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Designation: NACE/ASTM G 193 09

Standard Terminology and Acronyms Relating to

This standard is issued under the fixed designation NACE/ASTM G 193; the number immediately following the designation indicates
the year of original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision.

1. Scope nozzle or by a mechanical device such as a centrifugal

1.1 This terminology and acronyms standard covers and blasting wheel. [also referred to as abrasive blasting]
defines commonly used terms and acronyms in the field of abrasive blastingsee abrasive blast cleaning.
corrosion. Related terms may be found in Terminologies D 16, acceleratora chemical substance that increases the rate at
D 4538, G 40, or other ASTM terminology standards. which a chemical reaction (e.g., curing) would otherwise
1.2 This terminology and acronyms standard is a result of an occur.
agreement between NACE International and ASTM Interna- AC impedancesee electrochemical impedance.
tional Committee G01 on Corrosion of Metals and may not acrylictype of resin polymerized from acrylic acid, meth-
reflect the opinions of other ASTM committees. acrylic acid, esters of these acids, or acrylonitrile.
activatora chemical substance that initiates a chemical
2. Referenced Documents reaction (e.g., curing). Heat and radiation may also serve as
2.1 ASTM Standards:2 activators for some chemical reactions.
D 16 Terminology for Paint, Related Coatings, Materials, active(1) a state of a metal surface that is corroding without
and Applications significant influence of reaction product; (2) the negative
D 4538 Terminology Relating to Protective Coating and direction of electrode potential.
Lining Work for Power Generation Facilities active-passive cellan electrochemical cell in which the
G 40 Terminology Relating to Wear and Erosion anode is a metal in the active state and the cathode is the
2.2 NACE Standards:2 same metal in the passive state.
NACE No. 1/SSPC-SP 5 White Metal Blast Cleaning aeration cellsee differential aeration cell.
NACE No. 2/SSPC-SP 10 Near-White Metal Blast Cleaning air dryingprocess by which an applied wet coat converts to
NACE No. 3/SSPC-SP 6 Commercial Blast Cleaning a dry coating film by evaporation of solvent or reaction with
NACE No. 4/SSPC-SP 7 Brush-Off Blast Cleaning oxygen as a result of simple exposure to air without
2.3 SSPC Surface Preparation Standards:3 intentional addition of heat or a curing agent.
SSPC-SP 1 Solvent Cleaning airless sprayingprocess of spraying coating liquids using
SSPC-SP 2 Hand Tool Cleaning hydraulic pressure, not air pressure, to atomize.
SSPC-SP 3 Power Tool Cleaning alkydtype of resin formed by the reaction of polyhydric
SSPC-SP 8 Pickling alcohols and polybasic acids, part of which is derived from
saturated or unsaturated oils or fats.
3. Terminology alligatoringpronounced wide cracking over the surface of a
3.1 Definitions: coating, which has the appearance of alligator hide.
amphoteric metala metal that is susceptible to corrosion in
abrasivea solid substance that, owing to its hardness, both acidic and alkaline environments.
toughness, size, shape, consistency, or other properties, is anaerobicabsence of air or free (molecular) oxygen.
suitable for grinding, cutting, roughening, polishing, or anchor patternsee surface profile.
cleaning a surface by friction or high-velocity impact. aniona negatively charged ion.
abrasive blast cleaningcleaning and roughening of a sur- anodethe electrode of an electrochemical cell at which
face produced by the high-velocity impact of an abrasive that oxidation occurs. (Electrons flow away from the anode in the
is propelled by the discharge of pressurized fluid from a blast external circuit. It is usually the electrode where corrosion
occurs and metal ions enter solution.)
This terminology and acronyms standard is under the jurisdiction of NACE/
anode capan electrical insulating material placed over the
ASTM Committee J01, Joint Committee on Corrosion, and is the direct responsi- end of the anode at the lead wire connection.
bility of Subcommittee J01.02, Working Group on Terminology. anode corrosion efficiencythe ratio of the actual corrosion
Current edition approved June 1, 2009. Published July 2009. (mass loss) of an anode to the theoretical corrosion (mass
For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM Web site,, or
contact ASTM Customer Service at For Annual Book of ASTM loss) calculated from the quantity of electricity that has
Standards volume information, refer to the standards Document Summary page on passed between the anode and cathode using Faradays law.
the ASTM Web site. For NACE standards, visit the NACE Web site,, anodic inhibitora corrosion inhibitor whose primary action
or contact NACE FirstService at
Available from The Society for Protective Coatings (SSPC), 40 24th St., 6th
is to reduce the rate of the anodic reaction, producing a
Floor, Pittsburgh, PA 15222-4656, positive shift in corrosion potential.

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NACE/ASTM G 193 09

anodic polarization(1) the change of electrode potential organic, caused by moisture. [also known as blooming]
caused by an anodic current across the electrode/electrolyte bracelet anodea galvanic anode with geometry suitable for
interface; (2) a forced noble (positive) shift in electrode direct attachment around the circumference of a pipeline.
potential. [See polarization.] This may be a half-shell bracelet consisting of two semicir-
anodic protectiona technique to reduce the corrosion rate of cular sections or a segmented bracelet consisting of a large
a metal surface by polarizing that surface to a more oxidizing number of individual sections.
potential. breakdown potentialthe least noble potential at which
anodizingan electrochemical oxidation process that con- pitting or crevice corrosion, or both, will initiate and
verts the surface of a metal (such as aluminum or titanium) propagate in a specific environment.
to an oxide coating. brittle fracturefracture with little or no plastic deformation.
anolytethe electrolyte adjacent to the anode of an electro- brush-off blast cleaned surfacean abrasive blast cleaned
chemical cell. steel surface that is free of all visible contaminants and
antifoulingpreventing fouling. [See fouling.] foreign matter but may have some tightly adherent mill
attenuationelectrical losses in a conductor caused by cur- scale, rust, or coating. [See NACE No. 4/SSPC-SP 7 for
rent flow in the conductor. detailed specification.]
Auger electron spectroscopyanalytical technique in which calcareous coatinga layer consisting of calcium carbonate
the sample surface is irradiated with low-energy electrons and other salts deposited on the surface. When the surface is
and the energy spectrum of electrons emitted from the cathodically polarized as in cathodic protection, this layer is
surface is measured. the result of the increased pH adjacent to the protected
austenitethe face-centered cubic crystalline phase of iron or surface.
iron-based alloys. calcareous depositsee calcareous coating.
auxiliary electrodesee counter electrode. case hardeninghardening a ferrous alloy so that the outer
backfillmaterial placed in a hole to fill the space around the portion, or case, is made substantially harder than the inner
anodes, vent pipe, and buried components of a cathodic portion, or core. Typical processes are carburizing, cyanid-
protection system. ing, carbonitriding, nitriding, induction hardening, and flame
barrier coating(1) a coating that has a high resistance to hardening.
permeation of liquids and/or gases; (2) a coating that is casein paintwater-thinned paint with vehicle derived from
applied over a previously coated surface to prevent damage milk.
to the underlying coating during subsequent handling. catalysta chemical substance, usually present in small
beach marksthe characteristic markings on the fracture amounts relative to the reactants, that increases the rate at
surfaces produced by fatigue crack propagation. [also known which a chemical reaction (e.g., curing) would otherwise
as arrest marks, clamshell marks, and conchoidal marks] occur, but is not consumed in the reaction.
beta curvea plot of dynamic (fluctuating) interference cathodethe electrode of an electrochemical cell at which
current or related proportional voltage (ordinate) versus the reduction is the principal reaction. (Electrons flow toward
corresponding structure-to-electrolyte potentials at a se- the cathode in the external circuit.)
lected location on the affected structure (abscissa). cathodic corrosioncorrosion of a metal when it is a cathode,
binderthe nonvolatile portion of the vehicle of a formulated usually caused by the reaction of an amphoteric metal with
coating material. the alkaline products of electrolysis.
bituminous coatingan asphalt or coal-tar compound used to cathodic disbondmentthe destruction of adhesion between
provide a protective coating for a surface. a coating and the coated surface caused by products of a
blast angle(1) the angle of the blast nozzle with reference to cathodic reaction.
the surface during abrasive blast cleaning; (2) the angle of cathodic inhibitora corrosion inhibitor whose primary ac-
the abrasive particles propelled from a centrifugal blasting tion is to reduce the rate of the cathodic reaction, producing
wheel with reference to the surface being abrasive blast a negative shift in corrosion potential.
cleaned. cathodic polarization(1) the change of electrode potential
bloomingsee blushing. caused by a cathodic current across the electrode/electrolyte
blowdown(1) the injection of air or water under high interface; (2) a forced active (negative) shift in electrode
pressure through a tube to the anode area for the purpose of potential. [See polarization.]
purging the annular space and possibly correcting high cathodic protectiona technique to reduce the corrosion rate
resistance caused by gas blockage [cathodic protection use]; of a metal surface by making that surface the cathode of an
(2) the process of discharging a significant portion of the electrochemical cell.
aqueous solution in order to remove accumulated salts, catholytethe electrolyte adjacent to the cathode of an
deposits, and other impurities [boiler or cooling water tower electrochemical cell.
use]. cationa positively charged ion.
blushingwhitening and loss of gloss of a coating, usually caustic crackingcracking of a metal or alloy under the

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combined action of tensile stress and corrosion in the consisting of one or more coats, applied in a predetermined
presence of a strongly basic solution (e.g., sodium hydrox- order by prescribed methods to an as-specified dry film
ide, potassium hydroxide). thickness, including any reinforcing material that may be
caustic embrittlementan obsolete term referring to caustic specified.
cracking. cold shuthorizontal surface discontinuity caused by solidi-
cavitationthe formation and rapid collapse of cavities or fication of a portion of a meniscus during the progressive
bubbles of vapor or gas within a liquid resulting from filling of a mold, which is later covered with more solidify-
mechanical or hydrodynamic forces. ing metal as the molten metal level rises. Cold shuts
cavitation-corrosionthe conjoint action of cavitation and generally occur at corners remote from the point of pour.
corrosion. commercial blast cleaned surfacean abrasive blast cleaned
cavitation damagethe degradation of a solid body resulting steel surface that is free of all visible contaminants and
from its exposure to cavitation. (This may include loss of foreign matter but may have some random staining on no
material, surface deformation, or changes in properties or more than 33 percent of the surface area. [See NACE No.
appearance.) 3/SSPC-SP 6 for detailed specification.]
cavitation-erosionthe conjoint action of cavitation and ero- concentration cellan electrochemical cell, the electromotive
sion. force of which is caused by a difference in concentration of
cellsee electrochemical cell. some component in the electrolyte. (This difference leads to
cementationthe introduction of one or more elements into the formation of discrete cathodic and anodic regions.)
the surface layer of a metal or alloy by diffusion at high concentration polarizationthat portion of polarization of an
temperature. (Examples of cementation include carburizing electrochemical cell produced by concentration changes
[introduction of carbon], nitriding [introduction of nitrogen], resulting from passage of current though the electrolyte.
and chromizing [introduction of chromium].) conductive coating(1) a coating that conducts electricity;
chalkingthe development of loose, removable powder (pig- (2) an electrically conductive, mastic-like material used as
ment) at the surface of an organic coating, usually caused by an impressed current anode on reinforced concrete surfaces.
weathering. conductive concretea highly conductive cement-based mix-
checkingthe development of slight breaks in a coating that ture containing coarse and fine coke and other material used
do not penetrate to the underlying surface. as an impressed current anode on reinforced concrete sur-
chemical conversion coatingan adherent, reaction-product faces.
layer on a metal surface formed in situ by reaction with a conductivity(1) a measure of the ability of a material to
suitable chemical, used for protective, decorative, or func- conduct an electric charge; (2) the current transferred across
tional purposes. (It is often used to provide greater corrosion a material (e.g., coating) per unit area per unit potential
resistance or prepare the surface prior to the application of an gradient. (Conductivity is the reciprocal of resistivity.)
organic coating.) contact corrosionsee galvanic corrosion.
chevron patterna V-shaped pattern on a fatigue or brittle- continuity bonda connection, usually metallic, that pro-
fracture surface. The pattern can also be one of straight vides electrical continuity between structures that can con-
radial lines on cylindrical specimens. duct electricity.
chloride stress corrosion crackingcracking of a metal continuous anodea single anode with no electrical discon-
under the combined action of tensile stress and corrosion in tinuities.
the presence of an electrolyte containing dissolved chlorides. conversion coatingsee chemical conversion coating.
coatone layer of a coating system applied to a surface in a corrosionthe deterioration of a material, usually a metal,
single continuous application to form a uniform film when that results from a chemical or electrochemical reaction with
dry. its environment.
coating(1) a liquid, liquefiable, or mastic composition that, corrosion fatiguethe process wherein a metal fractures
after application to a surface, is converted into a solid prematurely under conditions of simultaneous corrosion and
protective, decorative, or functional adherent film; (2) (in a repeated cyclic loading at lower stress levels or fewer cycles
more general sense) a thin layer of solid material on a than would be required to cause fatigue of that metal in the
surface that provides improved protective, decorative, or absence of the corrosive environment.
functional properties. corrosion fatigue strengththe maximum repeated stress
coating systemthe complete number and types of coats that can be endured by a metal without fracture under
applied to a substrate in a predetermined order. (When used definite conditions of corrosion and cyclic loading for a
in a broader sense, surface preparation, pretreatments, dry specific number of stress cycles and a specified period of
film thickness, and manner of application are included.) time.
cold lap(1) discontinuity caused by solidification of the corrosion inhibitora chemical substance or combination of
meniscus of a partially cast anode as a result of interrupted substances that, when present in the proper concentration
flow of the casting stream. The solidified meniscus is and forms in the environment, reduces the corrosion rate.
covered with metal when the flow resumes. Cold laps can corrosion potential(represented by the symbol Ecorr) the
occur along the length of an anode; (2) a protective film potential of a corroding surface in an electrolyte measured

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under open-circuit conditions relative to a reference elec- deactivationthe process of prior removal of the active
trode. [also known as electrochemical corrosion potential, corrosive constituents, usually oxygen, from a corrosive
free corrosion potential, open-circuit potential] liquid by controlled corrosion of expendable metal or by
corrosion ratethe time rate of change of corrosion. (It is other chemical means, thereby making the liquid less corro-
typically expressed as mass loss per unit area per unit time, sive.
penetration per unit time, etc.) dealloyinga corrosion process whereby one constituent of an
corrosion resistanceability of a material, usually a metal, to alloy is preferentially removed, leaving an altered residual
withstand corrosion in a given environment. structure. [also known as parting, selective dissolution, or
corrosivenessthe tendency of an environment to cause selective leaching]
corrosion. decomposition potentialthe potential of an electrode sur-
counter electrodethe electrode in an electrochemical cell face at which the electrolyte, or a component thereof,
that is used to transfer current to or from a working decomposes by electrolysis.
electrode. decomposition voltagesee decomposition potential.
counterpoisea conductor or system of conductors arranged deep groundbedone or more anodes installed vertically at a
beneath a power line, located on, above, or most frequently, nominal depth of 15 m (50 ft) or more below the earths
below the surface of the earth and connected to the footings surface in a drilled hole for the purpose of supplying
of the towers or poles supporting the power line. cathodic protection current.
couplesee galvanic couple. depolarization(not a preferred term) the removal of factors
cracking (of coating)breaks in a coating that extend through resisting the current in an electrochemical cell. [See polar-
to the substrate. ization.]
crazinga network of checks or cracks appearing on the deposit corrosionlocalized corrosion under or around a
surface of a coating. deposit or collection of material on a metal surface. [also
creeptime-dependent strain occurring under stress. called poultice corrosion] [See also crevice corrosion.]
crevice corrosionlocalized corrosion of a metal or alloy dezincificationdealloying that results in the selective re-
surface at, or immediately adjacent to, an area that is moval of zinc from copper-zinc alloys.
shielded from full exposure to the environment because of dielectric coatinga coating that does not conduct electricity.
close proximity of the metal or alloy to the surface of another dielectric shieldan electrically nonconductive material, such
material or an adjacent surface of the same metal or alloy. as a coating, sheet or pipe, that is placed between an anode
critical anodic current densitythe maximum anodic current and an adjacent cathode, usually on the cathode, to improve
density observed in the active region for a metal or alloy current distribution in a cathodic protection system.
electrode that exhibits active-passive behavior in an envi- differential aeration cella concentration cell caused by
ronment. differences in oxygen concentration along the surface of a
critical humiditythe relative humidity above which the metal in an electrolyte. [See concentration cell.]
atmospheric corrosion rate of a specific metal or alloy diffusion-limited current densitythe current density that
increases sharply. corresponds to the maximum transfer rate that a particular
critical pitting potential(represented by the symbol Ep or species can sustain because of the limitation of diffusion
Epp) the least noble potential at which pitting corrosion will [often referred to as limiting current density]
initiate and propagate in a specific environment. [See break- disbondmentthe loss of adhesion between a coating and the
down potential.] substrate.
curingchemical process of developing the intended proper- dissimilar metalsdifferent metals that could form an anode-
ties of a coating or other material (e.g., resin) over a period cathode relationship in an electrolyte when connected by an
of time. electron-conducting (usually metallic) path.
curing agenta chemical substance used for curing a coating double layerthe interface between an electrode or a sus-
or other material (e.g., resin). [also referred to as hardener] pended particle and an electrolyte created by charge-charge
current(1) a flow of electric charge; (2) the amount of interaction leading to an alignment of oppositely charged
electric charge flowing past a specified circuit point per unit ions at the surface of the electrode or particle. The simplest
time, measured in the direction of net transport of positive model is represented by a parallel plate condenser.
charges. (In a metallic conductor, this is the opposite doubler platean additional plate or thickness of metal used
direction of the electron flow.) to provide extra strength or thickness to a structure locally
current densitythe electric current to or from a unit area of (e.g., at the point of anode attachment to an offshore
an electrode surface. structure).
current efficiencythe ratio of the electrochemical equivalent drainageconduction of electric current from an underground
current density for a specific reaction to the total applied or submerged metallic structure by means of a metallic
current density. conductor.
DC decoupling devicea device used in electrical circuits driving potentialdifference in potential between the anode
that allows the flow of alternating current in both directions and the steel structure.
and stops or substantially reduces the flow of direct current. drying oilan oil capable of conversion from a liquid to a

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NACE/ASTM G 193 09

solid by slow reaction with oxygen in the air. potential in either the electrolyte or the external circuit. It
elastic deformationchanges of dimensions of a material represents the reversible work to move a unit of charge from
upon the application of a stress within the elastic range. the electrode surface through the electrolyte to the reference
Following the release of an elastic stress, the material returns electrode.)
to its original dimensions without any permanent deforma- electrokinetic potentiala potential difference in a solution
tion. caused by residual, unbalanced charge distribution in the
elasticitythe property of a material that allows it to recover adjoining solution, producing a double layer. (The electro-
its original dimensions following deformation by a stress kinetic potential is different from the electrode potential in
below its elastic limit. that it occurs exclusively in the solution phase. This potential
elastic limitthe maximum stress to which a material may be represents the reversible work necessary to bring a unit
subjected without retention of any permanent deformation charge from infinity in the solution up to the interface in
after the stress is removed. question but not through the interface.) [also known as zeta
electrical interferenceany electrical disturbance on a me- potential]
tallic structure in contact with an electrolyte caused by stray electrolysisproduction of chemical changes of the electro-
current(s). lyte by the passage of current through an electrochemical
electrical isolationthe condition of being electrically sepa- cell.
rated from other metallic structures or the environment. electrolytea chemical substance containing ions that migrate
electrochemical admittancethe reciprocal of the electro- in an electric field.
chemical impedance, DI/DE. electrolytic cleaninga process for removing soil, scale, or
electrochemical cellan electrochemical system consisting of corrosion products from a metal surface by subjecting the
an anode and a cathode in metallic contact and immersed in metal as an electrode to an electric current in an electrolytic
an electrolyte. (The anode and cathode may be different bath.
metals or dissimilar areas on the same metal surface.) electromotive force seriesa list of elements arranged ac-
electrochemical corrosion potentialsee corrosion poten- cording to their standard electrode potentials, the sign being
tial. positive for elements whose potentials are more noble than
electrochemical equivalentthe mass of an element or group hydrogen such as gold and negative for those more active
of elements oxidized or reduced at 100 percent efficiency by than hydrogen such as zinc. [not to be confused with
the passage of a unit quantity of charge such as a Faraday galvanic series]
(96,485 coulombs), ampere-hour, or coulomb. electro-osmosisthe migration of water through a semiper-
electrochemical impedancethe frequency dependent, com- meable membrane as a result of a potential difference caused
plex valued proportionality factor, DI/DE, between the by the flow of electric charge through the membrane.
applied potential (or current) and the response current (or ellipsometryan optical technique wherein plane-polarized
potential) in an electrochemical cell. This factor becomes the light is focused on a surface and the reflected beam is
impedance when the perturbation and response are related analyzed to determine the phase shift of the components of
linearly (the factor value is independent of the perturbation the light to provide information on the properties of films
magnitude) and the response is caused only by the pertur- that may be present on the surface.
bation. The value may be related to the corrosion rate when embrittlementreduction of ductility, or toughness, or both,
the measurement is made at the corrosion potential. of a material (usually a metal or alloy).
electrochemical noisefluctuations of potential or current, or EMF seriessee electromotive force series.
both, originating from uncontrolled variations in a corrosion enamel(1) a paint that dries to a hard, glossy surface; (2) a
process. coating that is characterized by an ability to form a smooth,
electrochemical potentialthe partial derivative of the total durable film.
electrochemical free energy of the system with respect to the end effectthe more rapid loss of anode material at the end of
number of moles of the constituent in a solution when all an anode, compared with other surfaces of the anode,
other factors are constant. (Analogous to the chemical resulting from higher current density.
potential of the constituent except that it includes the endurance limitthe maximum stress that a material can
electrical as well as the chemical contributions to the free withstand for an infinitely large number of fatigue cycles.
energy.) environmentthe surroundings or conditions (physical,
electrodea material that conducts electrons, is used to chemical, mechanical) in which a material exists.
establish contact with an electrolyte and through which environmental crackingcracking of a material wherein an
current is transferred to or from an electrolyte. interaction with its environment is a causative factor in
electrode potentialthe potential of an electrode in an elec- conjunction with tensile stress, often resulting in brittle
trolyte as measured against a reference electrode. (The fracture of an otherwise ductile material. [also known as
electrode potential does not include any resistance losses in environmentally assisted cracking]

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DISCUSSIONEnvironmental cracking is a general term that includes ferritethe body-centered cubic crystalline phase of iron or
the terms listed below. The definitions of these terms are listed iron-based alloys.
elsewhere in this document: caustic cracking, chloride stress corro- ferritic steela steel whose microstructure at room tempera-
sion cracking, corrosion fatigue, hydrogen embrittlement,
hydrogen-induced cracking (stepwise cracking), hydrogen stress
ture consists predominantly of ferrite.
cracking, liquid metal cracking, stress corrosion cracking, sulfide filiform corrosioncorrosion that occurs under some coatings
stress cracking. in the form of randomly distributed threadlike filaments.
DISCUSSIONThe following terms have been used in the past in filma thin, not necessarily visible layer of material.
connection with environmental cracking but are now obsolete and finish coatsee topcoat.
should not be used: caustic embrittlement, delayed cracking, liquid forced drainagedrainage applied to underground or sub-
metal embrittlement, season cracking, static fatigue, sulfide corrosion
merged metallic structures by means of an applied electro-
cracking, sulfide stress corrosion cracking.
motive force or sacrificial anode.
environmentally assisted crackingsee environmental foreign structureany metallic structure that is not intended
cracking. as a part of a system under cathodic protection.
epoxytype of resin formed by the reaction of aliphatic or foulingan accumulation of deposits. (This includes accumu-
aromatic polyols (such as bisphenol) with epichlorohydrin lation and growth of marine organisms on a submerged
and characterized by the presence of reactive oxirane end surface and the accumulation of deposits on heat exchanger
groups. tubing.)
equilibrium potentialthe potential of an electrode in an fractographydescriptive treatment of fracture, especially in
electrolyte at which the forward rate of a given reaction is metals, with specific reference to photographs of the fracture
exactly equal to the reverse rate. (The equilibrium potential surface.
can only be defined with respect to a specific electrochemical fracture mechanicsa quantitative analysis for evaluating
reaction.) [also known as reversible potential] structural reliability in terms of applied stress, crack length,
erosionthe progressive loss of material from a solid surface and specimen geometry.
resulting from mechanical interaction between that surface free corrosion potentialsee corrosion potential.
and a fluid, a multicomponent fluid, or solid particles carried free machiningthe machining characteristics of an alloy to
with the fluid. which an ingredient has been introduced to give small
erosion-corrosiona conjoint action involving erosion and broken chips, lower power consumption, better surface
corrosion in the presence of a moving corrosive fluid or a finish, and longer tool life.
material moving through the fluid, leading to accelerated fretting corrosiondeterioration at the interface between
loss of material. contacting surfaces as the result of corrosion and slight
exchange current densitythe rate of charge transfer per unit oscillatory slip between the two surfaces.
area when an electrode reaches dynamic equilibrium (at its furantype of resin formed by the polymerization or poly-
reversible potential) in a solution; that is, the rate of anodic condensation of furfuryl, furfuryl alcohol, or other com-
charge transfer (oxidation) is exactly equal to the rate of pounds containing a furan ring.
cathodic charge transfer (reduction). galvanic anodea metal that provides sacrificial protection to
exfoliation corrosionsubsurface corrosion that proceeds another metal that is more noble when electrically coupled in
laterally from the sites of initiation along planes parallel to an electrolyte. This type of anode is the electron source in
the surface forming corrosion products that force metal away one type of cathodic protection.
from the body of the material, giving rise to a layered galvanic corrosionaccelerated corrosion of a metal because
appearance resembling the pages of a book. of an electrical contact with a more noble metal or nonme-
external circuitthe wires, connectors, measuring devices, tallic conductor in a corrosive electrolyte.
current sources, etc., that are used to bring about or measure galvanic couplea pair of dissimilar conductors, commonly
the desired electrical conditions within an electrochemical metals, in electrical contact in an electrolyte.
cell. It is this portion of the cell through which electrons galvanic currentthe electric current between metals or
travel. conductive nonmetals in a galvanic couple.
fatiguethe process of progressive localized permanent struc- galvanic seriesa list of metals and alloys arranged according
tural change occurring in a material subjected to fluctuating to their corrosion potentials in a given environment.
stresses less than the ultimate tensile strength of the material galvanodynamicrefers to a technique wherein current, con-
that may culminate in cracks or complete fracture after a tinuously varied at a selected rate, is applied to an electrode
sufficient number of fluctuations. in an electrolyte.
fatigue strengththe maximum stress that can be sustained galvanostaircaserefers to a galvanostep technique for po-
for a specified number of cycles without fracture. larizing an electrode in a series of constant current steps
fault currenta current that flows from one conductor to wherein the time duration and current increments or decre-
ground or to another conductor as a result of an abnormal ments are equal for each step.
connection (including an arc) between the two. A fault galvanostaticrefers to a technique wherein an electrode is
current flowing to ground may be called a ground fault maintained at a constant current in an electrolyte.

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galvanosteprefers to a technique wherein an electrode is hydrogen blisteringthe formation of subsurface planar cavi-
polarized in a series of current increments or decrements. ties, called hydrogen blisters, in a metal resulting from
general corrosioncorrosion that is distributed more-or-less excessive internal hydrogen pressure. Growth of near-
uniformly over the surface of a material. surface blisters in low-strength metals usually results in
grain droppingthe dislodgement and loss of a grain or surface bulges.
grains (crystals) from a metal surface as a result of inter- hydrogen embrittlementembrittlement caused by the pres-
granular corrosion. ence of hydrogen within a metal or alloy.
graphitic corrosiondeterioration of cast iron wherein the hydrogen-induced crackingstepwise internal cracks that
metallic constituents are selectively leached or converted to connect adjacent hydrogen blisters on different planes in the
corrosion products, leaving the graphitic particles intact. metal, or to the metal surface. [also known as stepwise
[should not be used as a term to describe graphitization] cracking]
graphitizationthe formation of graphite in iron or steel, hydrogen overvoltageovervoltage associated with the lib-
usually from decomposition of iron carbide at elevated eration of hydrogen gas.
temperatures. [should not be used as a term to describe hydrogen stress crackingcracking of a metal or alloy under
graphitic corrosion] the combined action of tensile stress and the presence of
gritsmall particles of hard material (e.g., iron, steel, or hydrogen in the metal or alloy.
mineral) with irregular shapes that are commonly used as an immunitya state of resistance to corrosion of a metal in
abrasive in abrasive blast cleaning. which the metal itself is more thermodynamically stable than
grit blastingabrasive blast cleaning using grit as the abra- its possible corrosion products. (In practical situations,
sive. immunity is assumed when the equilibrium concentration of
groundbedone or more anodes installed below the earths corrosion products is negligible [typically less than 10-6
surface for the purpose of supplying cathodic protection mol/L].)
current. impingement corrosiona form of erosion-corrosion gener-
half-cellan electrode in an electrolyte wherein an oxidation- ally associated with the local impingement of a high-
reduction equilibrium is established on the electrode. velocity, flowing fluid against a solid surface.
half-cell potentialthe potential in a given electrolyte of one impressed currentan electric current supplied by a device
electrode of a pair relative to a standard state or a reference employing a power source that is external to the electrode
state. (Potentials can only be measured and expressed as the system. (An example is direct current for cathodic protec-
difference between the half-cell potentials of a pair of tion.)
electrodes.) impressed current anodean electrode, suitable for use as an
hand tool cleaningremoval of loose rust, loose mill scale, anode when connected to a source of impressed current. (It
and loose coating by hand chipping, scraping, sanding, and is often composed of a substantially inert material that
wire brushing. [See SSPC-SP 2.] conducts by oxidation of the electrolyte and, for this reason,
hardenersee curing agent. is not corroded appreciably.)
heat-affected zonethat portion of the base metal that is not impulse dielectric testa method of applying voltage to an
melted during brazing, cutting, or welding, but whose insulated wire through the use of electric pulses (usually 170
microstructure and properties are altered by the heat of these to 250 pulses per second) to determine the integrity of the
processes. wires insulation.
heat treatmentheating and cooling a solid metal or alloy in inclusiona nonmetallic phase such as an oxide, sulfide, or
such a way as to obtain desired properties. Heating for the silicate particle in a metal.
sole purpose of hot working is not considered heat treatment. inorganic zinc-rich coatingcoating containing a metallic
high-pressure water cleaningwater cleaning performed at zinc pigment (typically 75 mass percent zinc or more in the
pressures from 34 to 70 MPa (5,000 to 10,000 psig). dry film) in an inorganic vehicle.
high-pressure waterjettingwaterjetting performed at pres- instant-off potentialthe polarized half-cell potential of an
sures from 70 to 210 MPa (10,000 to 30,000 psig). electrode taken immediately after the cathodic protection
high-temperature hydrogen attacka loss of strength and current is stopped, which closely approximates the potential
ductility of steel by high-temperature reaction of absorbed without IR drop (i.e., the polarized potential) when the
hydrogen with carbides in the steel, resulting in decarbur- current was on.
ization and internal fissuring. intentiostaticsee galvanostatic.
holidaya discontinuity in a protective coating that exposes intercrystalline corrosionsee intergranular corrosion.
unprotected surface to the environment. interdendritic corrosioncorrosion of cast metals that
hot corrosionan accelerated corrosion of metal surfaces that progresses preferentially along paths between dendrites.
results from the combined effect of oxidation and reactions interference bondan intentional metallic connection, be-
with sulfur compounds and other contaminants, such as tween metallic systems in contact with a common electro-
chlorides, to form a molten salt on a metal surface that lyte, designed to control electrical current interchange be-
fluxes, destroys, or disrupts the normal protective oxide. tween the systems.

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interference currentsee stray current. significantly disturbing the current distribution on that elec-
intergranular corrosionpreferential corrosion at or adja- trode.) [also called Luggin capillary or Luggin probe]
cent to the grain boundaries of a metal or alloy. Luggin probesee Luggin-Haber probe.
intergranular stress corrosion crackingstress corrosion macrocell corrosioncorrosion of a metal embedded in
cracking in which the cracking occurs along grain bound- porous media (e.g., concrete or soil) caused by concentration
aries. or galvanic cells that exist on a scale at least as large as the
internal oxidationthe formation of isolated particles of smallest major dimension of the corroding item (e.g., the
oxidation products beneath the metal surface. diameter of a bar or pipe).
intumescencethe swelling or bubbling of a coating usually martensitea hard, body-centered cubic phase of iron super-
caused by heating. (The term is commonly used in aerospace saturated with carbon, usually produced by rapid cooling.
and fire-protection applications.) mastic(1) aromatic resin of the mastic tree, commonly used
ionan electrically charged atom or group of atoms. in lacquers and varnishes; (2) a material of relatively
IR dropthe voltage across a resistance when current is viscous, paste-like consistency that can be poured when
applied in accordance with Ohms law. heated but often requires mechanical manipulation (e.g.,
iron rotdeterioration of wood in contact with iron-based using a trowel) to apply, which dries or cures to form a thick
alloys. protective coating. (Mastics usually contain fillers, such as
knife-line attackintergranular corrosion of an alloy along a powdered lime or graded mineral aggregate, to produce the
narrow band adjoining or in contact with a weld. desired consistency.)
lamellar corrosionsee exfoliation corrosion. metal dustingaccelerated deterioration of a metal or alloy
Langelier Saturation Indexa number calculated from total exposed to a carbonaceous or nitrogenous gas at elevated
dissolved solids, calcium concentration, total alkalinity, pH temperatures that forms a dust-like corrosion product.
and solution temperature that shows the tendency of a water metallizingthe coating of a surface with a thin metal layer
solution to precipitate or dissolve calcium carbonate, by thermal spraying, hot dipping, or vacuum deposition.
wherein an index less than 0.3 indicates that the water tends microbiologically influenced corrosioncorrosion affected
to be corrosive, while an index greater than +0.3 indicates by the presence or activity, or both, of microorganisms.
scale forming potential. [also called Langelier Index or mill scalethe oxide layer formed during hot fabrication or
Saturation Index] heat treatment of metals.
limiting current densitysee diffusion-limited current den- mixed potentiala potential resulting from two or more
sity. electrochemical reactions occurring simultaneously on one
line currentthe direct current flowing in a pipeline. metal surface.
lininga coating or layer of sheet material adhered to or in modulus of elasticitya measure of the stiffness or rigidity of
intimate contact with the interior surface of a container used a material. It is actually the ratio of stress to strain in the
to protect the container against corrosion by its contents elastic region of a material if determined by a tension or
and/or to protect the contents of the container from contami- compression test. [also called Youngs Modulus or coeffcient
nation by the container material. of elasticity]
liquid metal crackingenvironmental cracking caused by natural drainagecurrent drainage from an underground or
contact with a liquid metal. submerged metallic structure to a more negative (more
local corrosion cellan electrochemical cell created on a anodic) structure, such as the negative bus of a trolley
metal surface because of a difference in potential between substation.
adjacent areas on that surface. near-white blast cleaned surfacean abrasive blast cleaned
localized corrosioncorrosion at discrete sites (e.g., pitting or steel surface that is free of all visible contaminants and
crevice corrosion). foreign matter, but may have some random staining on no
long-line currentcurrent though the earth between an an- more than 5 percent of the surface area. [See NACE No.
odic and a cathodic area that returns along an underground 2/SSPC-SP 10 for detailed specification.]
metallic structure. (Usually used only where the areas are negative returna point of connection between the cathodic
separated by considerable distance and where the current protection negative cable and the protected structure.
results from concentration-cell action.) Nernst equationan equation that expresses the potential of
low-carbon steelsteel having less than 0.30 percent carbon an electrochemical reaction in terms of the activities of its
and no intentional alloying additions. products and reactants.
low-pressure water cleaningwater cleaning performed at Nernst layerthe diffusion layer at the surface of an electrode
pressures less than 34 MPa (5,000 psig). [also called power in which the concentration of a chemical species is assumed
washing or pressure washing] to vary linearly from the value in the bulk solution to the
Luggin capillarysee Luggin-Haber probe. value at the electrode surface.
Luggin-Haber probea device used in measuring the poten- noblethe positive (increasingly oxidizing) direction of elec-
tial of an electrode with a significant current density imposed trode potential.
on its surface. (The probe minimizes the IR drop that would noble metala metal with a standard electrode potential more
otherwise be included in the measurement and without positive than that of hydrogen.

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noble potentiala potential more positive than the standard aH+ = hydrogen ion activity = the molar concentration of
hydrogen potential. hydrogen ions multiplied by the mean ion-activity
normalizingheating a ferrous alloy to a suitable temperature coefficient.
above the transformation range (austenitizing), holding at pickling(1) treating a metal or alloy in a chemical bath to
temperature for a suitable time, and then cooling in still air remove scale and oxides (e.g., rust) from the surface; (2)
to a temperature substantially below the transformation complete removal of rust and mill scale by acid pickling,
range. duplex pickling, or electrolytic pickling. [See SSPC-SP 8.]
occluded cellan electrochemical cell created at a localized pickling solutiona chemical bath, usually an acid solution,
site on a metal surface that has been partially obstructed used for pickling.
from the bulk environment. pigmenta solid substance, generally in fine powder form,
open-circuit potentialsee corrosion potential. that is insoluble in the vehicle of a formulated coating
organic zinc-rich coatingcoating containing a metallic zinc material. It is used to impart color or other specific physical
pigment (typically 75 mass percent zinc or more in the dry or chemical properties to the coating.
film) in an organic vehicle. pipe-to-electrolyte potentialsee structure-to-electrolyte
overvoltagethe difference in potential of an electrode be- potential.
tween its equilibrium and steady-state values when current is pipe-to-soil potentialsee structure-to-electrolyte poten-
applied. tial.
oxidation(1) loss of electrons by a constituent of a chemical pittinglocalized corrosion of a metal surface that is confined
reaction; (2) corrosion of a material that is exposed to an to a small area and takes the form of cavities called pits.
oxidizing gas at elevated temperatures. pitting factorthe ratio of the depth of the deepest pit
oxidation-reduction potentialthe potential of a reversible resulting from corrosion divided by the average penetration
oxidation-reduction reaction in a given electrolyte reported as calculated from mass loss.
on the standard hydrogen electrode scale. [also called redox plastic deformationpermanent deformation caused by
potential] stressing beyond the elastic limit.
oxygen concentration cellsee differential aeration cell. plasticitythe ability of a material to deform permanently
painta pigmented liquid or resin applied to a substrate as a (nonelastically) without fracturing.
thin layer that is converted to a solid film after application. polarizationthe change from the corrosion potential as a
(It is commonly used for decoration or protection.) result of current across the electrode/electrolyte interface.
paint systemsee coating system. polarization admittancethe reciprocal of polarization resis-
partingsee dealloying. tance.
parting limitthe minimum concentration of a more noble polarization cella DC decoupling device consisting of two
component in an alloy above which dealloying does not or more pairs of inert metallic plates immersed in an aqueous
occur in a specific environment. electrolyte. The electrical characteristics of the polarization
passivationthe process in metal corrosion by which metals cell are high resistance to DC potentials and low AC
become passive. [See passive.] impedance.
passivation potentialsee primary passive potential. polarization curvea plot of current density versus electrode
passivatora corrosion inhibitor that reduces the corrosion potential for a specific electrode/electrolyte combination.
rate of a metal by changing reactions at the metal surface to
polarization decaythe change in electrode potential with
cause the formation of a protective corrosion product,
time resulting from the interruption of applied current.
resulting in a positive shift in corrosion potential.
polarization resistancethe slope (dE/di) at the corrosion
passive(1) the state of a metal surface characterized by low
potential of a potential (E) current density (i) curve. (It is
corrosion rates in a potential region that is strongly oxidizing
inversely proportional to the corrosion current density when
for the metal; (2) the positive direction of electrode potential.
the polarization resistance technique is applicable.)
passivitythe state of being passive.
polarized potential(1) (general use) the potential across the
patina(1) the corrosion product film, usually green, that
electrode/electrolyte interface that is the sum of the corro-
forms on the surface of copper and copper alloys exposed to
sion potential and the applied polarization; (2) (cathodic
the atmosphere; (2) a corrosion product film on the weath-
protection use) the potential across the structure/electrolyte
ered surface of any metal.
interface that is the sum of the corrosion potential and the
pHthe negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion activity
cathodic polarization.
written as:
polyestertype of resin formed by the condensation of
pH 5 log10 ~aH1! (1) polybasic and monobasic acids with polyhydric alcohols.
postweld heat treatmentheating and cooling a weldment in
where: such a way as to obtain desired properties.

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NACE/ASTM G 193 09

potential-pH diagrama graphical method of representing remote eartha location on the earth far enough from the
the regions of thermodynamic stability of species for metal/ affected structure that the soil potential gradients associated
electrolyte systems. [also known as Pourbaix diagram] with currents entering the earth from the affected structure
potentiodynamicrefers to a technique wherein the potential are insignificant.
of an electrode with respect to a reference electrode is varied resina clear to translucent, solid or semisolid, viscous
at a selected rate by application of a current through the organic substance, often of relatively high molecular mass,
electrolyte. which exhibits a tendency to flow when subjected to stress
potentiokineticsee potentiodynamic. and usually has a softening or melting range. (Natural resins
potentiostaircaserefers to a potentiostep technique for po- originate from secretions of certain plants and insects.
larizing an electrode in a series of constant potential steps Synthetic resins are physically similar polymerized synthetic
wherein the time duration and potential increments or materials, either thermoplastic or thermosetting, which are
decrements are equal for each step. used to form plastics. Resins are commonly used as the
potentiostatan instrument for automatically maintaining an binder in various paints, coatings, adhesives, and synthetic
electrode in an electrolyte at a constant potential or con- plastics.)
trolled potentials with respect to a suitable reference elec- resistivitythe electrical resistance between opposite faces of
trode. a unit cube of material.
potentiostaticrefers to a technique for maintaining a con- rest potentialcorrosion potential after time transients have
stant electrode potential. subsided.
potentiosteprefers to a technique wherein an electrode is reversible potentialsee equilibrium potential.
polarized in a series of potential increments or decrements. rimmed steelan incompletely deoxidized steel. [also called
pot lifethe maximum elapsed time during which a coating rimming steel]
can be effectively applied after all components of the coating rimming steelsee rimmed steel.
have been thoroughly mixed. riser(1) that section of pipeline extending from the ocean
poultice corrosionsee deposit corrosion. floor up to an offshore structure; (2) the vertical tube in a
steam generator convection bank that circulates water and
Pourbaix diagramsee potential-pH diagram.
steam upward; (3) a large-diameter pipe or duct in a fluidized
power tool cleaningremoval of loose rust, loose mill scale,
catalytic cracking unit into which the hydrocarbon feed is
and loose coating by power tool chipping, descaling, sand-
injected to mix with a stream of hot catalyst and steam and
ing, wire brushing, and grinding. [See SSPC-SP 3.]
through which the resulting reaction mixture flows upward.
precipitation hardeninghardening caused by the precipita- rustcorrosion product consisting of various iron oxides and
tion of a constituent from a supersaturated solid solution. hydrated iron oxides. (This term properly applies only to
primary passive potentialthe potential corresponding to the iron and ferrous alloys.)
maximum active current density (critical anodic current rust bloomdiscoloration indicating the beginning of rusting.
density) of an electrode that exhibits active-passive corro- sackingscrubbing a mixture of a cement mortar over the
sion behavior. concrete surface using a cement sack, gunny sack, or sponge
prime coatsee primer. rubber float.
primera coating material intended to be applied as the first sacrificial anodesee galvanic anode.
coat on an uncoated surface. The coating is specifically sacrificial protectionreduction of corrosion of a metal in an
formulated to adhere to and protect the surface as well as to electrolyte by electrically connecting the metal to a galvanic
produce a suitable surface for subsequent coats. [also re- anode (a form of cathodic protection).
ferred to as prime coat] scaling(1) the formation at high temperatures of thick
protection potentialthe most noble potential at which pit- corrosion-product layers on a metal surface; (2) the deposi-
ting or crevice corrosion, or both, will not propagate in a tion of water-insoluble constituents on a metal surface.
specific environment. scanning electron microscopean electron optical device
protective coatinga coating applied to a surface to protect that scans a beam of electrons across a surface and collects
the substrate from corrosion. the resulting electrons or photons to form an image whose
redox potentialsee oxidation-reduction potential. contrast is determined by topography, elemental composi-
reductiongain of electrons by a constituent of a chemical tion, or other properties.
reaction. season cracking(an obsolete term) a form of environmental
reference electrodean electrode having a stable and repro- cracking of brass in the atmosphere.
ducible potential, which is used in the measurement of other selective dissolutionsee dealloying.
electrode potentials. selective leachingsee dealloying.
reference half-cellsee reference electrode. sensitizationa metallurgical state caused by certain heating,
relative humiditythe ratio, expressed as a percentage, of the cooling, or cold working conditions that results in precipi-
amount of water vapor present in a given volume of air at a tation of constituents (e.g., carbides in a stainless steel) at
given temperature to the amount required to saturate the air grain boundaries, thereby causing an alloy to be susceptible
at that temperature. to intergranular corrosion or intergranular stress corrosion

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NACE/ASTM G 193 09

cracking in a specific environment in which the alloy would stray currentcurrent flowing through paths other than the
normally exhibit corrosion resistance. intended circuit.
sensitizing heat treatmenta heat treatment that produces stray-current corrosioncorrosion resulting from stray cur-
sensitization. rent.
shallow groundbedone or more anodes installed either stress corrosion crackingcracking of a material produced
vertically or horizontally at a nominal depth of less than 15 by the combined action of corrosion and sustained tensile
m (50 ft) for the purpose of supplying cathodic protection stress (residual or applied). [See environmental cracking.]
current. stress relieving (thermal)heating a metal to a suitable
shielding(1) protecting; protective cover against mechanical temperature, holding at that temperature long enough to
damage; (2) preventing or diverting cathodic protection reduce residual stresses, and then cooling slowly enough to
current from its natural path. minimize the development of new residual stresses.
shop coatone or more coats applied in a shop or plant prior structure-to-electrolyte potentialthe potential difference
to shipment to the site of erection or fabrication. between the surface of a buried or submerged metallic
shot blastingabrasive blast cleaning using metallic (usually structure and the electrolyte that is measured with reference
steel) shot as the abrasive. to an electrode in contact with the electrolyte.
shot peeninginducing compressive stresses in the surface structure-to-soil potentialsee structure-to-electrolyte po-
layer of a material by bombarding it with a selected medium tential.
(usually steel shot) under controlled conditions. structure-to-structure potentialthe potential difference be-
sigma phasean extremely brittle Fe-Cr phase that can form tween metallic structures, or sections of the same structure,
at elevated temperatures in Fe-Cr, Fe-Cr-Ni and Ni-Cr-Fe in a common electrolyte.
alloys. subsurface corrosionsee internal oxidation.
slipa deformation process involving shear motion of a
sulfidationthe reaction of a metal or alloy with a sulfur-
specific set of crystallographic planes.
containing species to produce a sulfur compound that forms
slow strain rate techniquean experimental technique for on or beneath the surface of the metal or alloy.
evaluating susceptibility to environmental cracking. It in-
sulfide stress crackingcracking of a metal under the com-
volves pulling the specimen to failure in uniaxial tension at
bined action of tensile stress and corrosion in the presence of
a controlled slow strain rate while the specimen is in the test
water and hydrogen sulfide (a form of hydrogen stress
environment and examining the specimen for evidence of
environmental cracking.
slushing compoundoil or grease coatings used to provide surface potential gradientchange in the potential on the
temporary protection against atmospheric corrosion. surface of the ground with respect to distance.
solution heat treatmentheating a metal to a suitable tem- surface profilethe irregular peak and valley profile on a bare
perature and holding at that temperature long enough for one surface that can result from operations such as abrasive blast
or more constituents to enter into solid solution, then cooling cleaning or power tool cleaning. [also called anchor pat-
rapidly enough to retain the constituents in solution. tern]
solvent cleaningremoval of oil, grease, dirt, soil, salts, and tack coata thin wet coat applied to the surface that is
contaminants using organic solvents or other cleaners such allowed to dry just until it is tacky before application of a
as vapor, alkali, emulsion, or steam. [See SSPC-SP 1.] thicker wet coat. (Use of a tack coat allows application of
spallingthe spontaneous chipping, fragmentation, or separa- thicker coats without sags or runs.)
tion of a surface or surface coating. Tafel plota plot of the relationship between the change in
standard electrode potentialthe reversible potential for an potential (E) and the logarithm of the current density (log i)
electrode process when all products and reactants are at unit of an electrode when it is polarized in the anodic or cathodic
activity reported on the standard hydrogen electrode scale. direction, or both, from its open-circuit potential.
standard jetting waterwater of sufficient purity and quality Tafel slopethe slope of the nonvertical, nonhorizontal
that does not impose additional contaminants on the surface straight-line portion of the E log i curve on a Tafel plot.
being cleaned and does not contain sediments or other tarnishsurface discoloration of a metal resulting from for-
impurities that are destructive to the proper functioning of mation of a film of corrosion product.
waterjetting equipment. thermal sprayinga high-temperature process by which
steel shotsmall particles of steel with spherical shape that finely divided metallic or nonmetallic materials are depos-
are commonly used as an abrasive in abrasive blast cleaning ited in a molten or semimolten condition to form a coating
or as a selected medium for shot peening. on a surface when cooled.
step potentialthe potential difference between two points on thermogalvanic corrosioncorrosion resulting from an elec-
the earths surface separated by a distance of one human trochemical cell caused by a thermal gradient.
step, which is defined as one meter, determined in the throwing powerthe relationship between the current density
direction of maximum potential gradient. at a point on a surface and its distance from the counter
stepwise crackingsee hydrogen-induced cracking. electrode. The greater the ratio of the surface resistivity

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NACE/ASTM G 193 09

shown by the electrode reaction to the volume resistivity of wroughtdescribes a metal in the solid condition formed to a
the electrolyte, the better is the throwing power of the desired shape by working (e.g., rolling, extruding, forging),
process. usually at an elevated temperature.
topcoatthe final coat of a coating system. [also referred to as yield pointthe stress on a material at which the first
finish coat] significant permanent or plastic deformation occurs without
touch potentialthe potential difference between a metallic an increase in stress. In some materials, particularly annealed
structure and a point on the earths surface separated by a low-carbon steels, there is a well-defined yield point from
distance equal to the normal maximum horizontal reach of a the straight line defining the modulus of elasticity.
human (approximately 1.0 m [3.3 ft]). yield strengththe stress at which a material exhibits a
transpassive regionthe region of an anodic polarization specified deviation from the proportionality of stress to
curve, more positive than the passive potential range, in strain. The deviation is expressed in terms of strain by either
which there is a significant increase in current density the offset method (usually at a strain of 0.2 percent) or the
(increased metal oxidation) as the potential becomes more total-extension-under-load method (usually at a strain of 0.5
positive. percent).
tuberculationthe formation of localized corrosion products zeta potentialsee electrokinetic potential.
scattered over the surface in the form of knob-like mounds
called tubercles. 3.2 Acronyms:
ultimate tensile strengththe maximum stress that a material
can sustain without failing from tensile overload.
ultrahigh-pressure waterjettingwaterjetting performed at aboveground storage tankAST
pressures above 210 MPa (30,000 psig). acoustic emissionAE
underfilm corrosionsee filiform corrosion. acrylonitrile butadiene styrene [polymer]ABS
uniform corrosioncorrosion that proceeds at exactly the all volatile treatment [boiler treatment]AVT
same rate over the surface of a material. (This is the alternating currentAC
assumption when calculating corrosion rate or corrosion loss American Wire GaugeAWG
from mass loss or electrochemical measurements. This term atomic absorption [spectroscopy]AA
should not be used instead of general corrosion to describe Auger electron spectroscopyAES
an observed surface distribution of corrosion). biological oxygen demandBOD
vehiclethe liquid portion of a formulated coating material. Birmingham Wire GaugeBWG
void(1) a holiday, hole, or skip in a coating; (2) a hole in a body-centered cubicbcc
casting or weld deposit usually resulting from shrinkage boiler feedwaterBFW
during cooling. boiling pointbp
wash primera thin, inhibiting or passivating primer, usually boiling water reactorBWR
formulated with chromate or phosphate pigment in a syn- Brinell hardnessHB
thetic resin (e.g., polyvinyl butyral) binder. carbon steelCS
water cleaninguse of pressurized water discharged from a cathodic protectionCP
nozzle to remove unwanted matter from a surface. chemical oxygen demandCOD
waterjettinguse of standard jetting water discharged from a chlorinated polyvinyl chlorideCPVC
nozzle at pressures of 70 MPa (10,000 psig) or greater to cold-rolledCR
prepare a surface for coating or inspection. constant extension rate testCERT
weight coatingan external coating applied to a pipeline to conversion electron Mossbauer spectroscopyCEMS
counteract buoyancy. cooling waterCW
weld decay(not a preferred term) intergranular corrosion, cooling water towerCWT
usually of stainless steels or certain nickel alloys, that occurs copper/copper sulfate (Cu/CuSO4) electrodeCSE
as the result of sensitization in the heat-affected zone during corrosion-resistant alloyCRA
the welding operation. critical crevice-corrosion temperatureCCT
wet film gaugedevice for measuring wet film thickness of a critical pitting temperatureCPT
coating. current densityCD
white metal blast cleaned surfacean abrasive blast cleaned deionized [water]DI
steel surface that is free of all visible contaminants, foreign differential thermal analysisDTA
matter, and staining. [See NACE No. 1/SSPC-SP 5 for direct currentDC
detailed specification.] direct imaging mass analyzerDIMA
white rustthe white powdery corrosion product that can discounted cash flowDCF
form on zinc, zinc-coated, or aluminum-based alloy sur- dissolved oxygenDO
faces. [See rust.] double-cantilever-beamDCB
working electrodethe test or specimen electrode in an dry film thicknessDFT
electrochemical cell. ductile ironDI

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NACE/ASTM G 193 09

eddy current test/testingECT intergranular attackIGA

electric resistance weld/weldedERW intergranular corrosionIGC
electrical resistanceER intergranular stress corrosion crackingIGSCC
electrochemical current noiseECN ion microprobe mass analyzerIMMA
electrochemical impedance spectroscopyEIS ion scattering spectroscopyISS
electrochemical noise [technique]EN Knoop hardnessHK
electrochemical potential noiseEPN Langelier Saturation IndexLSI
electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivationEPR light water reactorLWR
electromagnetic test/testingET linear polarization resistanceLPR
electromotive forceEMF linear variable differential transformerLVDT
electron energy loss spectroscopyEELS liquid metal crackingLMC
electron probe microanalysisEPMA liquid penetrant test/testingPT
electron spectroscopy for chemical analysisESCA low-pressure water cleaningLPWC
energy dispersive spectroscopyEDS magnetic particle test/testingMT
energy dispersive x-ray analysisEDXA maximum allowable working pressureMAWP
ethylenediaminetetraacetic acidEDTA melting pointmp
ethylene propylene diene elastomerEPDM microbiologically influenced corrosionMIC
face-centered cubicfcc multiple crevice assemblyMCA
fast Fourier transformFFT net present valueNPV
fiberglass-reinforced plasticFRP nominal pipe sizeNPS
fiber-reinforced plasticFRP nondestructive examinationNDE
flue gas desulfurizationFGD nondestructive test/testingNDT
fluid catalytic cracking unitFCCU normal hydrogen electrodeNHE
fluidized bed combustionFBC normalized and temperedN&T
fluorinated ethylene propylene [copolymer]FEP nuclear magnetic resonanceNMR
fluorocarbon elastomerFKM ocean thermal-energy conversionOTEC
flux-cored arc weld/weldingFCAW oil-country tubular goodsOCTG
Fourier transform infraredFTIR oil-quenchedOQ
freezing pointfp organic zinc-rich [coating]OZ
frequency response analyzerFRA outside diameterOD
furnace-cooledFC perfluoroalkoxy [polymer]PFA
fusion-bonded epoxy [coating]FBE perfluorocarbon elastomerFFKM
gas metal arc weld/weldingGMAW polybutylenePB
gas tungsten arc weld/weldingGTAW polycarbonatePC
glass/fiberglass-reinforced epoxyGRE polyetheretherketonePEEK
glass/fiberglass-reinforced plasticGRP polyethylenePE
heat-affected zoneHAZ polypropylenePP
heat exchangerHX polytetrafluoroethylenePTFE
heat treatment/heat-treatedHT polythionic acidPTA
high frequencyHF polyurethanePUR
high-level liquid waste [nuclear]HLLW polyvinyl acetatePVAC
high-pressure water cleaningHPWC polyvinyl chloridePVC
high-pressure waterjettingHPWJ polyvinylidene chloridePVDC
high-strength low-alloy [steel]HSLA polyvinylidene fluoridePVDF
high-temperature hydrogen attackHTHA postweld heat treatment/heat-treatedPWHT
high-voltage alternating currentHVAC potential of zero chargePZC
high-voltage direct currentHVDC power factorPF
hot-rolledHR precipitation hardening/hardenablePH
hydrogen embrittlementHE pressurized water reactorPWR
hydrogen-induced crackingHIC quality assuranceQA
hydrogen ion activity [negative logarithm of]pH quality controlQC
hydrogen stress crackingHSC quenched and temperedQ&T
impressed currentIC radio frequencyRF
impressed current cathodic protectionICCP radiographic test/testingRT
infraredIR reinforced thermoset plasticRTP
inorganic zinc-rich [coating]IOZ relative humidityRH
inside diameterID Rockwell B hardnessHRB

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NACE/ASTM G 193 09

Rockwell C hardnessHRC water-quenchedWQ

room temperatureRT wavelength dispersive spectrometryWDS
root mean squarerms wedge opening loadWOL
Ryzner Stability IndexRSI wet fluorescent magnetic particle test/testingWFMT
saturated calomel electrodeSCE x-ray diffractionXRD
scanning Auger microscopySAM x-ray fluorescenceXRF
scanning electron microscopySEM x-ray photoelectron spectroscopyXPS
scanning reference electrode techniqueSRET yield strength/stressYS
scanning transmission electron microscopySTEM zero-resistance ammeterZRA
secondary ion mass spectroscopySIMS
shielded metal arc weld/weldingSMAW
3.3 Acronyms:
slow strain rateSSR
slow strain rate test/techniqueSSRT
solution anneal/solution-annealedSA AAatomic absorption [spectroscopy]
spark-sources mass spectroscopySSMS ABSacrylonitrile butadiene styrene [polymer]
specific gravitySG ACalternating current
specified minimum yield strengthSMYS AEacoustic emission
stainless steelSS AESAuger electron spectroscopy
standard hydrogen electrodeSHE ASTaboveground storage tank
standard temperature and pressureSTP AVTall volatile treatment [boiler treatment]
Standard Wire Gauge [British]SWG AWGAmerican Wire Gauge
stress corrosion crackingSCC bccbody-centered cubic
stress-oriented hydrogen-induced crackingSOHIC BFWboiler feedwater
stress relief/stress-relievedSR BODbiological oxygen demand
styrene-butadiene rubberSBR bpboiling point
submerged arc weld/weldingSAW BWGBirmingham Wire Gauge
sulfate-reducing bacteriaSRB BWRboiling water reactor
sulfide stress crackingSSC CCTcritical crevice-corrosion temperature
Systeme Internationale dUnites [metric]SI CDcurrent density
tensile strength/stressTS CEMSconversion electron Mossbauer spectroscopy
thermogravimetric analysisTGA CERTconstant extension rate test
time-temperature-sensitization [diagram]TTS CODchemical oxygen demand
time-temperature-transformation [diagram]TTT CPcathodic protection
time to failureTTF CPTcritical pitting temperature
total acid numberTAN CPVCchlorinated polyvinyl chloride
total dissolved solidsTDS CRcold-rolled
total hardnessTH CRAcorrosion-resistant alloy
transgranular stress corrosion crackingTGSCC CScarbon steel
transmission electron microscopyTEM CSEcopper/copper sulfate (Cu/CuSO4) electrode
trisodiumphosphateTSP CWcooling water
tungsten inert gas [weld/welding]TIG CWTcooling water tower
ultimate tensile strength/stressUTS DCdirect current
ultrahigh frequencyUHF DCBdouble-cantilever-beam
ultrahigh pressureUHP DCFdiscounted cash flow
ultrahigh-pressure waterjettingUHPWJ DFTdry film thickness
ultrasonic test/testingUT DIdeionized [water]
ultravioletUV DIductile iron
ultraviolet spectroscopyUVS DIMAdirect imaging mass analyzer
underground residential distributionURD DOdissolved oxygen
underground storage tankUST DTAdifferential thermal analysis
vapor phase inhibitorVPI ECNelectrochemical current noise
Vickers hardnessHV ECTeddy current test/testing
volatile corrosion inhibitorVCI EDSenergy dispersive spectroscopy
volatile organic compoundVOC EDTAethylenediaminetetraacetic acid
water cleaningWC EDXAenergy dispersive x-ray analysis
water-cooled reactorWCR EELSelectron energy loss spectroscopy
waterjettingWJ EISelectrochemical impedance spectroscopy

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NACE/ASTM G 193 09

EMFelectromotive force IOZinorganic zinc-rich [coating]

ENelectrochemical noise [technique] IRinfrared
EPDMethylene propylene diene elastomer ISSion scattering spectroscopy
EPMAelectron probe microanalysis LMCliquid metal cracking
EPNelectrochemical potential noise LPRlinear polarization resistance
EPRelectrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation LPWClow-pressure water cleaning
ERelectrical resistance LSILangelier Saturation Index
ERWelectric resistance weld/welded LVDTlinear variable differential transformer
ESCAelectron spectroscopy for chemical analysis LWRlight water reactor
ETelectromagnetic test/testing MAWPmaximum allowable working pressure
FBCfluidized bed combustion MCAmultiple crevice assembly
FBEfusion-bonded epoxy [coating] MICmicrobiologically influenced corrosion
FCfurnace-cooled mpmelting point
FCAWflux-cored arc weld/welding MTmagnetic particle test/testing
fccface-centered cubic N&Tnormalized and tempered
FCCUfluid catalytic cracking unit NDEnondestructive examination
FEPfluorinated ethylene propylene [copolymer] NDTnondestructive test/testing
FFKMperfluorocarbon elastomer NHEnormal hydrogen electrode
FFTfast Fourier transform NMRnuclear magnetic resonance
FGDflue gas desulfurization NPSnominal pipe size
FKMfluorocarbon elastomer NPVnet present value
fpfreezing point OCTGoil-country tubular goods
FRAfrequency response analyzer ODoutside diameter
FRPfiberglass-reinforced plastic OQoil-quenched
FRPfiber-reinforced plastic OTECocean thermal-energy conversion
FTIRFourier transform infrared OZorganic zinc-rich [coating]
GMAWgas metal arc weld/welding PBpolybutylene
GREglass/fiberglass-reinforced epoxy PCpolycarbonate
GRPglass/fiberglass-reinforced plastic PEpolyethylene
GTAWgas tungsten arc weld/welding PEEKpolyetheretherketone
HAZheat-affected zone PFpower factor
HBBrinell hardness PFAperfluoroalkoxy [polymer]
HEhydrogen embrittlement pHhydrogen ion activity [negative logarithm of]
HFhigh frequency PHprecipitation hardening/hardenable
HIChydrogen-induced cracking PPpolypropylene
HKKnoop hardness PTliquid penetrant test/testing
HLLWhigh-level liquid waste [nuclear] PTApolythionic acid
HPWChigh-pressure water cleaning PTFEpolytetrafluoroethylene
HPWJhigh-pressure waterjetting PURpolyurethane
HRhot-rolled PVACpolyvinyl acetate
HRBRockwell B hardness PVCpolyvinyl chloride
HRCRockwell C hardness PVDCpolyvinylidene chloride
HSChydrogen stress cracking PVDFpolyvinylidene fluoride
HSLAhigh-strength low-alloy [steel] PWHTpostweld heat treatment/heat-treated
HTheat treatment/heat-treated PWRpressurized water reactor
HTHAhigh-temperature hydrogen attack PZCpotential of zero charge
HVVickers hardness Q&Tquenched and tempered
HVAChigh-voltage alternating current QAquality assurance
HVDChigh-voltage direct current QCquality control
HXheat exchanger RFradio frequency
ICimpressed current RHrelative humidity
ICCPimpressed current cathodic protection rmsroot mean square
IDinside diameter RSIRyzner Stability Index
IGAintergranular attack RTradiographic test/testing
IGCintergranular corrosion RTroom temperature
IGSCCintergranular stress corrosion cracking RTPreinforced thermoset plastic
IMMAion microprobe mass analyzer SAsolution anneal/solution-annealed

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NACE/ASTM G 193 09

SAMscanning Auger microscopy TIGtungsten inert gas [weld/welding]

SAWsubmerged arc weld/welding TStensile strength/stress
SBRstyrene-butadiene rubber TSPtrisodiumphosphate
SCCstress corrosion cracking TTFtime to failure
SCEsaturated calomel electrode TTStime-temperature-sensitization [diagram]
SEMscanning electron microscopy TTTtime-temperature-transformation [diagram]
SGspecific gravity UHFultrahigh frequency
SHEstandard hydrogen electrode UHPultrahigh pressure
SISysteme Internationale dUnites [metric] UHPWJultrahigh-pressure waterjetting
SIMSsecondary ion mass spectroscopy URDunderground residential distribution
SMAWshielded metal arc weld/welding USTunderground storage tank
SMYSspecified minimum yield strength UTultrasonic test/testing
SOHICstress-oriented hydrogen-induced cracking UTSultimate tensile strength/stress
SRstress relief/stress-relieved UVultraviolet
SRBsulfate-reducing bacteria UVSultraviolet spectroscopy
SRETscanning reference electrode technique VCIvolatile corrosion inhibitor
SSstainless steel VOCvolatile organic compound
SSCsulfide stress cracking VPIvapor phase inhibitor
SSMSspark-sources mass spectroscopy WCwater cleaning
SSRslow strain rate WCRwater-cooled reactor
SSRTslow strain rate test/technique WDSwavelength dispersive spectrometry
STEMscanning transmission electron microscopy WFMTwet fluorescent magnetic particle test/testing
STPstandard temperature and pressure WJwaterjetting
SWGStandard Wire Gauge [British] WOLwedge opening load
TANtotal acid number WQwater-quenched
TDStotal dissolved solids XPSx-ray photoelectron spectroscopy
TEMtransmission electron microscopy XRDx-ray diffraction
TGAthermogravimetric analysis XRFx-ray fluorescence
TGSCCtransgranular stress corrosion cracking YSyield strength/stress
THtotal hardness ZRAzero-resistance ammeter

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