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An Improved SRF based Control Algorithm for

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D-STATCOM under Abnormal Source Voltage

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Mohit Bajaj1, Mukesh Pushkarna2, Ankur Singh Rana3, Mohd. Tauseef khan4

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1

Assistant Professors, Department of Electrical Engineering, DIT University, Dehradun-248009, India

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2

Assistant Professor, Department of Electrical Engineering, Quantum School of Engineering, Roorkee-247667, India

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3,4

Research Scholar, Department of Electrical Engineering, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi-110025, India

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Emails: 1thebestbajaj@gmail.com, 2er_pushkarna@yahoo.com, 3ankurranag@gmail.com, 4mohd138004@st.jmi.ac.in

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Abstract This paper describes an improved SRF DSTATCOM is implemented using smart circuits to detect

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(Synchronous Reference Frame) based control technique or the components of harmonic and reactive power drawn by

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algorithm for time varying power flow control and optimum load nonlinear loads and inject that itself to the load after tracking so

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compensation of non-linear loading under abnormal or disturbed that it may not be supplied by the source [9]. After injecting

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source voltage by D-STATCOM designed for three-phase three

tracked reference current at PCC, the ideal sinusoidal source

wire systems. The improved algorithm is based on the active

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power separation and imaginary symmetrical components of currents are obtained. Thus, both harmonic as well as reactive

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voltage and has been compared with conventional IRP based power compensation of the nonlinear loads are achieved. The

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algorithm to show the preciseness in finding the reference detection of reference current is one of the vital core

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current for a DSTATCOM under abnormal i.e. asymmetric and technologies of DSTATCOM, for effectually enhancing the

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distorted source voltage. Individually the algorithms were power quality by D-STATCOM and mostly in case of

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implemented and simulated under MATLAB/Simulink. The abnormal source voltage, the precision of detecting reference

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simulation results also show which algorithm can accurately current becomes particularly crucial. That is why current

detect the harmonics and reactive component of load current detection technique analysis has much significance since with

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even under the asymmetric and distorted source voltage

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wrong detection of current Compensator could become the

condition. Additionally by the control loop of reactive power of

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improved algorithm, load reactive power can be compensated as source of power quality problem for the system itself.

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well as regulated under variations of load. Thus this additional The D-STATCOM based on the Improved Algorithm takes

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control arrangement can help system operators improve overall the challenge and provides exact results under unbalanced and

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system performances.

distorted source voltage, compared to D-STATCOM based on

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KeywordsComprehensive, abnormal source voltage, active conventional control algorithms. Additionally by the reactive

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power separation, asymmetric, distorted, power control loop. power control loop of modified algorithm load reactive power

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will be compensated as well as regulated under load variations.

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I. INTRODUCTION Thus this additional control arrangement can help system

P

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RESENT-GENERATION consumer appliances, with operators improve overall system performances. The algorithm

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power electronic devices and p-based controls, is very proposed has been simulated under environment of MATLAB

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sensitive to quality of power with respect to conventional using Simulink.

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appliances [1]. The increasing importance of efficiency of

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global power system has caused the sustained growth of use of

devices such that variable-speed motor drives and connecting II. SYSTEM CONFIGURATION

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shunt capacitors for power-factor improvement to minimize The D-STATCOM mainly consists of a three-phase PWM

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controlled voltage source converter (VSC) of six IGBTs, DC

transmission losses [2-4]. Further this has resulted in increased

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levels of harmonic on transmission systems and several capacitor and an inductor. Capacitor acts for active filter

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researchers are worried about the future effect on capabilities energy storage. As per according to the switching algorithm,

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of power system. Due to higher power and voltage conducting inverter obtains direction of transmitting energy between DC

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capacity of present power-electronics devices, their application capacitor and network by inductor. Fig. 1 is showing the basic

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is very common in industry and in domestic purposes also [5]. compensation principle of a distribution static compensator. It

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Although these benefits are surely good but such extreme use is made controllable to draw and supply the compensating

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of power-electronic devices is a serious problem itself that is current ic from/ to the compensator, so as to eliminate current

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generation of current harmonics and reactive power in the components of harmonics and reactive power on the source

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modern power system. Consequently, the voltage of several side, thereby making the source side current purely sinusoidal

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buses and PCCs of system networks is becoming distorted and and in phase with the source voltage also.

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the consumers connected to those PCCs are not being

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functioned as designed [6]. The too much VAR drawn by load

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results in greater than before transmission losses and greater

than before utility charges due to poor power factor [7, 8].

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1

(5) and (6), and hence the voltage vector-V and current vector-i

on plane are

1 1 1

2 2

V Va

V 0 3 3 5

2 2 Vb

Vo 1 1 1 Vc

2 2 2

1 1 1

2 2

i ia

i 0 3 3 ib 6

2 2

io 1 1 1 ic

2 2 2

After dq-conversion every vector rotates at the speed of

angular frequency [10]. Now if the d-axis of dq coordinates is

in same phase of transformed voltage vector of imaginary

Fig. 1 D-STATCOM basic compensation principle

system then static coordinates can be transferred in to rotating

III. AN IMPROVED SRF BASED CONTROL ALGORITHM dq coordinates according to the fig. 2.

on the transformation of reference frame. The improved SRF

based control algorithm creates imaginary symmetrical three-

phase voltage by using one-phase voltage to exclude errors of

detection due to voltage asymmetric and creates imaginary

symmetrical three-phase voltage by separating per phase

active power drawn by the load in case of distorted source

voltage.

The basic idea is, first of all to calculate the total average

active power component delivered from source to load at the

point of common coupling. Then average active power of each

phase is divided by fundamental or active component of

Fig. 2 Coordinate transform of /dq

distorted load current of respective phase to find the

magnitude of imaginary three phase system of voltage to be id cos sin i

(7)

created. Magnitude of voltage for three phases is calculated as, iq sin cos i

P Further for obtaining the fundamental or active component of

V 2 I k a, b, c 1

load current vector i that rotates with imaginary voltage vector

e, we need to take the projection of current vector on voltage

Now further rotating co-ordinates are formed by using vector [10]. With the first measurement of total active power

imaginary symmetrical three-phase voltage vector system. taken by the load is done on the per phase basis and thereafter

Again imaginary symmetrical three-phase vector system is imaginary reference source voltage is created using the

created by using magnitude of voltage of any phase from fundamental component of distorted load current which makes

equation (1), for example A phase. the compensation current of DSTATCOM closer to sinusoidal

Let A phase voltage: and capable to supply same active power to the load as before

Va = Vm sin(wt + ) (2) compensation. Figure 3 shows overall proposed control

Where Vm is amplitude of A phase, is initial phase angle. scheme of improved algorithm.

Let A phase voltage delay 60, then get the reversed-phase to In general, power compensation by D-STACOM can have

structure C phase voltage: various functions such as power factor improvement, removal

Vc = Vm sin(wt + - 60) of harmonic current, etc. Under a balanced or unbalanced or

even distorted three-phase supply condition, some criteria

Vc = Vm sin(wt + + 120) (3)

should meet to optimize the complete system compensation.

B phase voltage can be obtained from A phase and C phase The research conducted by many authors in literature aimed to

voltage: compensate the load current such that the source current

Vb = Va Vc become purely sinusoidal and deliver the minimum average

Vb = Vm sin(wt + + 120) (4) reactive power to the load. Although for non-linear loading it

After structuring the imaginary symmetrical three-phase can assure only one optimal criterion. In this control algorithm

voltage Vabc by using A phase voltage, Vabc and iabc are multiple objectives for shunt power compensation are

coordinate converted correspondingly according to equation proposed. It is possible to compensate the non-linear load

2

optimally and furthermore by the reactive power control loop with the output of reactive power control loop and finally

of modified algorithm load reactive power can be extracted two components of current can be transformed back

compensated as well as regulated with instantaneous active into - frame as shown below,

power under load fluctuations. Thus this additional control

arrangement can help system operators improve overall i cos sin id occ Ploss

(8)

system performances. i sin cos iq qcomp.

As discussed previously, the compensator must supply the From here the transformation can be done to find three phase

oscillating power components to the load. In order to reference currents in a-b-c coordinates according to equation

compensate the oscillating power flow by means of PWM (9).

converters, the DC voltage across the DC link capacitor must 1 0

be large enough and kept constant at that value to stabilize the AF 1 3

compensation. Hence, DC link voltage regulator must be 2 2 9

AF

added to the control loop. To the authors knowledge, this idea

AF 1 3

was first published in [11] to modify the instantaneous

reactive power (IRP) based control algorithm. To separate the 2 2

oscillating real power components a low-pass filter has been

used. Together with the switching and transmission losses of This harmonic current is fed to the hysteresis block as a

the PWM converter, the instantaneous real power reference is reference current (iref). The filter current is also fed to the

formed. Similarly, the instantaneous reactive power reference hysteresis block as measured current (imeas). In the hysteresis

is set to zero to obtain unity load power factor. block the imeas is subtracted from the iref and feeding to

Hence again after obtaining current component idq DC hysteresis band, from where we are getting the switching

component is extracted by low pass filters (LPF). After pulses of the inverter to provide the inverter power losses and

subtracting the DC component from instantaneous d- to maintain the DC voltage within its desired value.

component oscillating component is obtained which is further

added with output of PI-controller i.e. power loss component

of inverter to supply switching losses so that dc-link voltage

can be maintained constant. Current component iq is added

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IV. SIMULATION RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

To verify the use of the proposed control scheme in order to

regulate instantaneous active and reactive power and

compensate harmonic current, a power distribution feeder of

200 V per phase voltage with three-phase rectifier as non-linear

loading was taken. Table I gives information of the test system

and D-STATCOM.

TABLE I

PARAMETER OF THE TEST SYSTEM

System Parameters Values

Supply Voltage 200 V (p-g), 50 Hz.

RL Balanced Load R = 36 , L = 2.4mH

Non-linear Loading 3-phase full wave rectifier

taking a dc current of 3.6 A

DC Capacitor of 540 F

DSTATCOM

Interface inductor Lf = 3.2 mH , Rf = 0.5

Reference DC- link Voltage Vdc_ref = 640 Fig. 5 Matlab/Simulink based model of proposed

control scheme of Improved algorithm

PI-Controller Parameter Kp = 14, Ki = 0.6

feeder Parameters Ls = 0.4 mH , Rs = 0.6457 Figure 6 shows simulink model of hysteresis current control

loop.

Unbalance and distortion in the supply voltage has been

considered for different time periods in steps i.e. first purely

sinusoidal, and then unbalanced followed by distortion.

For the time period 0 to 0.1 second supply voltage is purely

sinusoidal. For the time period 0.1 to 0.20 second supply

voltage is highly unbalanced. For the time period 0.25 to 0.40

second supply voltage is highly distorted.

Figure 4 shows the matlab/simulink based model of system for

which D-STATCOM is being implemented. Figure 5 shows

overall matlab/simulink based model of proposed control

scheme of improved algorithm.

extracted current, load current and compensation current

waveforms respectively for D-STATCOM implemented using

improved SRF based control algorithm when there is no

unbalance or distortion in the supply voltage i.e. it is purely

sinusoidal and similarly figure 8 (a) to (f) shows the signal

waveforms for D-STATCOM when there is unbalance or

distortion in the supply voltage. Simulation results in figure 7

shows that with no pollution in the supply voltage D-

STATCOM is performing satisfactorily as detected current is

much closer to sinusoidal hence after compensation by D-

STATCOM source current is also much closer to sinusoidal

and in phase with the supply voltage.

Fig. 4 Matlab/Simulink based model of system considered

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400 400

300 300

200 200

Source Voltage

S o u rce V o ltag e

100 100

0 0

-100 -100

-200 -200

-300 -300

-400 -400

0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5

Time

Time

(a) (a)

40 40

30 30

20 20

S o u rce C u rren t

Source Current

10 10

0 0

-10 -10

-20 -20

-30 -30

-40 -40

0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5

Time Time

(b) (b)

40 50

E xtra cte d A c tive P o w e r C o m p o n en t o f C u rren t

40

30

30

20

20

10 10

0 0

-10

-10

-20

-20

-30

-30 -40

-40 -50

0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5

Time Time

(c) (c)

40 50

40

30

30

20

20

10

Load C urrent

Lo ad C urre nt

10

0 0

-10 -10

-20 -20

-30

-30

-40

-40

0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5 -50

0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5

Time

(d) Time

25

(d)

25

20

20

15

15

R e fe re n c e C u rre n t G e n e ra te d

10

C o m p e n s a to r C u rre n t

10

5

5

0

0

-5

-10

-5

-15 -10

-20 -15

-25 -20

0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5

Time -25

0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5

(e) Time

Fig. 7 (a)-(e) Dynamic performance of DSTATCOM using improved (e)

algorithm with no source voltage unbalance or distortion

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VI. CONCLUSIONS

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15

In the present work, the investigation of performance of control

10

algorithms of D-STATCOM under polluted supply voltage is

C o m p e n s a to r C u rre n t

0 networks. The mathematical derivation has been done and

-5 different simulations have been carried out to study the

-10 performance of control algorithm and to demonstrate the

-15 behavior of D-STATCOM under polluted supply voltage. A

-20

novel proposed improved control algorithm has resulted in

-25

0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5 considerable improved performance of D-STATCOM under

(f)

Time

polluted supply voltage. The improved control algorithm is

Fig. 8 (a) (f) Dynamic performance of DSTATCOM using improved control based on active power separation and imaginary symmetrical

algorithm with unbalanced or distorted source voltage components of voltage and effectively able to extract reference

400

current components in case of source polluted source voltage.

PI controller is used with the device to enhance the controlling

300

performance. Matlab based results have verified the efficacy of

proposed control algorithm.

V o lta g e a n d C u rre n t M a g n itu d e

200

100

0 REFERENCES

-100

[1]. Wang Zhaoan,Yang Jun, Liu Jinjun. Harmonic Restraining and Reactive

Power Compensation (Second- edition) [M]. Beijing: Machinery Industry

-200

Press, 2006.7

-300 [2]. Ghosh and G.Ledwich, power quality enhancement using custom power

devices, London, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2002.

-400

0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5

[3]. Mohit Bajaj and V. K. Dwivedi, Student Members IEEE, Ankit Kumar,

Time

Anurag Bansal Design and Simulation of Dstatcom for Power Quality

Fig. 9 Source voltage and source current waveform

Enhancement in Distribution Networks under Various Fault Condition

Simulation results in figure 8 shows that even after the IJETAE, International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced

presence of pollution in the supply voltage D-STATCOM is Engineering, (ISSN: 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal) Volume

performing satisfactorily as detected current is much closer 3, Issue 4, pp: 620-626, April 2013.

to sinusoidal in both the cases hence after compensation by [4]. V.R. Dinavahi, M.R. Iravani and R. bonert, Real-time digital simulation

D- STATCOM source current is also much closer to and experimental verification of a D-Statcom interfaced with a digital

controller. International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems,

sinusoidal and in phase with the supply voltage as shown in

Vol. 26, No. 9, Nov.2004, pp.703-713.

figure 9 also. Similarly Figure 10 shows the comparison of [5]. Akagi, Y. Kanazawa and A. Nabae, Generalized theory of the

performance in DC-link voltage control when D-STATCOM instantaneous reactive power in three-phase circuits, in proc. of IEEE

is connected at instant, t = 0.4 s, and heavy RL load is IPEC, 1983, pp. 821-827.

switched on at t = 1 s. [6]. D.M. Divan, S. Bhattacharya and B. banerjee, Synchronous Frame

Harmonic Isolator using Active Series Filter, in proc. of European Power

Electronics Conference, 1991, pp. 3030-3035.

[7]. C. L. Chen, C. E. Lin, and C. L. Huang, Reactive and harmonic current

compensation for unbalanced three-phase systems using the synchronous

detection method, Electric Power Systems Research, no. 26, pp.163-170,

1993.

[8]. M. Aredes and E. H. Watanabe, New control algorithms for series and

shunt three-phase four-wire active power filters, IEEE Trans. on Power

Delivery, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 1649-1656, July 1995.

[9]. C. Y. Hsu and H. Y. Wu, A new single phase active power filter with

reduced energy storage capacity, IEE Proc.- Electric Power Application,

Vol. 143, No. 1, pp. 25-30, January 1996.

[10]. Hun Yong-jun, Fan Li- li, Hu Ya-jing, A Reactive and Harmonic Current

Detection Method of Three-phase Asymmetric System in proc. of IEEE

ICCIS, 2010, pp. 1257-1260.

[11]. K. Somsai, and T. Kulworawanichpong, Instantaneous Power Control of

D-STATCOM with Consideration of Power Factor Correction ECTI-

Conference, pp- 1186-1190, june 2010.

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