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Chapter # 7

Pakistani Language
Subjective Questions with Answers

Q1. Why Urdu is called a language of national integration?


Answer
Introduction
Language is the only media by which one can express his ideas and feelings. It plays a vital role in
building the character of an individual as well as a nation. Languages bring closer each other and it
creates a sense of harmony among the people. Language is a means of expressing our thoughts
and emotions; Language draws a line of difference between Man and other creatures.

Languages in Pakistan
Pakistan has several regional languages, chief of them being Pashto, Punjabi, Sindhi, Balochi and
Kashmiri.

Urdu - National Language of Pakistan


After independence Quaid-e-Azam said in clear-cut words that the national language of Pakistan
would be Urdu. He said: "Let me make it clear that the national language of Pakistan is going to be
Urdu and no other language. Without one state language no nation can remain tied up solidly
together. "

Evolution of Urdu
Urdu evolved over a period of centuries by cultural contacts between local people of northern Sub
Continent and Muslims of Arabia, Iran and Turkey. The base of this language is Prakrit, an Aryan
language. The script of Urdu is modified form of Persian. Urdu is a word of Turkish language and
its literal meaning is "Lashker" (Army).

House of Urdu
Urdu took birth in the suburbs of Delhi. That is why it was called Zaban-e-Dehelvi. When this
language reached Daccan and Gujrat, it was called Daccani and Gujrati, as well. About seeing its
popularity the noble made special efforts for its promotion in this way it rose to literacy heights.

Stages through which Urdu passed during the process of its formation.
The grammatical structure, of Urdu is based on Sauraseni Apabhramsa but its vocabulary, idioms
and literary traditions drew heavily from Central Asian, Turkish and Persian sources. The literary
flowering of Urdu does not go farther than 13 th century. Urdu literature developed in the bazaar, the
monastery and the salons and al1 these places have their characteristic features. The early Islamic
rulers and the Mughals were the early patrons of Urdu literature
Raikhtha
Urdu, especially in its less formalized form as it developed from a dialect to a more formal
language, has also been referred to as "raikhtha", which literal1y means "a rough mixture".
Zaban-e-Urdu-e-Moalla ,
The formal language is sometimes referred to as Zaban-e-Urdu-e-Moalla, which can be translated
as "Language of Camp and Court". The word Urdu itself means "army", "horde" or "tent" in Turkish.
The language of the Mughals
It soon became the language of the Mughals, distinguished linguistical1y from local languages by
its large and extensive Arabic Persian vocabulary (40%) superimposed on a base of grammar,
usages and vocabulary that it shares in common with Hindi.

Why is Urdu the Language of National Integration?


The role of Urdu in the cultural integration of the Muslims of India
In the United India, Urdu was the symbol of Muslim identity. When the Hindus alienated
themselves from Urdu considering it the language of the Muslims, cracks between the two nations
started to appear. Thus Urdu served as a symbol of the Muslim culture and proved a deathblow to
the magnificent culture based on Hindu Muslim Unity.
The role of Urdu in-the cultural integrat'rdl1 of different ethnic groups of Pakistan
Pakistani culture is a heterogeneous culture. People of different ethnic groups live here. Urdu is
serving as a centripetal forces to keep the people of Pakistan united. Had Urdu not been our
centripetal force, the spirit of provincialism would have danger engendered Pakistan's solidarity.
Urdu is a language of national integration because of its following qualities.
1. Koh-e-Noor of Languages
2. Great Power of Assimilation
3. Source of National Identity
4. Rich Treasure of Prose and Poetry
5. Means of Brotherhood and Unity
6. Source of Expression
7. Means of Communication and Co-ordination
8. Medium of Instruction
9. Urdu an Important Part of Our Cultural Heritage
10. A Mirror to Society
11. Urdu the living history of our culture
12. Reciprocal relationship between Urdu and our society

The Koh-e-Noor of languages


The assimilation of different languages in Urdu made it the most beautiful language of the world. It
was beautiful like a rainbow with a cosmos of colours in it. It was cal1ed the bride of languages
and the " Kohinoor" of India. It is widely spoken today in both India and Pakistan and all countries
having sizeable South Asian inhabitants.
Great Power of Assimilation
The splendor of Urdu is Turkish and its charm is Persian in its base. The vitality of Urdu lies in its
ability to adopt words from Arabic and other languages. The chief reason for its countrywide
popularity was its power of Assimilation. According to Sir Syed Ahmed,Khan Still now Urdu has
great affinity for many other words and ideas which increases its beauty. "
Source of National, Identity
National language is the identity of a nation. When we are abroad we are identified as Pakistani
because of our national language. That is why; every nation gives respect and importance to
national language.

Rich Treasure of Prose and Poetry


The Urdu language possesses a very valuable treasure of poetry and prose. The poets and writers
have contributed their most in its development. Maulana Shibli Nomani, Maulana Hali, Deputy
Nazir Ahmed, Mirza Ghalib, Amir Khusro and many others adopted this language in their poetry
and writings. Sir Syed wrote for the re-awakening of the Muslims of Sub Continent. According to
Abdul Haque: "It is Sir Syed due to whom Urdu has made such a great progress within a period of
only one century.

Means of Brotherhood and Unity


People of Pakistan are one nation; therefore their thinking, aims and objectives are common. Their
progress and prosperity depends upon their unity and brotherhood. An important factor for
achieving this unity and brotherhood is Urdu.

Source of Expression
Urdu has become a source of expression, feeling, thoughts, and aspiration. People of two different
areas can easily understood each
other ideas and thoughts by Urdu.

Means of Communication and Co-ordination


Urdu serves as a means of communication and is a binding force for all the four provinces of
Pakistan. People living in different provinces realize that in spite of speaking different languages,
they are joined together by one national language which is the heritage of all.

Medium of Instruction
Urdu' language is the medium of instruction in most of the educational institutions of Pakistan.
History, Islamic Studies, political Science .and other subjects are taught up to M.A level Urdu.
Lectures on Islamic education and religion are also delivered in Urdu throughout Pakistan.

Urdu- An Important Part of Our Cultural Heritage


Urdu grew in popularity by the later Mughal Period and the advent of the British. It had been
adopted by the Muslims and the Hindu alike. It would not be wrong to say if it is said that: "Urdu is
a part of our cultural Heritage."

A Mirror to Society
Words, syntax idioms, phrasal verbs and other instruments of speech used by speakers of Urdu
reflect the Islamic society. So we can say there is a close affinity between Urdu and culture. Both
bear the marks of each other. So Urdu is centripetal force for our nation.

Urdu--------the living history of our culture


Urdu reflects the entire body of the experiences of our society. It records the total experiences of
Pakistani society. Also it transfers these experiences to the coming generations. Urdu, therefore, is
the living history of our nation. In this way, Urdu integrates the culture of a nation. Allama
Muhammad Iqbal calls history' the memory of a nation. Pakistani nation's memory has been
memory kept alive through Urdu.

Reciprocal relationship between Urdu and our society


Languages of the vibrant and civilized societies are rich in academic tradition and vice versa in
uncivilized societies. Ours is a rich culture. Similarly Urdu is one of the most beautiful and delicate
languages of the world. This fact constitutes a reciprocal relationship between Urdu and our
culture.

Conclusion
Being the national language of the country, it is the binding force in different parts of Pakistan. The
officers have adopted Urdu language in their official work and the Government has published a
dictionary containing Urdu terms for the office work. The Urdu Development Board and "Anjuman-
e-Taraqi-e-Urdu" are trying to give Urdu a place in society and it is hope that Urdu would find its
place in society within short period of time.

Q 2 Write a few lines on Punjabi language under the following sub-headings:


1. The Dialects of Punjabi
2. Themes
3. Role of Saints in the promotion of Punjabi
4. Story Telling .
5. Genres of Punjabi literature
6. Twentieth Century Punjabi

Answer
Punjabi is the language of the Punjab regions of India and Pakistan. It is a language of the Indo-
Iranian subfamily.

Origin of Punjabi
Like other North Indian languages, it is derived from Sanskrit.

History of Punjabi
We do not know exactly about the history of Punjabi language. Many experts trace its origin to the
ancient Dravidians of Harappa civilization 2500 Be. Others trace its origin to the Mahmood of
Ghazni which is not earlier than 1000 AD. Generally , Baba Faridud-Din is known as the first poet
of Punjabi.
Names of Punjabi
The name Punjabi was first used by the author of the book Miftahul Fiqh for
the regional language of Punjab.
Before that Punjabi was referred to as Multani, Lahori, Jatki; Hindi etc.
Alberuni termed the language of Punjab as Alhindiya.

Dialects of Punjabi
Many sources subdivide the Punjabi language into.

Chahachi Hithari Phthohari Dhanni Shahpuri Majhi

Punjabi in the world


Mainly Punjabi is spoken in Pakistan and India. Punjabi is also spoken as a minority language in
several other countries where Punjabis have emigrated in large numbers, such as Britain, the
United States and especially Canada, where it is the fifth most commonly used language. Punjabi
is the sacred language of the Sikhs, in which the religious literature is written. It is the usual
language of Bhangra music, which has recently gained wide popularity both in South Asia and
abroad.

Genres of Punjabi Literature


Following are the major forms of Punjabi literature:
War, Dhola, Doha, Tappa, Mahiya, Sathi, Boli, Lori, Ghazal

Epic writing in Punjabi


Tradition of writing epic poetry and national songs is very rich in Punjabi literature.

Punjabi Prose
Short story, novel, drama and criticism were introduced in the twentieth century in Punjabi
literature.
The role of media in promoting Punjabi Radio, television and film played very important role in the
development of Punjabi drama and story writing.

Literary Assets
The following folk tales are the literary assets of Punjabi literature:

Folk Tale Poet


Heer Raniha Waris Shah
Sassi Punno Hashim Shah
Sohni Mahinwal Fazal Shah
Mirza Sahiba Hafiz Burkhurdar
The Themes of Punjabi Literature
Punjabi is rich in mystical and romantic poetry. The highly imaginative and artistic exquisite
literature, mostly in verse has two forms one is "Lyric Poetry" which includes Bait, Kafi, Si-harfi,
Bara Mah and Satwara the other one is "Narrative Poetry" which is composed of various rhythms
and meters. Examples are Qissa Noor" Namah, GuIzar, Jang Nama and Vaar.

Famous authors of Punjabi language


Famous authors of Punjabi language are:
Baba Farid Shakar Ganj Baksh
Shaikh Ibrahim Farid Shani
Madholal Hussain
Sultan Bahu
Bullay Shah
Ali Haider
Waris Shah

Q3. Illustrate the evolutionary process of Sindhi language.


Answer
Sindhi is one of the important regional languages of Pakistan. John Beames writes about Sindhi "It
is a rough language, having thorny paths of its own, but there hangs about it, to my mind
somewhat of the charm of wild flowers. There is a flavour of wheaten flour and a reek of cottage
smoke about Punjabi and Sindhi, which is infinitely more natural and captivating than anything
which the hide-bound Pundit-ridden languages of the eastern part of India can show."

The Origin of Sindhi Language


Sindhi is related to "Indo Arean" languages. Its base is "Sanskrit" or "Prakrat". After the coming of
Arabs a great number of Arabic, Persian and Turkish words were added to Sindhi.

History of Sindhi Language


It appears that Sindhi was spoken in the Indus Delta from time immemorial. It is said that the
language of the people of Moen-Jo-Daro contained elements of the present Sindhi language.
Travelers like Al Beruni have told us about the original script of the language. 'Chach Nama' being
an authentic document proves that the dialect of the Sindhi language was the same in the 12 th
century, as it is today.

Dialects of Sindhi
There are seven styles of the Sindhi language"

No. Dialect Area of the Dialect


1 Siro North of Sindh
2 Vicholi Middle Sindh
3 Laar Southern Sindh
4 Thari Thar
5 Kutchuki Kutch, Balochistan
6 Dhatki Rajhasthan, Sindh,
7. Lassi Lasbela

Sindhi in the world


Sindhi is spoken by approximately 17 million people in the province of Sindh,
Pakistan.
Sindhi is also a recognised official language of India where it is spoken by
approximately 1.2 Million people.

Sindhi Script
Sindhi has its own script which is similar to Arabic but with a lot of extra accents and
phonetic.
There are 52 characters in Sindhi language.
.
Sindhi Literature
Sindhi was a very popular literary language back in 14 th to 18th century. This is when Sufis Like
Shah Abdul Latif and numerous others narrated their theosophical poetry depicting the relationship
of humans and God.

Sindh, in Educational Institutions


Sindhi language is taught as first language in schools of south east Pakistan except in large
metropolis like Karachi. Sindhi language has a vast vocabulary which made it a favorite of many
writers and a lot of literature & poetry was written.

First Translation of the Holy Quran


Quran was for the first time translated into Sindhi in rheumatic format this was the first ever
translation of Quran back in 12th century or earlier.

Preaching in Sindhi
At about the same time came the religious writings of Ismaili Khojas (Khwajas), known as "Ginan"
(Gnan). They availed of the local language to reach the masses for religious conversion.

Shah Abdul Latif


Shah Abdul Latif (1689-1752) was not only the greatest poet of Sindh, he was probably the
greatest Sindhi in history As a poet he belongs to world class. His poetry is more valuable than all
the other Sindhi literature put together. And. he was not only great poet; he was a great saint, a
great nationalist, a great humanist. And at a pinch, he could be a humorist, too. His book Shah Jo
Risalo is the, masterpiece of Sindhi literature. His poetry is known for eloquence, simplicity,
rhythm and flow. Dignity of labour and value of life are the favourite themes of his poetry.

Sachal Sarmast
Another immortal poet of Sindh was Abdul Wahab (1739-1829) well known as Sachal 'Sarmast' the
True-Intoxicated One. He was a great Persian-Arabic scholar, who wrote much in Persian and.
then became an intoxicated Sufi thinker-poet. He composed nine hundred thousand couplets.
Nazria Wahdatul Wajood was his favourite subject.

Makhdum Muhammad Hussain


He was a religious scholar. He wrote about 50 books in Persian and Sindhi. His books were
included in the curriculum of AI-Azhar
University, Cairo. He also translated the Holy Quran in Sindhi.
Other Sindhi Poets
The important Sindhi writers are:
Mirza Kalich Beg,
Hakim Fateh Mohammed Khan Sewhani
Bherumal Mehrchand
Lalchand Amardinomal.
Sheikhn Ayaz
Prof. Karim Bux Khan Nizamani
Asadullah Bhutto

Q4. Describe the works of the various poets and prose writers of Pashto.
Answer
Pashto or Pakhto is the regional language of the N. W.F.P and tribal areas. The people who speak
Pashto are called Pakhtoon or Pashtoon.

Origin of Pashto Language


It belongs to the East Iranian group of languages and .contains many Persian, Arabic, Greek and
Pehlevi words. By the end of the 14 th century, the Pashto language had absorbed more explicit
external influences.

History of Pashto to Language


This language was originated almost 5000 years ago in an area of Afghanistan called 'Bakht' or
'Baakht'. Accordingly the people who speak this language are called Pakhtoon or Pashtoon.

Dialects of Pashto
There are three major dialects of Pashto:
Western Pashto which is spoken in Afghanistan,
Eastern Pashto which is spoken in north-eastern Pakistan.
Southern Pashto, spoken in Balochistan

Famous Pashto Poets
Some of the well known poets of Pashto language are:
Amir Karoro
He wrote Pata Khazana, the first book of Pashto poetry in the second half of the 8 th century.

Famous Pashto Poets


Some of the wells known poets of Pashto language are:
Amir Karoro
Khushhal Khan Khatak
Rehman Baba
Mullah Maqsood
Noor-ud-Din
Amir Karoro
He wrote Pata Khazana, the first book of Pashto poetry in the second half of the 8th century.

Khushhal Khan Khatak


Khushhal Khan Khatak was the greatest poet of Pashto. He was himself a warrior also. He said:
Those moments are memorable for Khushhal when there is music of swords and iron coverings.
Khushhal khan Khatak wrote on different aspects of life in his poetry. The important topics of his
poetry are Ishq-e-Hakeeki, Ishke-Majazi, war, spirituality, nature, prestige and bravery.

Rehman Baba
Rehman Baba is also the great poet of Pashto language. He was a Sufi poet and he laid emphasis
on spirituality and love. He is a milestone in Pashto poetry.

Mullah Maqsood
He wrote folk songs in Pashto language.

Noor-ud-Din
Noor-ud-Din also wrote folk poetry like Charebeta, Tappa, Lamki' etc.

Other poets
Besides the above mentioned, Sher Shah Suri, Mullah Mast, Ghias-ud-din Bulbun and Hafiz Karim
are also famous poets of Pashto language.
Pashto to prose
The Pashto prose started developing in the 20 th century. Now because of the medias, Pashto prose
had developed a lot. Now short stories, novels, play, grammar, essays, and criticism is also
composed in Pashto poetry.

Forms of Pashto poetry


Following are the forms of Pashto poetry:
Tappa
Char baitay
Badley
Nemkai
Steps Taken to Develop Pashto
Although Pashto is an old language but its literature is comparatively new one. After
independence education spread rapidly and Pashto literature received a great boost. The Pashto
Academy Peshawar and other literary societies and educational institutions such as Islamia
College (Peshawar) helped the, growth of Pashto literature.

Pashto as an academic Subject.


Pashto is the medium of instruction in Afghanistan.
Pashto is taught as a subject in many schools, colleges and universities of Pakistan
specially N.W.F.P.
Pashto is taught at very few universities in the United States and Canada.
The most consistent program offered is at the Diplomatic Language Services in
Arlington, Virginia

Conclusion
Being our regional language, Pashto language is a mark of our culture. It is a mirror to Pashto life
style and Pashto way of thinking. So it is a medium of bringing people together.

Q5. Write a note on lyrical poetry, classical prose and works of the period of British Raj in
Balochi language.
Answer
Balochi is the regional language of Balochistan. It is the least developed of all the regional
languages. It was spread by Balochi tribal migrated from Iran.

Types of Balochi
There are two types of Balochi namely:
1. Sulemani
2. Makrani
Balochi lyrical poetry
There are three branches of Balochi lyrical poetry.
Patriotic poetry
Love poetry
Folk poetry

Patriotic poetry
The most important branch of Balochi poetry is patriotic poetry. The themes of the patriotic poetry.
include courage, grandeur, honour, patience and bravery.
Love poetry
The second important branch of Balochi poetry is love poetry. It includes the themes of love and
passion.
Folk Poetry
The third branch of Balochi poetry is Folk poetry. The stories of Lori and Motak present a reflection
of social life in ancient times.
Balochi Classical Prose
The stories of Classical Balochi prose are:
Mir Chalkkar Khan,
Hassan Zindu,
Hammal Rand-o-Minhaad,
Peering -O-Giran,
Naazsha,
Mureed Dhani
These stories are very poplar in classical prose of Balochi literature.
British Raj and Balochi literature
The Balochi poetry written in the reign of English included topics of spirituality, morals and hatred
against the British. A popular poet of this era is Mast Tolki.
Conclusion
Literature produced by earlier poets has no record as it is preserved traditionally in the memories
of the people. No newspapers or books were published in Balochi up till 1940. After partition,
however Balochi literature received a little boost due to the efforts made by many associations and
by the establishment of T.V stations. At present, Baloch literature is on the road to development.

Q6. Describe the five genres of Kashmiri language.


Answer
Kashmiri
Kashmiri is the language of the people of inhabiting the occupied Kashmir and Azad Kashmir. This
language has been derived from Sanskrit. Kashmiri is generally spoken in Muslim families of the
valley. It contains many Turkish, Arabic and Persian words, and is written in the Persian Script.

Accents of Kashmiri language


The four main accents of Kashmiri language are:
I. Sulmanki
2. Hindko
3. Gandro
4. Gami
Quality Accent of Kashmiri Language
Gandro is the quality accent of Kashmiri language.
Kashmiri literature
Kashmiri like all the regional languages of Pakistan, had its early literature flowered in the form of
poetry, which began with the composition of folk songs and ballads.

Kashmiri Literary Figures


Famous authors of Kashmiri language are:
Sh. Noor-ud-din
Khatoon Lillah Anifa
Baba Nasir-ud-din
Ghani..
The periods of Kashmiri Language
Objective Questions with Answers

Four probable answers are written below. One is correct. Tick ( ) the right answer.
1. Which was the city made capital by Shah Jahan is 1647 in place of Agra?
a. Madras b. Karachi
c. Dhaka d. Delhi

2. The poet who wrote the first book of odes.


a. Bahadur Shah Zafar
b. Sultan Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah
c. Mirza Ghalib
d. Maulana Altaf Hussain Hali

3. Most standardized accent of Punjabi Language is


. a. Majhi b. Potehari
c. Chachi d. Saraiki

4. In third period of Kashmiri Language who was the famous poetess?


a. Mahmood Gansi b. Htba Khatoon
c. Armani Lal d. Mulla Faqir .

5. The name of poet whose collection of poetry is. "Shah io Rasolu"


a. Khushhal Khan Khatak
b. Waris Shah
c. Makhdum Muhammad Hashim
d. Shah Abdul Latif Bhatai

6. The name of the first book of Pashto language


a. Pata Khazana b.. Tazkra-tul-Aulia
c. Jat di Kartut d. Athar-us-Sanadid

7. Urdu is a word of Turkish language, which means,


a. Sword . b: Arms and ammunition
c. Army d. Literature
8. The name of the poet who wrote "Mussads-i-Hali"
a. Amir Khusro b. Maulana Altaf Hussain Hali
c. Mir Taqi Mir d. Khawaja Mir Dard
9. The language in which first translation of Holy Quran was made.
a. Punjabi b. Kashmiri c. Sindhi d. Balochi
10. The year in which first Balochi journal was published.
a. 1940 b. 1950 c. 1960 d. 1970

Answers
1 d, 2 b, 3 a, 4 b, 5 d, 6 a, 7 c, 8 b, 9 c, 10 a

Fill in the blanks.


1. If the literature is representative of the region, then this literature is called _______ literature.
2. Allama Muhammad Iqbal wrote his poetry in Urdu and _______ languages.

3. The time of the arrival of ___________ points out the knowledge and literature of Punjabi
language.
4. The second great poet of Pashto language is ____________.
5. In fourth period Kashmiri language and -literature remain dominated by ______.
6. The Aryans speaking language was called
7. The relation of Sindhi language joins with old Harappai language or _________-.
8. ____________is known the first poet of Pashto.
9. According to a research Kashmiri language is annexed to ______________ language.

Answers
I. Regional 2. Persian
3. , Mahmood Ghaznavi 4. Rehman Baba
5. Spiritual influence 6. Arya
'7. Dravri 8. Amir karor
9. Sindhi

Match column 'A' with column 'B' and write down the answer in column 'C'.
CI
Column A Column B Column C
1. Waris Shah Maulvi Molah
2. Khushhal Khan Khattak Poet of Sindh language

Poetic version of Holy Kaseeda and Madah became part of Pashto


3.
Quran in Sudhi language literature

4. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan Poetry pertaining to war, love and folk tales
Division of Balochi'
5. Punjabi Novelist
poetry in three parts
6. Mirza Qaleech Beg Poet of Pashto Language
7. Oabir Singh Miran Singh Tale of Heer Ranjha
Period of Ghius-ud-Din
8. Accents of Kashmiri Language
Bulbul'&Sher Shah Suri
9. Mast Towakli Aligarh College

Answers

.. ..

.No Answer .No. Answer

1. The Story of Heer Ranjha 2. Poet of Pushto Language

3. Moulvi Mo1ah 4. Ali Garhcollege

5. Poetry pertaining to war, love and folk tales 6. Poet of Sindhi

Kaseeda and madah became part


7. Punjab Novelist 8.
of Pashto literature

9. Accents of Kashmiri Language.

Write down brief answers.


1. Write the names of five Urdu poets who promoted Urdu language?
Answer
The following poets promoted Urdu.
Mirza Ghalib .
Altaf Hussain Hali
Allama Iqbal
Bahadur Shah Zafar
Meer Oard
Meer Taqi Meer

2. State the fifth period of Kashmiri language?


Answer
The fifth period of Kashmiri language progressed under the influence of modern literature. It has
new thoughtful trends. Ghulam Ahmad Mehjor holds important place in this respect. In this,
Kashmiri language was modernized new trends were introduced in the narrative and descriptive
manner of Kashmir language. .

3. What message Allama Muhammad Iqbal, the poet of East gave to the Muslims through his
poetry?
Answer
Allama Iqbal tried to the Muslims of South Asia realized that they possessed great cultural and
social heritage. The only solution to their misery is that they faced new situations and difficulties by
making themselves weaker. He also made it clear that Muslims are tied one bond no matter where
they live in the world. They are like one nation, and they should face all odds together.
4. State the evolution of Sindhi literature during the period from 1050---1350?
Answer
In the period from 1050 to 1530, special work was done. .This work was literary and religious in
nature. This period is considered to be the earliest part of Sindhi literature. In this period the
themes of patriotism and self confidence and spiritual aspects were presented the stories of
Ganaam, Haith, soorthay, Gatha and Doobray were written in this period.

5. Write the names of five poets of Sindhi language.


Answer
Following are the poets of Sindhi language
Shah Abdul Latif Bhattai, Sachal Sar Mast, Makhdoom Muhammad Hashim, Mirza
Quleesh Baig, Abul Hussan Sindhi

6. What are the themes of poetry of Push to literature?


Answer
The Important themes of Pashto literature are
Ishq-e-Haqiqi
Ishq-e-Majazi
War
Spirituality
Nature
Prestige
Bravery

7. Write names of five poets of Kashmiri language.


Answer
Habba Kahtoon, Rauf yalloon, Shati Khnt, Armani lal.
8. Write the topics of war poetry pertaining to Balochi literature?
Answer
The themes of Balochi war poetry includes courage, grandeur, honour, patience and bravery.

9. What was the work done by five poets in connection with the development of Punjabi
language?
Answer .
The following work was done by the five poets of Punjabi language.
Waris Shah Wrote Heer Ranjha.
Hashim Shah wrote Sassi Punno.
Fazal Shah wrote Sohni mahinwal.
Hafiz barkhordar wrote Mirza Sahiban.