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Chemistry Unit

1
The History of the Atom
You dont need to memorize any
specifics about the history or the
Review Sheet scientists. However, you may be
asked to look at some information
about a scientist and/or an
Vocabulary experiment and identify what major
discovery was made. For example, JJ
Matter Thomsons cathode ray tube
experiment helped identify the
Atom Electron using the idea of Charge
attraction and repulsion
Nucleus
Proton Mass Number = p+ + n0
Proton 1 amu
Neutron *Electrons DONT Count!
Neutron 1 amu

C
Electron Nuclear Mass # 12
Element Symbols Atomic # 6
Electron 0 amu
Atomic Number
Ions and Net Charge Bohr Models
Mass Number 1st Shell = 2 e-s
Ion 2nd Shell = 8 e-s
Net Charge 3rd Shell = *8* e-s
Neutral
AMU Neutral Atoms have EQUAL p+ & e-

Orbital + + +
Wave Mechanical _ _ _
Model Li0
Bohr Model IONS DO NOT have same # p+ & e-
Ion
Electron Configuration + + +
Ground State _ _
Excited State Li+1
Bright Line Spectrum
**Positive Charge More p+**
Isotope **Negative Charge More e-**
Atomic Mass
Excited Electrons
Electrons closer to the nucleus have LOWER energy.
Electron Configurations
Electrons further from the nucleus have HIGHER energy.
Neutral Ground State Ca: 2 8 8 2
An Excited Electrons GAINS energy and Jumps to a higher energy level.
Ionic Ground State Ca2+: 2 8 8
A De-Excited Electrons RELEASES energy and falls back to ground state.
Excited State Ca: 2 8 7 3
THIS IS WHAT PRODUCES THE BRIGHT LINE SPECTRUM
Isotopes STUDY! STUDY! STUDY!
Atoms of the same element with Different Mass numbers Email Ms. Garcia if you need any help.
Go to www.ethschemistry.weebly.com
Same # p+
Different # n0
and look for the Unit 1 playlist for videos
that will be helpful when
Notations you are studying.
3 H
1 Also www.regentsprep.org
3H
is a helpful study website.
Hydrogen3 Just select the categories that
H 3
fit in with Unit 1.
Bright Line Spectra are produced when an electron
LOSES energy and returns to its ground state. Example: Calculating Atomic Mass
Atomic Mass is the WEIGHTED Average of all
of an elements naturally occurring isotopes.
**Convert % to Decimal by DIVIDING by 100**

Figure out what element is


NOT in the mixture by
seeing which lines do not
show up on the Mixtures
spectrum

You Should be able to do all of the following.


Atomic
use models and diagrams to describe the Mass
structure of an atom
relate experimental evidence to models of
the atom
determine the number of protons or
electrons in an atom or ion when given one
of these values
calculate the mass of an atom, the number
of neutrons or the number of protons, given
the other two values
distinguish between ground state and
excited state electron configurations, e.g., 2-
8-2 vs. 2-7-3
identify an element by comparing its bright-
line spectrum to given spectra
interpret and write isotopic notation
calculate the atomic mass of an element,
given the masses and ratios of naturally
occurring isotopes