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Francis Fernandes
25th April 2013

The Rydberg photon whose radius corresponds with twice Bohrs radius is postulated to be the reason for the
cosmic microwave background frequency. Two great works on black body radiation by Planck and Wein
enabled this progression of thought: The process by which frequency is given and received by the Rydberg
photon. Hydrogen atoms in stars are comprised of Rydberg photons. The stars radiate CMBR.


Equations depicting black body radiation -

Planck: 0.014399644 T [1]

Wein : 2.8977685 103 T [2]

The ratio of the above equations yield,

4.969218518 [3]
2.8977685 103

Another equation that equates Kelvin temperature with energy E of emitted light,

E 4.969218518 k T Joules [4]

Moreover, the frequency required to raise the temperature of a body by one Kelvin,

f * 2.081943472 1010 Hertz [5]

The above equations are from standard Physics text books.



Building on Niels Bohrs equations the derivation that follows develops an understanding of
how photo-electric conversions occur.
1 kq 2 2
En m e e

2 nh

Substituting values for k, q2 and h and canceling common terms,

1 c 2 10 7 m r 107 2
En me
2 n m c 2 r 137.036

1 c
En me
2 n 137.036

Rearranging terms,
1 1
En me c 2
2 n 137.036

The Rydberg photon mass of 2.425434789 10 35 kg yields,

En m Rydberg c 2

Thus En represents the energy of electromagnetic radiation equivalent to 13.6 eV.

The ratio of electron mass to the Rydberg photon mass yields a value that involves the fine
structure constant.

m electron
2 n 2 137.0362
m Rydberg

The criticism Niels Bohr faced was that his model did not explain the fine structure patterns
exhibited in the spectral charts obtained for the Hydrogen atom. The above equation clearly
indicates the reason for the true source of the fine structure pattern. The fine structure value
exists on account of the inherent Rydberg photon and its conversion into an electron.
Another embarrassment Bohr faced was that his model depicted an electron in circular motion
orbiting a central nucleus. And yet, a deeper examination of Bohrs de rivation reveals that he
was near to affirming the truth.

Let us examine the equation below.

1 kq 2 1
E me v 2 e me v 2
2 r 2

Bohrs equation may be rewritten as,

1 1 kq e2
me v 2 me v 2
2 2 r

kq e2
me v 2
The left hand side term is the energy of an electron at velocity, v. The electron is in circular
motion at a radial distance, r, which is Bohrs radius.
Replacing the radial distance, r, by 2r yields

1 kq e2
me v 2
2 2r

The key here is to distinguish between Bohrs radius and the classical electron radius.
The left hand side term is the kinetic energy of an electron in circular motion at velocity, v, and
the right hand side term stands for the potential energy of the Rydberg photon body pulsating
about twice Bohrs radius. In this fresh paradigm charge is conserved as shown below.

q 2 2.425434789 1035 1.058354422 1010 107

Rydberg photon

The factor taken to be the kinetic energy of an electron body by Niels Bohr is the potential
Rydberg photon energy.

kq e2
m Rydc 2


En m Rydberg c 2

1 1
En me c 2
2 n 137.036

1 kq e2
En me v 2
2 2r

The equations above are extensions of the brilliant work of Niels Bohr. They depict photo-
electric conversions and a subsequent electron mass energy equivalence of an electron body in
pulsate motion.
Though mathematically correct, Niels Bohrs equation lacks physical justification. In this
equation the kinetic energy of the electron is in fact the potential energy of the Rydberg
photon, where 2r is the descriptor of this photon body.
The reason for 2r is described in this paper hand written by me on a train in Europe. It is the
solution for the Gamma Factor.
The Rydberg Photon

Defined below is the Rydberg photon, the reason for Rydbergs constant, a descriptor of
wave number or inverse wavelength of the Rydberg photon as observed in hydrogen

Mass m 2.425434789 1035 kg

Radius R 1.058354422 103 m

Charge q q 2 2.4254347891035 1.0583544221010 107 C 2

Wavelength 2 R 137.036 m 9.112670523 108 m

Wavenumber or Inverse wavelength or Rydberg constant 10973731.55 m-1

Electron volts eV 13.60569223 mistaken to be an electron which is 511 keV

The Ryberg Precession 2 107 137.036

An angle times 137.036 precession produces a temperature that is very close to that
produced by the CMBR.

m 2 107 137.036 2.4254347891035 2.0883541241039 kg

Substitute the new measure of mass due to precession of the Rydberg photon,

m c h

The wavelength due to the Rydberg twist is twice the Bohr radius times a factor of 107

This wavelength equals the radius of the Rydberg photon 1.058354422 103 m

2.088354124 1039 2.99792458 108 1.058354422 103 6.6260693 1034

Apply Weins equation,

2.8977685 103 T

2.8977685 103 1.058354422 103 T

T 2.737994418 2.738K
The temperature of 2.738K is close to 2.725 for the CMBR
The Boltzmann constant k has been deconstructed by me,

k 2 107 137.036 e [Ref. 1]

The energy of emitted light,

E 4.969218518 k T

E 4.969218518 2 107 137.036 e T

E m c 2 4.969218518 2 107 137.036 e T

E 2.088354124 1039 (2.99792458 108 ) 2 1.876919084 1022 J

E 1.876919084 1022 4.969218518 2 107 137.036 e T

T 2.737994352 2.738K
Apply Plancks equation,

0.014399644 T

0.014399644 1.058354422 103 T

T 13.60569175K eV ea

Temperature = Electron volts = Heat = ea where volt = acceleration

Here T equals the first ionization energy in eV for an H-atom

T 13.60569175K eV ea
a 19
8.492005403 1019 m / s 2
1.60217653 10
a c f
8.492005403 1019
f 2.832628099 1011 Hz
2.99792458 108

The frequency required to raise the temperature of a body by one Kelvin,

f * 2.081943472 1010 Hertz / K

T 13.60569175K eV ea
f *

A huge consequence: voltage is the same term as acceleration


1. The Planck black body radiation constant 0.014399644 T

Depicts the wavelength of a photon body in precession; this wavelength
corresponds to the radius of the photon body.
The Kelvin temperature T is the same term as electron volts or heat attributed to
this photon body. Heat eV is not energy eVe.

2. The Wein black body radiation constant is the measure of emitted light in this
case the CMBR radiated by the Rydberg photon body undergoing precession ,
2.8977685 103 T

3. Electron volts eV 13.60569223of the Rydberg photon is mistaken to be an

electron which is 511 keV
A big blunder in physics has been uncovered in the IE of a hydrogen atom

4. The CMBR has been recorded at 2.725 K which is close to 2.738 K the
temperature of a photon body of measured mass m,
m 2 107 137.036 2.4254347891035 2.0883541241039 kg
(Precession) (Rydberg photon mass) = (CMBR photon mass)

5. The frequency of the CMBR at 2.738 K temperature is 283.26281 GHz which is a

perfect match with literature values stated at 283 GHz. [Ref. 2]

The CMBR is radiation from stars. Stars are comprised of hydrogen atoms. The spectra of
hydrogen atoms produce a number called the Rydberg constant. The Rydberg constant is
the wave number of a photon mass, the Rydberg photon. The CMBR temperature is due to a
precession of the Rydberg photon by a factor of 2 107 137.036

And so I conclude that the BIG BANG never happened. The Nobel Prize was awarded on a
huge assumption that the microwave frequency started as a vibration millions of years ago.


F.V. Fernandes, The Solution of The Boltzmann Constant, 2012