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Rodrigo B.

Esta, RN
Master of Arts in Nursing
EMPOWERMENT IN THE WORKPLACE
Laschinger, Heather L., Wong, Carol A., Cummings, Greta G., and Grau, Ashley L. (2014).
Resonant Leadership and Workplace Empowerment: The Value of Positive Organizational
Cultures in Reducing Workplace Incivility. Nursing Economics, 32(1), pp.5-15
1. The article elucidated how Resonant Leadership accompanied by Workplace
Empowerment reduce Workplace Incivility. The main problem that the article tackled is
workplace incivility which can be linked to negative organization outcomes such as
increased burnout and turnover intentions and decreased job satisfaction and
commitment (Lachinger, Leiter, Day & Gilin, 2009). These problems create financial
burden for health care organizations. But with the help of Resonant Leadership, a form
of positive leadership, it empowers nurses and discourage workplace incivility and
burnout through emphatic, passionate and committed attitude to maintain a supportive
professional practice environment.

2. The discussion that I like the most is the role of a nurse leader in maintaining a positive
organizational culture in the area. I think that it is one of the most crucial and pivotal
factor of the article for these leaders are the one in active mentoring with his
subordinates. These leaders must demonstrate and preserve the value of nursing as a
profession towards cultural advancements. They are the ones to monitor, spearhead
and implement their leadership style that will greatly affect the drive of staff nurses in
reporting for work and getting the job done. On the other hand, the least information
that I have noticed was on incivility. It was stated in the reading that there hasnt been a
concrete definition of what incivility is. There must be stable criteria to describe if a
negative act is considered uncivil that can predispose in the development of negative
workplace environment.

3. The setting of the reading is basically a health institution with nurses working in direct
patient care positions composed of nurse leaders and staff as stated in the
demographics of the study it was held in different unit specialty with greater percentage
in the area of medical-surgical (51.7% of the sample). The participants are currently
working, majority are female with (93.9% of the sample) and an average age of 41.52
years of age averaging 16.80 years of nursing experience.

4. The author made emphasis on the use of Resonant Leadership style and its effect in
promoting good working environments. The leadership style of nurse leaders will greatly
define how the staff will react and embody their work as a nurse. Satisfaction on the
workload and environment will coincide with the outcomes of clinical service. Having
been said these information, nurse leaders need to build an empowering work
structures by seeking feedback, supporting and role modeling teamwork within the
area, actively mentoring staff towards optimum performance and giving them freedom
to make important decisions. In this manner, it is not just the leader working for the
team but they act as one, hand-in-hand in attaining their goal of an outcome based
positive organizational culture.

Lachinger H. L., Wilk P., Cho, J., Greco, P. (2009). Empowerment, engagement and perceived
effectiveness in nursing work environments: does experience matter? Journal of Nursing
Management, 17, pp. 636-646.
1. The article discussed how staff nurses perceived workplace empowerment and
workplace engagement can affective their effectiveness in the area. It also compared
the perception of new graduates versus the perception on experienced nurses towards
empowerment and engagement. Workplace engagement is defined as a positive
fulfilling, work-related state of mind that is characterized by vigor, dedication and
absorption (Schaufeli and Bakker, 2004). On the other hand, Workplace Empowerment
is practicing autonomy in their field that provides high level of job satisfaction,
organizational commitment, organizational trust, justice and respect with low levels of
job strain and burnout (Lachinger et al. 2001, 20013). With this, the main course of the
journal surrounded the use of empowerment and engagement as they were perceived
by newly graduates (less than 2 years experience) and nurses with experience more
than 2 years. Based on the findings of the study, it was concluded that work
engagement plays a mediating role or mechanism by which empowerment affects work
effectiveness. Furthermore, the experienced group perceived the need for workplace
engagement and empowerment to perform tasks effectively while new graduates still
needs basic structural empowerment because of the dramatic adjustments upon
entering the field of work. Hence, work engagement has been positively linked to
employee satisfaction, organizational commitment, effective practice behavior,
self-efficacy and job performance to lessen turnover intentions, burnout and poor
health.
2. The discussion in the reading that I liked the most was the need of newly graduate
nurses to acquire structural empowerment that will enable them to practice according
to their learnings in their nursing education program for them to practice effectively. It
is the most crucial stage of their nursing career because they will start to handle
patients without the need for further supervision and of course relate to their
colleagues on different settings and scenarios. It is a must for new graduate nurses to
gel in the profession for they will become the future of our practice. Ample guidance,
trust and support (emotional or information-based) will highly aid these nurses attain
the goals of their practice. On the other hand, the least that I like in the discussion is
that whenever engagement and empowerment fails, nurses might lead to burnout, poor
health and turnovers. I myself have experienced such when I was still a newly graduate
profession but doesnt have to be the thing. In order for a person to attain his goals, he
must do everything with compassion and hardwork. Nothing comes out easily but with
continued a support from the manager, surely the nurse will still pursue the profeesion.
3. The readings study took place in the province of Ontario during the winter of 2005. The
sample were selected using a stratified sampling method. The first group, newly
graduate nurses, were randomly selected from the College of Nurses in Ontario registry.
Meanwhile, the second group composed on experienced nurses are all staff nurses
working in an acute care setting in the same province. They used 2 years as their
timeframe because based on evidence, newly hired nurses tend to leave their first
position within the first 2 years.
4. The issue and concern that the topic from this reading tackled was on the benefits of
empowerment and engagement on nurses effectivity in their task regardless if they
belong to the newly graduate nurses or an experienced one. It is further elucidated
these two factors, empowerment and engagement, uphold nurses intent to stay in their
jobs for nowadays, there has been a serious nursing shortage. This shortage might
greatly affect the quality of healthcare delivery. This article can greatly help future
researches and help the current state of the profession today. Managers can get
information to make the practice worthwhile and the staff satisfied with their jobs.

Regan, L. C., Rodriguez L. (2011). Nurse Empowerment from a Middle-Management


Perspective: Nurse Managers and Assistant Nurse Managers Workplace Empowerment
Views. The Permanente Journal, 15 (1), pp. e101-e107
1. The article concentrated on the Perspective of Middle Managers, composed of Nurse
Managers and Assistant Nurse Managers, regarding their own empowerment which is
directly rooted from the higher managers. Since middle managers are the direct
reporter from the staff nurses, known as the first liners, they relate with the staff,
patients, upper management and other members of the healthcare team. They have full
responsibility in the area such as hiring and firing of staff, judging competency of staff,
assuming budgetary responsibility to deliver quality healthcare. It has been said that a
leader must have a sense of empowerment in order to empower others. Basically, the
higher management must empower middle managers for them to empower staff
nurses. In the reading, it was presented that middle managers lack empowerment (with
a mean score of 21). They lack information, support and resources necessary to
accomplish required work. With this, we can sum up that they lack organizational
support. As a resolution, the management should take the lead to break down barrier
and reach out to their subordinates. They must perceive empowerment and how to
empowerment can influence their role perception, satisfaction and ability carry out their
responsibility. They must work with the upper management to assess their needs aiming
to self-empowerment that will aid them to empower their staff.
2. The discussion that I like the most in this article is the Conceptual Framework used in
the study for it really hits empowerment. Using Kanters components of empowerment,
it was explained and defined as essentials in attaining that said state. As a middle
manager, I can see that these components are really functional and important in my
leadership. I myself sometimes feel that I am not empowered enough because I just get
instructions from the higher management. Other than that, I also see Banduras Theory
of Self-Efficacy beneficial for it discusses that those who believe that they will succeed
have a greater chance of doing so. At times that I feel the lack of empowerment, I just
concentrate on my goal to empower my staff for us to deliver safe and quality
healthcare to our patients. On the other hand, the topic that I least like was the
selection of sample. It may be limiting because they have done the study in just one
institution. Solely, it may not generalize the whole profession but will just define the
empowerment of middle managers in that organization. I hope that they have used a
bigger sample involving middle managers from different institutions to generalize a
bigger population of the profession.
3. The reading was conducted during the winter season of Northern Carolina in an
ethnically diverse metropolitan area the year 2011. The study involved 49 nurse
managers and assistant nurse managers from all clinical units of a 327 bed capacity
private teaching hospital. The sample was selected by convenience sampling technique.
4. The author of the reading address the lack of empowerment of middle managers. It is
crucial because they are the one empowering the frontline staff. Without them being
empowered, they cannot empower their subordinates. It is impossible that a person has
the power to empower a subordinate without him being empowered by his superior. An
organization is a team that works with the objective of delivering safe and quality
patient care. They must create an environment that ensures the delivery of safe and
high quality care, high patient satisfaction rate and positive patient outcomes for them
to be trusted as a healthcare institution. With this objective in mind, middle managers
must empower themselves to create a condition under which others can do the same.
Wagner, J. I. L, Cummings, G., Smith, D. L., Olson, J., Anderson, L., Warren, S. (2010). The
relationship between structural empowerment and psychological empowerment for nurses: a
systematic review. Journal of Nursing Management, 18, pp.448-462
1. The reading aims to describe the review the relationship between structural
empowerment and psychological empowerment of nurses. The study is done by
reviewing previous studies and published readings to see the actual relationship of both.
Due to the ageing workforce in the location of the study, they are in search of answers
on why new nurses tend to take a different path rather than choosing the professional
nursing path or worst, not choosing nursing as their career of choice. They also wanted
to know why there is an increase in job stress, morbidity associated with ageing
population and increase in staff turnover intention. They dig into the structure of
institutions to know how it affects the psychologic perception of staff towards the
management and their work. The study laid down different factors that affect structural
empowerment namely: opportunity, information, resources, support, formal and
informal power. On the other side, they also presented components of a multi-faceted
psychological empowerment as: competence, self-determination and impact. These key
factors can move and affects the status of empowerment of managers and their
subordinates. With this, there is a need to assist staff to counteract the impact of
environmental stress on the system to improve recruitment and retention on RNs. As a
result, the authors found out that there is a significance relationship between structural
empowerment and psychological empowerment. The root for staff psychological
empowerment is founded from the structural empowerment of the institution.
2. The part of the discussion that I like the most was its significance. It is said that the main
goal of the study is to assist health care leaders to counteract the impact of
environmental stress on the health care system and to improve the recruitment and
retention of RNs. I can see the impact of this study in the outcome of the profession
nowadays as RNs are choosing a different path towards their career for they cant find
satisfaction in the practice of nursing. Mainly, studies show that turnover and
dissatisfied staff nurses root their decisions from the management system that the area
is running. This study can help institutions improve employment towards an effective
health sector. My least liked information on the reading is their method of study. Since
they used systemic review, I find it uninteresting on my part its just reviewing previous
study to come up with additional information. They have not come in contact with their
respondents and get first-hand information regarding the topic.
3. The study was conducted in Canada during the time of March of 2010. It involves
previous studies of staff nurses in Ontario tertiary care hospitals and RNs working in two
general hospitals located in Netherlands. The subjects are composed greatly of Ontario
hospital since they are the most accessible and reachable by the researcher with more
available previews readings on the topic chosen.
4. The main issue that the reading address was on stress in the workplace. Stress may
come from different factors but stress as emphasized in the discussion came from the
structure of the health care system. Lacking structural empowerment in the workplace
may predispose the staff to experience instability in psychological empowerment. For a
staff should relate to the higher management, the middle managers, co-staff nurses,
patients, relatives and the other members of the health care team. Without proper
structural stability, the staff may experience stress in the workplace hence leading to
unfulfilled goals that may cause turnover. With this, scarcity of nurses may transpire
that will give addition burden to the institution and the health care delivery system.
Wong, C. A., Laschinger, H. K. S. (2013). Authentic leadership, performance, and job
satisfaction: the mediating role of empowerment. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 69 (4),
pp. 947-959.
1. The is reading focused on the style of authentic leadership towards staff performance
and job satisfaction. Based on the reading, authentic leadership is a pattern of
transparent and ethical leader behavior that encourages openness in sharing
information needed to make decisions while accepting input from those who follow.
Due to the advances in technology, changes in government funding and policy,
declining economy, health and safety concerns associated with stressful work
environments, upcoming retirements and projected workforce shortage, there is a
need of new blood inside the health care system. They need to form and train new
staff nurses for they will soon be the managers of the institution. But was is happening
nowadays, there is an increase in shortage of newly graduate staff and turnover of
current staff nurses due to stress in the workplace and the structural process of the
institution. With this, the authors examined a not well known leadership style that may
help to alleviate stress and burnout among staff nurses. They have found out that
authentic leadership concentrates on transparency, balanced processing,
self-awareness and high ethical standards for leaders to empower staff therefore
increasing job satisfaction and organization outcomes.
2. The description that I like the most in the study is how they relate the 4 variables
together in the study. First is authentic leadership defining the characteristics of an
authentic leader presenting traits that managers can use in relating to their
subordinates. Secondly, how authentic leadership can act on structural empowerment.
Authentic leadership may access new opportunities, information, additional resources
and power that can aid in structural empowerment and stability of the organization.
Third is job satisfaction. Since authentic leadership aids the staff to get involve in
decision making, they make the staff feel the autonomy towards their decision and
work load. With the three components present, the fourth will take place which is the
performance. With authentic leadership, structural empowerment can be attained,
staff and managers are job satisfied and fulfilled therefore leading to high performance
rate in giving quality health care. On the opposite, there is no thing that I didnt like
about the study for it can really be useful as a form on leadership which really involve
the staff nurses in the management process therefore decreasing turnover intentions
due to job fulfillment.
3. The study was done in acute care teaching and community hospitals in Ontario and
respondents were selected from the College of Nurses registry list. It was done over 4
months in the late 2008 involving 280 completed and usable surveys obtaining a 48%
response rate with 200 participants. The study concentrated on staff nurses excluding
managers, charge and with educational position.
4. The reading suggested an answer on concerns on leaderships style that managers are
practicing. There are a lot of leaderships styles presented in leadership and
management books but this reading presented a breakthrough in those previously
known styles. Authentic leadership is advantageous as a leadership styles for managers
to emphasize transparency, balanced processing, self-awareness and high ethical
standards. It is a form of being open and gaining the staff trust to help them manage
and control the situation. It practices autonomy on staff nurses as they manage
patients and leads to another path of professional development. Staff involvement is
highly appreciated by staff to release their doubts on themselves and towards their
managers. Being involve makes them feel at home with the organization therefore
leading to a structural empowerment for the benefit of the organization. Also job
satisfaction is highly rated with the use of authentic leadership that improves staff
performance. Future visions of the institution can be easily attained with well
performing staff and a set of well organize and structured institution.