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You are on page 1of 5

EGT3

ENGINEERING TRIPOS PART IIB

______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

Module 4A3

TURBOMACHINERY I

indicated in the right margin.

Write your candidate number not your name on the cover sheet.

STATIONERY REQUIREMENTS

Single-sided script paper

CUED approved calculator allowed

Attachment: Compressible Flow Data Book (38 pages).

Engineering Data Book

You may not start to read the questions printed on the subsequent

pages of this question paper until instructed to do so.

Page 1 of 4

Version CAH/4

rotational speed of 25000 rpm. It has an inlet stagnation temperature of 300 K and an

inlet stagnation pressure of 1 bar. Assume that the total-to-total isentropic efficiency of

the compressor (i.e. both impeller and diffuser) is 0.8. For all parts of this question the

working fluid is air with specific heat capacity at constant pressure cp = 1005 J kg1 K1

and ratio of specific heat capacities = 1.4 .

(ii) The impeller blades are backswept at 45 at their exit and have a slip factor

of 0.85. The absolute Mach number of the flow leaving the impeller is 1.0 and

the absolute flow direction is 70 to the radial direction. Sketch the velocity

triangle at the impeller exit and calculate the impeller tip speed and radius. [20%]

(iii) Discuss how a designer might reduce slip, noting any potential

disadvantages. [10%]

(b) The compressor of part (a) has a vaned diffuser in order to recover the kinetic

energy of the impeller exit flow.

(i) Discuss the benefits and limitations of common diffuser geometries with the

help of annotated sketches. [15%]

(ii) The Mach number at the leading edge of the diffuser blades is 0.8. The

velocity leaving the diffuser blades is negligible. Assuming the diffuser has a

pressure recovery coefficient of 0.7, calculate the static pressure at the diffuser

blade leading edge. [20%]

(iii) Explain why a pressure rise occurs in the vaneless space between the

impeller trailing edge and the diffuser blade leading edge in a typical radial

machine. The compression in the vaneless space may be assumed to have a

polytropic efficiency of 0.7 based on the static flow conditions. Calculate the

static pressure at the impeller trailing edge. [15%]

(c) Calculate the total-to-total efficiency of the impeller alone based on absolute

stagnation conditions at its trailing edge. [10%]

Page 2 of 4

Version CAH/4

achieve an overall stagnation pressure ratio of 18. All stages are to have a mean blade

speed of 245 m s1 and a stage-loading coefficient of 0.4. You should assume that the

flow has the properties of air throughout, with specific heat capacity at constant pressure

cp = 1005 J kg1 K1 and ratio of specific heat capacities = 1.4. You should neglect

the mass flow of fuel.

(a) If the total-to-total isentropic efficiency of the complete compressor is 0.87, how

many stages are needed to achieve the overall stagnation pressure ratio for an inlet

stagnation temperature of 285 K ? Using this many stages, calculate the total-to-total

isentropic efficiency required to achieve the overall stagnation pressure ratio if the inlet

stagnation temperature is 310 K. [25%]

(b) The compressor is driven by an axial turbine. All stages of the turbine have 20

of swirl at entry and exit from the stage, a stator exit flow angle of 72 and a rotor exit

relative flow angle of 67. If the axial velocity and mean blade speed are constant

through the turbine, sketch the velocity triangles and calculate the relative flow angle at

rotor inlet. [25%]

(c) The turbine inlet stagnation temperature is 1600 K and the blade speed is chosen

so that the Mach number of the flow leaving the first stator is 0.75. Calculate the

turbine blade speed. Hence obtain the stagnation temperature drop across each turbine

stage. The turbine drives the compressor with negligible mechanical losses. It also

drives a generator, which absorbs twice the work required to drive the compressor.

Estimate the number of turbine stages required when the compressor inlet stagnation

temperature is 285 K and the compressor total-to-total isentropic efficiency is 0.87. [30%]

(d) Explain why the Mach numbers in the second and following stages of the turbine

are higher than those in the first stage. What problems should the designer be aware of

in the following stages? [20%]

Version CAH/4

3 A single shaft turbojet engine has a multistage axial compressor and a single stage

axial turbine. It is operated on a stationery test-bed at sea level with an inlet stagnation

pressure p02 = 101 kPa and an inlet stagnation temperature T02 = 288 K . At the

design operating point the compressor pressure ratio p03/p02 = 6.0 and the stagnation

temperature at turbine inlet T04 = 1200 K . The compressor polytropic efficiency

pc = 0.85 and the turbine polytropic efficiency pt = 0.9.

Use cp = 1005 J kg1 K1 and = 1.4 for the air flowing through the compressor. Use

cpe = 1244 J kg1 K1 and e = 1.3 for the exhaust gas flowing through the turbine and

nozzle. For all operating points, assume that both the turbine nozzle guide vanes and the

propulsive nozzle are choked. The stagnation pressure drop through the combustor and

the mass flow rate of fuel can be neglected.

(a) Using the conditions at the design operating point, find the value of k , where

k = 1 T05 T04 and T05 is the turbine exit stagnation temperature. Explain why k

remains constant as the engine fuel flow is varied. [25%]

(b) Show that as the engine fuel flow is varied the compressor pressure ratio and the

engine non-dimensional mass flow are given by

pc ( 1)

p03 cpe T04 m cpT02 p03 T02

= 1 + k and =C

p02 cp T02 A2 p02 p02 T04

where m is the mass flow rate of air through the compressor, A2 is the compressor

inlet area and C is a constant. [15%]

(c) Find the stagnation temperature drop through the turbine and the compressor

pressure ratio when the fuel flow is reduced such that the stagnation temperature at

turbine inlet is 950 K . At this condition, treating the flow in the propulsive nozzle as

isentropic, find the exhaust jet velocity and the percentage reduction in gross thrust

relative to the design operating point. [45%]

(d) If the fuel flow is reduced further the compressor becomes unstable. Explain the

likely form and location of this instability. Describe two practical solutions that can be

applied to avoid multistage compressor instability at reduced rotational speed. [15%]

END OF PAPER

Page 4 of 4

4A3 Exam Paper Answers 2015

(b) 2.93 bar, 2.51 bar

(c) 0.925

(b) 47.40

(c) 351.0 m s1 , 211.8 K, 6 stages

(c) 152 K , 4.463, 528 m s1 , 37.2 %

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