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After careful and considered review of the content of this paper by a duly

constituted expert committee, this paper has been found to be in violation of

IEEE's Publication Principles.

We hereby retract the content of this paper. Reasonable effort should be made to

remove all past references to this paper.

The presenting author of this paper has the option to appeal this decision by

contacting TPII@ieee.org.

2010 International Conference on Computer Application and System Modeling (ICCASM 2010)

SIMULINK

College of Mechantronics & Automobile Engineering, College of Mechantronics & Automobile Engineering,

Chongqing Jiaotong University, 400074, Chongqing, Chongqing Jiaotong University, 400074, Chongqing

P.R.China P.R.China

E-mail:tianhong.luo@163.com E-mail:huixiangao@163.com

AbstractOutrigger system is one of the most important parts Mathwork corporation of America is adopted for the model

in all of aerial work platforms. In this article, the mathematical building and the simulation of the system in the paper [4-9].

model of the outrigger system has been established, and the This paper is organized as follows: Section 2 presents the

stability has been analyzed by using MATLAB. According to structure and working principle of the outrigger hydraulic

the operating principle of outrigger hydraulic system of aerial system of aerial work platform. Section 3 presents the

work platform, the simulation model of outrigger hydraulic mathematical model of the system, which is useful to learn

system of aerial work platform has been established by using how structural factors influence the dynamic performance of

SIMULINK. The main parameters of the model were set and the system. At the same time, the stability of the system is

then, the simulation results were analyzed, which show that the

also analyzed in this section 4 by using MATLAB. Through

system is stable and the dynamic performance of system will be

improved, when PID controller were equipped. Besides, the

simulation, we can sure that the system is stable. Section 5

performance of system will be also improved with the decrease presents a simulation mode by using SIMULINK based on

of internal leakage coefficient and amplifier gain coefficient. an actual system. Section 6 presents the simulation results of

the system. Through simulation, the dynamic performance of

Key words-Aerial Work Platform; outrigger system; the system is analyzed, at the same time, the dynamic

SimulinkPID performance of the system, which is improved is also

analyzed. Section 7 contains a summary of the work.

I. INTRODUCTION II. STRUCTURE AND WORKING PRINCIPLE OF

Aerial work platforms arose in the late-1970s of the 20th OUTRIGGER HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

century in China, which has a history of 40 years. In recent Outrigger hydraulic system is one of the important

years, with the development of the machining industry in systems in the hydraulic systems of aerial work platform,

China, Aerial work platforms have formed an integrated whose structure and working parameters will have a direct

system about product research and manufacturing system, impact on the stability of the aerial work platform and its

but there still exist a large gap in technology and quality hydraulic system is shown in Fig.1. The system is mainly

compared with some foreign countries [1-2]. In the high- composed of a pump, directional control valves, four

altitude aerial vehicles, the stability of vehicle lifting hydraulic locks and four hydraulic cylinders. In the system, a

mechanism is a necessary condition to achieve safety driving force is provided by the prime motor and the

operation. The hydraulic system is one of the most important mechanical energy is changed into hydraulic power by the

parts in all parts of the aerial work platform, and the pump, which is provided sufficient pressure oil to drive

outrigger hydraulic cylinder and the variance range hydraulic outrigger cylinders of aerial work platform to operate

cylinder, which play an important role on the operation ascending and downing of the outrigger system.

safety of machinery, are the main stress components in actual

practice of ascending and lifting. The structure and working

direct impact on the stability of the aerial work platform.

the aerial work platform is of great significance to the

development of our aerial work [3].

SIMULINK is one of the most important components in

MATLAB, which is used in systems modeling, simulation

and analysis for dynamic systems. We can apply the standard

model library or model library building by self to describe,

assess and refine the system behavior. By using the software,

we can greatly reduce the development costs, shorten the

research cycle and then improve the process of description

and making. Therefore, the MATLAB software of the Figure 1. Hydraulic system of outrigger system

2010 International Conference on Computer Application and System Modeling (ICCASM 2010)

1-pump; 2-filter; 3- two position three way directional control valve; Where, A1 is the effective area of hydraulic cylinders

4,11-Pressure relief valve; 5,6- three position three way directional control

valve; 7,9-hydraulic lock; 8,10-hydraulic cylinder. piston at the non-rod chamber; A2 is the effective area of

As the restriction of the tires supporting ability of the hydraulic cylinders piston at the rod chamber; x p is the

aerial work platform, the outriggers must be put down during

work, where the tires of the aerial work platform have a displacement of hydraulic cylinders piston; Ci p is the

distance to the ground. At this moment, it forms a fixed internal leakage coefficient of hydraulic cylinder; C e p is the

working platform.

The hydraulic pump, which was driven by the prime external leakage coefficient of hydraulic cylinder; e is the

motor, output pressure oil and the working pressure system bulk modulus of hydraulic fluid; V01 is the initial volume of

can be adjusted by pressure relief valve of the pump. The

pressure oil will cause hydraulic cylinders working by the the hydraulic cylinders chamber which the oil flow into;

control of hydraulic valve. The pressure oil flows from the V02 is the initial volume of the hydraulic cylinders chamber

pump to the left position of two position three way which the oil flow out; Vt is the total volume of compression;

directional control valve 3 and then pass the left position of

three position three way directional control valves 5 and 6 p1 is the pressure of the non-rod chamber; p2 is the

and at last arrives the cavity of the hydraulic cylinders 8 and pressure of the rod chamber; pL is the pressure ,it can be

10 to achieve the movement of the outrigger system. In other described by

words, outriggers were put out to support the total mass of

the aerial work platform. When the piston-rods moved the pL = p1 p2 (4)

right place, the position of three position three way Ctp is the total leakage coefficient of hydraulic cylinder,

directional control valves changed to the middle position,

and then, the hydraulic cylinders can be locked in place. At it can be described by

the same time, the hydraulic lock legs 7 and 9 can be Cep

guaranteed the reliable lock to prevent the occurrence of Ctp = Cip + (5)

2

phenomenon which should not exist at work, or is that the According to the equation 3, the Laplace transform

piston-rods of the outrigger cylinders fell over naturally. expressions of the flow rate equation of hydraulic cylinder

When the working at heights is completed, we need to draw can be described by

back the legs of the aerial work platform. At this time we A + A2 1

must change the position of control valves 5 and 6 to the QL = 1 sX P + Ctp PL + (V01sPL + V02 sPL ) (6)

right position. The oil flow back the tank. 2 4 e

The dynamic characteristics of hydraulic power units are

III. BUILDING OF MATHEMATICAL MODELS affected by the load. Load force generally included inertial

The hydraulic system of outrigger system is constituted force, viscous damping force, elastic force and any external

by a pump, valves and four hydraulic cylinders. Because of load force.

the same of the hydraulic cylinders and the valves, we can The balance equation of the hydraulic cylinder can be

consider that there is only one cylinder in this system, where defined as follows

we can also ignore some non-essential components. In other d 2 xp dx p

words, the system is simplified to a valve-controlled cylinder A1 p1 A2 p2 = mt 2

+ Bp (7)

system. In order to determine how structural factors dt dt

influence the dynamic performance of the system, the Where, mt is the total mass of the aerial work platform;

mathematical model of the system is required.

The flow rate equation of the valve can be defined as

B p is the stiffness nonlinear coefficient.

follows: According to the equation 5, the Laplace transform

qL = K q xV K C ( p1 p2 ) 1 expressions of the balance equation of hydraulic cylinder can

be described by

Where, K q is the flow coefficient of the valve; xV is the ( A1 A2 ) PL = mt s 2 X P + B p sX P (8)

displacement of main valve core; K C is the pressure

coefficient of the flow; IV. ANALYSIS OF STABILITY OF SYSTEM

According to the equation 1, the Laplace transform In the system, the valve-controlled cylinder system is the

expressions of the flow rate equation can be described by key component whose opening mode determines the stability

QL = K q X V K C PL (2) of the outrigger hydraulic system.

According to Equations 2, 6 and 8, the flow rate equation

The flow rate equation of the hydraulic cylinder can be can be written as

defined as follows

A1 + A2 dxp 1 dp dp

qL = +Ct p pL + V01 L +V02 L (3)

2 dt 4e dt dt

V9-271

2010 International Conference on Computer Application and System Modeling (ICCASM 2010)

XV simulation analysis.

A1A2 (9) (1) At first, open the MATLABs Simulink module of

XP =

(V01+V02)mt 3 Kcemt (V01+V02)BP 2 KceBP (A1+ A2)/2 the software; second, build a new Simulink Model; third,

s +( + )s +( + )s according to the work principle of outrigger system Fig 1

4e(A1A2)2 (A1A2)2 4e(A1A2)2 (A1A2)2 A1A2 and the Laplace transfer function 11, we can select modules

Where, K ce is the total flow pressure coefficient, it can in the Simulink Library Browser, and then, wan can make

be described by use of the modules to build the simulation model.

(2) When we construct the Simulation model, the

K ce = K c + Ctp (10)

important one is that the models parameters are initialized.

According to Equations 9, it is easy to write the Laplace The hydraulic parameters of the simulation models are

transfer function of the displacement of valve to the shown in table 1.

displacement of cylinder can be written as (3) In the running mode, the simulation can be run after

Kq to set up the start time and the end time.

XP(s) A1A2

= (11)

XV(s) (V01+V02)mt 3 Kcemt (V01+V02)BP 2 KceBP (A1+A2)/2

s +( + )s +( + )s

4e(A1A2)2 (A1A2)2 4e(A1A2)2 (A1A2)2 A1A2

The system parameters are listed in table 1. By using

MATLAB, it is easy to get the bode diagram, which is

shown in Fig.2.

Table1. Parameters of system

Parameter Value Unit

Kq 0.124 m3/(sA) -1

Kc 1.010-11 m5/(Ns) -1 Figure 3. Simulation model of system

-3

A1 3.1210 m2

-4

A2 6.1610 m2

e 1.2109 Pa VI. RESULTS AND ANALYSIS

Cip 6.310-11 m3/(s.Pa) In the running operation, the time of simulation is 1s, we

-13

Cep 1.010 m3/(s.Pa) can get some results.

3

Bp 1.210 N.m-1.s-1 (1) To consider the gain coefficient of the amplifier of

mt 1500 kg the system

In general, if the phase margin over 40, the amplitude When the gain coefficient of the amplifier of the system

margin over 8dB, the system will be stable. Fig 2 shows that is 5 (K = 5), the displacement of the hydraulic cylinder, the

phase margin of the system is 40.1 and the amplitude velocity of the hydraulic cylinder and the acceleration of the

margin is 26.7dB. Therefore the system is stable. hydraulic cylinder are shown in Fig 4.

Bode Diagram

Gm = 26.7 dB (at 232 rad/sec) , Pm = 40.1 deg (at 43.5 rad/sec)

50

0

M agnitude (dB)

-50

-100

(a) Displacement of hydraulic cylinder (b) Velocity of hydraulic cylinder

-150

-200

-90

-135

Phas e (deg)

-180

-270

Figure 4. Characteristic curves of hydraulic cylinder

0 1 2 3 4 5

10 10 10 10 10 10

Frequency (rad/sec)

From the Fig 4, we can look see the oscillation at the

Figure 2. Bode diagram of hydraulic system beginning. When t=0.25s, the stability of the system was

improved, but there is still slightly oscillation. Until after

t=0.33s, the system was completely stabilized. To improve

V. BUILDING OF SIMULATION MODEL PREPARE the stabilization of the system, we can change the size of the

As a result of the convenient at multi-domain areas by gain coefficient of the amplifier of the system. When K = 2,

the MATLAB software, so, in this paper, the Simulinks the results of the system are shown in Fig 5. We can clearly

V9-272

2010 International Conference on Computer Application and System Modeling (ICCASM 2010)

displacement, velocity and acceleration of the system is

changing better. And the stabilization of the system has been

significantly improved.

(a) Displacement of hydraulic cylinder (b)Velocity of hydraulic cylinder

Figure 7. Characteristic curves of hydraulic cylinder

( C = 3.0 10 11 m 3 /(s.Pa) )

ip

The simulation shows the internal leakage coefficient has

Figure 5. Characteristic curves of hydraulic cylinder ( K = 2 ) a great influence on the dynamic stability of the hydraulic

system. When the internal leakage coefficient is reduced to

When K=0.75, the dynamic simulation results are shown 3.0 10-11m3/ (s. Pa), we can get the corresponding curve

in Fig 6. About t = 0.21s, the system has reached its steady in Fig 7, comparing with the Fig 6 that did not change, the

state. Compare with the former, the step response of the step response time of the system becomes shorter, and the

system becomes faster and the stability of the system was amplitude of oscillations becomes smaller. When the internal

greatly enhanced. leakage coefficient is reduced to 1.010-11m3 / (s. Pa), the

dynamic simulation results are shown in Fig 8. Compared

with Fig 7, the step response time of the system becomes

shorter, and there is almost no oscillation in this system.

Therefore the step response of the system is stable at this

time.

(a) Displacement of hydraulic cylinder (b) Velocity of hydraulic cylinder

c Acceleration of hydraulic cylinder

Figure 6. Characteristic curves of hydraulic cylinder ( K = 0.75 )

improved the dynamic stability of the system of hydraulic

cylinder. The bigger the feedback signal gain coefficient, the (c) Acceleration of hydraulic cylinder

worse the stability of the system, the smaller the feedback Figure 8. Characteristic curves of hydraulic cylinder

signal gain coefficient, the better the stability of the system. ( C = 1.0 10 11 m 3 /(s.Pa) )

ip

Therefore, when we selected the value of the

appropriation of gain coefficient, the stability of the system (3) To consider PID controller on the system

is good. performance.

(2) To consider the internal leakage coefficient of the As we know, PID controller is the most widely used in

hydraulic cylinder. modern industry due to its simplicity and clear functionality.

By using the dynamic simulation of the hydraulic system At present, the main methods to obtain PID parameters are

from Simulink, it can also examine the effects on the system critical proportion method, reaction curve method and Z-N

caused by parameters of the system for optimizing the method. In the paper, reaction curve method is adopted.

dynamic characteristics of hydraulic systems and providing The simulation model with the PID is shown in Figure 9.

the basis to the design for the hydraulic system.

On the basis of the corresponding parameters of Fig 6,

when the internal leakage coefficient is changed into 3.0

10-11m3 / (s. Pa) and 1.0 10-11m3 / (s. Pa), The results of

the obtained dynamic simulation are shown in Fig 7 and Fig

8.

V9-273

2010 International Conference on Computer Application and System Modeling (ICCASM 2010)

stability of the system that the smaller the internal leakage

coefficient is, the more stability the system is.

(5) By using the PID controller, the system dynamic

performance can be greatly improved.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

This research work was Supported by Chongqing

Science and Technique project (Grant No. 2009AC6077).

Figure 9. The simulation model with PID

REFERENCES

Set the simulation time t=0.35s, simulation results are [1] Zhang Hua. Aerial vehicles machinery industry[J]. Construction

shown in Fig 9, and we can seen from the graph that when t machinery magazine,2007 ,(10):19-22

= 0.05s, the step response has reached a steady state, [2] Wang xin. A Virtual Motion System of Aerial Work

compared with the simulation results of Fig.6 without PID Platform[D].Dalian University of Technology2008

controller, the reaction time becomes smaller, and the super- [3] The Design and Research of Folding-Arm Aerial Cages Hydraulic

operation of displacement step response is significantly System[D].Hefei University of Technology2009

smaller. This shows that the system performance has been [4] Chen Jie. MATLAB Collection[M]. Publishing house of Electronics

Industry,2007(1)

further improved.

[5] SUN Cheng-tong, HAN Hu, ZENG Qing-liang. Research on

Simulation Technology of Hydraulic System Based on MATLAB[J].

Coal Mine Machinery,2007,28(7):39-41,

[6] SHI Ging-guo, LI Xin-ping, GE Yun-yan. Analyzing Dynamic

Simulation and Stability of Hydraulic Servo Control System Based on

Matlab[J]. Coal Mine Machinery,2006,27(10):94-96

(a) Displacement of hydraulic cylinder (b)Velocity of hydraulic cylinder [7] ZHANG Kang-zhi, LIU Ling. Research of Hydraulic System

Simulation Software[J]. Coal Mine Machinery,2009,30(3):10-12

[8] ZHAO Yanling, WU Shuhong. Engineering Applications of

MATLLAB 5.3 and SIMULINK 3[M]. Publishing House of

Electronics Industry,2002

[9] LIU Tongjuan. GUO Jian. LIU Jun. MATLAB JIANMO

(c) Acceleration of hydraulic cylinder FANGZHEN JI YINGYONG[M]. Chian Electric Power Press.2009

Figure 10. Characteristic curves of hydraulic cylinder in the system with [10] Wang Shou-cheng, Rong Yi-ming. Hydraulic Power

PID Transmission[M]. Beijing university press, 2007

[11] Wang Chun-xing. Hydraulic Control System [M]. China Machine

Press, 2002

VII. CONCLUSION [12] Cai Ting-wen. Modern Modeling of Hydraulic Systems [M].

Standards Press of China,2006

This paper introduces the principle, structure, and

working process of outrigger system of aerial work platform.

By using SIMULINK software, we established a simulation

model and performed a performance simulation. An

important advantage of this modeling process is its simplicity

method to be used for wider variation of system parameters

and then, can make a contribution to the follow-up design of

the outrigger system of aerial work platform.

Following conclusions can be drawn:

(1) You can build a complex model system adroitly and

the modeling accuracy is more exact than traditional

methods according to the Simlink of the MATLAB.

Through the design parameters changed to replace physical

prototype design parameters changed, we can greatly

reduce the development costs, shorten the research cycle

and then improve design and manufacture process.

(2) By using MATLAB, it is easy to get the bode diagram

of system, and then, the system is stable.

(3) The gain coefficient of the amplifier of the system has

an impact on the stability of the system, so we must choose

the suitable gain coefficient of the amplifier to make the

system at best.

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