIDGE DESIGN LECTURE 3

0-45 46-69 70-100

Cross Member (A) 3/32 1/8 5/32

Diagonal Cross Member (B) 3/32 3/32 1/8

0 Force Member (C) 3/32 3/32 1/8

0 Force of Stressed (D) 1/8 1/8 5/32

Horizontal Member at Ends (E) 1/8 5/32 3/16

2 trusses = 12.09 x 2 = 24.18

From Table E-I

(in) (g) (g)

cross member 3/32 4 (.06)(4)=0.24 1 0.240

A

Diagonal cross 3/32 7.2 (.06)(7.2)=0.432 2 0.864

member B

Stressed D 1/8 4.5 (.11)(4.5)=0.495 4 1.980

Horiz. Members 1/8 4 (.11)(4)=0.44 4 1.760

at ends E

Total 4.844

-original BC(x4)=(.27)(4) -1.080

Total Cross & End Member Weight=3.764

= 27.944 + plates + glue

plates + glue 15-20% of wood member wt

15% = 4.192

= 27.944 + 4.192

= 32.136 g

36

PV = = 1.12 low

32.136

Page 13.248.51

ENGR 190 BRIDGE DESIGN LECTURE 3

2 trusses = 13.035 x 2 = 26.07

From Table I

(in) (g) (g)

cross member 1/8 4 (.11)(4)=0.44 1 0.440

A

Diagonal cross 3/32 7.2 (.06)(7.2)=0.432 2 0.864

member B

Stressed D 1/8 4.5 (.11)(4.5)=0.495 4 1.980

Horiz. Members 5/32 4 (.17)(4)=0.68 4 2.720

at ends E

Total 6.004

-original BC(x4)=(.27)(4) -1.080

Total Cross & End Member Weight=4.924

= 30.994 + plates + glue

plates + glue 15-20% of wood member wt

15% = 4.649

= 30.994 + 4.649

= 35.643 g

60

PV = = 1.68 better

35.643

Page 13.248.52

ENGR 190 BRIDGE DESIGN LECTURE 3

Successful designs have typically been similar to problem set #2

or one of the following:

600 About

5.19

600 600 tall

24

Page 13.248.53

ENGR 190 BRIDGE DESIGN LECTURE 3

For top and bottom chords, do not use short pieces end to end.

Example use one 16 piece of 5/32 sq and add1/32 plywood strips

to two adjacent sides where force is 60C

5/32-43 3/16-73

30C 60C

4 4 4 4

5/32 sq best applied to top &

inside

Members

Material basswood for members

Sizes (square cross section) 3/32, 1/8, 5/32, 3/16, 1/4 inch on a side

Plates are used to reinforce joints and to laminate sticks to obtain proper size

Material model aircraft plywood

Sizes 1/64 & 1/32 inch thick

Glue

Ordinary wood glue, such as Elmers Carpenters Glue and some epoxies

Do not use glue from a glue gun (heated)

What has worked well in the past: Jet Glue with kicker, Titebond

Densities

Basswood Plywood

linear density square density

3/32 .06 g/in 1/64 .25 g/in2

1/8 .11 1/32 .39

5/32 .17

Page 13.248.54

3/16 .24

1/4 .43

ENGR 190 BRIDGE DESIGN LECTURE 3

Permissible tension loads for basswood (any length) are:

Size Tensile Strength

(in) (lb)

3/32 20

1/8 35

5/32 54

3/16 80

1/4 140

Compression failure loads for basswood are given in the figure below.

180

170

160

150

Compression Load at Failure (lb)

140

130

120

110 3 32

100 18

90 5 32

80 3 16

70 14

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Length (in)

Page 13.248.55

ENGR 190 BRIDGE DESIGN LECTURE 3

Go to your local hobby shop to purchase the wood.

Glue can be obtained at the hobby shop or local hardware store.

Hobby miter boxes and saws can be gotten from the hobby shop.

Hand files, sand paper, Exacto knives, hobby wood clamps and a Dremel tool

are also helpful in construction.

Project score will be derived as follows:

%

Bridge design checked in on schedule 10

One side truss completed and checked in 10

Bridge completed and checked in 10

Performance value (PV)* of tested material 65

Bridge critique submitted after testing 5

----

100

* Maximum design load for credit is 100#

If bridge holds more than 100# when tested, you only get credit for 100#

17. Assignment Prepare Bridge Design

(b) Choose truss design (1 and 2 can be reversed)

(c) Calculate forces in members

Indicate on the structure the forces for each member

(d) Determine which size sticks you need for each member and indicate

on the structure also.

(e) Calculate weight of 1 truss

(f) Calculate weight of bridge 2 trusses plus cross pieces plus plates

plus glue (estimate as best as possible)

(g) Calculate PV

load(lb)

PV=

weight(g)

(h) Try more than one design

Page 13.248.56

Appendix F Bridge Design Lecture 4

This lecture covers all remaining items on the bridge construction, with

recommendations based on what has worked before.

#

1/64 plates for loads < 50#

0

rounded force

Small plate

Plates should extend over each stressed member at joints. Zero force

members should have a little plate of some sort to assist the glue. Plates are

used only on outside of vertical trusses. None on the inside or horizontally on

top or bottom. Exception is the center joint for loading rods.

Note: These are the ideal conditions for minimum weight. Sometimes the

glue does not hold as well as expected and plates have been added to the top

and/or bottom cross members. This adds weight to the bridge but does

provide more support.

1 3/8

x 1 x 1

1 3/8

Start with

Page 13.248.57

Use on both sides of each truss for loads > 65#. Total 4 for whole bridge

ENGR 190 BRIDGE DESIGN LECTURE 4

For bars

Clearance

Loading Plates

Sand members and plates lightly with coarse sand paper to rough up surface.

Glue holds better.

Dont again

cut

radius

or

Cutting Plates

Break

off File or use hobby

knife to get

round corner

Page 13.248.58

ENGR 190 BRIDGE DESIGN LECTURE 4

3. End View

END VIEW

Top only

Both sides each joint

max

4. Cross Members

Construction

To construct: typical

Cut to 4 length

(b) Cut verticals and glue in. (Put weights on)

(c) After dry, put diagonals to fit loosely. Use glue sparingly. Dont put in

gobs to fill corners, etc. Just enough to hold sticks together for check-in.

If diagonals are forced in, truss may end up warped.

Glue Glue

Page 13.248.59

ENGR 190 BRIDGE DESIGN LECTURE 4

To construct: no verticals

Etc.

Cut diagonals to fit and glue in.

5. Tips

(a) Put wax paper or plastic down on surface, or glue may stick to it.

(b) Put weights on all members being glued, so bottom side will be flat.

(c) Dont put any plates on before checking in one truss.

(d) Glues Elmers Wood Glue, Elmers Por Bond,DAP Wood Glue,

Crazy Glue (gel type or slow setting), Titelock, Jet with or without kicker.

No model airplane glue, no flexible glue, no glue gun.

Jet with kicker and Titelock seem to work best.

(e) Can use hobby wood clamps, or clothespins or metal paper clamps.

(f)

not much

advantage, but

OK

vs

.

Page 13.248.60

ENGR 190 BRIDGE DESIGN LECTURE 4

Books

(b) Top members

(c) Let set

(d) Diagonals (again should not have to press in)

Page 13.248.61

Appendix G Bridge Testing Grades

PV GRADE Points for PV GRADE Points for PV GRADE Points for

ME half ME half ME half

2.00 100.00 32.50 1.65 81.00 26.33 1.30 67.00 21.78

1.99 99.00 32.18 1.64 81.00 26.33 1.29 67.00 21.78

1.98 98.00 31.85 1.63 81.00 26.33 1.28 66.00 21.45

1.97 97.00 31.53 1.62 80.00 26.00 1.27 66.00 21.45

1.96 96.00 31.20 1.61 80.00 26.00 1.26 65.00 21.13

1.95 95.00 30.88 1.60 80.00 26.00 1.25 65.00 21.13

1.94 94.00 30.55 1.59 79.00 25.68 1.24 64.00 20.80

1.93 93.00 30.23 1.58 79.00 25.68 1.23 64.00 20.80

1.92 92.00 29.90 1.57 78.00 25.35 1.22 64.00 20.80

1.91 91.00 29.58 1.56 78.00 25.35 1.21 63.00 20.48

1.90 90.00 29.25 1.55 77.00 25.03 1.20 63.00 20.48

1.89 89.00 28.93 1.54 77.00 25.03 1.19 63.00 20.48

1.88 89.00 28.93 1.53 76.00 24.70 1.18 62.00 20.15

1.87 89.00 28.93 1.52 76.00 24.70 1.17 62.00 20.15

1.86 88.00 28.60 1.51 75.00 24.38 1.16 62.00 20.15

1.85 88.00 28.60 1.50 75.00 24.38 1.15 61.00 19.83

1.84 88.00 28.60 1.49 74.00 24.05 1.14 61.00 19.83

1.83 87.00 28.28 1.48 74.00 24.05 1.13 61.00 19.83

1.82 87.00 28.28 1.47 74.00 24.05 1.12 60.00 19.50

1.81 87.00 28.28 1.46 73.00 23.73 1.11 60.00 19.50

1.80 86.00 27.95 1.45 73.00 23.73 1.10 60.00 19.50

1.79 86.00 27.95 1.44 73.00 23.73 1.09 59.00 19.18

1.78 86.00 27.95 1.43 72.00 23.40 1.08 59.00 19.18

1.77 85.00 27.63 1.42 72.00 23.40 1.07 58.00 18.85

1.76 85.00 27.63 1.41 72.00 23.40 1.06 58.00 18.85

1.75 85.00 27.63 1.40 71.00 23.08 1.05 57.00 18.53

1.74 84.00 27.30 1.39 71.00 23.08 1.04 57.00 18.53

1.73 84.00 27.30 1.38 71.00 23.08 1.03 56.00 18.20

1.72 84.00 27.30 1.37 70.00 22.75 1.02 56.00 18.20

1.71 83.00 26.98 1.36 70.00 22.75 1.01 55.00 17.88

1.70 83.00 26.98 1.35 70.00 22.75 1.00 55.00 17.88

1.69 83.00 26.98 1.34 69.00 22.43 0.99 54.00 17.55

1.68 82.00 26.65 1.33 69.00 22.43 0.98 54.00 17.55

1.67 82.00 26.65 1.32 68.00 22.10 0.97 54.00 17.55

1.66 82.00 26.65 1.31 68.00 22.10 0.96 53.00 17.23

Page 13.248.62

Bridge Test Grades

PV GRADE Points for PV GRADE Points for

ME half ME half

0.95 53.00 17.23 0.60 40.00 13.00

0.94 53.00 17.23 0.59 39.00 12.68

0.93 52.00 16.90 0.58 39.00 12.68

0.92 52.00 16.90 0.57 38.00 12.35

0.91 52.00 16.90 0.56 38.00 12.35

0.90 51.00 16.58 0.55 37.00 12.03

0.89 51.00 16.58 0.54 37.00 12.03

0.88 51.00 16.58 0.53 36.00 11.70

0.87 50.00 16.25 0.52 36.00 11.70

0.86 50.00 16.25 0.51 35.00 11.38

0.85 50.00 16.25 0.50 35.00 11.38

0.84 49.00 15.93 0.49 34.00 11.05

0.83 49.00 15.93 0.48 34.00 11.05

0.82 48.00 15.60 0.47 34.00 11.05

0.81 48.00 15.60 0.46 33.00 10.73

0.80 47.00 15.28 0.45 33.00 10.73

0.79 47.00 15.28 0.44 33.00 10.73

0.78 46.00 14.95 0.43 32.00 10.40

0.77 46.00 14.95 0.42 32.00 10.40

0.76 45.00 14.63 0.41 32.00 10.40

0.75 45.00 14.63 0.40 31.00 10.08

0.74 44.00 14.30 0.39 31.00 10.08

0.73 44.00 14.30 0.38 31.00 10.08

0.72 44.00 14.30 0.37 30.00 9.75

0.71 43.00 13.98 0.36 30.00 9.75

0.70 43.00 13.98 0.35 30.00 9.75

0.69 43.00 13.98 0.34 29.00 9.43

0.68 42.00 13.65 0.33 29.00 9.43

0.67 42.00 13.65 0.32 28.00 9.10

0.66 42.00 13.65 0.31 28.00 9.10

0.65 41.00 13.33 0.30 27.00 8.78

0.64 41.00 13.33 0.29 27.00 8.78

0.63 41.00 13.33 0.28 26.00 8.45

0.62 40.00 13.00 0.27 26.00 8.45

0.61 40.00 13.00 0.26 25.00 8.13

Page 13.248.63

Appendix H Bridge Critique

Engineering 190

BRIDGE CRITIQUE

of design

of construction

of performance

Bad Points (1.5 pts)

of design

of construction

of performance

What would you do differently, if you built another bridge? (1 pt)

Include your design drawing and calculations (1 pt)

Page 13.248.64

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