Presentation on Codes & Standards By A.K.


To understand utility / importance of codes & standards. To create an awareness for using best engineering practices of Codes & Standards. To make broad familiarization with different API codes for Rotating Equipments. To impart Technical knowledge on API 610


Initial days when there were no codes & standards
Similar things made at different place were Unique : • In terms of colour • Size • MOC • Design


Evolution of Codes & Standards
Throughout history , standards have evolved from using King’s Foot & arm as unit of measure ,to complex standards that guarantee compatibility & interoperability any where in the world. At the first meeting of ASME in 1880 standardized size for screw threads were discussed. The demand for standardization came from the importance of safety - In 1904 , During a fire in Baltimore Maryland , more than 1500 structures burned to the ground. The fire company came from New York , but could not help because their hose coupling did not fit the fire hydrants in Baltimore.


Standards are all persistent because they are indispensable : for example To design a compressor an engineer must know the following : Process conditions MOC Design Foundation Heat exchangers Associated piping Testing / performance Packing & shipping etc If no standards then there will be sheer chaos.

Standards represent the minimum requirement that good practice dictates. Good engineer knows the importance of utilizing applicable codes & standards as reference . Reasons are : Best communication Communicates desire Utilize the valuable experience & latest technology Lower equipment cost Reduce operating cost Improved safety & reliability Reduce insurance Reduce legal entanglement.

Categories of standards
• Ensure dimensional fit – Nuts and bolts – (ASME) – Fire hose couplings • Ensure conformity (not dimensional) – Design / Strength / workmanship / Quality • Protect public safety – Boilers (IBR/DIN) – Automobile headlights, seat belts, airbags



•Performance test (PTC-10)

•Advance general health and welfare

Emission standards for cars (Euro –II)

• Establish procedures and documentation for designing and testing systems (e.g., ISO 9000)

• Special purpose standards



Standards-Making Organizations Trade associations
National Electrical Manufacturer’s Association (NEMA) Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers (AHAM)

Professional engineering societies
ASME – IEEE SAE – Index and Directory of Industry Standards: most Comprehensive guide to standards developed in private sector

In India organizations are : BIS (ISI) etc

American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
Private, non-profit organization that coordinates most voluntary standards operations in U.S. Serves as umbrella body for standards activities of ∼ 1400 member organizations Certifies standards-making procedures of member organizations Initiates new standards-making activities by member organization or ANSI itself Represents on International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 10

American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
ANSI is coordinator of all codes and standards activity. ASME , API are the voluntary member organizations of ANSI. ANSI determines which member organization is best qualified to develop a given standard Entire standard-approval process takes several years

Publishes codes and standards on: Pipes Screw threads Nuclear power plants Cranes Elevators Oil rigs Pressure vessels etc.

Over 100 main committees with representation from : - Manufacturers
– – – – –

Inspectors Regulators Materials suppliers Consultants Consumers


These organization issues certificates of authorization and stamps. Issued to companies that have quality systems in place to produce equipment that meets standards. Stamps used on company’s products. Examples: boilers, pressure vessels, valves, nuclear components, piping, water heaters. Symbols of safety and reliability.

International standard organizations
International Electrochemical Commission (IEC)
Responsibility for electrical and electronics engineering standards

Responsibility for all other fields


Codes and standards had origin in U.S. in late 1800’s ASME launched codes and standards effort in 1884, 4 years after founding of society First ASME code on performance testing of boilers States started writing boiler codes into law, but not uniform from state-to-state ASME assumed responsibility for boiler codes in 1911

Formulation of a new Code / Standard
Request for a new Code / Standard

It may come from
•Individual •Committees •Professional organization •Government agencies •Industry group •Public interest group Supervisory Board knowledgeable volunteers

Developing process is initiated


Procedure Adopted
It must reflect Openness Transparency Balance of interest Technical issues are open to public Voting for acceptance

Consensus requires that all views and objections be considered, and that an effort be made toward their resolution

Voting is conducted Votes are also sent by mail, email and through the web site


Public review in Mechanical Engineering magazine, and on internet. Anyone may submit comments during the public review period. Then draft is submitted for approval to the supervisory board. When all considerations have been satisfied, the document is approved & published.


What is a standard Are standards mandatory What is a code Why are standards effective Codes v/s Standards Are all standards the same.

A standard can be defined as a set of technical definitions and guidelines, “how to” instructions for designers, manufacturers and users. Standards promote safety, reliability, productivity and efficiency Standards can run from a few paragraphs to hundreds of pages, and are written by experts with knowledge and expertise in a particular field who sit on many committees


Standards are considered voluntary because they serve as guidelines. ASME OR API cannot force any manufacturer, inspector, or installer to follow their standards. Their use is voluntary. Standards become mandatory when they have been incorporated into a business contract or incorporated into regulations.


A code is a standard that has been adopted by one or more governmental bodies and has the force of law.


Standards are a vehicle of communication for producers and users. They serve as a common language, defining quality and establishing safety criteria. Costs are lower if procedures are standardized Training is also simplified. Interchangeability. It is not uncommon for a consumer to buy a nut in Delhi for a bolt purchased in Bombay.

Codes v/s Standards
SN CODES STANDARDS Provide design criteria Ensure mech. Integrity , dimensional requirements to offer interchangeability Mandated by clients

1 Rules for calculations 2 Permissible material , loads etc 3 Mandated by statutes at times , IBR codes

While Any standards is better than NO standard. Some are better than others.


API 510 : Pressure Vessel Inspection Code: Maintenance Inspection, Rating, Repair, and Alteration API 570 : Piping inspection code : Inspection, repair, alteration & re rating of in-service piping system. API 610 : Centrifugal pump for petroleum , Petrochemical & natural Gas industries. API 611 : General purpose steam turbine for petroleum , chemical & gas industries services.


API 612 : Petroleum , petrochemical & natural gas industries – Steam turbine special purpose. API 613 : Special purpose gear units for Petroleum , chemical & gas industries services. API 614 : lubrication , shaft sealing & control-oil system & auxiliaries for Petroleum , chemical industries. API 616 : Gas turbine for the Petroleum , chemical,& gas industries. API 617 : Axial & centrifugal compressor & expander compressor for Petroleum , chemical & gas industries. API 618 : Reciprocating compressor for Petroleum , chemical & gas industries.


API –619 : Rotary –type positive displacement compressor for Petroleum , chemical & gas industries. API – 670 : Machinery protection system . API – 671 : Special purpose coupling for Petroleum , chemical & gas industries. API – 672 : Packaged,integrally geared centrifugal Air compressor for Petroleum , chemical & gas industries. API – 673 : Special Purpose Fans API – 674 :Positive Displacement Pumps—Reciprocating API – 675 : Positive Displacement Pumps—Controlled Volume API – 676 : Positive Displacement Pumps—Rotary

API – 677 : Special purpose gear unit for Petroleum , chemical & gas industries. API – 681 : liquid ring Vacuum pumps & compressor. API – 682 : Pump –shaft sealing system for centrifugal & rotary pump. Publ – 684 : Tutorial on the API standard paragraphs covering Rotor Dynamics & Balancing. API - 685 : Seal less centrifugal pumps for petroleum , heavy duty chemical & gas industry services RP – 687 : Rotor repair

ISO 1940 : Mechanical vibration -- Balance quality requirements for rotors in a constant (rigid) state - Specification and verification of balance tolerances ISO 2372 : Mechanical vibration of machines with operating speeds from 10 to 200 rev/s -- Basis for specifying evaluation standards ISO 10816 : Mechanical Vibration – Evaluation of machine vibration by measurement on non rotating parts. ISO 11342 : Mechanical Vibration – methods & criteria for the mechanical balancing of flexible rotors. ISO 14694 : Industrial fans – specifications for balance quality & vibration levels. ISO 14695 : Industrial fans – Method of measurement of fan vibration.

ISO Standards

Bureau of Indian standards IS 2062 : Specification for steel for general structural purposes. IS 3757 : Specification for high strength structural bolts. IS 1239 : Specification for Welded pipes. IS 226 : Specification for Structural steel IS 5504 : Specification for spiral welded pipes. IS 6272 : Specification for Industrial Cooling Fans (First Revision) IS 1169 : Electric pedestal type fans and regulators (first revision)


API – 610 :Centrifugal Pumps for Petroleum, Petrochemical and Natural Gas Industries

It specifies requirements for centrifugal pumps, including pumps running in reverse as hydraulic power recovery turbines, for use in petroleum, petrochemical, and gas industry process services. It does not cover seal less pumps. This International Standard is applicable to overhung pumps,between bearings pumps, and vertically suspended pumps.


API – 611 : General Purpose Steam Turbines for Petroleum, Chemical, and Gas Industry Services

Covers the minimum requirements for generalpurpose steam turbines. These requirements include basic design, materials, related lubrication systems, controls,auxiliary equipment, and accessories. General-purpose turbines are horizontal or vertical turbines used to drive equipment that is usually spared, is relatively small in size, or is in non critical service. They are generally used where steam conditions will not exceed a pressure of 48 bar (700 psig) or where speed will not exceed 6000 rpm.


API – 612 : Petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries - Steam turbinesSpecial-purpose applications
This Standard specifies requirements and gives recommendations for the design, materials, fabrication, inspection, testing and preparation for shipment for special-purpose steam turbines. It also covers the related lube-oil systems, instrumentation, control systems and auxiliary equipment. It is not applicable to general-purpose steam turbines, which are covered in API 611

API - 613 : Special Purpose Gear Units for Petroleum, Chemical and Gas Industry Services
Covers the minimum requirements for special-purpose, enclosed, precision, singleand double-helical one- and two-stage speed increasers and reducers of parallel-shaft design for petroleum, chemical and gas industry services. This standard is primarily intended for gears units that are in continuous service without installed spare equipment. Gear sets furnished to this standard shall be considered matched sets.


614 - Lubrication, Shaft-sealing, and Control-oil Systems and Auxiliaries for Petroleum, Chemical and Gas Industry Services

Covers the minimum requirements for special-purpose and general-purpose lubrication systems, oil-type and dry gas seal shaft-sealing support systems. Such systems may serve compressors, gears, pumps, and drivers. The standard includes the systems’ components, along with the required controls and instrumentation. Data sheets and typical schematics of both system components and complete systems are also provided.

API – 616 : Gas Turbines for the Petroleum, Chemical and Gas Industry Services It covers the minimum requirements for open, simple, and regenerative-cycle combustion gas turbine units for services of mechanical drive,generator drive. All auxiliary equipment required for operating, starting, and controlling gas turbine units and for turbine protection is either discussed directly in this standard or referred to in this standard through references to other publications. Specifically, gas turbine units that are capable of continuous service firing gas or liquid fuel or both are covered by this standard. 37

API – 617 : Axial and Centrifugal Compressors and Expander-compressors for Petroleum, Chemical and Gas Industry Services Covers the minimum requirements for centrifugal compressors used in petroleum ,chemical, and gas industry services that handle air or gas, including process gear mounted. Does not apply to fans or blowers that develop less than 34 kPa (5 pounds per square inch) pressure rise above atmospheric pressure; these are covered by API Standard 673. This standard also does not apply to packaged, integrally-geared centrifugal air compressors, which are covered by API 672.

API – 618 : Reciprocating Compressors for Petroleum, Chemical and Gas Industry Services Covers the minimum requirements for reciprocating compressors and their drivers used in petroleum, chemical, and gas industry services for handling process air or gas with either lubricated or non lubricated cylinders. Compressors covered by this standard are of moderate-to-low speed and in critical services.Also covered are related lubricating systems, controls, instrumentation,intercoolers, after coolers, pulsation suppression devices, and other auxiliary equipment. 39

API - 619 : Rotary-Type Positive Displacement Compressors for Petroleum,Chemical, and Gas Industry Services Covers the minimum requirements for dry and flooded helical lobe rotary compressors used for vacuum or pressure or both in petroleum, chemical, and gas industry services. It is primarily intended for compressors that are in special purpose applications, and does not cover portable air compressors, liquid ring compressors and vane-type compressors. This edition also includes a new Inspector’s Checklist and new schematics for general purpose and typical oil systems.

API – 670 : Machinery Protection Systems
Provides a purchase specification to facilitate the manufacture, procurement, installation, and testing of vibration, axial-position, and bearing-temperature monitoring systems for petroleum, chemical, and gas industry services. Covers the minimum requirements for monitoring radial shaft vibration, casing vibration, shaft axial position, and bearing temperatures. It outlines a standardized monitoring system and covers requirements for hardware (sensors and instruments), installation, testing, and arrangement.

API – 671 : Special Purpose Couplings for Petroleum, Chemical and Gas Industry Services

Covers the minimum requirements for special-purpose couplings intended to transmit power between the rotating shaft of two pieces of refinery equipment. These couplings are designed to accommodate parallel offset, angular misalignment, and axial displacement of the shafts without imposing excessive mechanical loading on the coupled equipment.

Centrifugal Air Compressors for Petroleum, Chemical and Gas Industry Services

API – 672 : Packaged, Integrally Geared

This standard covers the minimum requirements for constant-speed, packaged, general purpose integrally geared centrifugal air compressors, including their accessories. This standard is not applicable to machines that develop a pressure rise of less than 0.35 bar (5.0 Psi) above atmospheric pressure, which are classed as fans or blowers.

API – 673 : Special Purpose Fans
This standard covers the minimum requirements for centrifugal fans intended for continuous duty in petroleum, chemical, and gas industry services. Fan pressure rise is limited to differential from a single impeller, usually not exceeding 100 inches of water Equivalent Air Pressure (EAP). Cooling tower, aerial cooler and ventilation fans; and positive displacement blowers are not covered by this standard.


API – 674 : Positive Displacement Pumps—Reciprocating

Covers the minimum requirements for reciprocating positive displacement pumps for use in petroleum, chemical, and gas industry services. Both direct acting and power-frame types are included.


API – 675 : Positive Displacement Pumps—Controlled Volume

Covers the minimum requirements for controlled volume positive displacement pumps for use in service in the petroleum, chemical, and gas industries. Both packed-plunger and diaphragm types are included. Diaphragm pumps that use direct mechanical actuation are excluded.

API – 676 : Positive Displacement Pumps— Rotary

Covers the minimum requirements for rotary positive displacement pumps for use in the petroleum, chemical, and gas industries. It provides a purchase specification to facilitate the manufacture and purchase of rotary positive displacement pumps.

API – 677 : General-purpose Gear Units for Petroleum, Chemical and Gas Industry services
Covers the minimum requirements for generalpurpose, enclosed single-and multi-stage gear units incorporating parallel-shaft helical and right angle spiral bevel gears for the petroleum, chemical, and gas industries. Gears manufactured according to this standard are limited to the following pitch line velocities: helical gears shall not exceed 60 meters per second (12,000 feet per minute) and spiral bevel gears shall not exceed 40 meters per second (8,000 feet per minute). This standard includes related lubricating systems, instrumentation, and other auxiliary equipment. Also included in this edition is new material related to gear inspection.

API – 681 : Liquid Ring Vacuum Pumps and Compressors

Defines the minimum requirements for the basic design, inspection, testing, and preparation for shipment of liquid ring vacuum pump and compressor systems for service in the petroleum, chemical, and gas industries. It includes both vacuum pump and compressor design and system design.

API – 682 : Pumps—Shaft Sealing Systems for Centrifugal and Rotary Pumps
Specifies requirements and gives recommendations for sealing systems for centrifugal and rotary pumps used in petroleum, natural gas, and chemical industries. It is used mainly for hazardous, flammable and/or toxic services where a greater degree of reliability is required. It covers seals for shaft diameters from 20 mm to 110 mm .This Standard also applies to seal spare parts and can be referred to for the upgrading of existing equipment. The seal configurations covered by this Standard can be classified in : “face-to-back”, “back toback” and “face-to-face”. These categories, types, arrangements and orientations are defined in this API.

Publ. - 684 : Tutorial on the API Standard Paragraphs Covering Rotor Dynamics and Balancing It gives an introduction to Lateral Critical and Train Torsional Analysis and Rotor Balancing Describes, discusses, and clarifies the section of the API Standard Paragraphs that outlines the complete rotor dynamics acceptance program. The acceptance program was designed by API to ensure equipment mechanical reliability.

API – 685 : Seal less Centrifugal Pumps for Petroleum, Heavy Duty Chemical and Gas Industry Services

API Standard 685 covers the minimum requirements for seal less centrifugal pumps for use in petroleum, heavy duty chemical, and gas industry services. The pumps covered by this standard are Magnetic Drive Pumps (MDP) and Canned Motor Pumps (CMP).

Publ – 687 : Rotor Repair

This recommended practice covers the minimum requirements for the inspection and repair of special purpose rotating equipment rotors, bearings and couplings used in petroleum, chemical and gas industry service.


ISO – 1940
It gives specifications for rotors in a constant (rigid) state. It specifies balance tolerances, the necessary number of correction planes, and methods for verifying the residual unbalance. Recommendations are also given concerning the balance quality requirements for rotors in a constant (rigid) state, according to their machinery type and maximum service speed. These recommendations are based on worldwide experience. It also intended to facilitate the relationship between the manufacturer and user of rotating machines, by stating acceptance criteria for the verification of residual unbalances. It does not cover rotors in a flexible state. The balance quality requirements for rotors in a flexible state are covered by ISO 11342.

API – 610 : 9th Edition December 2002

Centrifugal Pumps for Petroleum , Petrochemical & natural Gas Industries
Salient points





This standard is Technically equivalent to ISO standard 13709. Applicable to overhung , between bearing & vertically suspended pump. Terms & Definition : Axially-split Split with the principal joint parallel to the shaft centre line. Barrel Pump Horizontal pump of the double-casing type. Barrier fluid Fluid, at a higher pressure than the process pressure being sealed, introduced between pressurized dual (double mechanical seals to completely isolate the pump process liquid from the environment.

Best Efficiency point (BEP) Flow rate at which a pump achieves its highest efficiency. - Buffer Fluid Fluid, at a lower pressure than the process pressure being sealed, used as a lubricant or buffer between unpressurised dual (tandem) mechanical seals. - Critical Speed Shaft rotational speed at which the rotorbearing-support system is in a state of resonance. - Critical Speed, dry




Critical Speed, Wet Rotor critical speed calculated considering the additional support and damping produced by the action of the pumped liquid within internal running clearances at the operating conditions and allowing for flexibility and damping within the bearings. Double-casing Type of pump construction in which the pressure casing is separate from the pumping elements (such as, diffuser diaphragms, bowls, and volute inner casings) contained in the casing. Hydrodynamic Bearings Bearings that use the principles of




Maximum Allowable Speed Highest speed at which the manufacturer’s design permits continuous operation. Maximum allowable temperature Maximum continuous temperature for which the manufacturer has designed the pump (or any part to which term is referred) when handling the specified fluid at the specified maximum operating pressure. Maximum Allowable Working Pressure (MAWP) Maximum continuous pressure for which the manufacturer has designed the pump (or any part to which the term is referred) when handling the specified fluid at the specified maximum operating 59 temperature.



Maximum continuous speed Highest rotational speed at which the pump, as built, is capable of continuous operation with the specified fluid at any of the specified operating conditions. Maximum Discharge pressure Maximum specified suction pressure plus the maximum differential pressure the pump with the furnished impeller is able to develop when operating at rated speed with fluid of the specified normal relative density (specific gravity). Maximum Dynamic Sealing Pressure Highest pressure expected at the seals during 60




Maximum static sealing pressure Highest pressure, excluding pressures encountered during hydrostatic testing, to which the seals can be subjected while the pump is shutdown. Maximum Suction Pressure Highest suction pressure to which the pump is subjected during operation Minimum Allowable Speed Lowest speed (in revolutions per minute) at which the manufacturer’s design permits continuous operation Minimum Continuous Stable Flow




Minimum Continuous Thermal Flow Lowest flow at which the pump can operate without its operation being impaired by the temperature rise of the pumped liquid. Minimum Design Metal Temperature Lowest mean metal temperature (through the thickness) expected in service, including operation upsets auto-refrigeration and temperature of the surrounding environment. Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) Total absolute suction pressure determined at the suction nozzle and referred to the datum elevation, minus the vapour pressure of the liquid, in units of metres (feet) of head of the pumped liquid. Net Positive Suction Head Available (NPSHA) 62



Net Positive Suction Head Required (NPSHR) NPSH that results in a 3% loss of head (first stage head in a multistage pump) determined by the vendor by testing with water Nominal Pipe Size (NPS) Designation corresponding approximately to the outside diameter of pipe in inches. Normal Operating Point Point at which the pump is expected to operate under normal process conditions.




Operating Region, Allowable Portion of a pumps hydraulic coverage over which the pump is allowed to operate, based on vibration within the upper limit of this International Standard or temperature rise or other limitation; specified by the manufacturer. Overhung Pump Pump whose impeller is cantilevered from its bearing assembly. Pressure Casing Composite of all stationary pressurecontaining parts of the pump, including all nozzles, seal glands, seal chambers, and other attached parts but excluding the





Radially Split Split with the principal joint perpendicular to the shaft centre line. Rated Operating Point Point at which the vendor certifies that pump performance is within the tolerances stated in this International Standard, normally the specified operating point with the highest flow. Relative Density / Specific Gravity Property of a liquid; ratio of the liquid’s density to that of water at 4ºC Rotor Assembly of all the rotating parts of a centrifugal pump. 65




Specific Speed Index relating flow, total head, and rotative speed for pumps of similar geometry. Suction Specific Speed Index relating flow, NPSHR and rotative speed for pumps of similar geometry. Throat Bushing Device that forms a restrictive close clearance around the sleeve (or shaft) between the seal and the impeller. Total Indicator Reading or Total Indicated Runout Difference between the maximum and minimum readings of a dial indicator or similar device, 66 monitoring a face or cylindrical surface during one

Trip Speed Speed at which the independent emergency over speed device operates to shutdown a variablespeed driver or the speed corresponding to the synchronous speed of a motor at maximum supply frequency.

Vertical in-line pump Vertical-axis pump whose suction and discharge connections have a common centre line that intersects the shaft axis. Vertically-suspended Pump Vertical-axis pump whose liquid end is suspended from a column and mounting plate. 67

















Basic design General : The equipment shall be designed for 20 years of service life & 3 year of uninterrupted service life. Purchaser shall specify the operating condition , the liquid properties , site condition & utility condition , including all data shown on the process data sheet. Pump shall be capable of a least 5% head increase at rated condition by changing impeller of higher dia. / different hydraulic design / variable speed capability . Pump shall be capable of operating at least upto the maximum continuous speed (MCS) :


Pump shall have operating range of 70 % to 120 % of the BEP , Rated flow shall be with in 80 % to 110 % of BEP. BEP shall be with in Rated point & the Normal point. Pump > 200 m/stage & with > 225 Kw/stage shall require special provision to reduce Vane passing frequency & low frequency Vibration. Water cooling system shall be designed for following conditions on the water side : - Velocity over H.E. surface - 1.5 – 2.5 mm/sec - MAWP in gauge - 7 bar - Test Pr. gauge - 10.5 Bar 85 - Maximum pr. drop - 1 bar

Pressure Casing – Max. Dish. Pr. shall be equal to Max. Suction Pr. + max. differential Pr. the pump is able to develop when operating at furnished Impeller at rated speed & Specific gravity. Minimum corrosion allowance shall be 3 mm.


Impeller shall be fully closed , single piece casting , forging or fabrication. Impeller shall be keyed to the shaft. Shaft to seal sleeve (fits) shall be h6/G7. Shaft Runout shall be less than 25 micron. Vibration probe target area on shaft shall be : - concentric with the bearing journal - free from scratch - not be metalised , sleeved , or painted. - surface finish of 0.8 microns - demagnetized to the level specified in API 670


Vibration Centrifugal pump vibration varies with flow, it is minimum at BEP & increases as its flow increases or decreases. During Performance test overall vibration for a range of 5 hz to 1000 hz & FFT spectrum shall be made at each test point except shut of point

performance test shall not exceed (for non suspended pump) :
Overall Unfilter ed Filtered Beyond preferre d range but

Vibration at any flow with in the pump preferred operating range. Bearing Pump Shaft Housing (hydrodynamic < 3.0 mm/sec , < (5.2 X 106 / N )0.5 (for all journal brg.) for upto 3600 microns pk to pk bearings) RPM & 300 = / < 50 microns pk to < 0.67 X 3 kw stagemm/sec 2.01 pk 30 % 30 %


Impeller , Balancing Drum & similar Major rotatting components shall be dynamically balanced at ISO-1940 Grade 2.5 Component balancing shall be Single plane if D/B is 6 or greater. If specified component shall be done with ISO 1940-1 grade G1 = 4 W/N


Bearing & Bearing Housing
Shaft shall be supported by 2 radial & 1 thrust (double acting) bearings. Thrust bearing shall be designed for continuous operation , for all operating condition , even when the pump is rotating in reverse direction. Bearing shall be retained on the shaft with interference fit & fitted on the housing with a diametrical clearance. Bearing shall be directly mounted on the shaft. Bearing shall be located on the shaft using shoulders , collar or +ve locking devices. 91 Ball thrust bearing shall be paired, single

Inspection , Testing & Shipment
GENERAL INSPECTION: Certification of materials, Mill test reports, Verification of test data & results, repairs & records of all heat treatment performance, results of quality control tests & inspections, As-built running clearances MATERIALS INSPECTION : Material specification Radiographic , Ultrasonic, Magnetic particle or liquid penetrant

• • • •


TESTING GENERAL: Performance Test NPSH Tests shall be conducted using the methods of ISO 9906 grade 1 HYDROSTATIC TEST : All pressure casing components shall be hydrostatically tested with liquid at a minimum of 1.5 times the maximum allowable working pressure.

PERFORMANCE TEST: Performance test shall be performed using water at a temperature less than 65 C . The following test data , including head, flow rate, power, appropriate bearing temp. & Vibration at , at least five points. Shut off, Minimum continuous stable flow Midway between minimum & rated flow Rated flow Maximum allowable flow ( as a min. 120% of BEP)


OPTIONAL TESTS : NPSHR Test, Complete Unit Test, Sound level Test, Auxiliary Equipment Test, Bearing housing resonance Test, Mechanical run Test.


SHIPMENT The purchaser shall specify the type of shipment & storage required. The preparation shall make the equipment suitable for at least six months of out door storage from the time of shipment. Blocked rotors shall be identified by means of corrosion-resistant tags.



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