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American Journal of Applied Psychology, 2017, Vol. 5, No.

2, 33-44
Available online at
Science and Education Publishing

What is Psi? From Anti-Parapsychology to Psi as a Next

Scientific Revolution: Theoretical Reviews and
Hypothesized Vision
Samah Khaled Zahran*

Personality and Social Psychologist, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

*Corresponding author:

Abstract This is a theoretical paper; about psi, as interdisplaniry topic among; psychology, biology, and physics.
The paper represents an operational executive definition to psi experience and behavior. The aim of this paper is to
suggest a hypothesis about psi as a potential, latent, adaptive ability to sense and affect through distance'. The
technique, the methodology of this paper depends on theoretical sampling based on dozens of reliable studies that
have proven through years. I tried by this manipulation to introduce more definite, operational concept that may help
in further interpretation, measurement, control and predict, then application on human society, by suggesting
oneness concept.
Keywords: psi experience, psi challenges and background, psi existence and interpretations, psi as adaptive
ability, the oneness suggested concept
Cite This Article: Samah Khaled Zahran, What is Psi? From Anti-Parapsychology to Psi as a Next
Scientific Revolution: Theoretical Reviews and Hypothesized Vision. American Journal of Applied Psychology,
vol. 5, no. 2 (2017): 33-44. doi: 10.12691/ajap-5-2-1.

of experiments can be reliably and reproducibly predicted.

The journey to this framework is not without its
1. Planning, Mapping this Paper challenges; the fragmented specialization has not lent
itself to a solid methodology for studying Psi, human
Unlike the common way of writing scientific papers; psychology, and experiences that transcend disciplinary
(IMRAD): introduction, method, results, and discussion, boundaries. [10].
this paper as theoretical one- aims to introduce, suggest - Rex Stanford advocated strongly that the advancement
a hypothesis about psi, with all its aspects, as a whole of parapsychology requires hypothesis development based
phenomenon. This hypothesis suggests operational on information from a wide range of sources.
definition for psi phenomenon, which is so-called, and Parapsychologists would do well to make methodological,
common known as paranormal, anomalous. conceptual and empirical contributions not only to
The supporting evidence in this paper derived from parapsychology, but also to non-psi scientific domains,
logical gradual steps: First, I give introduction about psi; I solving the puzzles posed by psi research will require
mean by psi all paranormal aspects, as mentioned above, advancements in more traditional scientific fields,
which means: ESP and PK, plus other uncommon aspects; something to which parapsychologists can and should
as there are common aspects of all of these experiences actively contribute. [36].
and behaviors. - Irwin- in his 2014 paper, on 114 PA members, about
Then, the heart part of this paper discusses, manipulates their views on the major problem that faced parapsychology
and analysis if psi is actual or illusion, in the light of today, through online survey - found, as participants said,
reliable studies, and logically divided into subtitles, as I many problems; as lack of a conclusive database, lack of
tailed every subtitle with a conclusion. widely endorsed theory, a lack of an accepted theoretical
Finally, I represent the hypothesized vision, operational account; "We need a theory that relates psi and survival
definition as a conclusion of all above. phenomena to mainstream psychology and biology", a
The importance of this paper emerged from so theoretical model that is board ranging, scientifically
prominent writes that claimed: demonstrated in part, mathematically justified, and
- Downes: A new framework for scientific philosophically appropriate. [14].
investigation of Psi is needed, the current observations and This paper in final section, suggests a definition that
instruments maybe inadequate to capture and characterize join all shared aspects of psi phenomena and experience in
psi phenomena. A much-needed stopgap until Psi an executive, operational way that may exam and prove
researchers have in place a framework in which outcomes interdisplaniry.
34 American Journal of Applied Psychology

2. Psi Experience Precognition: information perceived about future events,

whether the information could not be inferred by ordinary
Whether we consider ourselves believers in psychical means. Variations include, premonition, and presentiment;
phenomena or not, many of us have had something happen foreboding, sensing the future.
to make us wonder about the subject [29]. Psychokinesis: is a mental interaction with animate or
Such experiences may not happen often, but they may inanimate matter. Also called: mind matter interaction,
leave us with strong feelings to explore there mystery. telekinesis. [30,37].
I will use psi here to refer to these psychical experiences,
I mean by it all what is common called paranormal.
Psi, in general refers to: "A means by which 3. Is Psi Actual or Illusion?
information can be gained from a distance without the use
of the ordinary senses". [31]. 3.1. Psi Background and Challenges
The science that studies psi phenomena and experiences
is called "parapsychology". Maybe the great dilemma in studying psi is that we
Although parapsychology is relatively new science, the cannot put our hands, yet, on the origin in our body that is
phenomena it studies have been a part of human responsible for receiving and sending the energy or the
experience since earliest times [13]. information through distance.
People have believed in psychic abilities since the Some authors, researchers, do not believe that psi has
beginning of recorded history. such origin or receptor, as our common senses have, and
Certain individuals report more experiences with they prefer to talk instead about 'beyond material world';
psychic phenomena than others. as they wish to explore nonmaterial dimension of
Since these experiences usually only occur humanity, and though that parapsychology- which I define
spontaneously for most of us, many cultures developed as "the science of studying psi experiences"- is the
divination aids in order to access psychic information gateway of this spiritual world.
more readily. The Dogon in West Africa toss cowrie shells In this paper, I will represent briefly, the background
into a basket and interpret the patterns. The Chinese behind this way of thinking, and then conclude my
devised the I Ching. The Egyptian priests slept in special suggested vision- from these theoretical reviews- about
temples in order to have prophetic dreams [29]. the nature of psi.
Since primeval times, people have spoken of strange An analysis of historical trends in science indicates that
and sometimes profoundly meaningful personal the study of the paranormal is not only valid from the
experiences. These experiences called psychic or psi; a scientific perspective, but has been an integral and
letter of Greek alphabet, used as neutral term for all types important part of science since the birth of science. [3].
of these experiences; suggesting the presence of deep, The study of parapsychology is the study of unorthodox
invisible interconnections among people, and between psychological knowledge. [21]. Scientists have studied
objects and people. The most curious aspect of psi various aspects of psi for more than hundred and fifty
experiences is that they seem to transcend the usual years.
boundaries of time and space [30]. Throughout human history, general knowledge about
The term psi denotes processes of information or psi reality, our world and environment has continued to
energy transfer, that are currently, unexplained in terms of grow. Science offers humanity and cultures a winnowing
known physical or biological mechanisms [4]. In popular process of differentiation that decides what part of nature
usage, more experimentally proofed, commonly experienced can be studied logically, supported by reason, and confirmed
among spontaneous cases around the globe are ESP and by experiment. Science only deals with the knowledge
PK. beside these, there are many other related phenomena; about nature that can be reasonably explained. [3].
which are recorded by less common spontaneous cases, as: Since the first scientific revolution during the middle of
OBE, out of body experience: an experience of feeling the 1600s, Rene Descartes separated the world or nature
separated from the body. NDE, near death experience: an into two parts: Mind and Matter. Differentiating between
experience sometimes reported by those who are revived mind and matter determines which part of nature is
from nearly dying. Others denoted from ancient times, scientific and which part is beyond science and scientific
representing their ideas and cultures, as: reincarnation, reduction. Later, during the eighteenth century, Newtonian
haunting, poltergeist, dowsing, psychometry, possession, physics became extremely successful in explaining the
apparition, angel vision, automatism, direct writing, or known natural phenomena, but life was not part of his
voice, personal guardian angel, and mental mediums [44]. physics; life considered something beyond physics
The most psi experiences scientifically studied and interpretation, the ultimate meaning and origin of life has
proofed are; ESP and PK phenomena maybe defined as always been associated with the occult forces of electricity
follows: or magnetism, falling more firmly within the realm of
ESP: Extrasensory perception, a term popularized by mind. So, science returned to the Descartes dualism of
J.B. Rhine in the 1930s, refers to information perceived by mind and matter. In 1880s, Ernst Mach has introduced an
telepathy, clairvoyance, or precognition. answer to this dualism dilemma; as he reasoned that
Telepathy: is information exchanged between two or human mind cannot know the reality directly, he
more minds, without the use of ordinary senses. suggested that physics laws could not be part of mind or
Clairvoyance: Also, called remote viewing, clear seeing, matter. This view led to the development of positivism, in
is a visual perception of events or things beyond the reach the last decades of the century. On the other hand, there
of ordinary senses. was a birth of new science "psychology", this birth
American Journal of Applied Psychology 35

emerges when the communities realized that the science of Several historians have persuasively demonstrated the
mind has become necessary [3]. influence of psychical researchers on the development of
The second scientific revolutions emerged because of concepts in what would become mainstream psychology.
the clash between electromagnetic theory and Newtonian Gurney and Myers studies of hypnosis and mediums
mechanisms, both with the Cartesian realm of matter and assisted in establishing the concepts of dissociation and
having nothing to do with mind, lead to the development the subconscious mind. Pierre Janet and Alfred Binet were
of new theories to correct the problems, which are: interested in the pathology of mediumship and this led to
quantum theory and relativity, by Max Plank and Albert the development of concepts in abnormal psychology and
Einstein, in 1900s. Meanwhile, psychology denied its in psychiatry [41].
historical roots and developed to a study of behaviorism In recent times, there has been an upsurge of interest in
alone. In the meantime, also, paranormal study changed consciousness and parapsychology, as Dean Radin
from its earlier spiritualistic basis, and parapsychology showed in his book The Conscious Universe. Radin [30]
emerged as a laboratory science under the direction of J.B. gave the results of a survey of books published with
Rhine in the 1930s. Parapsychology developed as the consciousness in their titles between 1800 and 1990. 50 %
behaviorists' answer to the paranormal, dealing with of all books published on this subject have appeared since
human' lab rats' and statistics, in other words, it was the 1980s. Similarly, interest in parapsychology has grown
indirectly influenced by quantum theory and positivism. dramatically in the last few decades. More than 50% of all
For example, in quantum theory the wave function is books with parapsychology in their titles have appeared
represented by the Greek letter psi, and often called psi since the 1970s. there has been a general increase in the
function, in the 1940s, the name psi was adopted to number of books published, but the growth in a
describe the underlying process for all paranormal comparable area such as psychology is much less dramatic.
phenomena and rapidly became popular [3]. These figures suggest that publishers are happy to
William James (1898-1982) investigations on psychic commission books on consciousness and parapsychology,
phenomena, in twentieth century, considered also, as an and that the public has a great interest in these topics.
important effort to understand human mind. James These should be fertile times for parapsychologists
embraced Myers' model of mind; who hypothesized that because people want to hear what we have to say. Surveys
our everyday self, our ordinary waking consciousness, it a show that a sizeable percentage of individuals report
small segment of our psyche, whereas a far wider range of paranormal experiences and beliefs. This is no fringe area
psychic functions, including paranormal, is active in of human experience it is quite central. It is incumbent
subliminal. He conceived a membrane that easily 'allows on researchers to investigate and understand these
information' to flow from the supraliminal, but the reverse experiences and beliefs, and parapsychology has a very
movement is much more inhibited. James later concluded important role to play here [41].
that the mind could not be reduced to the brain or seen as Krippner [20] considers that parapsychology is the
its epiphenomenon, as it must function as a transmitter or disciplined study of interactions between organisms and
a filter of a large conscious field. By the end of his life, he other organisms, and between organisms and their
was speculating on higher dimensions of consciousness, a environment, that seem to transcend mainstream sciences
collective mental net connecting all individuals as islands, understanding of time, space, and energy. He relates
which our several minds plunge as into a mother sea or parapsychology to transpersonal psychology, indicating
reservoir, this is against the fences of our individuality. that the transpersonal states of mind/body can be
[15]. understood in terms of chaos and complexity theory as
James suggested a radical science of mind; capable of self-organizing and self-creating (autopsies). Parapsychology
dealing with subjective, objective psychological experiences, has favored a typically positivist approach. Positivism
and exceptional states of consciousness. He thought the involves a scientific focus firmly based on empirical facts.
emergence science as multi- interdisciplinary science, and It also includes a belief in the testability of theories [8].
he defined psychology as a science of mental life; the If psi genuinely exists, this means psychology
systematic study of mental action, he added that, to understands is far from complete. People may influence
understand the complexity of human nature, we should not and interact with one another in ways that psychologists
ignore the investigation of psychic phenomena, with their do not currently recognize. In addition, of course the
mental states, this trance-phenomena is one of the greatest ramifications go way beyond psychology [41].
needs of psychology [15]. Parapsychology has always been faced with particular
Frederick Myers, Henry Sidgwick and Edmund Gurney problems and challenges; the difficult to replicate
were prominent and respectable academic figures who observations that can be shared by competent observers,
attempted to apply scientific method to the study of a wide and a good theoretical model by majority of scientists.
variety of mental phenomena. For example, they studied [40]. Other scientists debate that psi hypothesis maybe
the survival of human personality after death, anomalous completely wrong [7]. Continuing the debate, some
phenomena associated with mesmerism, and the strange believe the great difficulty in psi research will not be only
physical manifestations reported to occur during sances in terms of its verification, confirmation, testability,
with spiritualist mediums. These phenomena are today prediction, and falsification, but mainly in terms of the
associated with parapsychology but the earliest lack of an established set of unified beliefs on which the
researchers considered these topics to have a rightful place research can be based; this situation rather resembles the
in mainstream psychology. Research Tradition. For the progress of parapsychology, it
This group of thinkers challenged the reductionist and is proposed that we accept psi as a conceptual problem [8]
mechanistic agenda that was taking hold in psychology. and admit the following propositions: a) That we require,
36 American Journal of Applied Psychology

as a hard core, an expanded view of human consciousness, Spontaneous Cases, experiences:

for psi seems to contradict mental functioning based only Most of psi spontaneous experiences that are seen as
on the brain structure and its correlate electrochemical exceptional by science, appear to be an integral part of
activities. b) That we accept psi as an empirical anomaly, the (familiar) everyday world, though perhaps more
based on both phenomenological and laboratory research. accurately a special world. This is positive if one takes
c) That we recognize psi raises essential problems about into consideration, how many people report such
the nature of reality, such as the acquisition of information experiences in Knittel and Schetsche study [18], alone
without the usual limitations of space, time, and energy, this is between 50 and 70 percent of the population. Many
and that the accepted views of the nature of perception, other studies come to similar results and even find an
memory, cognition, and communication are incomplete. increase of exceptional experiences over the years;
[8]. In his book ' Entangled Minds', Dean Radin, debunked Greeley, 1975, 1978, 1991; Newport & Strausberg, 2001;
skeptical myths, about the validity of psi research, as he McClenon, 1994a, 1994b; Yamane & Polzer, 1994. Some
said that psi research is not engaged in a quest for authors such as Greeley (1975) think that the high
anomalies, otherwise, it is engaged in investigating occurrence of such experiences is evidence of the fact that
puzzling human experiences, as reported by countless the so-called exceptional is rather something common. [18]
people throughout history [31]. Cases gathered from surveys
To conclude, psi challenges, barriers or problems- In the past 10-15 years, surveys have been conducted in
among skeptics, or who persist studying its phenomena- a few countries, used large representative national samples
rise from: and included items on psychic experiences and beliefs. As
-No totally acceptance- among all academics, example, one of these conducted by Haraldsson and
researchers, common people about psi existence and Houtkooper in 1991, on 18,607 person in 13 countries in
nature, as any classic science. Europe and US. Telepathy; felt as though you were in
-The inconsistence of some experimental studies, in though with someone when they were far away from you,
replication, which is common with humanities sciences, was reported more frequently than other experiences, 46%
not only restricted to psi. of American sample reported one or more of psi
-The theoretical framework that explain and interpret experiences, many more of the whole sample reported by
psi phenomena and factors those cause them. women than men, while education has no effect. Single
Nevertheless, psi experiences and interests are so far, as and married are less likely report psi than whom with
long as written history, affected by old human perception, broken relationships. Emotional unstable, also, reported
and current as well, duality; nature and beyond nature, more; either very pleasant or very difficult times [12].
normal and paranormal, then mind and matter. With the Factors behind spontaneous experiences: Belief in
development of science as observation and reliable supernatural among cultures,
measurement, psi study developed with controlled - Barrett 2004 proposed that belief in supernatural
experiments, but the negotiations continued about fixed, agents is cross-culturally ubiquitous because of a
reliable theoretical framework, and availability of cognitive Hypersensitive Agency Detection Device with
replication among researches. Since the whole 1960s, up the propensity to find agents in the environment. Within
to now, parapsychologists succeeded in establishing the theoretical framework, human minds contain a
legitimization of parapsychology, by changing attitudes putative cognitive tool, the Hypersensitive Agency
toward it gradually. In parallel with this, David Bohm, Detection Device (HADD) that is sensitive to signs of
introduced his concept about 'hidden variables', then potential agency present within the sensory environment.
theory of everything, proposed. Humans tendency to attribute psychological and social
Then in response to skeptic words, Dean Radin, once properties to inanimate objects, such as two-dimensional
said:" History shows that as the scientific frontiers geometric shapes appearing to move in a self-propelled
continue to expand, the supernatural evolves into and goal-directed manner, is well established. The
paranormal, and then into normal. During the transitional adaptive advantage of the HADD is thought to be its hyper
periods there is much gnashing of teeth. But with vigilance to the detection of other agents, presumed to aid
determination and courage, progress is relentless [31]. At the avoidance of potential predators, for example. A
last, progress of science has brought us full circle once hypothesized by product, however, is a susceptibility to
again, integral parts of science, continuing progress of infer the existence of supernatural agents [1].
science, all facilitate to a next science revolution, by Barrett suggested two environmental factors that may
changing our perception and handling to the reality. moderate sensitivity of HADD. First, when the physical
well-being is in jeopardy; Individuals living in an
3.2. Who Experience Psi? environment where they are under threat would need to be
more vigilant in their detection of agency. Barrett
Many scientists studied the relationship between suggested that anxiety state caused by environmental
personal, environmental factors and psi belief and stressors are likely to moderate the frequency with which
experience. Some of psi phenomena are experienced the HADD detects agency. Second, the ambiguous
spontaneously, while others through experiments. Stokes sensory input; such as dark and unfamiliar environments,
concluded in Palmer's book, that evidence for psi could be are hypothesized to increase the sensitivity of the HADD.
established by thorough investigation of spontaneous Barrett has suggested that when perceptual input is
cases and by experiments with good research ambiguous, and the existence of a living organism or a
methodology that can be repeated by the vast majority of nonliving object cannot be unequivocally determined, the
competent scientists [19]. HADD is likely to detect agency over non-agency,
American Journal of Applied Psychology 37

attributing agentic properties to something that in reality functioning. In addition, the probabilistic judgment tasks
may be an object or merely an illusion [1]. that have tended to show a significant relationship with
Attitudes towards parapsychology, belief in psychic ability appear somewhat artificial. They
- Knittel and Schetsche conducted a study in 2005, on a presented also that people who are deeply absorbed in a
sample Over 1500 persons of the Federal Republic of fantasy that it is difficult to know whether the experience
Germany, whom were questioned in a telephone interview is purely imaginary or caused by an external source,
about their attitude towards paranormal phenomena and believe more in psi. Finally, they suggested a reliable
about personal experiences in this field. Their results relationship between belief in psychic ability and the
showed that: Germans are quite open-minded about finding of connections between distantly related visual
paranormal phenomena, and more than half of the people and verbal material; the ability to find correspondences
even give an account of personal exceptional experiences. between events and experiences, and therefore to attribute
Interestingly, it is primarily young people who believe in psychic causation to such experiences. Various studies
the existence of psi phenomena and who are increasingly have reported evidence to support this notion [43].
having personal experiences in this field. Presented are Some scientists studied also, the relationship between
qualitative results, as well as descriptive statistics. In a psi experiences, as presented in psi dreams, and
second telephone interview, more than 200 persons were personality.
questioned once again, this time in detail, about their - Para, in his book 'Sueos', presented that, research in
personal experiences. It was found that dealing with the such fields on many spontaneous cases showed the
paranormal is not seen as problematic at all [18]. important role of psi dreams as an alert tool, for further
Other personality characteristics, events and changes, as precognitive dreams. (Parra, 2008).
- Lindeman and Aarnio, [22], in their study on - On the other hand, Schredl presented in his study, in
paranormal beliefs and their potential correlations, (on 2009, about precognitive dreams between: 1898-1999,
Three thousand two hundred and sixty-one, their mean age found statistical significance results, indicated that persons
was 24 years (SD4.67, range 1560). Seventy-four per with thin boundaries reported precognitive dreams more
cent were females. Eighty-five per cent of all participants often than persons with thick boundaries, even when
reported being full-time students. Of those studying, 77% dream recall frequency is statistically controlled. This
were university students and 23% attended vocational findings, supports and expands this notion abut
school. Together, they represented a wide variety of precognitive dreams and personality, because the
disciplines including medical, natural and social sciences, boundary construct is a broad concept that characterizes
technology, psychology, law, arts, humanities, education, persons with thin boundaries as creative and empathy, also
business and service-(21 were excluded because of vulnerable and tending to have intense , stressful
missing data)- suggested two modes of processing relationships. He hypothesized in his current study in 2009
information; analytic thinking, and intuition. Analytic that, from a theoretical point of view, persons who are
thinking refers to explicit, verbalizable and conscious very sensitive (thin boundaries) and open to unusual
reasoning that based on conceptual thinking, logic and experiences pay more attention to the precognitive aspects
evidence. In turn, intuitive processing is implicit, of their dreams.
non-verbalizable, associative and automatic and regards Another aspect of importance is self-monitoring
personal experience as the main tool by which information (carefully comparing ongoing waking life experiences
assessed. According to dual-process theories, analytical with previous dream experiences to identify matches) [35].
processes and rational knowledge do not replace intuitive - Zahran, in her research in 2011, on 50 Egyptian
processes and contents as children mature. Rather, both people aged from 19-45, found significance relationship
types of processes and knowledge exist and develop between ESP aspects and sample's variables: age,
during an individuals life. For example, magical beliefs geographical place, education status, personality type, psi
that are typical to preschool children may be implicitly experience frequency [45].
preserved and activated in adults even though the - Breen, conducted paranormal survey in 2011, on 3000
representations have been devaluated in the face of participants in Europe, US, and Canada; her study results
knowledge that is more rational. Further support for the represented that psi is experienced among women more
role of intuitive thinking in superstitious beliefs found in than men. In addition, psi experienced early in life and
studies, shown that adults who prefer to rely on intuitive still at an older age. 90% of her participants experienced at
thinking are more superstitious than others are, therefore, least one type of psi experiences. The most commonly
their findings indicated that paranormal beliefs are reported is dj vu by 85%, then premonitions 75%,
associated with low analytic thinking. Their findings also, apparitions 64%, telepathy 63%, out of body experience
supported that, humanistic worldview, emotional instability, 53%, reincarnations 41%, PK 35%, auras 32%, and
individual helplessness, and high desire for self-control, mediumship 24% [6].
all has correlations with paranormal beliefs [22]. - Zahrans study in 2012- about Role of The Sixth
- Wiseman and Watt, in their study in 2006, about Sense in Diction Making and Interpersonal Relationships,
belief in psychic ability, represented that belief in psychic on (50) female university student whom she asked to
ability and intelligence test, academic performance are respond to a questionnaire about six sense variables,
inconsistent and mixed findings, while relationship which are: six sense types, six sense as one perceived, the
between belief in psychic ability and performance on first time that one perceive their experiences and their
syllogistic reasoning tasks, the existing literature does not frequency, with their relation to decision making and
support the notion that believers and disbelieves in interpersonal relationships found significant effect among
psychic ability differ in their levels of general cognitive the previous variables [46].
38 American Journal of Applied Psychology

- Barnes & Gibson, 2013- in their online survey on 583 always connected with parapsychological experimental
participants; (423 women; M age D 29.2 years, SD D 11.0 research; (1930s-1960s) his book about ESP, his
years; range D 1875), which was constituted largely of experiments about precognition and PK, his proposal in
Western participants, from United Kingdom (64.5%), 1957 led to establishment of parapsychological association
Australia (17.0%), and Canada (9.6%)- showed in its (PA).
results significance relationships between individual - The quality second leap after Rhine's contributions was
difference variables and SRSP; (spiritual, religious, the time from 1960s and above, as shown in the following:
supernatural, or paranormal.). High scores on personality On experimenters:
factors (unusual experiences, trust and empathy) were - Free responses test is in contrast with the fixed and
associated with SRSP experiences of all kinds. [1]. limited card-guessing test. In free response tests pictures,
- Parra introduced in his study in 2016, the relationship simple words, objects or real sceneries are used as testing
between Personality and Perceptual Variables Associated targets, there are two results; hit or fail. Remote viewing
with Mediumistic Experiences, his sample consisted of experiments are common applied in such tests. [44].
paranormal believers (N = 239, 74% females and 26% - Ganzfeld technique experiments, was a next technique
males) and undergraduate students (N = 554, 77% females after free responses test. In Ganzfeld designs- as derived
and 22% males). The results showed that a sense of presence from German word 'whole field', and gestalt psychologists,
is the most frequent experience (75%), followed by an as a mild form of sensory stimulation to study the nature
apparitional experience (24%) and spirit possession (19%). of visual imaginary- the sender in one room sends a
Only 41% had a type of mediumistic experience, of which picture to a receiver in another room, who is at a distance
31% had two and 6% had at least three types of experience. and imaging what a sender is viewing. After the sending
- Another study presented by Parra and Argibay in 2016 period, the receiver attempts to match h/her mental
an exploratory manipulation of the temperament theory impressions with one of four pictures, one of which was
and paranormal experiences. 403 undergraduate students, the real target image [31].
using the standardized Spanish version of the Eysenck - RNG: In the early 1970s, another step by a German-
Personality Inventory, found that Choleric scored higher American Helmut Schmidt made his pioneered researches
on frequency of out-of-body experiences (OBE), ESP on the effects of human consciousness on machines called
dreams, aura, dj-vu, and count of experiences, while random number generator (RNG), random event generator
Sanguines scored higher on telepathy, and Melancholics (REG) [44]. A subsequent development of this new
scored higher on frequency of sense of presence. Certain technique was the global consciousness project(GCP).
anomalous experiences, as OBE, dream recall and seeing Dubbed and directed by Roger Nelson, in late 1997, the
auras, could be facilitated using extravert subjects GCP allows us to infer periods of global mental coherence,
characterized for being touchy, restless, excitable, because of major news events that attract widespread
changeable, and impulsive. [27,28]. attention [31].
To conclude, some people showed more sensitivity to -On subjects:
psi experiences than others did, spontaneously and/or Some researchers advanced a proposal to use some
during controlled experiments. Such sensitivity, derived methods in general psychology to train subjects, in order
from, as shown above, both personal characteristics, with, to increase their productivity. For subjects with no psi
some stirring surrounding circumstances and events; like, talent, there was no psi to reinforce, and feedback should
fantasy emotional people, with intuition thinking, more have no effect on performance. For subjects with
than rational, analytic one, in ambiguous crises times, and moderate talent, the feedback should prevent declines but
changing periods. Such combination between context and not actually improve scoring. Only with highly talented
personality, aroused skeptics' questions; are these experiences subjects would the ratio of real to chance hits be high
alleged, as the output of such combination, restricted to exact enough to allow learning to take place [44].
people in exact circumstances? Alternatively, is it genuine -On the contents of the experiment:
as a part of nature, which is showing in psi human There are some remarks to mention, as; experiments
experiences? As science relies mainly on observation then and researches on animals and plants parapsychological
controlled measurement to test phenomena, and then to phenomena. Experiments and researches on telepathy in
establish theories, psi researches had been developed from dreams, on remote viewing, on paranormal healing, on
observing spontaneous cases, to highly controlled experiments, altered states of consciousness, the field consciousness
with very high significance results, which helped to experiments, some researches on spontaneous phenomena;
establish theoretical framework, with more reliable as near to death, out of body experiences, and meta-
satisfied status about scientific study to psi experiences, analysis on experiment results [44].
and introduced answers to such above previous questions. The output of the previous advanced scientific studying
I will represent these details in the following. for psi experiences was lot of findings about psi existence,
as mentioned below:
3.3. Psi existence; More Laboratory Lab studies about biology and psi,
Evidences - In Comings research, 2010, he found that twin
studies showed significant genetic component to
From the 1930s, controlled experimental research on psi spirituality. It is likely that the genes for spirituality
experiences became the mainstream in parapsychological selected because the social cohesiveness that spiritually
research, after the withering of spiritualism that has been fosters has a strong survival value. The neurobiology of
predominated from the middle of the 19th century up to spirituality suggests that our rational brain occasionally
the 1920s; with the begging of 1930s. Rhine's name needs to step back and give the spiritual brain some space
American Journal of Applied Psychology 39

to have beliefs and feelings that do not always make migrations. Psi-lines are mind generated subtle energy
rational sense. He defined spirituality as a sense of lines that terminated by spirals. Psi-lines rang from less
belonging to something greater than ones self did. Brain than a meter to many tens of thousands of kilometers.
mapping studies clearly placed areas that are involved in Dowsing these audio frequencies gives the suggestion that
spiritual sensation-(psi experience) - temporal lobes front, they are modulation waves, which carry information. The
centre, right and left. He pointed also to, the personality carrier wave has higher indeterminate frequencies.
structure that is included in psi experiences, as have Interpretation of this requires further research. Dowsing
increased concern with philosophical themes, religious suggests that the three lines are associated with
issues, and intensive writings in these fields and poetry. electromagnetism in the respective form Electric:
He pointed also that serotonin plays an important role in Magnetic: Electric. As the pineal gland is also involved in
psi experiences, as shown in 1998, and 2003, by Forsgren, melatonin and sleep, it postulated that during sleep, the
Borg, and others. There was an inverse association brain interfaces with the information field, and uses it as
between the serotonin amount and self transcendence an external hard drive [16,17].
scale. He defined self-transcendence as a capacity to reach In his second research Keen, 2012, added new
out and find meaning in life in dimensions beyond oneself. discoveries about psi-lines; regarding the effect on
Self-transcendence consists of three subscales: self- psi-lines of the earths gravity, spin and magnetism. In
forgetfulness, transpersonal identification and spiritual particular, magnetism has an important effect both on the
acceptance. Creativity and originality maybe enhanced in brain and on the entry point of terminal psi-line spirals.
this state, feeling connected to others, nature, and universe, The latter has led to a convincing example of remote
he suggested this as social cohesiveness [9]. macro entanglement [16,17].
- In PA 2016 annual convection, Bartholomew talked Studies about consciousness
about the ability of healers to affect the conformation of - Some parapsychologists had pointed at the
the DNA molecule simply by concentrating their mental relationship between consciousness and parapsychological
and emotional powers of the brain and heart. [2]. studies; they hypothesized that parapsychology will
- Richard in Palmers book, 2016- discussed rediscover consciousness, as a cognitive revolution. [20]
biological aspects of psi research, including evolution. He Out of body experience (OBE), as example, which is the
first briefly reviews research pertaining to possible psi by experience of feeling separated from body, unusually
animals and various studies involving psi and accompanied by visual perceptions of clairvoyance, [30],
physiological and brain measures. He then proposes an could be evidence that the mind or our consciousness can
evolutionary framework for psi. His idea is that receptive function independently of the nervous system, which
psi (ESP) is linked to the human ability to imagine the would simultaneously most revolutionary and important in
future [19]. scientific terms [26].
- In 2012, Keen, talked about psi-lines and the - While others, examined the hypothesis that
entangled structure of the universe; Psi-lines are a consciousness may understand as a state of matter,
well-established phenomenon. They are easily created, "perceptronium", with distinctive information processing
and/or destroyed by the mind. Not only can their creator abilities. They found that tensor factorization of matrices
detect them, but also more importantly others can readily is found to play a central role, and technical results
detect them. This property enables their use for tracking. include a theorem about Hamiltonian separability (defined
Evidence exists for this use over 1,000 years ago, and using Hilbert-Schmidt super operators) being maximized
there is a strong probability that they were used by in the energy eigenbasis. Studys approach generalized
Neolithic man. In ancient times, they presumably created Giulio Tononi's integrated information framework for
as part of daily life, to assist in navigation. Detailed neural-network based consciousness to arbitrary quantum
research shows that psilines are not 1-dimensional lines, systems, and found interesting links to error-correcting
but complex 3-dimensional cosmic and subtle energy codes, condensed matter criticality, and the Quantum
fields comprising coaxial cylindrical lines. A conical helix Darwinism program, as well as an interesting connection
terminates these lines, which are also associated with between the emergence of consciousness and the
nodes, electric and magnetic fields, and audio frequencies, emergence of time [39].
they can also have beneficial or detrimental effects on - In PA 2016 annual convention, Radin introduced
health, and are perceived slightly differently by males and multi-papers examining the relationship between
females, the properties and structure of psi-lines are consciousness and the field; suggested conscious field,
affected by local and astronomical forces including also energy medical technology, by capturing energetic
gravity and the earths spin. Experimental data has signals associated with the act of energy healing. In
produced formulae such as W = /3*Ln(L) + 3/2 which addition, he and his colleges examined important
is the relationship between the length and width of psi- hypothesis about a blue light receptor found in all plants
lines, where is the golden ratio 1.61803. As this and and animals (including humans). There is evidence that
similar formulae involve no arbitrary constants and only crypto chrome (a blue light receptor) -has quantum
universal constants, this is good evidence that the mind biological properties, used for example in avian magneto
can interact with the cosmos. Although knowledge and navigation. Crypto chrome may be a candidate biological
sensation about psi-lines existed since thousands of years, receptor for quantum phenomena such as entanglement
serious scientific research on this subject only started few and observational effects. Their results strongly support
years ago. Swedish and German researches since 1994 had the hypothesis that crypto chrome may be a component of
independently confirmed the existence of psilines, recent living systems which is particularly sensitive to intentional
psi-lines researches including animal navigation, as birds influence; it also provides a clue about potential links
40 American Journal of Applied Psychology

between qualia (subjective intention) and quanta (behavior to be, by its nature, a mind where the telepathic, the
of the elementary physical world) [34]. clairvoyant, and the precognitive are present [8].
To conclude, the mentioned advanced controlled - Frecska in 2012, suggested two-input model of human
designs may lead to a quality leap in our knowledge that information processing, human make representation of the
may prepare to next scientific revolution, which will shift environment using two distinct forms of visual perception,
our perception about the nature and human frontiers. bicameral mind; local-nonlocal division of the physical
world, basically two different but complementary
foundations of knowledge. Non-local interaction, the
4. How do Parapsychologists Interpret Psi paper talked about, is independent from the state of
Phenomena? consciousness. It is primarily during the integrative forms
of altered states of consciousness, or in the trance-like
As any science depends on some theories that explain state of a Ganzfeld experiment when a minimal and
their phenomena and allow to predict and control for uncertain information transfer may occur emerging into
further development. awareness from the sub cellular matrix to the neuroaxonal
- Some parapsychologists explain psi abilities in the system. The nature of the latter, very important coupling
light of physiological interpretations, as; hypotheses of: mechanism is unclear; perhaps it occurs at the synaptic
Myers subliminal self, Bergsons filter theory, William membranes. Frecska vision about dualism of human
James cosmic consciousness, Eccles self-conscious mind. knowledge is different from Julian Jaynes (2000)
Then, Alfa rhythm of brain, relaxation syndrome, findings bicameral mind, as Frecska concern was not as much a
about psi parts in the brain. Others introduced left-right hemispheric distribution of work, but rather an
explanations about psi experiences in the light of physics. up-down division between neural and sub neural functions.
Physics, maybe divided into old physics, as Perceptual cognitive processing has a strong ego that
electromagnetic radiation, force and field theories, suppresses the direct intuitive way. The perceptual
synchronicity and resonance, then, new physics, as cognitive foundation of knowledge is a result of the
neutrinos, multiple dimensional spaces, theories about brains interactions with the local aspects of the physical
time, wormhole, then quantum physics; nonlocality and world, while the direct-intuitive perception of the world
holographic universe by David Bohm [44]. derives from the nonlocal features of the Cosmos. There
In the light of these previous theories, some hypothesized are two realms of reality; physical and non-physical, they
explanations emerged, and I will mention some since the are two exists [11].
beginning of the current century, as: - Continuing the idea of dualism, Tarlaci discussed in
- Benford suggestion in 2001, about psi experiences in (2013), talked about the duality of soul-body, mind-body,
the light of radiogenic metabolism theory, as cells could and mind-brain. The dualist approach actually comes from
be acting as organic scintillators capable of producing before Descartes. Everything we can think of can be
both heat and light depending on cells level of efficiency. classified as non-living (stones, houses, planets) or living.
If this hypothesis is correct, the body could be acting as Dualism arose from this view. Portman introduced in his
collecting and/or processing points of gamma radiation, suggestion (1978) six different worldview, between
which in turn, produces some proportion of light versus dualism and monism; like Alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and
heat. When the subjects system stressed by any kind of zeta. Then he introduced objection to dualism; the
disease, for example, there could be an additional gamma difference between the two changes depending on your
hunger to absorb the needed energy source, the body viewpoint. Looking from outside, the brain/bodily state
may act as antenna, receiving or emitting electromagnetic can be seen. Looking from inside, the mental state can be
radiation [5]. seen. However, a good dualist approach must be able to
- Castro discussed in 2011 [8] paper that, the great explain in a detailed way these characteristics of matter
difficulty in psi research, which would not be only in which cause the interaction of these two completely
terms of its verification, confirmation, testability, different aspects of the world and the qualities of the soul
prediction, and falsification, but mainly in terms of the in whatever combination they might be. In spite of the
lack of an established set of unified beliefs on which the success of modern molecular biology, the biggest puzzle
research bases. If we consider science as a problem in biology is how living things are organized or
solving activity, we may understand psi through an coordinated. Nerve cells by themselves can neither smell
integrated approach based on several different sciences; nor think nor remember. These nerve cells work together,
the 21st century has been physically oriented, as in the form groups, and perform conscious functions. The basic
brick of reality, called upward causation, it means that question here is where and in what form this intercellular
chemistry is nothing but physics, biology is nothing but interaction is produced. [38].
chemistry, psychology is nothing but biology, and so on. - Walachs et al. paper in 2014 [40], talked about psi
If biology includes the existence of a seventh, sense in the experiences in the light of nonlocal correlations, adopted
mode proposed by Sheldrake, it may begin to explain the Schrodinger theory about quantum, who named it
interaction at a distance among members of the same entanglement in 1935. The elements of a quantum
species and other species and the environment, especially system remain correlated no matter how separated they are
the aspects concerning the survival of individuals and the in space or in time. These correlations are nonlocal: No
species themselves. Transpersonal studies and psi are classical signal mediates this corresponding behavior.
closer to a world where the dominant metaphysics is Rather, it is a consequence of the systemic setup. It has
biological, with ontology that allow for the entangled been shown meanwhile that photons, electrons, or
minds of living beings, and the human psyche is admitted multiparticle systems can be entangled, and entanglement
American Journal of Applied Psychology 41

has been experimentally shown to hold over many as the available psi data, suggests a nonlocal feature to this
kilometers [40]. ground that connects with each of our individual
- Marwaha and May introduced in 2015, multiple conscious experiences as well as our environment. While
model of precognition. In their model, they identified two ones ability to ascertain information from particular
distinct phases; physical and neuroscience domains, for subjects or locations may be limited, the holistic nature of
psi experiences acquisition, they addressed this acquisition Boehms theory suggests we are likely accessing (albeit
in three stages: perception of signals from information subconsciously) information from a wide variety of
carrier based on psychophysical variability, mediated sources around us. The possibility that some of our
cortical processing of the signals, and cognition mediated feelings are part of a larger, nonlocal reality suggests an
by normal cognitive process. They hypothesized that interesting interpretation of other psi data, such as the
precognition is the only form of ESP, defining it as a emotional resonance, mindmatter interaction experiments
typical perceptual ability that allows the acquisition of of the GCP [42].
non-infernal information arising from a future point in To conclude, many theories discussed psi, from ancient
space and time [23]. to nowadays in the light of philosophical manipulation,
- Pandarakalam explained psi and consciousness in the then biological and physical interpretations, all interpret
light of the physicist Gerhard D. Wassermanns shadow the phenomena in general, without specifying each aspect
matter body and brain theory, the assumption that the with exact factors that cause or accompanying each type
shadow matter universe co-exists with our material of psi experience; to help application, prediction and
universe leads to the conjecture that our material body control in the future.
may co-exist with shadow matter. Wassermann applied
the concept of shadow matter to the neurosciences, and
brought psychic phenomena within the mechanistic 5. The Hypothesized Vision
framework. The concept of lighter shadow matter body
(LSMBO) and lighter shadow matter brain (LSM-BR) In the light of the previous theoretical framework
compensates for discontinuities in the traditional reviews, I hypothesized psi definition as, a potential,
anatomical design of human beings. Wassermanns latent, adaptive ability to sense and affect through
LSM-BO theory has brought the elusive body of psychical distance.
research into the realm of the physicist. The concepts of I will explain my hypothesized definition about psi
LSM-BO direct us towards a multi-energy-system model nature, as phenomena; experiences and behavior- word by
of human consciousness. Explanations like dark plasma word in the following:
theory and multi-energy system model, all support the - I mean by potential, hidden or latent, unconscious,
idea of etheric double and astral bodies. The researcher which moved, or rose by exact factors that enhance it. By
also discussed super psi hypothesis, which is theoretical reviewing the previous framework, we will find that times
extension of ESP and PK, the shadow matter brain alone of changes, problems or crises, problems, some altered
cannot explain individuality, but the spiritual body status of consciousness, all and more- as shown above-
combined with the shadow matter, body could offer a represented psi behavior.
better explication of individuality. The spiritual body - I mean by ability, normal curve distribution.
renders the shadow matter body and the physical body Although it seems unreasonable idea; because psi always
unique; we might term it the individualizing principle. classified as anomalous, paranormal, and some samples do
Subjective human attributes such as ethics, morality, not show psi behavior even after training, but its
feelings of respect for others, feelings of self-dignity, significance ratio much more than chance ratios, then psi
ability to trust each other, poetic sense, creativity and behavior after training, permits somewhat to hypothesize
goal-oriented behavior cannot attribute to the shadow that it is hidden ability inside all, represented, motivated
matter brain in isolation. Unconditional love, empathy and when exact context and exact characteristics, are crossed
compassion are part of the spiritual dimension and together.
cognitive scientists have a tendency to soft pedal if not This suggested vision maybe supported strongly by Rex
bypass these subjective qualities entirely. The concept of Stanfords work, as mentioned in Palmers book; psi
lighter shadow matter can at least be regarded as a seems to function as a normal, healthy ability, responsive
scientific idea in the sense that we may be able to to motivational drives, and as part of the general
demonstrate its presence through sophisticated scanning unconscious system of the individual (page 109). The
techniques that will develop in the future, along with the key points were that everyone can be assumed to have
growth in astrophysics [24]. potential psi ability that is guided by motivation and that
- Williams in his 2016 paper discussed psi and operates unconsciously and can occur without conscious
consciousness in the light of quantum mechanics. He intention and usually without awareness that psi is
introduced these mechanisms in three classes of occurring. It was noted that physiological measures such
explanation: the quantum waveform collapsed somehow as blood volume, EEG, galvanic skin response, or other
as the consciousness of the observer participates in physiological conditions that do not depend on a
measurement, the objective reduction model by Hameroff conscious response may be the best way to detect the
and Penrose; and hidden variables or hidden order type occurrence of the unconscious psi process. [19].
models. The researcher adopted the hidden model, firstly Those who are in contradict; do not believe, or react
initiated by David Bohm; he speculated that our thoughts even by training; might be affected by their self-full filling
or moments of experience are part of a whole rooted in a prophecy, which affects always our attention, then our
deeper ground of reality. Boehms implicate order, as well perception and our behavior, we are affected by our type
42 American Journal of Applied Psychology

of personality, that shows or not this potential ability. magnificence, somehow, sometimes, unconsciously; to
(I mean show not creates, as I hypothesize psi as potential for secure its probable danger. This all represents our partially
all, evolved, latent ability, which is not invested, utilized yet). perception to the described thing. Talking about nature
By describing psi as ability, I hypothesize also and beyond nature, might be because, our perception is
individual differences among people, with psi aspects and binary. This maybe because the relativity nature of our
amounts, degrees of distribution. At least, we all perception, what is normal to one is not normal to others
experience telepathy, or gut feelings, or intuition. Even the criteria, what is good to one is not good to other and so on.
scientists use their insight, intuitive thinking in the This maybe, also, because the type of our bio-systems that
creation moment. To give your attention to such passing, works in an electricity way, of negative and positive, as
fleeting experiences is a matter of your type of personality, Steven Hocking once said. Maybe also, this derived from
plus, your social, context, and circumstances. old cultures and civilization; as ancient Egyptian idea of
- I mean by adaptive, its function in human life, as it Pa and Ka, to refer to body and soul, (etheric body), then
postulated that any human behavior is purposive, has a it became mind over matter.
purpose, psi behavior always appears to control over ones Psi adaptive ability is an extended ability that enlarges
circumstances, but in uncommon, unusual way among ones self to sense not only the whole humanity, but also
people. Those people who are very sensitive to any the completely extended being. From this point of view, I
changes, at the same time feel self-assertion; want to suggest the oneness, as a concept, somewhat to refer to
control over their circumstances, but have no ability to social coherence rather than, the high self, to avoid
manipulate commonly, or as usual, may seek super, again binary talks about up and down, or high and low. As
more than common aid, especially in ambiguous crises, or ancient cultures did and related every good thing with
times of changes. Their sensitivity with their high, over, above, superior, to the sky kingdom, while
characteristics may lead humanity to discover and invest every bad thing related to low, down, under earth. The
this evolved, advanced, adaptive ability, which appears suggested oneness function by psi plays an important
only in times of imbalance, unstable, altered in times of role in humanity social life, especially in current turning
changes or in danger times and its main function is to point, and crossroads era. We spent much of our history
return ones complete balance. suffering from many divisions that separated humanity
- I mean by through distance; developed advanced, into: you against me, we against others, which creates
adaptive ability. Any adaptive ability seeks to balance oppression and violence. Selfishness and immature way of
human with current circumstances, while this psi adaptive perceiving and love oneself caused countless losses to
ability extend ones context to include the whole being, humanity. Psi experience, spontaneously, will lead
and function to adapt one to the upcoming, further events humanity to quality leap, if adopted and invested. In psi
and environment. status, one loses any borders with h/her environment, to
I suggest through distance phrase, rather than reach extended points in different moments at the same
beyond space and time; as I hypothesized in a previous time, to reach this type of character, one need to
paper (Zahran, 2016), that time represents our perception concentrate to the whole, and to feel the whole. One is
more than its nature. Psi experiences showed that we embedded part in the whole, this is oneness, in an
might move backward and forward in the same present, as extended self-perception. When your extended self,
in precognition and retrocognition. Therefore, I previously thinking, feeling and acting like that: join you and me
hypothesized that time and space are not, what happened, selves, we and others as a complementary oneness, instead
is happening, will happen in one or more dimensions, of divided selves against each other, against the laws of
otherwise it might be an exact moment that crossed with nature, themselves, which are mainly depend on harmony
an exact point. We say future; because we cannot perceive entangled oneness, at that time we will reach- I
it in our common way of perception, not because we are hypothesis- our maturity. Life is not conflict opposites; it
now, and it will happen, exactly, as we cannot see is integrated parts, work in harmony with each other. To
particles without microscope, and stars without telescope. feel that you are embedded part of a greater whole,
Psi, as evolved adaptive ability can reach extended moments enriches both oneself and ones need for belonging, psi
and points and wide its sensitivity to the whole being, to status creates this, and this in turn, enriches the personality
help ones antenna to capture what h/she is seeking. to its mature balance between ones benefit ; interest and
I suggest through distance phrase, rather than others benefits; interests. Psi may lead humanity to its
beyond nature; as I hypothesized one nature, as we do not quality leap, when we behave with natures laws, not
discover the whole universe yet. There is only one reality, against them, as what is happing.
which we do not reach totally. We do not discover, yet, - Finally, I mean by sense and affect, the reciprocity
the equipment that reaches the psi whole process. Many type of this suggested adaptive ability, the two way of
researchers and scientists, as shown above communication: There is non-local communication
represented/hypothesized material nature of psi, as shown entangles all the universe beings, and human embedded in
in some parts in brain, as in genes and twins, as a such communication, as a part of this existence.
suggested blue receptor matter of psi, changes in heart, The two-way communication is:
brain activity, guts changes, psi-lines, and surrounding A- Receiving universe singles, like ESP experiences.
affected by psi ability, as shown in GCP. Talking about B- Sending psi singles, like PK experiences.
what we do not know as beyond anything we know, As I hypothesized psi experiences as reciprocity two-
maybe because we are unconsciously feel afraid from way communication, if we postulate that every purposive
unknown, foggy thing, so that we tend to describe it as behavior, act, as conscious one, we may describe atom act
beyond what we know, we treat it as majestic, to achieve balance, as conscious act. Then from atoms, to
American Journal of Applied Psychology 43

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