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IEEE INDICON 2015 1570183939

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An Improved SRF based Control Algorithm for
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D-STATCOM under Abnormal Source Voltage
7 Mohit Bajaj1, Mukesh Pushkarna2, Ankur Singh Rana3, Mohd. Tauseef khan4
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Assistant Professors, Department of Electrical Engineering, DIT University, Dehradun-248009, India
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Assistant Professor, Department of Electrical Engineering, Quantum School of Engineering, Roorkee-247667, India
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Research Scholar, Department of Electrical Engineering, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi-110025, India
11 Emails: 1thebestbajaj@gmail.com, 2er_pushkarna@yahoo.com, 3ankurranag@gmail.com, 4mohd138004@st.jmi.ac.in
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14 Abstract This paper describes an improved SRF DSTATCOM is implemented using smart circuits to detect
15 (Synchronous Reference Frame) based control technique or the components of harmonic and reactive power drawn by
16 algorithm for time varying power flow control and optimum load nonlinear loads and inject that itself to the load after tracking so
17 compensation of non-linear loading under abnormal or disturbed that it may not be supplied by the source [9]. After injecting
18 source voltage by D-STATCOM designed for three-phase three
tracked reference current at PCC, the ideal sinusoidal source
wire systems. The improved algorithm is based on the active
19 power separation and imaginary symmetrical components of currents are obtained. Thus, both harmonic as well as reactive
20 voltage and has been compared with conventional IRP based power compensation of the nonlinear loads are achieved. The
21 algorithm to show the preciseness in finding the reference detection of reference current is one of the vital core
22 current for a DSTATCOM under abnormal i.e. asymmetric and technologies of DSTATCOM, for effectually enhancing the
23 distorted source voltage. Individually the algorithms were power quality by D-STATCOM and mostly in case of
24 implemented and simulated under MATLAB/Simulink. The abnormal source voltage, the precision of detecting reference
25 simulation results also show which algorithm can accurately current becomes particularly crucial. That is why current
detect the harmonics and reactive component of load current detection technique analysis has much significance since with
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even under the asymmetric and distorted source voltage
27 wrong detection of current Compensator could become the
condition. Additionally by the control loop of reactive power of
28 improved algorithm, load reactive power can be compensated as source of power quality problem for the system itself.
29 well as regulated under variations of load. Thus this additional The D-STATCOM based on the Improved Algorithm takes
30 control arrangement can help system operators improve overall the challenge and provides exact results under unbalanced and
31 system performances.
distorted source voltage, compared to D-STATCOM based on
32 KeywordsComprehensive, abnormal source voltage, active conventional control algorithms. Additionally by the reactive
33 power separation, asymmetric, distorted, power control loop. power control loop of modified algorithm load reactive power
34 will be compensated as well as regulated under load variations.
35 I. INTRODUCTION Thus this additional control arrangement can help system

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36 RESENT-GENERATION consumer appliances, with operators improve overall system performances. The algorithm
37 power electronic devices and p-based controls, is very proposed has been simulated under environment of MATLAB
38 sensitive to quality of power with respect to conventional using Simulink.
39 appliances [1]. The increasing importance of efficiency of
40 global power system has caused the sustained growth of use of
devices such that variable-speed motor drives and connecting II. SYSTEM CONFIGURATION
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shunt capacitors for power-factor improvement to minimize The D-STATCOM mainly consists of a three-phase PWM
42 controlled voltage source converter (VSC) of six IGBTs, DC
transmission losses [2-4]. Further this has resulted in increased
43 levels of harmonic on transmission systems and several capacitor and an inductor. Capacitor acts for active filter
44 researchers are worried about the future effect on capabilities energy storage. As per according to the switching algorithm,
45 of power system. Due to higher power and voltage conducting inverter obtains direction of transmitting energy between DC
46 capacity of present power-electronics devices, their application capacitor and network by inductor. Fig. 1 is showing the basic
47 is very common in industry and in domestic purposes also [5]. compensation principle of a distribution static compensator. It
48 Although these benefits are surely good but such extreme use is made controllable to draw and supply the compensating
49 of power-electronic devices is a serious problem itself that is current ic from/ to the compensator, so as to eliminate current
50 generation of current harmonics and reactive power in the components of harmonics and reactive power on the source
51 modern power system. Consequently, the voltage of several side, thereby making the source side current purely sinusoidal
52 buses and PCCs of system networks is becoming distorted and and in phase with the source voltage also.
53 the consumers connected to those PCCs are not being
54 functioned as designed [6]. The too much VAR drawn by load
55 results in greater than before transmission losses and greater
than before utility charges due to poor power factor [7, 8].
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978-1-4673-6540-6/15/$31.00 2015 IEEE


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(5) and (6), and hence the voltage vector-V and current vector-i
on plane are
1 1 1
2 2
V Va
V 0 3 3 5
2 2 Vb
Vo 1 1 1 Vc
2 2 2

1 1 1
2 2
i ia
i 0 3 3 ib 6
2 2
io 1 1 1 ic
2 2 2
After dq-conversion every vector rotates at the speed of
angular frequency [10]. Now if the d-axis of dq coordinates is
in same phase of transformed voltage vector of imaginary
Fig. 1 D-STATCOM basic compensation principle
system then static coordinates can be transferred in to rotating
III. AN IMPROVED SRF BASED CONTROL ALGORITHM dq coordinates according to the fig. 2.

The proposed improved SRF based control algorithm is based


on the transformation of reference frame. The improved SRF
based control algorithm creates imaginary symmetrical three-
phase voltage by using one-phase voltage to exclude errors of
detection due to voltage asymmetric and creates imaginary
symmetrical three-phase voltage by separating per phase
active power drawn by the load in case of distorted source
voltage.
The basic idea is, first of all to calculate the total average
active power component delivered from source to load at the
point of common coupling. Then average active power of each
phase is divided by fundamental or active component of
Fig. 2 Coordinate transform of /dq
distorted load current of respective phase to find the
magnitude of imaginary three phase system of voltage to be id cos sin i
(7)
created. Magnitude of voltage for three phases is calculated as, iq sin cos i
P Further for obtaining the fundamental or active component of
V 2 I k a, b, c 1
load current vector i that rotates with imaginary voltage vector
e, we need to take the projection of current vector on voltage
Now further rotating co-ordinates are formed by using vector [10]. With the first measurement of total active power
imaginary symmetrical three-phase voltage vector system. taken by the load is done on the per phase basis and thereafter
Again imaginary symmetrical three-phase vector system is imaginary reference source voltage is created using the
created by using magnitude of voltage of any phase from fundamental component of distorted load current which makes
equation (1), for example A phase. the compensation current of DSTATCOM closer to sinusoidal
Let A phase voltage: and capable to supply same active power to the load as before
Va = Vm sin(wt + ) (2) compensation. Figure 3 shows overall proposed control
Where Vm is amplitude of A phase, is initial phase angle. scheme of improved algorithm.
Let A phase voltage delay 60, then get the reversed-phase to In general, power compensation by D-STACOM can have
structure C phase voltage: various functions such as power factor improvement, removal
Vc = Vm sin(wt + - 60) of harmonic current, etc. Under a balanced or unbalanced or
even distorted three-phase supply condition, some criteria
Vc = Vm sin(wt + + 120) (3)
should meet to optimize the complete system compensation.
B phase voltage can be obtained from A phase and C phase The research conducted by many authors in literature aimed to
voltage: compensate the load current such that the source current
Vb = Va Vc become purely sinusoidal and deliver the minimum average
Vb = Vm sin(wt + + 120) (4) reactive power to the load. Although for non-linear loading it
After structuring the imaginary symmetrical three-phase can assure only one optimal criterion. In this control algorithm
voltage Vabc by using A phase voltage, Vabc and iabc are multiple objectives for shunt power compensation are
coordinate converted correspondingly according to equation proposed. It is possible to compensate the non-linear load

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optimally and furthermore by the reactive power control loop with the output of reactive power control loop and finally
of modified algorithm load reactive power can be extracted two components of current can be transformed back
compensated as well as regulated with instantaneous active into - frame as shown below,
power under load fluctuations. Thus this additional control
arrangement can help system operators improve overall i cos sin id occ Ploss
(8)
system performances. i sin cos iq qcomp.
As discussed previously, the compensator must supply the From here the transformation can be done to find three phase
oscillating power components to the load. In order to reference currents in a-b-c coordinates according to equation
compensate the oscillating power flow by means of PWM (9).
converters, the DC voltage across the DC link capacitor must 1 0
be large enough and kept constant at that value to stabilize the AF 1 3
compensation. Hence, DC link voltage regulator must be 2 2 9
AF
added to the control loop. To the authors knowledge, this idea
AF 1 3
was first published in [11] to modify the instantaneous
reactive power (IRP) based control algorithm. To separate the 2 2
oscillating real power components a low-pass filter has been
used. Together with the switching and transmission losses of This harmonic current is fed to the hysteresis block as a
the PWM converter, the instantaneous real power reference is reference current (iref). The filter current is also fed to the
formed. Similarly, the instantaneous reactive power reference hysteresis block as measured current (imeas). In the hysteresis
is set to zero to obtain unity load power factor. block the imeas is subtracted from the iref and feeding to
Hence again after obtaining current component idq DC hysteresis band, from where we are getting the switching
component is extracted by low pass filters (LPF). After pulses of the inverter to provide the inverter power losses and
subtracting the DC component from instantaneous d- to maintain the DC voltage within its desired value.
component oscillating component is obtained which is further
added with output of PI-controller i.e. power loss component
of inverter to supply switching losses so that dc-link voltage
can be maintained constant. Current component iq is added

Fig. 3 Overall proposed control scheme of Improved SRF based Algorithm

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IV. SIMULATION RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
To verify the use of the proposed control scheme in order to
regulate instantaneous active and reactive power and
compensate harmonic current, a power distribution feeder of
200 V per phase voltage with three-phase rectifier as non-linear
loading was taken. Table I gives information of the test system
and D-STATCOM.
TABLE I
PARAMETER OF THE TEST SYSTEM
System Parameters Values
Supply Voltage 200 V (p-g), 50 Hz.
RL Balanced Load R = 36 , L = 2.4mH
Non-linear Loading 3-phase full wave rectifier
taking a dc current of 3.6 A
DC Capacitor of 540 F
DSTATCOM
Interface inductor Lf = 3.2 mH , Rf = 0.5
Reference DC- link Voltage Vdc_ref = 640 Fig. 5 Matlab/Simulink based model of proposed
control scheme of Improved algorithm
PI-Controller Parameter Kp = 14, Ki = 0.6
feeder Parameters Ls = 0.4 mH , Rs = 0.6457 Figure 6 shows simulink model of hysteresis current control
loop.
Unbalance and distortion in the supply voltage has been
considered for different time periods in steps i.e. first purely
sinusoidal, and then unbalanced followed by distortion.
For the time period 0 to 0.1 second supply voltage is purely
sinusoidal. For the time period 0.1 to 0.20 second supply
voltage is highly unbalanced. For the time period 0.25 to 0.40
second supply voltage is highly distorted.
Figure 4 shows the matlab/simulink based model of system for
which D-STATCOM is being implemented. Figure 5 shows
overall matlab/simulink based model of proposed control
scheme of improved algorithm.

Fig. 6 Simulink model of hysteresis current control loop

Figure 7 (a) to (e) shows the source voltage, source current,


extracted current, load current and compensation current
waveforms respectively for D-STATCOM implemented using
improved SRF based control algorithm when there is no
unbalance or distortion in the supply voltage i.e. it is purely
sinusoidal and similarly figure 8 (a) to (f) shows the signal
waveforms for D-STATCOM when there is unbalance or
distortion in the supply voltage. Simulation results in figure 7
shows that with no pollution in the supply voltage D-
STATCOM is performing satisfactorily as detected current is
much closer to sinusoidal hence after compensation by D-
STATCOM source current is also much closer to sinusoidal
and in phase with the supply voltage.
Fig. 4 Matlab/Simulink based model of system considered

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400 400

300 300

200 200

Source Voltage
S o u rce V o ltag e

100 100

0 0

-100 -100

-200 -200

-300 -300

-400 -400
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5
Time
Time
(a) (a)
40 40

30 30

20 20
S o u rce C u rren t

Source Current
10 10

0 0

-10 -10

-20 -20

-30 -30

-40 -40
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5
Time Time

(b) (b)
40 50
E xtra cte d A c tive P o w e r C o m p o n en t o f C u rren t

E xtracted A ctive P o wer C u rren t C o mp o n en t

40
30
30
20
20

10 10

0 0

-10
-10
-20
-20
-30
-30 -40

-40 -50
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5
Time Time

(c) (c)
40 50

40
30
30
20
20
10
Load C urrent

Lo ad C urre nt

10
0 0

-10 -10

-20 -20

-30
-30
-40
-40
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5 -50
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5
Time

(d) Time

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(d)
25
20
20
15
15
R e fe re n c e C u rre n t G e n e ra te d

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C o m p e n s a to r C u rre n t

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5
5
0
0
-5

-10
-5

-15 -10

-20 -15

-25 -20
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5
Time -25
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5
(e) Time
Fig. 7 (a)-(e) Dynamic performance of DSTATCOM using improved (e)
algorithm with no source voltage unbalance or distortion

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VI. CONCLUSIONS
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In the present work, the investigation of performance of control
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algorithms of D-STATCOM under polluted supply voltage is
C o m p e n s a to r C u rre n t

5 carried out to improve the power quality in the distribution


0 networks. The mathematical derivation has been done and
-5 different simulations have been carried out to study the
-10 performance of control algorithm and to demonstrate the
-15 behavior of D-STATCOM under polluted supply voltage. A
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novel proposed improved control algorithm has resulted in
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0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5 considerable improved performance of D-STATCOM under
(f)
Time
polluted supply voltage. The improved control algorithm is
Fig. 8 (a) (f) Dynamic performance of DSTATCOM using improved control based on active power separation and imaginary symmetrical
algorithm with unbalanced or distorted source voltage components of voltage and effectively able to extract reference
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current components in case of source polluted source voltage.
PI controller is used with the device to enhance the controlling
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performance. Matlab based results have verified the efficacy of
proposed control algorithm.
V o lta g e a n d C u rre n t M a g n itu d e

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0 REFERENCES
-100
[1]. Wang Zhaoan,Yang Jun, Liu Jinjun. Harmonic Restraining and Reactive
Power Compensation (Second- edition) [M]. Beijing: Machinery Industry
-200
Press, 2006.7
-300 [2]. Ghosh and G.Ledwich, power quality enhancement using custom power
devices, London, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2002.
-400
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5
[3]. Mohit Bajaj and V. K. Dwivedi, Student Members IEEE, Ankit Kumar,
Time
Anurag Bansal Design and Simulation of Dstatcom for Power Quality
Fig. 9 Source voltage and source current waveform
Enhancement in Distribution Networks under Various Fault Condition
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Fig. 10 Comparison of DC link voltage regulation