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# Subject: Information Technology

Time: 45 minutes

## Materials: Pencils, rulers, printed symbols, puzzle of symbols, scissors, glue.

References: Skeete, Kelvin & Skeet, Kyle (2012). Information Technology for CSEC (3rd edition)

Birbal, R & Taylor M (2010). Lon on to IT for CSEC (2nd edition) Trinidad and Tobago: Longman

## Previous Knowledge: Students can define and identify flowchart symbols.

Objectives: Having discussed the symbols that represent each flow chart, students will be able to:

## 3) Construct a flowchart for a given algorithm or problem.

Learning Outcome: At the successful completion of this course students will be able to: Construct a
flowchart based on a given algorithm or problem.

## Content/concept: Before developing an algorithm it is important to have steps in creating an algorithm.

A problem is any task that requires a solution. These steps can be broken down into parts and thus
an IPO (Input, Processing, and Output) chart is created. Input instructions uses commands such as
read, input, accept and prompt. Processing instructions are calculate, compute, addition,
subtraction, multiplication and division. Output commands are basically terms such as print,
output, display, return and write. A flowchart is a pictorial representation of that algorithm which
consists of several symbols. An oval is an indicator where the chart starts and stops. A rectangle
indicates that processing is taking place. A diamond shape tells the user that a decision or
question should be completed. A parallelogram states what needs to be input or output operation.
The arrow denotes the directional flow of the algorithm. An algorithm is a sequence of
instructions which when followed in the specific order produces the desired result.

Skills:

## 1. Listening to the discussion and explanations given.

2. Write their own flowchart.
3. Analyzing the flowchart symbols.
Attitudes:

## 1. Cooperate with group work and interactive exercises.

Introduction

Phase 1

1. Students are required to listen to the discussion and define what a flowchart in their own
words is.
2. Students will then share their definitions and teacher will clarify and elaborate on key words
in the definitions.
3. Teacher will explain to students that a flowchart is a pictorial representation of an algorithm.
4. Each student will be required to select a symbol and should match the symbol with what is its
function.
5. When the music stops the student that has the ball would be required to share which symbol
they have and what is its function.

Development

Phase 2

1. With the aid of a chart, teacher would explain the flowchart symbols and their functions.
2. During explanation teacher would be using question and answer to arouse critical thinking.
3. After explanation is complete, students would be given a sheet of paper with all the different
symbols in which they are required to match the correct function for each symbol.

Phase 3

4. Students are informed that they have 10 minutes to complete the activity.
5. After the 10 minute period, teacher will hold the red card up to indicate that the time for that
activity is over.

Closure

6. Teacher would ask students to exchange papers as the teacher go over the answers to the
activity. Students would then return the papers to the correct students and the teacher would
allow for any clarifications.
Conclusion

Phase 4

1. Teacher will give each student a different algorithm or problem and students are asked to
prepare a flowchart on that particular algorithm or problem.
2. Students will be allowed in an orderly manner to explain their algorithm or problem and the
flowchart that they arrived at.
3. Teacher will discuss the flowchart that students presented.

Phase 5

1. Teacher will ask one student to explain the importance of differentiating the types of symbols
relative to an algorithm.

Extended Activity

Students will be given a puzzle on all the terms covered along with the flowchart symbols. These
students are then required to organize the puzzle with at least 90% accuracy.