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Considering that the assailed Order is a void judgment for lack of due process

of law, it is no judgment at all. It cannot be the source of any right or of any

obligation. 38
In Nazareno v. Court of Appeals , 39 we stated the consequences of a void
judgment, thus:
A void judgment never acquires finality. Hence, while
admittedly, the petitioner in the case at bar failed to appeal timely the
aforementioned decision of the Municipal Trial Court of Naic, Cavite,
it cannot be deemed to have become final and executory. In
contemplation of law, that void decision is deemed non-existent. Thus,
there was no effective or operative judgment to appeal from.
In Metropolitan Waterworks & Sewerage System vs. Sison, this Court
held that:
. . . [A] void judgment is not entitled to the respect accorded to
a valid judgment, but may be entirely disregarded or declared
inoperative by any tribunal in which effect is sought to be given to it. It
is attended by none of the consequences of a valid adjudication. It has
no legal or binding effect or efficacy for any purpose or at any place. It
cannot affect, impair or create rights. It is not entitled to enforcement
and is, ordinarily, no protection to those who seek to enforce. All
proceedings founded on the void judgment are themselves regarded as
invalid. In other words, a void judgment is regarded as a nullity, and
the situation is the same as it would be if there were no judgment. It,
accordingly, leaves the parties litigants in the same position they were
in before the trial. IcEaST
Thus, a void judgment is no judgment at all. It cannot be the
source of any right nor of any obligation. All acts performed pursuant
to it and all claims emanating from it have no legal effect. Hence, it
can never become final and any writ of execution based on it is void: ".
. . it may be said to be a lawless thing which can be treated as an
outlaw and slain at sight, or ignored wherever and whenever it exhibits
its head." 40 (Emphasis supplied)
||| (Spouses Benatiro v. Heirs of Cuyos, G.R. No. 161220, [July 30, 2008], 582 PHIL 470-492)

Finally, considering that the assailed CFI judgment is void, it has no legal and binding effect, force or
efficacy for any purpose. In contemplation of law, it is non-existent. Hence, the execution of the Deed
of Sale by Lope in favor of Columba pursuant to said void judgment, the issuance of titles pursuant to
said Deed of Sale, and the subsequent transfers are void ab initio.||| (Spouses Benatiro v. Heirs of
Cuyos, G.R. No. 161220, [July 30, 2008], 582 PHIL 470-492)

Pantaleon v Asuncion
If the action is an action in personam, as in the case of collection of sum of money, summons by
publication is not sufficient as the law requires personal service on the defendant.
As a rule, when the defendant does not reside and is not found in the Philippines, Philippine courts
cannot try any case against him because of the impossibility of acquiring jurisdiction over his person unless
he voluntarily appears in court. But when the case is one of actions in rem or quasi in remenumerated in
Section 15,[10] Rule 14 of the Rules of Court, Philippine courts have jurisdiction to hear and decide the
case. In such instances, Philippine courts have jurisdiction over the res, and jurisdiction over the person of
the non-resident defendant is not essential. (Margarita Romualdez - Licaros vs. Abelardo Licaros G.R. No.
150656. April 29, 2003]

Jurisdiction over the defendant is acquired either upon a valid service of summons or the
defendants voluntary appearance in court.When the defendant does not voluntarily submit to the
courts jurisdiction or when there is no valid service of summons, any judgment of the court which has
no jurisdiction over the person of the defendant is null and void. In an action strictly in personam,
personal service on the defendant is the preferred mode of service, that is, by handing a copy of the
summons to the defendant in person. If defendant, for excusable reasons, cannot be served with the
summons within a reasonable period, then substituted service can be resorted to. While substituted
service of summons is permitted, it is extraordinary in character and in derogation of the usual method
of service. Hence, it must faithfully and strictly comply with the prescribed requirements and
circumstances authorized by the rules. Indeed, compliance with the rules regarding the service of
summons is as much important as the issue of due process as of jurisdiction. (Ma. Imelda Manotoc vs.
CA G.R. No. 130974, August 16, 2006)

The service of summons by publication is complemented by service of summons by registered

mail to the defendants last known address. PEDRO SANTOS Jr. vs PNOC EXPLORATION

Notably, the Rules is even more strict in safeguarding the right to due process of a defendant
who was declared in default than of a defendant who participated in trial. G.R. No. 173559