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Gas flow drop factor

Gas flow drop factor

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Physical values in Darcy formula are very obvious and can be easily obtained when pipe

properties are known like D - pipe internal diameter, L - pipe length and when flow rate is

known, velocity can be easily calculated using continuity equation. The only value that

needs to be determined experimentally is friction factor. For laminar flow regime Re <

2000, friction factor can be calculated, but for turbulent flow regime where is Re > 4000

experimentally obtained results are used. In the critical zone, where is Reynolds number

between 2000 and 4000, both laminar and turbulent flow regime might occur, so friction

factor is indeterminate and has lower limits for laminar flow, and upper limits based on

turbulent flow conditions.

If the flow is laminar and Reynolds number is smaller than 2000, the friction factor may be

determined from the equation:

When flow is turbulent and Reynolds number is higher than 4000, the friction factor

depends on pipe relative roughness as well as on the Reynolds number. Relative pipe

roughness is the roughness of the pipe wall compared to pipe diameter e/D. Since the

internal pipe roughness is actually independent of pipe diameter, pipes with smaller pipe

diameter will have higher relative roughness than pipes with bigger diameter and therefore

pipes with smaller diameters will have higher friction factors than pipes with bigger

diameters of the same material.

Most widely accepted and used data for friction factor in Darcy formula is the Moody

diagram. On Moody diagram friction factor can be determined based on the value of

Reynolds number and relative roughness.

The pressure drop is the function of internal diameter with the fifth power. With time in

service, the interior of the pipe becomes encrusted with dirt, scale, tubercles and it is often

prudent to make allowance for expected diameter changes. Also roughness may be

expected to increase with use due to corrosion or incrustation at a rate determined by the

pipe material and nature of the fluid.

When the thickness of laminar sub layer (laminar boundary layer ) is bigger than the pipe

roughness e the flow is called flow in hydraulically smooth pipe and Blasius equation can

be used:

The boundary layer thickness can be calculated based on the Prandtl equation as:

where is: - boundary layer thickness; D - internal pipe diameter; Re - Reynolds number;

For turbulent flow with Re < 100 000 (Prandtl equation) can be used:

For turbulent flow with Re > 100 000 (Karman equation) can be used:

where is: f - friction factor; Re - Reynolds number; D - internal pipe diameter; kr - pipe

roughness;

Above equations are used for pressure drop and flow rate calculator.

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