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Bukidnon State University

Fortich Street Malaybalay City, Bukidnon

Chapter 3 Summary

3.1 Hazards And Hazard Types

No matter how great the vulnerability of a large population from a hypothetical level of
flooding is, risk simply does not exist. In reality, the river flow speed, the volume of water that
goes by, and the rivers path vary with the time in one location. Once the intensification of a
floods magnitude, extent, and duration becomes uncontrollable, the timing of a disaster now
becomes the issue.

What is Hazard?
Hazards are potentials for damage to man and his environment that may result from the
occurrence of natural events such as volcanic eruptions, earthquake, floods and storm surges.
Types of Hazard
Natural Hazard- volcanic eruptions and earthquakes result from natural processes.
Secondary Hazard- when such natural events happen they became the aftershock of that events.
Excessive (natural hazard)- Liquefaction (secondary hazard)
Quasi-natural hazard- interaction between natural processes and human activities. Like smog
and desertification
3.2 Characteristics of Hazard
Key Hazard Parameters
Magnitude and Intensity - measure the strength and the indication of how destructive it can be.
Magnitude Scale- measures the amount of seismic energy released
Volcanic Explosivity Index(VEI)- measures the relative explosiveness of eruptions based
mainly on visual observation
Mercali Scale and Rossi-Forel Scale- measures the earthquake intensity
Speed Onset- it determines how damaging it will be and is based on visual observations
3.3 Hazard Identification, Assessment, and Mapping
Quantitative approach- Mathematical functions or equations relating the hazard variables used
are formulated or adopted to quantify the data.
Qualitative approach- this method is preferred especially when data is not enough to come up
with a quantitative evaluation or when it is not possible to express numerically one or more
Probabilistic approach- it provides an objective estimate of the probability of each hazard
affecting the area or region by considering past record of events.
Deterministic approach- this is more subjective approach of estimating probability.
Hazard Mapping- is a process of identifying the spatial variation of hazard events or physical
conditions. Hazard mapping is quite useful in communicating vital information about the spatial
variation of size and potential intensity of a particular hazard.

In this chapter I learned about the type of hazard and they are classified into 5 hazards it
is the Geologic, Hydrologic, Atmospheric, Biologic, and Man-made. And I have also learned the
different type of scale used to measure the strength of an earthquake which proved useful to
determine the epicenter of an earthquake and it also helped the volcanologist that they can know
how powerful the eruption of a volcano is the Mercalli Scale and Rossi Forel Scale and the VEI
proved very useful in these types of hazards.
Prepare by: Amiel L. Melendez Submitted to: Razel C. Ledres
Date:8/23/17 Instructor
Document Code: Document Issue Date: