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f (m)f (n) whenever m, n are relatively prime.

Theorem. If f is a multiplicative function and if n = pa11 pa22 pas s is its

prime-power factorization, then f (n) = f (pa11 )f (pa22 ) f (pas s ).

If n = pa11 then there is nothing to prove, as f (n) = f (pa11 ) is clear. If

n = pa11 pa22 then f (n) = f (pa11 )f (pa22 ) since gcd(pa11 , pa22 ) = 1, so the result

holds for all numbers with prime-power factorization of length 2.

Assuming as the inductive hypothesis that the result holds for all num-

bers with prime-power factorization of length s, we consider a number

as+1

n = pa11 pa22 pas s ps+1 with prime-power factorization of length s + 1. Then

we have

as+1

f (n) = f (pa11 pa22 pas s )f (ps+1 )

a

since gcd(pa11 pa22 pas s , ps+1

s+1

) = 1. Thus by the inductive hypothesis we get

a1 a2 as+1

f (n) = f (p1 )f (p2 ) f (pas s ) f (ps+1 ).

Now we apply this to the Euler phi function. Recall that (n) is, by def-

inition, the number of congruence classes in the set (Z/nZ) of invertible

congruence classes modulo n.

Theorem. Eulers phi function is multiplicative. In other words, if

gcd(m, n) = 1 then (mn) = (m)(n).

rows and n columns, as follows:

1m + 1 2m + 1 (n 1)m + 1

2m + 2 2m + 2 (n 1)m + 2

3m + 3 2m + 3 (n 1)m + 3

.. .. .. .. ..

. . . . .

m 2m 3m nm

The numbers in the rth row of this table are of the form km + r as k runs

from 0 to m 1.

1

Let d = gcd(r, m). If d > 1 then no number in the rth row of the table is

relatively prime to mn, since d | (km + r) for all k. So to count the residues

relatively prime to mn we need only to look at the rows indexed by values

of r such that gcd(r, m) = 1, and there are (m) such rows.

If gcd(r, m) = 1 then every entry in the rth row is relatively prime to m, since

gcd(km + r, m) = 1 by the Euclidean algorithm. It follows from Theorem

4.7 of Rosen that the entries in such a row form a complete residue system

modulo n. Thus, exactly (n) of them will be relatively prime to n, and

thus relatively prime to mn.

We have shown that there are (m) rows in the table which contain numbers

relatively prime to mn, and each of those contain exactly (n) such numbers.

So there are, in total, (m)(n) numbers in the table which are relatively

prime to mn. This proves the theorem.

Theorem. For any prime p we have that (pa ) = pa pa1 = pa1 (p1) =

pa (1 p1 ).

The proof is an easy exercise. Just make a list of the numbers from 1 to pa

and count how many numbers in the list are not relatively prime to pa . You

will find that you are just counting the multiples of p, and there are pa1

such multiples.

Theorem. For any integer n > 1, if n = pa11 pa22 pas s is the prime-power

factorization, then

1 1 1

(n) = n(1 p1 )(1 p2 ) (1 ps )

= pa11 1 pa22 1 pas s 1 (p1 1)(p2 1) (ps 1).

This is proved by simply putting together all the results of this lecture. Since

is multiplicative, we get

= pa11 (1 1 a2

p1 )p2 (1 1 as

p2 ) ps (1 1

ps )

and the result follows after rearranging the order of the factors.

Q 1

n p|n (1 p ), where it must be understood that in the product, p ranges

over the prime divisors of n.

2

Example. Since 1000 = 103 = 23 53 we have (1000) = 1000(1 21 )(1 15 ) =

1000 12 54 = 400.

In other words, there are exactly 400 congruence classes in the group (Z/1000Z)

of multiplicative units.

By Eulers theorem, it follows that if gcd(a, 1000) = 1 then

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