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Heat exchanger

Tubular heat exchanger

A heat exchanger is a device used to transfer heat be- Countercurrent (A) and parallel (B) flows
tween a solid object and a fluid, or between two or more
fluids. The fluids may be separated by a solid wall to
prevent mixing or they may be in direct contact.[1] They
are widely used in space heating, refrigeration, air con-
ditioning, power stations, chemical plants, petrochemical
plants, petroleum refineries, natural-gas processing, and
sewage treatment. The classic example of a heat ex-
changer is found in an internal combustion engine in
which a circulating fluid known as engine coolant flows • Fig. 2: Shell and tube heat exchanger,
through radiator coils and air flows past the coils, which 2-pass tube side (1–2 crossflow)
cools the coolant and heats the incoming air. Another ex-
ample is the heat sink, which is a passive heat exchanger
that transfers the heat generated by an electronic or a me-
chanical device to a fluid medium, often air or a liquid
coolant.

• Fig. 3: Shell and tube heat exchanger, 2-
1 Flow arrangement pass shell side, 2-pass tube side (2-2 countercurrent)

There are three primary classifications of heat exchang-
ers according to their flow arrangement. In parallel-flow
heat exchangers, the two fluids enter the exchanger at the
same end, and travel in parallel to one another to the other
side. In counter-flow heat exchangers the fluids enter the
exchanger from opposite ends. The counter current de-
• Fig. 1: Shell and tube heat exchanger, sign is the most efficient, in that it can transfer the most
single pass (1–1 parallel flow) heat from the heat (transfer) medium per unit mass due
to the fact that the average temperature difference along

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cost and fouling nature of the ever. A larger tube . there are many limitations for this. • There is enough room for corrosion changer. Thus. Thus to determine the tube diameter. • Axial strength • Availability of spare parts 2.2 2 TYPES any unit length is higher. To start the design of a double pipe heat exchanger. heat exchangers are designed to maximize tubes that are being heated or cooled so that it can ei- the surface area of the wall between the two fluids.[2] This is because the shell and tube heat exchangers are robust due to their The driving temperature across the heat transfer surface shape. making them foul up faster and the small size makes mechanical a good choice for small industries. long.e. To prevail over the their low efficiency coupled with the high space occupied fouling and cleaning problems. Also. varies with position. it is more likely for the heat exchanger to are cheap for both design and maintenance. In a cross-flow heat exchanger. The tubes may be straight or bent in the shape of a U. Shell and tube heat exchangers are typically used for high- pressure applications (with pressures greater than 30 bar which increase surface area and may channel fluid flow or induce turbulence. thin tubes are difficult to take out and replace. It must be noted that for easier design. the centre- Main article: Shell and tube heat exchanger centre distance of adjoining tubes) is not less than 1. including space available at the installation site and the need to ensure tubes are available in lengths that are twice the required length (so they can be withdrawn and replaced). cleaning of the fouling difficult. are used to teach heat exchanger design basics to students • Tube thickness: The thickness of the wall of the as the fundamental rules for all heat exchangers are the tubes is usually determined to ensure: same.1 Shell and tube heat exchanger • Hoop strength (to withstand internal tube pres- sure) • Buckling strength (to withstand overpressure in the shell) • Tube length: heat exchangers are usually cheaper when they have a smaller shell diameter and a long tube length.Several thermal design features must be considered when ture can be defined. but an appropriate mean tempera. larger tube diameters in large scales. and temperatures greater than 260 °C). it’s better • That flow-induced vibration has resistance to ignore heat loss to the environment for initial design. of tubes is called the tube bundle and can be made up of The exchanger’s performance can also be affected by the several types of tubes: plain. the first step is to calculate the heat duty of the heat ex. they fluids must be considered. On the other hand. addition of fins or corrugations in one or both directions. How. longitudinally finned. called U-tubes. since double pipe heat exchangers are simple. these heat exchangers However. A set minimizing resistance to fluid flow through the exchanger. ther heated or cooled.25 times the tubes’ outside diameter. typically there is an aim to make the heat exchanger as long as physically possible whilst not exceeding production capabilities. Shell and tube heat exchangers consist of series of tubes. the fluids travel roughly One set of these tubes contains the fluid that must be ei- perpendicular to one another through the exchanger. while ther provide the heat or absorb the heat required. ficient heat exchangers like shell and tube or plate. the ends of each tube are connected to NTU method is used. Typically. 2 Types • Tube diameter: Using a small tube diameter makes Double pipe heat exchangers are the simplest exchangers the heat exchanger both economical and compact. it is practi- cal to ensure that the tube pitch (i.. How- ever. In most simple systems this is the designing the tubes in the shell and tube heat exchangers: "log mean temperature difference" (LMTD). plenums (sometimes called water boxes) through holes in tubesheets. A shell and tube heat exchanger • Tube pitch: when designing the tubes. has led modern industries to use more ef. The second fluid runs over the For efficiency. On one hand. Sometimes There can be many variations on the shell and tube de- direct knowledge of the LMTD is not available and the sign. the available space. etc. can be used. used in industries. See countercurrent exchange.

many types of permanently bonded plate heat exchangers. large heat exchangers of this type are called able for marine and harsh applications can be assembled plate-and-frame. wider baffle looks like a dough. type of baffle forces the fluid to pass around each slightly separated plates that have very large surface areas side of the disk then through the doughnut baffle and small fluid flow passages for heat transfer.2 Plate heat exchangers cations such as refrigeration. There are ers). An outer. These exchangers are composed of many thin.2. and welded plate va- rieties. odic disassembly. increases the turbulence of the fluids and the effect is very important in the heat transfer giving a better performance. The triangular patterns are employed to give greater heat transfer as they force the fluid to flow in a more tur- bulent fashion around the piping. preventing the tubes from sagging over a long length. brass baffles. and in the con- Main article: Plate heat exchanger figurations of those plates. and they are often specified for closed-loop appli- 2. and inspection.2 Plate heat exchangers 3 pitch leads to a larger overall shell diameter. triangular (30°). having the baffles spaced too far apart means that there may be cooler spots in the corners between baffles. which are. Having baffles spaced too closely causes a greater pressure drop because of flow redirection. There are four main types of tube layout. Baffle spacing is of large thermodynamic concern when designing shell and tube heat exchangers. The most common type of baffle is the segmental baffle. It is also important to ensure the baffles are spaced close enough that the tubes do not A single plate heat exchanger sag. Con- sequently. Another type of heat exchanger is the plate heat ex- nut. when used in open loops. which consists of two concentric baffles. which leads to a more expensive heat exchanger. or other patterns. cleaning. • Tube corrugation: this type of tubes. dimpled. • Tube Layout: refers to how tubes are positioned within the shell. whilst the inner baffle is shaped like a disk. The semicircular segmental Conceptual diagram of a plate and frame heat exchanger. vacuum-brazed. Some plates may be stamped with “chevron”. For thermo economic op- timization it is suggested that the baffles be spaced no closer than 20% of the shell’s inner diameter. mainly used for the inner tubes. square (90°) and rotated square (45°). Square patterns are employed where high fouling is experienced and cleaning is more regular.[3] (See: Copper in heat exchang. baffles are oriented at 180 degrees to the adjacent baffles forcing the fluid to flow upward and down- wards between the tube bundle. where others . Baffles must be spaced with consideration for the conversion of pressure drop and heat transfer. • Baffle Design: baffles are used in shell and tube heat exchangers to direct fluid across the tube bun- dle. rotated triangu- lar (60°). In HVAC ap- Fixed tube liquid-cooled heat exchangers especially suit. these heat ex- with brass shells. Plate heat exchangers also differ in the types of plates that are used. in gasket and brazing technology have made the plate- type heat exchanger increasingly practical. They run perpendicularly to the shell and hold the bundle. The other main type of baffle is the disc and doughnut baffle. copper tubes. They can also prevent the tubes from vibrating. Advances generating a different type of fluid flow. such as dip-brazed. plications. and forged changers are normally of the gasket type to allow peri- brass integral end hubs. This changer.

high pressure. The material enables the system to operate at a lower temperature difference and reduce the weight of the equipment. 2. rior of the tank. uling and close approach temper. offset fins and wavy fins. Nozzles carry flow in and out of the platepack (the 'Plate side' flowpath). compared to medium and high pressures of shell and tube. • Approximately 5 times lighter in weight than that of rent flow. Two ex- amples of this are adiabatic wheels. ferences. across nearly the entire surface area of the tank. which provide high heat transfer effi- ciency. which combines plate heat exchanger with • Difficult to clean the pathways shell and tube heat exchanger technologies. In particular. Plate and shell A pillow plate exchanger is commonly used in the dairy technology offers high heat transfer. The fully 2. which allows lower approach temperature dif. Disadvantages of plate and fin heat exchangers: 2. it does completely without gaskets.3 Plate and shell heat exchanger • Might cause clogging as the pathways are very nar- row A third type of heat exchanger is a plate and shell heat exchanger.4 Adiabatic wheel heat exchanger A fourth type of heat exchanger uses an intermediate fluid or solid store to hold heat. The pillow plate allows for cooling ature. and increased effi- • Able to withstand high pressure ciencies. air separation plants and transport industries such as motor and aircraft engines. may have machined fins and/or grooves.6 Pillow plate heat exchanger welded platepack is assembled into an outer shell that cre- ates a second flowpath ( the 'Shell side').4 2 TYPES 2. high temperature changes. Plate and fin heat exchangers are usually made of alu- minum alloys. which is then moved to the other side of the heat exchanger to be released. shell and tube heat exchanger. . without which provides security against leakage at high pressures gaps that would occur between pipes welded to the exte- and temperatures. and fluid heat exchangers. high industry for cooling milk in large direct-expansion stain- operating temperature. helium and oxygen liquefaction plants. Advantages of plate and fin heat exchangers: When compared to shell and tube exchangers. The designs include crossflow and counterflow coupled with various fin configurations such as straight fins. which consist of a large wheel with fine threads rotating through the hot and cold fluids. the stacked-plate arrangement typically has lower volume • High heat transfer efficiency especially in gas treat- and cost. less steel bulk tanks.5 Plate fin heat exchanger Main article: Plate fin heat exchanger This type of heat exchanger uses “sandwiched” passages containing fins to increase the effectiveness of the unit. • Larger heat transfer area A third and important difference is that plate exchangers employ more countercurrent flow rather than cross cur. Another difference between the two is that plate ment exchangers typically serve low to medium pressure fluids. Plate and fin heat exchangers are An interchangeable plate heat exchanger applied to the system of mostly used for low temperature services such as natural a swimming pool gas. The heart • Aluminum alloys are susceptible to Mercury Liquid of the heat exchanger contains a fully welded circular Embrittlement Failure plate pack made by pressing and cutting round plates and welding them together.

process. can benefit from Steam Rankine Cycle (SRC) in a WHRU. It is widely used in espresso machines as an energy-saving method Liquid of cooling super-heated water to use in the extraction of Condensate feed espresso.changers or similar units for producing steam from water changer are often called boilers or steam generators. typically water or oils. in turn.10 Phase-change heat exchangers 2. and creating a characteristic appearance of a swelled pillow formed out of metal.2. 2. continuous scraping of the surface. special large heat exchangers pass heat from the scraped surface heat exchanger". reboilers used to heat incoming feed cal generator. The hot gas stream can be the exhaust gas from a gas turbine or a diesel engine or a waste gas from indus- try or refinery. In addition to heating up or cooling down fluids in just a The refrigerant is boiled by the heat source in the single phase. thus solving two problems at once. Pentafluoropropane(R-245fa and R-245ca). After weld. This fluid is a liquid to evaporate (or boil) it or used as condensers expanded in the turbine to convert thermal energy to ki.8 Waste heat recovery units Typical kettle reboiler used for industrial distillation towers A Waste Heat Recovery Unit (WHRU) is a heat ex- changer that recovers heat from a hot gas stream while transferring it to a working medium. This energy transfer process decreases the for distillation towers are often heat exchangers. The recovery of heat from low temperature systems requires different working fluids than steam.[4][5] temperature of the refrigerant that. An Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) WHRU can be more efficient at low temperature range using Refrigerant that boil at lower temperatures than water. In chemical netic energy. thus avoiding fouling ing the enclosed space is pressurised with sufficient force and achieving a sustainable heat transfer rate during the to cause the thin metal to bulge out around the welds. spot-welded to the surface of another thicker sheet of crystallization processes. Typical organic Typical water-cooled surface condenser refrigerants are Ammonia. providing a space for heat exchanger liquids to flow. that is converted to electricity in the electri. Heat ex- 2. Big systems with high volume and temperature gas streams. Long running times are achieved due to the or with a serpentine pattern of weld lines. Bottoms product 2. heat exchangers can be used either to heat Evaporator to produce super-heated vapor. This is com- monly used for cooling gases whilst also removing certain impurities. condenses.10 Phase-change heat exchangers 5 The pillow plate is constructed using a thin sheet of metal for heating or cooling with high-viscosity products. The thin plate is welded in a regular pattern of dots applications. Distillation set-ups typically use condensers to condense The cycle is closed and completed using a pump to send distillate vapors back into liquid. This is mainly used primary (reactor plant) system to the secondary (steam . the fluid back to the evaporator. and the fluid is Liquid level then taken elsewhere before being cooled.to cool a vapor and condense it to a liquid.7 Fluid heat exchangers Vapor This is a heat exchanger with a gas passing upwards Steam through a shower of fluid (often water). and Toluene.plants and refineries. but these cycles are too expensive for small systems.9 Dynamic scraped surface heat ex. evaporation and high-fouling metal. Power plants that use steam-driven turbines commonly use heat exchangers to boil water into steam. typical in industry. In the nuclear power plants called pressurized water re- Another type of heat exchanger is called "(dynamic) actors.

For heating coils. films or sprays. and operators.12 Microchannel heat exchangers ture condensing out of it. or just coils due to their often-serpentine internal tubing. Some DX coils are “microchan- Such types of heat exchangers are used predominantly nel” type. In vehicles. ation (thermodynamic). When Most direct contact heat exchangers fall under the Gas – a refrigerant is used. or 2. Liquid-to-air. such as distillate cooling and reboiler 3 Optimization feed pre-heating. be adequately designed and selected to handle their par- or microstructured heat exchangers are heat exchang.6 4 HVAC AIR COILS plant) system. chilled water and refriger- • Immiscible liquid – liquid ant are most common. but cooling coils must Micro heat exchangers. tection of coils is a major concern of HVAC designers.ticular latent (moisture) as well as the sensible (cooling) ers in which (at least one) fluid flows in lateral confine. the com- classified as: mon fluids are water. freeze pro- heat exchangers can be used for many applications in. This mal performance and (3) Minimizing the entropy gener- change of phase effectively acts as a buffer because it oc. Mi. cluding: installers. the cooling coil is the evaporator in Liquid category. ments with typical dimensions below 1 mm.[9] On the air side of HVAC coils a significant difference ex- ists between those used for heating. For cooling coils. or a refrigerant. Heating some air increases that airflow’s capacity Main article: Micro heat exchanger to hold water.[2] that use this direct-expansion of refrigerants are com- monly called DX coils. steam.[8] Thus such heat exchangers can be On the liquid side of these heat exchangers. Micro-scale heat exchangers. replace thin-walled heat exchangers can easily be dam- ceramic. humidification. where heat is transferred between a gas the vapor-compression refrigeration cycle. regenerative heat exchangers can transfer heat from a stream that must be cooled to another stream that must be heated. One example where this has been investigated is for use in high power aircraft 4 HVAC air coils electronics. HVAC coils and liquid in the form of drops. except with extremely dry air flows. upon freezing. these somewhat expensive and difficult to crochannel heat exchangers can be made from metal.[18] in air conditioning. water or steam HVAC coils can be typical such confinement are microchannels. air that is cooled often has mois- 2. Due to psychrometrics. producing steam from water in the process. for example. and this heated fluid is supplied by boilers. This term can also refer to heat exchangers that con. but refrig- erant must come from a nearby condensing unit. This is usually a solid to liquid phase due to pressure drop (pumping power).heater cores. As such.loads. water cooling and condensing plants. The water that is removed is called condensate. heat coils are often called Direct contact heat exchangers involve heat transfer be. ditioning of buildings and vehicles. industrial hot water heating. tween hot and cold streams of two phases in the absence of a separating wall.[6][7] To conserve energy and cooling capacity in chemical and • heat recovery ventilators[16] other plants. and those for cooling. a water-glycol solution. So heating coils need not consider mois- ture condensation on their air-side.[11] and even low-cost plastic. The most For many climates. . which are exposed to freezing conditions.11 Direct contact heat exchangers air-to-liquid HVAC coils are typically of modified cross- flow arrangement. hot water and steam are the • Gas – liquid most common. Chilled water is supplied from a • Solid-liquid or solid – gas chiller that is potentially located very far away. This class of heat ex- changers is commonly called air coils. See for example:[17] curs at a constant temperature but still allows for the heat exchanger to accept additional heat. Heat exchangers functioning in multiphase flow regimes One of the widest uses of heat exchangers is for air con- may be subject to the Ledinegg instability. All fossil-fueled and nuclear power plants using steam-driven turbines have • heat pumps[14] surface condensers to convert the exhaust steam from the • air conditioning [15] turbines into condensate (water) for re-use. Because water expands channels with a hydraulic diameter below 1 mm. • high-performance aircraft gas turbine engines[13] These are called steam generators. (2) Maximizing the ther- the small volume difference between these states. There are three goals that are normally considered in the tain a material within their structure that has a change optimal design of heat exchangers: (1) Minimizing the of phase.[12] Microchannel aged or destroyed by just one freeze.

This invention cleaning less often.[20] • Under conditions of low flowrates (or laminar flow). typ. A pair of fluid ports are connected . Haraburda method from the cause combustion products may enter living space. automobile and process industries. allowing water terpart.[23] Yet. and upon constant heat flux. and which requires the use of different de- sign calculations.coiled tube. in. while convective heat trans- fer conditions were more appropriate in food.[24] During studies pub- lished in 2015. recent experimental data revealed that the empirical correlations are quite in agreement for designing circu- lar and square pattern HCHEs. liquids. Each of the two channels has helical coils for these multiple-phase fluids can prove one long curved path.HCHE involves the replacement of shell with another ally from accumulated pressure drops in other pro.[22] There are several simple methods for de- pass on one side of these heat exchangers. the better choice in the following cases would be the helical-coil heat exchanger (HCHE): 1 2 • The main advantage of the HCHE. metal fast breeder reactors since the early 1970s. allowing the two fluids to flow parallel to cess equipment. more generally. are not 'coils’. and gases). for exchanging heat in a sodium system for large liquid ical in many residences. like that for the SHE.[25] 6 Spiral heat exchangers Helical-Coil Heat Exchanger sketch. Although double-pipe heat exchangers are the simplest to design. which consists of a shell. and tubes (Scott S. from India and the Scott S.[19] These have been used in the nuclear industry as a method The heat exchangers in direct-combustion furnaces. such that the typical shell-and-tube exchangers have low heat-transfer coefficients and becoming Schematic drawing of a spiral heat exchanger.[20] A modification to the perpendicular flow of the typical • When there is low pressure in one of the fluids. using an stead. predicting flow around 5 Helical-coil heat exchangers the outside of the coil. They are. Patil (et al. uneconomical. United States. is its highly efficient use of space. Germer. usu. which may refer to a helical (coiled) tube con- phases (solids. such flat surfaces that are coiled to form the two channels in a as plugging of small-diameter tubes. gas-to-air heat exchangers that are typically made HCHE device invented by Charles E. several researchers found that the bound- ary conditions of the outer wall of exchangers were essen- tially constant heat flux conditions in power plant boilers. A cracked heat exchanger is therefore a such as using the Ramachandra K. especially when it’s limited and not enough straight pipe can 21 be laid. and air to heat signing HCHE for all types of manufacturing industries. the term refers to a pair of create mechanical problems during operations.[21] Cleaning of counter-flow arrangement.[20] one another. Boardman and John of stamped steel sheet metal. allowed for refrigeration without icing of the cooling mechanism.[26] These are the Spiral Heat Exchang- • When one of the fluids has components in multiple ers (SHE). which tends to figuration. Haraburda design). condensers and evaporators.) method dangerous situation that requires immediate attention be. The combustion products H. core. 7 The introduction of indentations placed within the heat to be more difficult than its shell and tube coun- exchange fins controlled condensation. however the helical coil unit would require molecules to remain in the cooled air. these are based upon assumptions of estimat- ing inside heat transfer coefficient. on the other.[20][21] However.

6. who are typ- There are three main types of flows in a spiral heat ex- ically engineers. opening out like heat. or by equipment vendors.cost is often the primary criterion. or an oversized flow SHE may be used to have less pressure drop. heat recovery. and able to last a long time in demanding envi.) flow A compact SHE may be used to have a smaller footprint exchange gradient and thus lower all-around capital costs. The coolant Spiral heat exchangers are often used in the heating of flu. but many iterations are typically needed. condens.” They are also easily cleaned. For face are often rather thick. and effluent cooling. thus increasing the drag (or fluid friction) on the fouled surface. Hot gases ids that contain solids and thus tend to foul the inside of that enter leave as condensate via the bottom outlet. either by system designers. Self-Cleaning Water filters are used to keep the system 7 Selection clean and running without the need to shut down or re- place cartridges and bags. • High/low pressure limits . and lower energy costs.2 Self cleaning cally. whereby fouled surfaces cause a local. exchanger.4 Applications ized increase in fluid velocity. thus helping to The Spiral heat exchanger is good for applications such dislodge the blockage and keep the heat exchanger clean. higher thermal efficiency. Spiral flow passages maintained by using spacer studs that were welded prior are welded at each side for this type of spiral heat to rolling. pre- “The internal walls that make up the heat transfer sur. (A notable tradeoff is capital cost vs operating cost. This type of flow is suitable for handling ternate top and bottom edges are welded and each end low density gas. These are used to transfer the ronments. and axial ports 0% near 50% are common. Once the main spiral pack has been rolled. The SHE uses a “self clean- ing” mechanism. Concurrent and countercurrent flow. This ensures no mixing of the two fluids occurs. types of heat exchangers. closed by a gasketed flat or conical cover bolted to the avoiding pressure loss.1 Construction • Spiral Flow/Cross Flow: One fluid is in spiral flow The distance between the sheets in the spiral channels is and the other in a cross flow. an oven where any buildup of foulant can be removed by pressure washing. Units are usu. as pasteurization. the heat exchanger. greater flow rate than the other. Though ing and gas cooling applications. or to a passage that contains the same fluid. 6. changer: To select an appropriate heat exchanger. which makes the SHE very sludge treatment. As 6. selecting optimal heat exchangers is challenging.[28] • Distributed Vapour/Spiral flow: This design is that of a condenser. Hand calculations are possible. sphere. 0% near 100% Countercurrent Flow ing energy. Concurrent Flow according to well known tradeoffs in heat exchanger de. al. and is usually mounted verti- 6. the system de- • Counter-current Flow: Fluids flow in opposite di.8 7 SELECTION tangentially to the outer arms of the spiral. near 0% 100% sign. It can be used for liquid- body. heating (see: recuperator). These are used for liquid-liquid. The low pressure drop lets the SHE handle fouling more easily. SHEs are generally smaller than other robust. but optional.design limitations for each heat exchanger type. several other selection ally mounted vertically when condensing vapour and criteria are important: mounted horizontally when handling high concen- trations of solids.[27] flow The main advantage of the SHE is its highly efficient use exchange gradient of space.signers (or equipment vendors) would firstly consider the rections. which passes through the cross flow. digester heating. moves in a spiral and leaves via the top. liquid applications if one liquid has a considerably Any leakage is from the periphery cover to the atmo. This attribute is often leveraged and partially flow 100% near 50% reallocated to gain other improvements in performance. Due to the many variables involved. less pump. It is designed to cater for the sub-cooling of both condensate and non-condensables.3 Flow arrangements such. heat exchangers are most often selected via com- puter programs.

stainless steel. The wall temperatures overall heat transfer coefficient tends to decline over time due to fouling.1 Fouling 9 • Thermal performance methods. the Crude Oil Exchanger Fouling. ficient from exchanger flow rates and temperatures. aluminum. an appropriate selection can be made • Low wall shear stress to optimise the process.proposed in 1959 by Kern and Seaton.[31] • Low fluid velocities • High fluid velocities 8 Monitoring and maintenance • Reaction product solid precipitation Online monitoring of commercial heat exchangers is • Precipitation of dissolved impurities due to elevated done by tracking the overall heat transfer coefficient. In commercial crude oil owner of the heat exchanger can estimate when cleaning refining.[30] Choosing the right heat exchanger (HX) requires some knowledge of the different heat exchanger types. maintenance and repair Main article: Fouling • Materials required for construction Fouling occurs when impurities deposit on the heat ex- • Ability and ease of future expansion • Material selection. as well A heat exchanger in a steam power station contaminated with as the environment where the unit must operate.8. ceramic. Two small diameter coil technologies are currently available for air conditioning and refrigeration products: copper microgroove[29] and brazed aluminum microchannel. polymer. With sufficient knowledge of heat exchanger types and operat- ing requirements. carbon steel. Typ- macrofouling. For example. a double pipe HX for the ‘carrier’ and are caused by: fluid and a plate and frame HX for final cooling. This model was originally By periodically calculating the overall heat transfer coef. such as copper.Mechanical integrity monitoring of heat exchanger tubes solids liquid) may be conducted through Nondestructive methods such as eddy current testing. Deposition of these impurities can de- or system to derive the final product. Small diam- eter coils can withstand the higher pressures required by the new generation of environmentally friendlier re- frigerants. (649 °F) prior to entering the distillation column. The rate of heat exchanger fouling is deter- mined by the rate of particle deposition less re- U=Q/AΔT entrainment/suppression. several differing types of heat exchangers are used for just one process change surface. A se- Integrity inspection of plate and tubular heat exchanger ries of shell and tube heat exchangers typically exchange can be tested in situ by the conductivity or helium gas heat between crude oil and other oil streams to heat the . ically in the manufacturing industry. a ket- crease heat transfer effectiveness significantly over time tle HX for pre-heating. and titanium. nickel alloys. • Pressure drops across the exchanger • Fluid flow capacity 8. • Product mix (liquid/liquid. crude oil is heated from 21 °C (70 °F) to 343 °C the heat exchanger is economically attractive. particulates or high.1 Fouling • Cleanability. These methods confirm the integrity of the plates or tubes to prevent any cross contamination and • Temperature ranges the condition of the gaskets. Small-diameter coil technologies are becoming more popular in modern air conditioning and refrigeration sys- tems because they have better rates of heat transfer than conventional sized condenser and evaporator coils with round copper tubes and aluminum or copper fin that have been the standard in the HVAC industry.

through their mouths. designers typically ensure that Further information: Countercurrent exchange in bio- cooling water velocity is greater than 0. Heat exchangers are also present in the cleaned periodically. The blood ascending the carotid arteries on its way to the brain.9 m/s and bulk logical systems fluid temperature is maintained less than 60 °C (140 °F).[32] The precipitation of insoluble asphaltenes in crude preheat trains has been successfully modeled as a first order reaction by Ebert and Panchal[33] who ex.1 Humans The human nasal passages serve as a heat exchanger. density.2 Maintenance causing the warm arterial blood to exchange heat with the cold venous blood. while reheating the returning blood.[38] 9. this type of technology has helped in lows Thomson’s gazelle to maintain its brain almost 3 °C providing a low-pressure drop in heat exchangers. addition of chemicals.3 Carotid rete also used in steam systems for power plants. (5. Its effectiveness can be demonstrated by putting Heat exchangers are widely used in industry both for the hand in front of the face and exhaling. viscosity. the Fouling occurs on the crude side of these exchangers due artery to the testis is surrounded by a mesh of veins called to asphaltene insolubility. system to limit heat losses from their body through their legs into the water. Localized precipitation of dissolved solids occurs at the heat exchange surface due to wall temperatures higher than bulk fluid temperature. enhanced with clothing. or drill rods. marine mammals panded on the work of Kern and Seaton. 8. In large-scale cooling water systems for heat exchang- ers. circulation system of fish. The the nose and then through the mouth. and testing. gan in some ungulates. is used to minimize fouling of the heat exchange equipment. sandblasting. Tubular heat exchangers can be tongue of baleen whales as large volumes of water flow [36][37] cleaned by such methods as acid cleaning. This reduces the overall heat loss Plate and frame heat exchangers can be disassembled and in cold waters. to mini- mize fouling and corrosion of the heat exchange and other The carotid rete is a counter-current heat exchanging or- equipment. chemical com- over the face while breathing in cold weather. flows via a network of ves- A variety of companies have started using water borne sels where heat is discharged to the veins of cooler blood oscillations technology to prevent biofouling.[34][35] This effect can be suit a process depending on the type of fluid. Cooling water is typically on the tube Countercurrent exchange conservation circuit side of a shell and tube exchanger because it’s easy to clean. Without the descending from the nasal passages. bullet cleaning. This cools the blood heading to bility in crude oil was successfully modeled by Wiehe and the testis.4 °F) cooler than the rest of the body. water treatment such as purification. In species that have external testes (such as humans). position and various other thermodynamic properties. 10 In industry which warms air being inhaled and cools air being ex- haled. first through cooling and heating large scale industrial processes. fish. Cooling water typically has a high to- tal dissolved solids content and suspended colloidal solids. Cooling water systems are sus- ceptible to fouling. Air exhaled through type and size of heat exchanger used can be tailored to the nose is substantially cooler. 9. and therefore aids in tolerating bursts in metabolic heat production such as associated with outrunning cheetahs (during which the 9 In nature body temperature exceeds the maximum temperature at which the brain could function). Other water treatment is 9. wearing a scarf temperature. Low fluid velocities (less than 3 ft/s) allow suspended solids to settle on the heat exchange surface. whales and other marine mam- mals. Kennedy. its phase. .2 Birds. To prevent fouling. the pampiniform plexus. The carotid rete al- use of chemicals. by. etc. pressures. Cooling Water Fouling. for example. Arteries to the skin carrying warm blood are in- tertwined with veins from the skin carrying cold blood. Other approaches to control fouling control combine the “blind” application of biocides and anti-scale chemicals "Countercurrent" heat exchangers occur naturally in the with periodic lab testing. Wading birds use a similar high-pressure water jet.10 10 IN INDUSTRY crude to 260 °C (500 °F) prior to heating in a furnace. The nature of asphaltene solu.

i. changer These two coupled first-order differential equations may be solved to yield: A simple heat exchange [42][43] might be thought of as two straight pipes with fluid flow. there are no second derivatives in x as is found in the heat equation.and since there is no heat transfer along the pipe. where ui (x) is the thermal energy per unit length and γ is the plate and frame heat exchanger.T = A − Bk1 e−kx 1 ids with heat capacity Ci (energy per unit mass per unit k change in temperature) and let the mass flow rate of the Bk2 −kx fluids through the pipes. This practice saves a lot where x is the distance along the pipe. since the system is in a steady state. be ji T2 = A + k e . carrying flu. heat exchangers can 1 or pipe 2. Tubular heat exchang- ers and plate heat exchangers are still the most widely ap. be used to recover this heat and put it to use by heating a Temperature profiles for the pipes are T1 (x) and T2 (x) different stream in the process.9 billion by 2016 and to ap. as the heat supplied to other streams state. both in the same direction.posite temperature gradients. there are no partial derivatives of temperature with respect to time. The time 11 In aircraft rate of change for the fluid element being carried along by the flow is: In commercial aircraft heat exchangers are used to take heat from the engine’s oil system to heat cold fuel. This change in internal energy results in a change in the temperature of the fluid element. in the other pipe at the same position. 13 A model of a simple heat ex. Assume a steady of money in industry. where the subscript i applies to pipe heat stream that is being exhausted. The differential equations governing the heat exchanger may now be written as: Estimated at US$42. the global demand of heat exchangers will experience robust growth of about 7. ∂T2 [41] J2 = γ(T1 − T2 ). plied product types. The market value is ∂T1 expected to reach US$57.e. Assume also that the only transfer of heat from a external source that is more expensive and more harmful small volume of fluid in one pipe is to the fluid element to the environment.16 billion by 2020. but for counter-flow heat gesters to promote the growth of microbes that remove exchange countercurrent exchange the sign is opposite in pollutants. Common types of heat exchangers used in this the second equation in front of γ(T1 − T2 ) ) application are the double pipe heat exchanger as well as . the thermal connection constant per unit length between the two pipes.8% annually over the next years.[39] This du1 dT1 improves fuel efficiency. ∂x Note that.7 billion in 2012.J1 = γ(T2 − T1 ) ∂x proach US$78. 11 In many industrial processes there is waste of energy or a (mass per unit time). heat exchangers play a vital role ( this is for parallel flow in the same direction and op- in maintaining optimal temperatures within anaerobic di.. including: transfer of heat along a pipe due to temperature differ- ences in that pipe. so that the temperature profiles are not functions of from the heat exchangers would otherwise come from an time.[40] du2 dT2 = J2 dt dx 12 Current market and forecast where Ji = Ci ji is the “thermal mass flow rate”. as well as reduces the possibility = J1 dt dx of water entrapped in the fuel freezing in components. which are thermally con- nected. there is no Heat exchangers are used in many industries. By Newton’s law of cooling the rate • Waste water treatment of change in energy of a small volume of fluid is propor- tional to the difference in temperatures between it and the • Refrigeration corresponding element in the other pipe: • Wine and beer making du1 • Petroleum refining = γ(T2 − T1 ) dt • nuclear power du2 = γ(T1 − T2 ) dt In waste water treatment. Let the pipes be of equal length L.

for the same “thermal mass flow rate” in both opposite directions. ISBN 0-8493-0902-6. (1988). the sum of the two en.com/pdf/ fbf.). Rating and Thermal Design (2nd ed. • Cooling tower [6] Air Pollution Control Orientation Course from website of the Air Pollution Training Institute • Copper in heat exchangers [7] Energy savings in steam systems Figure 3a. Layout of sur- • Heat pipe face condenser (scroll to page 11 of 34 PDF pages) .. Hongtan Liu (2002). Define the average temperatures in each • Pumpable ice technology pipe as: • Reboiler • Recuperator. New York: Longman Scientific Log mean temperature difference. (1984). CRC Press. [2] Saunders. De- ergies is zero..12 15 REFERENCES where k1 = γ/J1 . Distillation Design (1st ed. (1992). dU2 du2 = dx = J2 (T2L − T20 ) = γL(T 1 − T 2 ). ISBN • Chemical engineering 0-07-049479-7. American In- energy. these temperatures are: • Surface condenser • Toroidal expansion joint • Thermosiphon Choosing any two of the temperatures above eliminates the constants of integration. but for counter-flow the sign in • Log mean temperature difference (LMTD) front of k2 is negative. and is a measure of the and Technical. or cross plate heat exchanger ∫ L 1 T1 = T1 (x)dx • Regenerator L 0 ∫ L • Run around coil 1 T2 = T2 (x)dx. McGraw-Hill. Perry’s Chem- ical Engineers’ Handbook (6th ed. We find the total energy transferred by in. Heat Exchanges: Selection. ISBN 0-07-034909-6. Heat Exchangers: Se- ∫ L lection. effectiveness of the heat exchanger in transferring heat [3] Industrial Shell-and-tube heat exchangers.pdf [4] Kister. letting us find the other four • Thermal wheel. 14 See also McGraw-Hill. k2 = γ/J2 . Henry Z. A. http://www.aihti. so that if k2 = k1 . The quantity T 2 − T 1 is known as the sign and Construction. dustrial Heat Transfer Inc. • Architectural engineering [5] Perry.). Green.). dt 0 dt By the conservation of energy. enthalpy wheel and desiccant wheel) tegrating the expressions for the time rate of change of • Waste heat internal energy per unit length: ∫ L 15 References dU1 du1 = dx = J1 (T1L − T10 ) = γL(T 2 − T 1 ) dt 0 dt [1] Sadik Kakaç. or rotary heat exchanger (including temperatures. Let T10 and T20 be the temperatures at x=0 • Packed bed and in particular Packed columns and let T1L and T2L be the temperatures at the end of the pipe at x=L. explaining why the counter current • Micro heat exchanger design countercurrent exchange is the most efficient ) • Moving bed heat exchanger and A and B are two as yet undetermined constants of integration. Robert H. • Heat pump • Heat recovery ventilation k = k1 + k2 • Jacketed vessel (this is for parallel-flow. Don W. E. the • Marine heat exchangers gradient of temperature is constant and the temperatures • Mechanical engineering linear in position x with a constant difference (T2 − T1 ) along the exchanger. • Steam generator (nuclear power) L 0 Using the solutions above.

. et al. 14–16 July 2014. trieved 14 July 2015. Ashok B. 1936. Ghosh. sign of cross-flow microchannel heat exchanger doi:10.S. [30] Q&A: Microchannel air-cooled condenser.M.2013. Shende. Y. June 1995 K. Re- heat exchanger: design. Ox. [23] Rennie. “Heat Transfer Analysis Of Helical Coil Heat [10] Table: Various Types of Gas – Liquid Direct Contact Heat Exchanger With Circular And Square Coiled Pattern” Exchangers (Hewitt G.D. Proceedings of the 10th In.expthermflusci. “Experimental studies of a 226: 532–544. nel heat exchanger for heat pump systems”.1177/0957650912442781. [24] Korane.com/landing/2011/ Experimental Study of Fouling Performance of Air Con- air-cooled-condenser/res/pdfs/H-ACCMCX-QA.. & John H. Manish N. D. Re- trieved 14 July 2015. p. Applied Thermal Engineering. 1 (10): 279–285. Brandemuehl Michael J. Energy & Fuels. 92 (24): 85–88..968 John C Raisley issued July 7. Bhoi. mization of heat and fluid flow”..09. USA. fabrication and preliminary ex.046. Technical Information Center. Kennedy. Mudawar I. 1934 Slip-Stream Coking Data. Process Heat Transfer.1016/j. doi:10. and evaluation of a ceramic counter-flow microchannel [25] Kuvadiya. [20] Patil. Vijaya G.V.. Rankit heat exchanger”. Prasanfa California. BNP Media. inter- microgroove.. Cremaschi L. Volume 6. April 1955 [21] Haraburda. Charles E. Heat Exchangers:Selection De- [14] Moallem E.A. J. Wiehe and R.heatcraftrpd.S. (1983). 31 (11): A. Bott T (1994).. J. (2004).1016/j.. J. Analysis of Exxon Crude-Oil- Jan. San Luis Obispo. [27] Cooling Text doi:10. Shi. doi:10. Studies Of A Doublepipe Helical Heat Exchanger (PDF) ford. 35 (1): 171–186. Denkenberger..pdf ditioning System with Microchannel Heat Exchanger. ISBN 0- 7167-3863-5. issued 1974 [36] . Gopal K. [32] I.. Experimen- [13] Northcutt B. fabrication.M. ver Geo-Heat Center. J. [31] • White. 62: 418–424. Journal of Heat Transfer.Heat exchanger basics. Shires G & Bott T.W. [22] US 3805890.ijrefrig.net/ national journal of refrigeration. 56 – [18] MICROCHANNEL TECHNOLOGY 63 (2000). “Designing a helical-coil heat exchanger”. doi:10. (April 2015). 17/3/08 lando. Retrieved 14 July 2015.2005.. (13 December 1982). Patel.. tal Thermal and Fluid Science.applthermaleng. (July 1995). perimental test”. Wang.02. “The design.). ing equipment. 134 (6): 061801. 1996–2001 Last Accessed ics and Thermodynamics (HEFAT). http://www. “Helical Coil Heat Exchanger”. (September 2005). M.. Timothy J. Purandare. pp. Parisi. B. F.046. (2014). (2011). Macmillan. • Heat Exchangers Kevin D..010. Defense trieved 14 July 2015. Fisher sign And Construction Longman Scientific and Technical D. Gene Cul- ternational Conference on Heat Transfer. Pearce.08. Chen. doi:10. Florida. Retrieved 14 July 2015. Germer. Re.. 8.. Raghavan. Warren W. http://www. [34] Heat Loss from the Respiratory Tract in Cold. Or. (Ph.2011. F.2011. Pearce Wall Temperature” (PDF).1016/j.. J. P. 29 (8): 919–924. gines”. “Expanded microchannel neering Research & Technology. Padhmanabhan S. Retrieved 14 module for high-performance aircraft gas turbine en. Kathleen French. [15] Xu. [19] Patent 2.D. Proc of Fouling Mitigation of Industrial Heat-Exchanger Equipment. Numerical And Experimental ing – Design (SI Units).. International Journal of Engineering & Science Re- search. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechan- [26] Rennie.energy. Rafferty.1016/j. (2012). Scott S. ical Engineers – Part A: Journal of Power and Energy. [11] Kee Robert J. CRC Press Inc.4006037. FL. anisms and adaptations. of Tube in Tube Helical Coil Heat Exchanger at Constant [12] Denkenberger David C. Fluid Mechan. 14. “Parametric Analysis 2004–2012.1115/1.. “Enhanced de.03. and Ebert W. Ramachandra K. Mali. [28] E. 13 [8] Coulson.009... Chemical Engineer. & Li.B. Deshmukh. K. & Richardson. Consider Helical-Coil Heat Exchanger”. E. (2012).Saunders (1988). Timothy J. p 451. Shires G.001. (June 2012). Pergamon Press. USA. • For manufacturing engineers who use heat process- [17] “A new configuration of bend tubes for compound opti. Energy. 102 (7): 149–151. 1994) (PDF). International Journal of Engi- Joshua M.. “Three-Phase Flow? [35] Randall. filed [33] Panchal C. double-pipe helical heat exchanger”. ‘Heat and Mass Transfer’ © 1988 [16] D. 2007 Last Accessed 17/3/08 2013. Burggren. Chemical Engi.. Li. Chemical Engineering. A. 3–4. pp. Zhai John (2012). “Experimental investigation of the ISBN 0-582-49491-5 surface temperature and water retention effects on the frosting performance of a compact microchan- [29] Microgroove: The Microgroove advantage. Roger Eckert (2002). J. David J. July 2015. [9] Hewitt G. B. Eckert animal physiology: mech- neering. 2 (6): 413–423. Towards Low- Addison-Wesley Publishing Co. April 2011. Ramesh H. Montreal: McGill University. 602–604 Cost Microchannel Heat Exchangers: Vehicle Heat Re- covery Ventilator Prototype. Heatcraft Worldwide Refrigeration. 587. Boardman.

“Thermoregulation in the Mouths of Feeding Gray Whales”. 16 External links • Heat Exchangers at DMOZ • Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Design Software for Educational Applications (PDF) • Plate Heat Exchanger Maintenance • EU Pressure Equipment Guideline • A Thermal Management Concept For More Electric Aircraft Power System Application (PDF) . J.Volume 1. J (1999). Inc. G. [MIT].14 16 EXTERNAL LINKS [37] Heyning and Mead.Fluid Flow.R. ‘Thermoeconomic opti- mization of baffle spacing for shell and tube heat ex- changers’.com. United States Patent and Trade- mark Office. United States Of America.Hewitt.AskNature [39] “United States Patent 4498525.278. PMID 9353198. doi:10. Mead. 278 (5340): 1138–1140.5340. T. Volume 47. CRC Press. Pages 1478–1489. [38] Carotid rete cools brain: Thomson’s gazelle -. • G. [40] “Boeing links Heathrow. Chemical Engineering. Energy Conservation and Management. • Coulson. Retrieved 3 February 2009.1126/science. Reed Educational & Profes- sional Publishing LTD • Dogan Eryener (2005). [41] “Market Report: Global Heat Exchanger Market”.Shires.Bott (1994) Process Heat Transfer. Science. Heat Transfer and Mass Transfer.L. Retrieved 3 February 2009. Acmite Market Intelligence. FlightGlobal.1138. Retrieved 2010-01-19. and Richardson. Cambridge University Press [43] “MIT web course on Heat Exchangers”. Issue 11–12. Atlanta Trent 895 engine roll- backs”.F. External link in |publisher= (help) [42] Kay J M & Nedderman R M (1985) Fluid Mechanics and Transfer Processes. JG (November 1997). Fuel/oil heat exchange system for an engine”.

Checkingfax. Spiel496.org/wikipedia/commons/4/44/Delta_T_1. Cour- celles. Brianhe. Trappist the monk. Enterprisey. Hagen76.svg License: CC-BY-SA-3.svg Source: https://upload. KasparBot. Dtgriscom. Latka. Weegeerunner. Drewjewbe.wikimedia. Davidmack. Saidivyav. Dawnseeker2000.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1f/Heat_exc_1-1. Malyszkz. Baptisteg and Anonymous: 348 17. Andy Dingley.jpg License: CC BY-SA 4. Sally4500. JAnDbot. Anurkat. Fella22.5 Contributors: . Anasofiapaixao.0 Contributors: ? Original artist: ? • File:Kettle_reboiler. SmackBot. Sonett72. UBJ 43X.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Own work Original artist: Joe • File:Fouling02. Sun Creator. ClueBot. Vsmith. Mausy5043. Azimbaj. Cesiumfrog. YurikBot. Electron9. Old Moonraker. Inwind. Gilliam. Omniopinante. Citation bot 1. Ijam7727. and licenses 17.png Source: https://upload. John of Paris.khal4. AkhtaBot. Jdpipe.wikimedia. Jihelmers. IvanLanin. Taneshajns. 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