You are on page 1of 18

Prime Movers, Power Transmission Equipment, Machines and Machine Parts

Section 1.0 Scope

This chapter covers provisions for safe machine design, guarding and similar considerations for users and designers
of power transmission equipment, prime movers, machines and machine parts. It includes provisions for safe use,
design and guarding of danger zones except those within the points of operation of machinery utilized in various
industries. Considerations for machine guarding and safety provisions at the point of operation are covered under
Chapter 4. Provisions of this chapter shall not be interpreted as alternatives to those described in other chapters of
this Code.

Section 2.0 Definitions

Accidental Contact shall mean inadvertent physical contact between personnel or other materials with power
transmission equipment, prime movers, machines or machine parts, which could result from slipping, falling,
sliding, tripping or any other unplanned or unintentional act or movement.

Belt Shifter- a device for mechanically shifting belts from tight to loose pulleys of vice versa; or for shifting belts on
steps or step-cone pulley

Danger Zone- an area around the points of operation, the prime mover and the transmission system, where
personnel or materials other than those in process in the machine may come in contact, or be caught by or
between moving and/ or stationary parts of the machine. This includes areas where materials or stock are fed into,
processed and/ or discharged the machine.

Electric Motors- normally a prime mover utilizing magnetic energy from flowing electric currents to produce
mechanical energy, usually in the form of rotational or shaft energy. While electric motors may also be designed
for other benefits, other than mechanical work, the provisions for guarding and safety design for prime movers
moving parts, and general machine design as provided by this Code shall apply.

Enclosed Enclosure- a method of guarding moving parts so that physical contact by parts of the body is precluded.
This does not prohibit the use of hinged, sliding, or otherwise removable doors or sections to permit inspection or
lubrication

Flywheel- a heavy wheel which by its inertia assets in securing uniform motion of machinery by resisting sudden
changes of speed. A mechanical energy storage device that stores momentum in a dynamically balanced rotating
mass and releases it through the action of clutched, cams, gears or other intermittent arrangement which engages
resisting loads against the momentum of the wheel.

Guarded-shielded, fenced, enclosed or otherwise protected according to these provisions by means of suitable
enclosures, covers, casing through. U guards, shield guards, standard railings, or by means of isolation or
remoteness of location where permitted in these provisions, to minimize or remove the possibility of accidental
contact.

Guarded by Location- that the moving parts are so protected by their remoteness from the floor, platform,
walkway or other working level, or by their location in reference to accidental contact or dangerous approach to by
persons to object.

Internal Combustion Engine- a type of prime mover utilizing the energy from expanding combustion gases to
produce mechanical energy. Internal combustion engines may be classified according the type of fuel used
(gasoline, diesel, propane, etc.) according to the arrangement of combustion cylinders. (i.e. vertical-in-line, rotary);
or according to the combustion cycle (i.e. Lenoir, Brayton, Otto, jet, 2-stroke, 4-stroke, etc.) Suitable guarding and
protection shall be provided against heat, vibration, noise, explosion and fire.
Machine- the driven unit, appliance, or equipment as distinguished from the driving unit, transmission equipment
or prime mover. The machine shall consist of fixed and movable parts characteristic to the process or type of
operation which it is intended to perform.

Machine Parts- as used in this code shall mean all moving parts of the machine, except those forming part of the
point of operation.

Nip-Point Belt And Pulley Guard- a device which encloses the pulley and is provided with rounded or rolled edge
slots through which the belt passes.

Pneumatic Motor- a type of prime mover utilizing the potential energy from compressed gases such as air,
nitrogen, etc., as it expands to atmospheric pressure to produce reciprocating or rotational mechanical energy.

Point of Operation- the part of machine which performs an operation on the stock or materials and/or that point
or location where stock or material is fed to the machine. A machine may have more than one point of operation.

Power Transmission Equipment- all mechanical means of transmitting power from a prime mover to a machine.

Prime Mover- an engine or motor operated by, steam, gas, air, electricity, fuel, fluids in motion or other forms of
energy and whose main function is to drive or operate, either directly or indirectly, other mechanical equipment.

Process Machine- a machine designed and operated for a specific purpose and includes machine tools and
processing devices subject to regular attention.

Tail Rod- the extension of piston rod passing through a stuffing box in the outside head of an engine cylinder,
compressor cylinder or pump cylinder.

Transmission Machinery- shall refer to a closed system of machine parts through which mechanical energy from a
prime mover or energy source is transferred, relayed, converted, regulated, controlled and delivered to another
machine system or appliance. The system may comprise of shafting, wheels, drums, pulleys, couplings, clutches,
drive belts, sheaves, chain and sprockets, gears, torque connectors, speed reducers, or other power transferring
device.

Turbine- a prime mover consisting of fixed and moving blades or vanes which direct and harness energy from
flowing fluids and converts it to mechanical energy. Flow energy of working fluids or media include but are not
limited to; expanding steam as in the case of steam turbines; and flowing water (as it falls from a higher elevation
to a lower) as for hydraulic turbines.

Section 3.0 Guards

3.1 General Requirements.

A. Type of Guarding Required. Where guards shall be required, they shall be of proper design,
constructed of materials listed in Table 3.3.1, adequately rigid and secured in place, and shall shield, fence, rail,
enclose, guard or otherwise protect the employee against accidental contact with dangerous moving parts of
prime movers, power transmission equipment, machine and machine parts.

B. Guards may be provided with hinges or removable mechanisms whenever it may be necessary to
change belts, make adjustments, or apply lubrication to the guarded parts.

3.2 Specific Requirements.

A. Disk guards shall consist of a sheet metal no less than 0.80mm (Gauge #22 U.S. Std. gauge) or other
material that will give equivalent rigidity. Such disks, where installed, shall be securely fastened to exposed sides of
spokes or parts equivalent to spokes in rotating power transmission equipment and machine parts. Material used
for disk guards shall have smooth surfaces free from burrs, slivers, nails, bolt heads, or other projection provided,
however, that round head machine screws or bolts may be used with metal disks under conditions that make
counter-sinking impracticable.

B. A shield guard shall consist of:

1. A suitably rigid frame filled or sheathed with wire mesh, expanded-, perforated- or solid sheeting
material such as metal, plywood, plastic or the similar covering material; or

2. Metal, plywood, plastic or its equivalent sturdiness which will, without a frame, give the
required protection. If the area of shield guard, wire mesh, expanded metal in a frame exceeds 0.55 m 2 , it
shall be reinforced. The wire mesh or expanded metal may be fastened to a frame of 9mm diameter
round rods, 20mm x 20mm x 3mm angle iron or some other metal construction of at least equivalent
strength.
3. Trough or U guards shall be constructed of material speciefied in Table 3.3.1 . Edges shall be
smooth and, if the size of guard so requires, these edges shall be reinforced.
4. An enclosure guard shall be constructed of material specified in Table 3.3.1, expect for
standard railing, and shall be so installed that if completely guards the power transmission equipment or
moving parts so that physical contact is prevented.

C. Railing guards and toe boards where required under any item in this code shall comply with the
provisions of Section 2.3.7.

3.3 Clearance
A. Where the guard or enclosure is within 100mm from the moving parts, openings on the guard
shall be of such size as will prevent passage of any object greater than 12mm in diameter.
B. Where guards are located more than 100mm and less than 380mm from moving parts, the
opening shall not be more than 50mm, and where slotted guards are used, the width of the opening shall
not be greater than 25mm.
C. Standard railings guards shall be placed no less than 380mm and no more than 500mm form
any moving parts, provided however that where clearances from other moving parts of are less than
380mm, such parts shall be guarded as required elsewhere in this code.

3.4 Opening for Lubrication


A. Where application of lubrication must be done, openings with hinged or sliding covers shall be
provided.
B. Where machines or machine parts must be lubricated while in motion the lubricating devices
shall be located at least 300mm away from dangerous moving parts unless such parts are guarded and the
lubricating devices, are piped outside the guard.
C. Transmission equipment, machines and machine parts in inaccessible locations, which are to
be lubricated while they are in motion shall be equipped with extension lubricant fittings or other
methods of lubrication which can be serviced from an accessible location.

3.5 Guarding of Flywheels


A. Prime Mover Flywheel. Any exposed part of a flywheel 2100mm or less above working level
shaft be guarded.
B. When a flywheel extends into a pit or its within 300mm of floor level, and a standard railing
guard is used, a standard toe board shall also be provided.
C. When it is necessary to move, swing, spin, or push flywheels for starting, guards may be
removable or provided with momentary openings which shall be immediately closed after such starting
operation is completed. A slot opening for jackbar will be permissible, as provided in Section 3.5 D.
D. Every jackbar should be equipped with a hand stop so located that it will safely clear the
flywheel guard when fully inserted but will prevent the workers hand being pinched between the slot and
bar.
E. Machine Flywheel. Machine flywheel having spokes ( or parts equivalent to spokes), or
projections, any part of which 2100mm or less above floor or working level shall be guarded.

3.6 Fly ball Governors: Fly Ball Governors located 2135mm or less above the floor, platform or working
level having rotating, projecting or sectional prats, or hazardous receeses shall be guarded.

3.7 Conveyors
A. Screw conveyors 2100mm or less above floor or working level shall be completely covered
with substantial lids except for screw conveyors 600mm or less from its top to the floor or working level,
whether its axis be above or below the floor level which may be guarded by standard railing guards having
toe boards of midrail height or by substantial covers or gratings.

B. All bet conveyor head pulleys, tail pulleys, single tension pulleys and dip take-up pulleys shall be so guarded that
the entire sides of the pulleys are covered and the guard shall extend in the direction of the run of the belt at such
distance that a person cannot reach behind it and be caught in the nip point between the belt and the pulley.

C. Portable inclined conveyors shall have head and tail pulleys or sprockets and other power transmission
equipment guarded accordingly.

D. Where necessary to passed over exposed chain, belt, bucket, screw, or roller conveyors, such crossovers shall be
provided with catwalk or bridge with standard railings and toe boards and shall have a safe means of access either
fixed ladder, ramp, or stairway.

E. Conveyors passing over areas that are occupied or used by employees shall be so guarded as to prevent the
material handled from falling off and causing injury to employees.
F. Where workmen pass under the return strands of chain conveyors a shallow trough or other effective means of
sufficient strength to carry the weight of the broken chain shall be provided.

3.8 Process Machine Power Control:

A. Each process machine driven by an individual prime mover shall be equipped with emergency stopping devices
which can be safety actuated from the operators working position unless the machine is equipped with automatic
clutch which will stop or disengage all machine operation.

B. Where an operator attends one or more process machines not equipped with individual drives, each machine
shall be equipped with stopping device which can be safely actuated from the operators working position at the
machine, such a stopping device may stop an entire group of machines by stopping the prime mover, power
transmission or it may be a machine clutch, cut-off coupling, or tight and loose pulley with belt shifter which can
stop all the machine. Pole or hand shifting of belt is not considered adequate means for disconnecting the power.

Exception: where due to the process, machines must be operated in groups, the machine power control may stop
the entire group of machines, and such group drives shall be provided with conveniently located, readily accessible,
and properly marked or identified emergency stop devices.

C. Where practicable, each process machine simultaneously attended or operated by more than one employee
shall be equipped with a machine power control for each employee exposed to or within the vicinity of points of
operation. Said controls shall be interlocked in such a manner as to prevent operation of the machine unless all
controls are operated simultaneously.

D. Machine power controls shall be maintained in safe operating condition, and shall be so designed, installed,
and/or located that they are not likely to operate from accidental contact with objects or parts of the body.

3.9 Machine Power Control. All machines shall be equipped with adequate means whereby the operator of the
machine, or some other person may disconnect the power promptly in case of emergency.

3.10 revolving and Reciprocating Parts.

A. Hazardous revolving or reciprocating parts in any machine not guarded by the frame or the machine or by
location shall be guarded.

B. Keys, set screws, projections or recess in revolving parts not guarded by the frame of the machine or by location
shall be removed, made flush or guarded.

3.11 Collars and couplings shall be cylindrical and no screws or bolts project beyond largest periphery.

3.12 Clutches, cut-off couplings or clutch pulleys, having projecting parts where any parts of such devices is located
or 2100 mm less above the floor or working level shall be guarded.

3.13 Guarding of Belt and Pulley Drives:

A. Any part of a belt and pulley drive involving the use of flat crowned or flanged pulleys, which is 2100 mm or less
above the floor or working level shall be guarded.

B. Flat step-come pulley drives upon which the belt operates no one step only, or step cone pulley drives where
multi-step operation is obtained by changing the length of the belt shall be guarded.

C. Every V-belt and pulley drive including V-belt and step-cone pulley drives, any part of which is 2100 mm or less
above the floor or working level shall be enclosed.
D. IF the bottom of the guard is within 100 mm of the floor or supporting structure, the bottom of the guard need
not be enclosed.

E. Where a group of flat belt drives is guarded by a standard railing guard, such drives shall be considered guarded
where the distance from the vertical plane of the rail to the nearest point of any belt or pulley is not less than 380
mm nor more than 500 mm and where the distance between any two adjacent belts or pulleys does not exceed
900 mm.

F. Horizontal overhead belts more than 2100 mm above the floor, platform or other working level shall be guarded
for their entire length if located over passageways or working places.

G. Wherever there are pulleys of such dimensions and so located as to permit passage between upper and lower
runs of belt, standard railing guard shall be constructed; or all space traversed by belt shall be completely barred
against passage.

H. Continuous system rope drives so located that the condition of the rope (particularly the splice) cannot be
constantly and conveniently observed shall be equipped with a telltale device (preferably electric bell type) that
will give warning when the rope begins to fray.

I. All rope drives shall be guarded as required for belt drives.

3.14 Counter-balanced belt tensioner and all parts thereof shall be of substantial construction. Means shall be
provided to prevent the tensioner from falling in case the belt breaks; or the area directly beneath the tensioner
shall be guarded by standard railing guards.

3.15 Belt-type variable speed drives located 2100 mm or less from the floor or working level shall have all moving
parts guarded.

3.16 All gears and sprockets wherever located shall be guarded adequately.

3.17 Friction drives located 2100 mm or less above floor or other working level shall be guarded.

3.18 The chains, sprocket and chain drives, located with 2100 mm of the floor or other working level, shall be
guarded.

3.19 Where workmen pass under the chain drives, a shallow trough or other effective means of sufficient strength
to carry the weight of a broken chain shall be provided.

3.20 Manually operated power disconnecting devices shall be designed, constructed and installed so that they will
remain in the neutral position until intentionally actuated.

3.21 Machine guarding other than at the point of operation:

Relates to the belts, pulleys, gears, shafts, and shaft ends, screws, projections, and all other moving machine parts,
other than at the point of operation, that constitute potential injury producing conditions.

Section 4.0 Principle of Safe Machine Design:

4.1 Dangerous moving parts should be enclosed.

4.2 Parts subject to wear, adjustment, and hand lubrication should be conveniently accessible.

4.3 Lubrication should wherever possible be automatic and continuous when the machine is in operation.

4.4 Consideration should be given to individual drive so that hazards due to driving mechanism may be minimized.
4.5 Sharp lighting contrasts between light and shadow and glare in the vicinity of the point of operation should be
avoided. Color contrasts should be considered, as well as the provision of integrally mounted lights, and the most
effective probable position of independent lighting units.

4.6 Materials should be mechanically conveyed to, and products from machines wherever possible.

4.7 Provision should be made of automatically conveying dusts and gases away from a machine.

4.8 Noise should be eliminated or reduced to no more than the maximum allowable according to the table of
threshold limit values for noise exposures, Similarly, employee exposure to such noise shall be limited according to
Table 3.4.1

4.9 Vibration should be eliminated or reduced to the maximum permissible extent.

4.10 Machine motions tiring to the eyes should be avoided, as when reciprocating of revolving parts must be
viewed through cross screens or lattice work.

4.11 Exterior shapes or any part of the machines that require frequent contacting or handling should be so
designed as to facilitate convenience in handling, while moving parts that cannot be enclosed should, as far as
possible, be smooth in contour.

Table 3.4.1 Threshold Limit Values For Noise Exposure

Hours of exposure per day, Max. Sound Levels (Slow Response), dB


Hrs.
8 90
6 92
4 95
3 97
2 100
1
1 102
2
1 105
1/2 110
1/4 115+

4.12 Weights of parts to be handled should be kept within the limits of convenience and safety, or these parts
should be so design that they may be conveniently handled by mechanical means.

4.13 Throughout the design or the machine and its parts, consideration should be given to convenience in
attaching accessories, particularly for point of operation guards for moving part, in essence, bosses for accessories
may be cast on the framework of machines in such a way as to permit drilling, tapping, and bolting on of
accessories without weakening the structure of the machine itself.

4.14 Consideration in design should be given to the external shape of the machine so that danger of accident from
tripping and failing and collision will be minimized. Splay-footed supports, for example, that stand out from the
body of the machine sometimes cause a tripping hazard. Corners may often be rounded to lessen the danger fram
accidental contact.

4.15 Liberal factors of safety should be used in determining the strength of parts.

4.16 Wherever manufacturing circumstances permit, point of operation guards should be installed by the builder
of the machines so that it may be delivered in a fully guarded condition.
4.17 Consideration should be given to the safe location or isolation of machines that cannot be made safe
otherwise.

Section 5.0 Power Transmission System

5.1 Shafting

A. Torsional Strength of Shafting. In the formulas that follow, SI system of units as discussed in section 12.2.3 is
adopted

= Angular velocity in radians per second.

C = Distance from center of gravity to extreme fiber.

D = Diameter of shaft in mm.

J = polar moment of inertia of shaft cross-section, m (see table 3.5.1)

N = Angular velocity of shaft in revolutions per minute (RPM).

P = Power transmitted in KW.

S = Allowable torsional shearing stress in kPa.

T = Torsional or twisting moment in N-m:

Zp = Polar section modulus in cubic meter. (see table 3.5.1)

The maximum allowable torque or twisting moment, Tmax for shaftvof any cross-section is:

Tmax = S x Z

For a shaft delivering P kilowatts at revolutions per minute the twisting moment in Newton-meters, T being
transmitted as:

T = 9.55 x 10^3P/N

Or

T = P/

The torque twisting moment T as determined by this formula should be less than the value determined by using
formula (1) if the maximum allowable stress S is not to be exceed.

The minimum diameter of a solid circular shaft required to a transmit a given torque T is:

3 5.1
D =

Or
48.7105
D=

The allowable stresses that are generally used in practice are 27.6 MPa (282 kg/cm^2) for main power-
transmitting shafts; 41.5 Mpa (423 kg/cm^2) for lineshafts carrying pulleys; and 58.7 MPa (599 kg/cm^2) for small,
short shafts, counter shafts, etc. Using these allowable stresses, the power P transmitted by a shaft of diameter D,
or given power P may be determined from the following formulas:

For maijn power-transmitting shafts:


3
P=
1.755 105

Or
1.755 105
D=

For lineshafts carrying pulleys:


3
P=
1.1738 105

Or
1.1738 106
D=

For small, short shafts;


3
P=
0.837 106

Or
0.837 106
D=

Shafts which are subjected to shocks, sudden starting and stopping, etc., should be given a greater factor of safety
resulting in the used of

Lower allowable stresses than those just mentioned.

Illustrative example: What would be the diameter of a lineshaft transmit 7.5 kW if the shaft makes 150 rpm? Using
Formula (5b)

D= (1.1738x10^6) x 7.5 =38.86mm.


150
Illustrative example: What power would a short shaft. 50.8mm in diameter, carrying but two pulleys close to the
bearing transmit if the shaft makes 300 rpm? Using Formula (6a)

P= (50.8)^3 x 300 = 46.99 kW


0.837 x 10^5

B. Polar Moments of inertia and Section Moduli. The polar moment of inertia with respect to a polar axis through
the center of gravity shall be used for problems involving the torsional strength of shafts since this is usually the
axis about which twisting of the shafts takes place.

The polar section modulus (also called section modulus of torsion). Zp for circular section may be found by dividing
the polar moment of inertia, J, by the distance c from the center of gravity to the most remote fiber. This method
may be used to find the approximate value of the polar section that is nearly round. For other than circular cross-
sections. However. The polar section modulus does not equal the polar moment of inertia divided by the distance
c.
5.2. V-Belts and Sheaves. The tapered cross-sectional shape of a V-belt causes it to wedge family into the shave
groove during operation so that the dividing action takes place through the sides of the belt rather than the
buttom, which normally is not in contact with the sheave at all.

A. V-belt Drives. Belts of the V type, commonly manufactured of fabric, cord, or combination of these,
treated with natural or synthetic rubber compound and vulcanized together, provide a quiet, compact, and
resilient form of power transmission. They the used automotive, home and commercial equipment and in
industrial drives for a wide range of horsepower extending upwards from fractional values.

B. Standard Multiple V-belt. Five sizes V-belts are designated in the Engineering Standards for multiple V-
Belt Drives. Nominal width and thickness dimensions of V-belts of various manufacturers may very somewhat from
these nominal dimensions. Because of this fact, it is recommended that belts of different makes should never be
mixed on the same drive. Standard V-belt pitch lengths and permissible pitch length tolerance are given in Table
3.5.3.

C. Measuring a Multiple V-Belt. The pitch of multiple V-belts is determined on a measuring fiture
consisting of two equal diameter sheaves having standard grooves and pulled with a standard test load indicate in
table 3.5.2. One of the sheaves is fixed in position, while the other is movable along graduated scale with the
specified tension applied to it.

The sheaves should be rotated at least two revolution to seat the belt properly in the sheaves grooves and
to equally divide the total tension between the two strands of the belt. The pitch length is the length obtained by
adding the pitch circumference of the one of the measuring sheaves to twice the measured center distance
between them. Deviation of the measured pitch length from the standard pitch length shown in table 3.5.3 Should
be within the tolerance limits also given in the table.

The grooves of the measuring sheaves should be machined and maintained to the following tolerance pitch
diameter.+/- 0.002 inch, groove angle, +/- 0 degrees, 20 minutes, and groove top width. +/- 0.002 inch.

C. Belt Length and Center Distance. The relation between between center distance and belt pitch length is given
by the following formula:

L= 2C+1.57 (D+d) + (D-d)^2/4C

For D= pitch diameter of large sheave in mm


D= pitch diameter of small sheave in mm
L= pitch length of belt in mm
C= center distance in mm

This formula can be rearrange to solve for the center distance, as follows:

C= b+7b^2 -32(D-d)^2
16 where: b= 4L-6.28(D+d).

D. Installation and take up allowance. After calculating a center distance from a standard pitch length, provision
should be made for moving the centers together by an amount, as shown by the minus values in table 3.5.4 to
permit installing the belts over the sheaves, without injury. Also shown in Table 3.5.4 in the minimum allowance
above the standard center distance (plus values) for which the centers should be adjustable to take up any stack in
the belts due to stretch and wear.

E. Section of Multiple V-belts. The carts on Figure 3.5.1 appears in Engineering Standards for multiple V-belt Drives
enables a V-belt of appropriate type of be selected for a given RPM of the small sheave, the transmitted power of
the driving unit, and the service factors are known. The selection procedures follows.
(1) Obtain the equivalent design horsepower( covert kW to HP) by multiplying the transmitted HP by the
appropriate service factor from table 3.5.5.
(2) Enter the chart at the RPM of the small sheave and proceed horizontally in a point in the vertical line o
the design horsepower.
(3) If this point falls in the area marked A, then an A size belt is required or.
If this point falls near the line of separation between two belt sizes areas, then both sizes may be
considered as suitable for use. For example, a design horsepower of 40 to be transmitted at a small sheave speed
of 800 rpm would call for a multiple drive of either C or D V-belts.

F Power Rating for multiple V-belts. The following formulas and accompanying tables of constant (Table 3.5.6 to
3.5.9) may be used to determine the general horsepower rating of a determine the general horsepower rating of a
single V-belt. The total transmitted power through multiple V-belts thus, shall not exceed the sum of individual
rated capacities of all connected V-belts.

Lower allowable stresses than those just mentioned.

Illustrative example: What would be the diameter of a lineshaft transmit 7.5 kW if the shaft makes 150 rpm? Using
Formula (5b)

D= (1.1738x10^6) x 7.5 =38.86mm.


150
Illustrative example: What power would a short shaft. 50.8mm in diameter, carrying but two pulleys close to the
bearing transmit if the shaft makes 300 rpm? Using Formula (6a)

P= (50.8)^3 x 300 = 46.99 kW


0.837 x 10^5

B. Polar Moments of inertia and Section Moduli. The polar moment of inertia with respect to a polar axis through
the center of gravity shall be used for problems involving the torsional strength of shafts since this is usually the
axis about which twisting of the shafts takes place.

The polar section modulus (also called section modulus of torsion). Zp for circular section may be found by dividing
the polar moment of inertia, J, by the distance c from the center of gravity to the most remote fiber. This method
may be used to find the approximate value of the polar section that is nearly round. For other than circular cross-
sections. However. The polar section modulus does not equal the polar moment of inertia divided by the distance
c.

5.2. V-Belts and Sheaves. The tapered cross-sectional shape of a V-belt causes it to wedge family into the shave
groove during operation so that the dividing action takes place through the sides of the belt rather than the
buttom, which normally is not in contact with the sheave at all.

A. V-belt Drives. Belts of the V type, commonly manufactured of fabric, cord, or combination of these,
treated with natural or synthetic rubber compound and vulcanized together, provide a quiet, compact, and
resilient form of power transmission. They the used automotive, home and commercial equipment and in
industrial drives for a wide range of horsepower extending upwards from fractional values.

B. Standard Multiple V-belt. Five sizes V-belts are designated in the Engineering Standards for multiple V-
Belt Drives. Nominal width and thickness dimensions of V-belts of various manufacturers may very somewhat from
these nominal dimensions. Because of this fact, it is recommended that belts of different makes should never be
mixed on the same drive. Standard V-belt pitch lengths and permissible pitch length tolerance are given in Table
3.5.3.
C. Measuring a Multiple V-Belt. The pitch of multiple V-belts is determined on a measuring fiture
consisting of two equal diameter sheaves having standard grooves and pulled with a standard test load indicate in
table 3.5.2. One of the sheaves is fixed in position, while the other is movable along graduated scale with the
specified tension applied to it.

The sheaves should be rotated at least two revolution to seat the belt properly in the sheaves grooves and
to equally divide the total tension between the two strands of the belt. The pitch length is the length obtained by
adding the pitch circumference of the one of the measuring sheaves to twice the measured center distance
between them. Deviation of the measured pitch length from the standard pitch length shown in table 3.5.3 Should
be within the tolerance limits also given in the table.

The grooves of the measuring sheaves should be machined and maintained to the following tolerance pitch
diameter.+/- 0.002 inch, groove angle, +/- 0 degrees, 20 minutes, and groove top width. +/- 0.002 inch.

C. Belt Length and Center Distance. The relation between between center distance and belt pitch length is given
by the following formula:

L= 2C+1.57 (D+d) + (D-d)^2/4C

For D= pitch diameter of large sheave in mm


D= pitch diameter of small sheave in mm
L= pitch length of belt in mm
C= center distance in mm

This formula can be rearrange to solve for the center distance, as follows:

C= b+7b^2 -32(D-d)^2
16 where: b= 4L-6.28(D+d).

D. Installation and take up allowance. After calculating a center distance from a standard pitch length, provision
should be made for moving the centers together by an amount, as shown by the minus values in table 3.5.4 to
permit installing the belts over the sheaves, without injury. Also shown in Table 3.5.4 in the minimum allowance
above the standard center distance (plus values) for which the centers should be adjustable to take up any stack in
the belts due to stretch and wear.

E. Section of Multiple V-belts. The carts on Figure 3.5.1 appears in Engineering Standards for multiple V-belt Drives
enables a V-belt of appropriate type of be selected for a given RPM of the small sheave, the transmitted power of
the driving unit, and the service factors are known. The selection procedures follows.
(1) Obtain the equivalent design horsepower( covert kW to HP) by multiplying the transmitted HP by the
appropriate service factor from table 3.5.5.
(2) Enter the chart at the RPM of the small sheave and proceed horizontally in a point in the vertical line o
the design horsepower.
(3) If this point falls in the area marked A, then an A size belt is required or.
If this point falls near the line of separation between two belt sizes areas, then both sizes may be
considered as suitable for use. For example, a design horsepower of 40 to be transmitted at a small sheave speed
of 800 rpm would call for a multiple drive of either C or D V-belts.

F Power Rating for multiple V-belts. The following formulas and accompanying tables of constant (Table 3.5.6 to
3.5.9) may be used to determine the general horsepower rating of a determine the general horsepower rating of a
single V-belt. The total transmitted power through multiple V-belts thus, shall not exceed the sum of individual
rated capacities of all connected V-belts.
2. Tolerance for Chain Length: New chains subjected to the standard measuring load are allowed an over-length of
0.99 mm per meter (1/84 inch per foot), but must not be under-length.

The Measuring Load is the load in kilograms (pounds) under which a chain should be measured for length.
It is equal to 125 x (pitch)2, with minimum of 8.2 kg (18 pounds).

3. Minimum Ultimate Tensile Strength in pounds of Standard Series single-strand chain is equal to 12,500 x (Pitch)2
for multiple-strand chain, multiply by number of strands.

Table 3.5.6 X, Y, Z Factors for use in formula (3).

Values of X,Y,ZV factors


Factor

Regular Quality Belts


Belt Section
A B C D E
X 1.945 3.434 6.372 13.616 19.914
Y 3.801 9.83 26.948 93.899 177.74
Z 0.0136 0.0234 0.0416 0.0848 0.1222
Premium Quality Belts
Belt Section
A B C D E
X 2.684 4.737 8.792 18.788 24.478
Y 5.326 13.962 38.819 137.7 263.04
Z 0.0136 0.0234 0.0416 0.0848 0.1222

Table 3.5.7 Length of Correction Factors

Standard Length Belt Cross Section


Designation A B C
Correction Factor
26 0.81 - -
31 0.84 - -
33 0.86 - -
35 0.87 0.81 -
36 0.88 0.83 -

42 0.9 0.85 -
46 0.92 0.87 -
48 0.93 0.88 0.8
51 0.94 0.89 -
53 0.95 0.9 -

55 0.96 0.9 -
60 0.98 0.92 0.82
62 0.99 0.93 -
64 0.99 0.93 -
66 1 0.94 -

68 1 0.95 0.85
71 1.01 0.95 -
75 1.02 0.97 0.87
78 1.03 0.98 -
80 1.04 - -

81 - 0.98 0.89

83 - 0.99
85 1.05 0.99 0.9
90 1.06 1 0.91
96 1.08 - 0.92

Belt Cross Section


A B C D E
Standard
Length
Designation Correction Factor
97 - 1.02 - - -
105 1.1 1.04 0.94 - -
112 1.11 1.05 0.95 - -
120 1.13 1.07 0.97 0.86 -
128 1.14 1.08 0.98 0.87 -

136 - 1.09 0.99 - -


144 - 1.11 1 0.9 -
158 - 1.13 1.02 0.92 -
162 - - 1.03 0.92 -
173 - 1.15 1.04 0.93 -

180 - 1.16 1.05 0.94 0.91


195 - 1.18 1.07 0.96 0.92
210 - 1.19 1.08 0.96 0.94
240 - 1.22 1.11 1 0.96
270 - 1.25 1.14 1.03 0.99

300 - 1.27 1.16 1.05 1.01


330 - - 1.19 1.07 1.03
360 - - 1.21 1.09 1.05
390 - - 1.23 1.11 1.07
420 - - 1.24 1.12 1.09

480 - - - 1.16 1.12


540 - - - 1.18 1.14
600 - - - 1.2 1.17
660 - - - 1.23 1.19
Table 3.5.8 Arc of Contact Correction Factors

Type of Drive
Arc of contact on Small V to V V to Flat*
Sheave Correction Factor
180 1 0.75
170 0.98 0.77
160 0.95 0.8
150 0.92 0.82
140 0.89 0.84
130 0.86 0.86
120 0.82 0.82
110 0.78 0.78
100 0.74 0.74
90 0.69 0.69
* A V-Flat drive is one using a small sheave and a large diameter flat
pulley.

B. Standard Roller Chain Numbers. The right-hand figure in the chain number is zero for roller chains of the usual
proportions, 1 for a lightweight chain and 5 for a rollerless bushing chain. The number to the left of the right-hand
figure denote the number of 1/8 inch in the pitch. The letter H following the chain number denotes the heavy series;
thus the number 80. H denotes a 1-inch pitch heavy chain. The hypernated number 2 suffixed to the chain number
denotes a double strand, a 3 triple strand, 4 quadruple strand chain and so on.

1. Heavy series: These chains, made in -inch and a larger pitches, have thicker ink plates than those of the
regular standard. Their value is only in the acceptance of higher tensile or jerk loads at low speeds. The
rollers, bushing diameter, pin diameter, and widths are the same as the standard series.
2. Light-weight Machinery chain: This chain is designated as No. 41. It is inch pitch; 1/4inch in wide; has
0.306-inch diameter rollers and a 0.141-inch pin diameter. The minimum ultimate tensile strength is 1,500
pounds.
3. Multiple-strand Chain: This is essentially an assembly of two or more single-strand chains placed side by
side with pins that extend through the entire width to maintain alignment of the different strand. For a
given power load, a multiple strand chain can be run at a higher speed than the required single strand chain
of a higher pitch.

C. Types of Sprockets. Four different designs or types of roller chains are shown in sectional views in Figure 3.5.2.
Type A is a plan plate sprocket; type B is a single-hubbed sprocket; type C is double-hubbed; and type D shows
detachable hub arrangement. Also used are shear pin and slip clutch type sprockets designed to prevent damage to
the drive or to other equipment caused by overloads or stalling.

D. Selection of chain and Sprockets. The smallest applicable pitch of roller chain is desirable for quiet operation and
high speed. The horsepower capacity varies with the chain pitch. However, short pitch with high working load can
often be obtained by the use of multiple-strand chain.

The small sprocket selected must be large enough to accommodate the shaft. Table 3.5.10 gives maximum
bore and hub diameters consistent with commercial practice for sprockets with up to 25 teeth.

After selecting the small sprocket, the number of teeth in the largest sprocket is determined by desired
ratio of the shaft speed. Over emphasis on the exactness in the speed ratio may result in a cumbersome and
expensive installation. In most cases, satisfactory operation can be obtained with minor change in speed of one or
both shafts.

Figure 3.5.2 Simple Types of Sprockets

E. Center Distance Between Sprockets. The center-to-center distance between sprockets. As a general rule. Should
not be less than 1 times the diameter of the larger sprocket and not less than thirty times the pitch nor more than
about 50 times the pitch, although much depends upon. The speed and other conditions a center distance equivalent
to 80 pitches may be considered an approved maximum. Very long center distances result in catenary tension in the
chain. If roller-chain drives designed correctly, the center-to-center distance for some transmissions may be so short
that the sprocket teeth nearly touch each other, assuming that the load is not to great and the number of teeth is
not to small. To avoid interference of the sprocket teeth, the center distance must, of course, be somewhat greater
than one-half the sum of the outside diameters of the sprockets. The chain should extend around at least 120
degrees of the circumference, and this minimum amount of contact is obtained for all center distances provided the
ratio is less than 3 to 1. Other things being equal, a fairly long chain is recommended in preference to the shortest
one allowed by the sprocket diameter, because the rate of chain elongation due to natural wear is inversely
proportional to the length, and also because the greater elasticity of the longer strands tends to absorb irregularities
of motion and to decrease the effect of shocks.

Means of a through. The diameter of the disc. should be such as to produce rim speeds between 600 fpm
minimum and 800 fpm maximum.

Type IV, Oil Stream Lubrication: the lubricant is usually supplied by a circulating pump capable of supplying each
chain drive with a continuous stream of oil. The oil should be applied inside the chain loop evenly across the chain
width, and directed at the lower strand.

Consult chain manufacturers when it appears desirable to use a type of lubrication other than that recommended.

The extreme right portion of the tabulated data is shown in boldface. This represents ratings in the galling range.
For optimum results, it is recommended that the roller chain manufacturer be given the opportunity of evaluating
conditions of operations if these horsepower ratings apply.
Prime Movers, Power Transmission Equipment, Machines and
Machine Parts

-------------

In Partial Fulfillment of the


Requirements in
NME 417 1ME: Safety Engineering

-------------

Presented to the
College of Engineering
University of the East - Caloocan

-------------

Cruz, Arvin Jansen O.


4.September. 2017