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ASSESSMENT I

MK DASAR ILMU TANAH

1. Uraikan secara singkat faktor-faktor pembentuk tanah yang mempengaruhi klasifikasi


ordo (jenis) tanah!
Faktor pembentuk tanah ada 5 (lima) yaitu: 1) Bahan Induk = Batuan Beku,
B.Sedimen, B.Metamorf, Bhn.Organik; (mempengaruhi perbedaan dari sifat
kimia dan sifat fisik tanah); 2) Iklim = curah hujan dan suhu (temperatur); 3)
Organisme = Tumbuhan & Hewan; 4) Relief (topografi) : Kecuraman
Lereng; dan 5) Waktu = Tingkat Perkembangan (muda, dewasa, tua) dan
Umur (dalam tahun)
2. Lengkapi deskripsi nomenklatur horison profil tanah dibawah ini!
Horizon Criteria
(expanded details listed in Soil Taxonomy Section)
O Organic soil materials (not limnic)
A Mineral; organic matter (humus) accumulation, loss of Fe, Al,
clay
AB (or AE) Dominantly A horizon characteristics but also contains some
characteristics of the B (or E) horizon
A/B (or A/E) (or Discrete, intermingled bodies of A and B (or E, or C) material;
A/C) majority of horizon is A material
AC Dominantly A horizon characteristics but also contains some
characteristics of C horizon
E Mineral; loss of Fe, Al, clay, or organic matter
EA (or EB) Dominantly E horizon characteristics but also contains some
attributes of the A (or B) horizon
E/A (or E/B) Discrete, intermingled bodies of E and A horizon (or E and B)
material; majority of horizon is E material
E and Bt (or B and Thin lamellae (Bt) within a dominantly E horizon (or thin E
E) within dominantly B horizon)
BA (or BE) Dominantly B characteristics but also contains some attributes
of A (or E) horizon
B/A (or B/E) Discrete, intermingled bodies of B and A (or E) material;
majority of horizon is B material
B Subsurface accumulation of clay, Fe, Al, Si, humus, CaCO3,
CaSO4; or loss of CaCO3; or accumulation of sesquioxides; or
subsurface soil structure
BC Dominantly B horizon characteristics but also contains some
characteristics of the C horizon
B/C Discrete, intermingled bodies of B and C material; majority of
horizon is B material
CB (or CA) Dominantly C horizon characteristics but also contains some
characteristics of the B (or A) horizon
C/B (or C/A) Discrete, intermingled bodies of C and B (or A) material;
majority of horizon is C material
C Little or no pedogenic alteration, unconsolidated earthy
material, soft bedrock
L Limnic soil materials
R Bedrock, Strongly Cemented to Indurated
W A layer of liquid water (W) or permanently frozen water (Wf)
within the soil (excludes water/ice above soil)

3. Sebutkan 10 simbol horison tambahan yang digunakan untuk menunjukkan sifat-sifat


khusus horison utama.
Horizon Criteria
(expanded details listed in Soil Taxonomy Section)
a Highly decomposed organic matter
b Buried genetic horizon (not used with C horizons)
c Concretions or nodules
co Coprogenous earth (Used only with L)
d Densic layer (physically root restrictive)
di Diatomaceous earth (Used only with L)
e Moderately decomposed organic matter
f Permanently frozen soil or ice (permafrost); continuous,
subsurface
ice; not seasonal ice
ff Permanently frozen soil (Dry permafrost); no continuous ice;
not seasonal ice
g Strong gley
h Illuvial organic matter accumulation
i Slightly decomposed organic matter
j Jarosite accumulation
jj Evidence of cryoturbation
k Pedogenic carbonate accumulation
m Strong cementation (pedogenic, massive)
ma Marl (Used only with L)
n Pedogenic, exchangeable sodium accumulation
o Residual sesquioxide accumulation (pedogenic)
p Plow layer or other artificial disturbance
q Secondary (pedogenic) silica accumulation
r Weathered or soft bedrock
s Illuvial sesquioxide accumulation
ss Slickensides
t Illuvial accumulation of silicate clay
v Plinthite
w Weak color or structure within B (used only with B)
x Fragipan characteristics
y Pedogenic accumulation of gypsum
z Pedogenic accumulation of salt more soluble than gypsum

4. Uraikan pengaruh topografi pada proses pembentukkan tanah!


a. Mempengaruhi jumlah air hujan yang masuk dan ditahan di dalam tanah
b. Mempengaruhi kedalaman air tanah
c. Mempengaruhi pengikisan tanah (erosi)
d. Mengarahkan gerakan air yang mengangkut bahan-bahan terlarut dari tempat
yang tinggi ke tempat yang lebih rendah
5. Uraikan sifat-sifat tanah yang dapat dipengaruhi oleh relief diantaranya adalah:
a. Tebal solum
b. Tebal dan kandungan bahan organik dan horison A
c. Kadar air, kelembaban tanah, dan suhu
d. Warna tanah
e. Tingkat perkembangan horison
f. Reaksi tanah (pH)
g. Kandungan unsur hara
h. Jenis dan tingkat perkembangan lapisan keras
i. Sifat dari bahan induk
6. Berikan penjelasan singkat masing-masing komponen pengamatan tanah di
lapangan seperti tertera pada form di bawah ini:
Profil No. :

Model : Photo Nr/Map Nr :


Surveyor : Vegetation :
Observation Nr : Present land use :
Date : Water table :
Location : Drainage class :
Rentis : Land Units :
Tentatif soil class : Slope gradients :
Tentatif land class :

Symbol
Layer Nr I II III IV V VI VII VIII
Depth (cm)
a c g d
Horizon Boundary
s w l b
Matrix color
f m a
1 2 3
Motles
l d p
Matrix Color
f m a
1 2 3
Concretion
Fe Ca Mn
v m h
s ls sl l
Texture si cl scl sicl
sc sic sil c
so ssi sicl vs
W
po sp vp
ls vfr fr
Consistancy M
fi vfi efi
ls sl sh
D
h vh eh
0 1 2 3
vf fi m c vc
Structure
pl pr cpr wg abk
sbk gr cr sg n
h m
Organic matter
fi he sa
Fauna Activity z1 z2 z3
Clay skin c1 c2 c3
f m a
Cracks
1 2 3
f m a
Pores
1 2 3
f m a
Roots
1 2 3
f m a
Stones/Lateriet
lgt lg lb st g e

Remarks :
1. Surface feature : Soil Sample
2. Flooding (excesswater removed) : hours/days
depth of water : cm No Depth (cm) Special Feature
cm month : I
3. Micro relief : II
4. Permeability rate : III
5. Depth to sand, gravel or cabbles, plinthite, IV
gley, cat clay : V
6. Parent material : VI
7. Sketch of landform : VII
VIII
XI
Jawab:

Ketajaman batas-batas horison Bentuk topografi dari peralihan horison


a (abrupt) = nyata : tebal peralihan <2,5 cm s (smooth) = rata, batas horison datar
c (clear) = jelas : tebal peralihan 2,5 - 6,5 cm w (wavy) = berombak, batas horison bergelombang
g (gradual) = berangsur : tebal peralihan 6,5 - 12,5 cm I (irreguler) = tidak teratur, naik turun
d (diffuse) = baur : tebal peralihan > 12,5 cm b (broken) = terputus, batas horison tidak menyambung

Motles -- Jumlah Motles -- Ukuran Motles -- Bandingan


f = sedikit, < 2% 1 = kecil, diameter < 5 mm b = baur. Karatan tidak jelas
m = sedang, 2 - 20% 2 = sedang, diameter 5 - 15 mm d = jelas, mudah terlihat
a = banyak, > 20% 3 = besar, diameter > 15 mm p = nyata, tampak menyolok
Konkresi -- Kongkresi --
Konkresi--Jumlah Konkresi -- ukuran Bandingan Kekerasan
f = sedikit 1 = kecil, diameter < 0,5 cm fe = berwarna merah/coklat w (weak)
m = biasa 2 = sedang, diameter 0,5 - 1,5 cm ca = berwarna keputihan m (moderat)
a = banyak 3 = biasa, diameter > 1,5 cm Mn = berwarna kehitaman h (hard)
Tekstur
s (sand) = pasir si (silt) = debu sc (sandy clay) = liat berpasir
ls (loamy sand) = pasir berlempung cl (clay loam) = lempung berliat sic (silty clay) = liat berdebu
sl (sandy loam) = lempung berpasir scl (sandy clay loam) = lempung liat berpasir sil (silt loam) = lempung berdebu
l (loam) = lempung sicl (silty clay loam) = lempung liat berdebu c (clay) = liat
Konsistensi
W (Weat) = basah M (Moist) = lembab D (Dry) = Kering
so (nonsticky) = tidak ada tanah tertinggal l (loose) = lepas l (loose)
ssi (slightly sticky) = agak lekat, tanah tertinggal pd salah satu jari vfr (very friable) = sangat gembur s (soft)
si (sticky) = lekat, tanah tertinggal pada kedua jari fr (friable) = gembur sh (slightly hard)
vs (very stick) = sukar untu melepaskan fi (firm) = teguh h (hard)
Plastisitas vfi (very firm) = sangat teguh vh (very hard)
po (nonplastic) = tidak dapat berbentuk efi (extramely firm) = sangat teguh sekali eh (extremely hard)
ps (slightly plastic) = agak plastik
vp (very plastic) = sangat plastis, tanah terbentk segelintir tanah, tahan thd tekanan
Structure
Tingkat Perkembangan Ukuran Bentuk
0 = tidak berstruktur vf (fery fine) = sangat halus pl (platy) = lempeng (keping)
1 = lemah f (fine) = halus pr (prosmatic) = prisma
2 = cukup m (medium) = sedang cpr (columnar) = tiang
3 = kuat c (coarse) = besar/tebal abk (angular blocky) = sudut
sbk (subangular
vc (very coarse) = sangat besar blocky) = kubus membulat (gumpal)
gr (granular) = kersai (butir)
Organik Matter cr (crumb) = remah
Jumlah Kemasaman sg (subgranular)
h = hitam fi m (masive) = pejal
m = he
sa
Fauna Activity Clay Skin Cracks
z1 c1 f 1
z2 c2 m 2
z3 c3 a 3

Pores Roots
f = sedikit 1 Ukuran Jumlah
m = sedang 2 f = halus 1 = sedikit, < 2%
a = banyak 3 m = sedang 2 = sedang. 2 - 20%
a = kasar 3 = banyak, > 20%