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Objective:

Determination of coil side heat transfer coefficient through submerged helical coil in the vessel

under steady state conditions.

Motivation

Tube coils offer a substantial amount of heat transfer area at a considerably low cost.

Coils have lower wall resistance & higher coil side HT coefficient. Because of turns of helix

geometry turbulence is generated inside the tube and hence the helical coil arrangements heat

transfer coefficient is better than corresponding straight coil. Advantages of a helical coil heat

exchanger lie in its compact size and less expensive

Theory:

The tubes are coiled into helices in which inlet and outlet are conveniently located side

by side. When such coils are used with mechanical agitation they tend to increase the side wall

heat transfer coefficient. We use the Sieder Tate Correlation, and not the Dittus-Boelter Equation

because though the Dittus-Boelter is easier to solve, it is less accurate when there is a large

temperature difference across the fluid, i.e., when the temperature differences between bulk fluid

and heat transfer surface are large, this equation fails to give accurate results.

As far as mechanical agitation is concerned, heat transfer through the conducting surface

improves with agitation as contact with the heat transfer area is improved. The correlation

describing the Nusselt no. for heat transfer to fluids in vessel with mechanical agitation heated or

cooled by submerged coils is as follows:

Where,

d= inside diameter of the agitated vessel [m]

= coil side heat transfer coefficient [kcal/hr-m2-C]

L = agitator diameter [m]

N = agitator speed [rev/sec] or rev/hr

= density of fluid in the vessel [kg/m3]

K = thermal conductivity of fluid in the vessel [Kcal/hr-m-OC]

= viscosity of fluid in the vessel [kg/m-hr]

= viscosity of fluid in the vessel at coil wall temp. [kg/m-hr]

The thermal conductivity of pipe material is very high so the above expression is reduced to:

Combining overall heat transfer coefficient equation and the Sieder Tate equation, we get

straight line equation in term of and . Plot of v/s give the outer heat transfer

coefficient.

As far as the inside coefficient for the coil is concerned because of the increased

turbulence due to circulatory path the heat transfer coefficient will be greater than those

calculated for straight pipes. For ordinary use McAdams suggested that straight tube equations

such as Dittus-Boelter equation or Sieder-Tate equation can be used, when the value of h so

obtained is multiplied by 1 + 3.5[D/DC] where D is the inside diameter of the tube and DC is the

diameter of the coil helix.

Procedure:

1. Fill the given agitated vessel with the given test liquid to about 85-90 % of its capacity.

Start the agitator motor and set its speed at the desired r.p.m. by manipulating its speed

regulator.

2. Connect the inlet of the cooling water circulation pump to cooling water supply line, and

start the pump. Adjust the flow rate of the cooling water at the desired level by adjusting

its speed regulator.

3. Start the heaters in the agitated vessel and set the desired temperature on the thermostat,

so as to keep temperature in the agitated vessel at a constant level. Throughout the given

set of readings keep this temperature at this level.

4. Allow sufficient time for the steady state to be attained. After steady state is attained note

down inlet and outlet temperatures of the cooling water. Also measure the flow rate of the

cooling water.

5. Take six readings for different flow rate of the cooling water keeping the agitation speed

constant.

6. Now keeping the flow rate constant, vary the agitator speed and note down inlet and

outlet temperatures of the cooling water.

Given Data:

Observation:

Part 1

Cold fluid Flow Rate Cold fluid inlet Cold fluid oulet

S.No

(LPH) temperature t1 (C) temperature t2 (C)

PART 2:

S.No Agitator Speed (rpm) Temperature t1 (C) Temperature, t2 (C)

Calculation :

2. t=t2-t1=.C

3. Q = m x Cp x t = . kJ/sec

4. T1 = T t1

5. T2 = T t2

6. LMTD ( Tlm) = ( T1- T2)/ [ln( T1/ T2)]

7. U = Q/ (A x Tlm)

8. V = . m/sec

Calculation:

1. Plot [1/U] versus [1/v0.8] on the linear scale. Intercept of this graph will give the

experimental estimate of [1/ho].

2. Compare the experimental value of hi with that from Sieder Tate equation. Plot the two

heat transfer coefficient as function of Reynold no and 1/v0.8 to discuss the difference.

3. Determine the relationship among coil side heat transfer coefficient and volumetric

flowrate

4. For constant cold fluid flowrate plot lnU vs ln N to determine relationship among hot

fluid side heat transfer coefficient and speed of agitation.

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