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Asphalt is one of the two principal constituents of HMA. Asphalt functions as an inexpensive (typically, $0.05/lb.), waterproof, thermoplastic, viscoelastic adhesive. In other words, it acts as the glue that holds the road together (Anderson, Youtcheff and Zupanick, 2000). But just what is asphalt and how is it characterized? Like many engineering substances, a vernacular definition of "asphalt" is rather imprecise. For engineering purposes, the definition needs to be more unequivocal. ASTM D 8 provides the following definitions: asphalt A dark brown to black cementitious material in which the predominating constituents are bitumens, which occur in nature or are obtained in petroleum processing. asphalt cement A fluxed or unfluxed asphalt specially prepared as to quality and consistency for direct use in the manufacture of bituminous pavements, and having a penetration at 25° C (77° F) of between 5 and 300, under a load of 100 grams applied for 5 seconds. bitumen A class of black or dark-colored (solid, semi-solid or viscous) cementitious substances, natural or manufactured, composed principally of high molecular weight hydrocarbons, of which asphalts, tars, pitches, and asphaltenes are typical. flux A bituminous material, generally liquid, used for softening other bituminous materials. Major Topics on this Page 3.1 Background 3.2 Refining 3.3 Chemical Properties 3.4 Physical Properties 3.5 Grading Systems 3.6 Asphalt Binder Modifiers 3.7 Other Forms of Asphalt Used in Paving 3.8 Summary
This section uses the generic term, "asphalt binder", to represent the principal binding agent in HMA. "Asphalt binder" includes asphalt cement as well as any material added to modify the original asphalt cement properties. The term "asphalt cement" is used to represent unmodified asphalt cement only.
The first recorded use of asphalt by humans was by the Sumerians around 3,000 B.C. Statues from that time period used asphalt as a binding substance for inlaying various shells, precious stones or pearls. Other common ancient asphalt uses were preservation (for mummies), waterproofing (pitch on ship hulls), and cementing (used to join together bricks in Babylonia). Around 1500 A.D., the Incas of Peru were using a composition similar to modern bituminous macadam to pave parts of their highway system. In more modern times, asphalt paving use first began with foot paths in the 1830s and then progressed to actual asphalt roadways in the 1850s. The first asphalt roadways in the U.S. appeared in the early 1870s (Abraham, 1929). In the U.S., Trinidad (near the coast of Venezuela) was the earliest source of asphalt binder. Trinidad supplied about 90 percent of all asphalt (worldwide) from 1875 to 1900 (Baker, 1903). The asphalt was produced from a "lake" (see Figure 3.18) with a surface area of 465,000 m2 (46.5 hectares or 115 acres) and a depth of about 24 meters (75 feet). In 1900, Tillson estimated that this "lake" contained about 8,000,000 tonnes of "asphalt" (compare this against 1990 consumption in Europe and the U.S. of approximately 40,000,000 tonnes (tons)). This asphalt, once free of water, was too "hard" to use in paving (Krchma and
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Gagle, 1974). In fact, Trinidad Lake asphalt, when loaded into a ship’s holds for transport, would fuse to the point that removal required chopping.
Figure 3.18: Trinidad Lake Asphalt Typically, producers added flux, created from petroleum distillation, to Trinidad Lake asphalt to soften it for use in early pavements. It appears that the earliest use of asphalt binder in the U.S. was about 1874 for a project built in Washington, D.C. This binder was a combination of Trinidad Lake asphalt and a flux distilled from crude oil. Without question, these early asphalt binders were quite variable, making pavement mix and structural design somewhat challenging. By the 1880s, asphalt binders were regularly produced from crude oil in California and by 1902 in Texas as well. In 1907, crude oil-based asphalt production surpassed "natural" asphalt production (Krchma and Gagle, 1974). Today, asphalt binder for HMA pavements is produced almost entirely from petroleum refining. This section covers the following topics:
Asphalt cement refining The chemical properties of asphalt binder The physical properties of asphalt binder Asphalt binder grading systems Asphalt binder modifiers Other types of asphalt used in paving
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In the simplest terms, asphalt binder is simply the residue left over from petroleum refining. Thus, asphalt binders are produced mainly by petroleum refiners and, to a lesser extent, by formulators who purchase blending stock from refiners. The composition of base crude oil from which asphalt is refined can vary widely and thus the asphalt yield from different crude oil sources can also vary widely. The American Petroleum Institute (API) classifies crude oils by their API gravity. API gravity is an arbitrary expression of a material’s density at 15.5° C (60° F) and is obtained in the following equation: API gravity can be used as a rough estimate of asphalt yield with lower API gravity crude oils producing more asphalt (see Table 3.5). Figure 3.19 shows the composition of three very different crude oils and their associated API gravities. Table 3.5: API Gravities of Some Typical Substances Substance Water Asphalts Gasoline Low API gravity crude oil High API gravity crude oil Typical API Gravity 10 5 – 10 55 < 25 (yields high percentages of asphalt) > 25 (yields low percentages of asphalt)
Figure 3.19: Make-up of Crude Oil
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. http://training.washington. This subsection briefly describes the basic chemical composition of asphalts and why they behave as they do.2. Therefore. different asphalt cements of different properties can be produced. and gave refiners a high level of production flexibility. Partially as a result of Superpave specifications.3. The asphalt chemical microstructure model described here is based on SHRP findings on the microstructure of asphalt using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and chromatography techniques. asphalt binder specifications are now more stringent and asphalt refiners increasingly perceive asphalt as a value-added product.1 Basic Refining Process Crude oil is heated in a large furnace to about 340° C (650° F) and partially vaporized. Depending upon the exact process and the crude oil source.1 Basic Composition Asphalt chemistry can be described on the molecular level as well as on the intermolecular (microstructure) level. Asphalt cement grade is controlled by the amount of heavy gas oil remaining. Superpave specifications have also caused many refiners to reevaluate their commitment to asphalt production. Youtcheff and Zupanick. Additional desirable properties can be obtained by blending crude oils before distillation or asphalt cements after distillation. Since these intermolecular bonds are weaker than the bonds that hold the basic organic hydrocarbon constituents of asphalt together. On the molecular level. they will break first and control the behavioral characteristics of asphalt. convenient way to use the residual material from the refinery operation. The SHRP findings describe asphalt microstructure as a dispersed polar fluid (DPF). Therefore.. The DPF model explains asphalt microstructure as a continuous three-dimensional association of polar molecules (generally referred to as "asphaltenes") dispersed in a fluid of non-polar or relatively low-polarity molecules (generally referred to as "maltenes") (Little et al.edu/wsdot/modules/03_materials/03-3_body. 1991). Therefore. 1994).3 Chemical Properties Asphalt binders can be characterized by their chemical composition although they rarely are for HMA pavements. asphalt is a mixture of complex organic molecules that range in molecular weight from several hundred to several thousand.. 1984) 3. 1994). 3. 2000). However. the behavior of asphalt is generally ruled by behavioral characteristics at the intermolecular level – the asphalt’s microstructure (Robertson et al. asphalt’s physical characteristics are a direct result of the forming.ce. breaking and reforming of these intermolecular bonds or other properties associated with molecular superstructures (Little et al. a basic understanding of asphalt chemistry can help one understand how and why asphalt behaves the way it does. Although these molecules exhibit certain behavioral characteristics. It is then fed into a distillation tower where the lighter components vaporize and are drawn off for further processing. though others have renewed their efforts to produce high-quality binders (Anderson. All these molecules are capable of forming dipolar intermolecular bonds of varying strength.htm (4 of 33)5/13/2010 11:21:39 AM . Asphalt binder specifications used to be relatively lenient. refiners tended to view asphalt as a simple. The residue from this process (the asphalt) is usually fed into a vacuum distillation unit where heavier gas oils are drawn off. some have made a strategic decision to de-emphasize or cease asphalt production.#penetration_test (after Corbett. 3. Other techniques can then extract additional oils from the asphalt. it is an asphalt binder’s chemical properties that determine its physical properties.
Although most basic asphalt binder failure mechanisms can be described chemically. asphalts with higher percentages of non-polar dispersing molecules are better able to flow and plastically deform because the various polar molecule network pieces can more easily move relative to one another due to the greater percentage of fluid non-polar molecules. Oxidation causes aged (or older) asphalts to contain more polar molecules. the more readily it will accept water. If the molecular network is relatively simple and not interconnected. currently there is not enough asphalt chemical knowledge to adequately predict performance. It typically acts like a solvent in asphalt and results in reduced strength and increased rutting. (1991) describe asphalt behavior in terms of its failure mechanisms.edu/wsdot/modules/03_materials/03-3_body. Since it is a polar molecule. http://training. The more polar molecules an asphalt contains. from a chemical point-of-view water should have a greater effect on older asphalt.. Some aging is reversible.ce. q Aging. the oxidation aging effects probably counteract any moisture-related aging effects. Combined with the already-structured polar molecules. it is an asphalt’s chemical microstructure that is most influential in its physical behavior. Reversible aging is generally associated with the effects of molecular organization. q Fatigue cracking. q Rutting and permanent deformation. water is readily accepted by the polar asphalt molecules. Additionally.#penetration_test The result of the above chemistry is a material that behaves (1) elastically through the effects of the polar molecule networks.2 Asphalt Behavior as a Function of its Chemical Constituents Robertson et al. asphalt is a complex chemical substance. q Stripping. Additionally. this same property can be used to produce asphalt emulsions. more bound system. more rigid material. Asphalt adheres to aggregate because the polar molecules within the asphalt are attracted to the polar molecules on the aggregate surface.g. Over time. In summary. Certain polar attractions are known to be disrupted by water (itself a polar molecule). They describe each particular failure mechanism as a function of an asphalt’s basic molecular or intermolecular chemistry. not all the deformation is recoverable). Interestingly. This oxidation increases an asphalt’s viscosity with age up until a point when the asphalt is able to quench (or halt) oxidation through immobilization of the most chemically reactive elements. At lower temperatures even the normally fluid non-polar molecules begin to organize into a structured form. Although basic chemical composition is important. However. This results in a stiffer. physical properties and tests are used. asphalt will tend to deform inelastically under load (e. q Moisture damage. 3. some is not.washington. the polar molecules within asphalt will vary in their ability to adhere to any one particular type of aggregate. the molecules within asphalt will slowly reorient themselves into a better packed. asphalts with higher percentages of polar. When taken to the extreme. (1991). Irreversible aging is generally associated with oxidation at the molecular level. If the molecular network becomes too organized and rigid. q Thermal cracking. asphalt will fracture rather than deform elastically under stress.htm (5 of 33)5/13/2010 11:21:39 AM . network-forming molecules may be more susceptible to fatigue cracking. This section is a summary of Robertson et al. This thixotropic aging can be reversed by heating and agitation. and (2) viscously because the various parts of the polar molecule network can move relative to one another due to their dispersion in the fluid non-polar molecules.3. Water can cause stripping and/or can decrease asphalt viscosity. this makes asphalt more rigid and likely to fracture rather than deform elastically under stress. Therefore. Therefore.
as an asphalt binder ages. These larger molecules are thought to cause a progressive hardening. The reaction of oxygen with the asphalt binder. Thixotropic effects can be somewhat reversed by heat and agitation.4. The liquid loss hardens the asphalt and is caused by shrinkage or rearrangement of the asphalt binder structure due to either physical or chemical changes.1 Durability Durability is a measure of how asphalt binder physical properties change with age (sometimes called age hardening). describes the more common U. Some of these tests (such as the penetration test) have been used for the better part of the 20th century with good results. Sections that discuss Superpave tests also discuss relevant field performance information as well as the engineering principles used to develop the relationship between test and field performance.ce. Thixotropy is thought to result from hydrophilic suspended particles that form a lattice structure throughout the asphalt binder. Later tests (such as the viscosity tests) were first attempts at using fundamental engineering parameters to describe asphalt binder physical properties. 1997). Age hardening is a result of a number of factors. An asphalt binder’s physical properties directly describe how it will perform as a constituent in HMA pavement. This subsection. asphalt binder physical tests. In general. 3. 1996): q Oxidation.4 Physical Properties Asphalt binders are most commonly characterized by their physical properties. Superpave binder tests.#penetration_test 3. 1997).edu/wsdot/modules/03_materials/03-3_body. q q Syneresis. q q Polymerization. Syneresis is a form of bleeding (Exxon. The property of asphalt binder whereby it "sets" when unagitated. taken largely from Roberts et al. hardening (Exxon. The separation of less viscous liquids from the more viscous asphalt binder molecular network. The earliest physical tests were empirically derived tests.washington.S. developed in the 1980s and 1990s. were developed with the goal of measuring specific asphalt binder physical properties that are directly related to field performance by engineering principles. The evaporation of the lighter constituents of asphalt binder. This causes an increase in viscosity and thus. Monismith and Grahthem. 1967 as referenced by Roberts et al. Ties between tested parameters and field performance were still quite tenuous.. The challenge in physical property characterization is to develop physical tests that can satisfactorily characterize key asphalt binder parameters and how these parameters change throughout the life of an HMA pavement. Volatilization. the principal ones being (Vallerga.htm (6 of 33)5/13/2010 11:21:39 AM . HMA pavements with little or no traffic are generally associated with thixotropic hardening. its viscosity increases and it becomes more stiff and brittle. Thixotropy. (1996). http://training. 1957 and Finn. These tests are generally a bit more complex but seem to accomplish a more thorough characterization of the tested asphalt binder. The combining of like molecules to form larger molecules. It is primarily a function of temperature and occurs principally during HMA production. Asphalt binder tests specifically developed or adopted by the Superpave research effort are noted by a " – Superpave" in their title.
q Typical aging simulation tests are: q Thin-film oven (TFO) test Rolling thin-film oven (RTFO) test Pressure aging vessel (PAV) q q 3.1.21) then placing the jar in a circular metal carriage that rotates within the oven. This occurs when asphalt binder is mixed with hot aggregates in an HMA mixing facility. dynamic shear rheometer (DSR). resins or asphaltenes from the asphalt binder by selective absorption of some porous aggregates.1. aging effects are accounted for by subjecting asphalt binder samples to simulated aging then conducting other standard physical tests (such as viscosity.htm (7 of 33)5/13/2010 11:21:39 AM . The effects of heat and air are determined from changes incurred in physical properties measured before and after the oven treatment by other test procedures. The removal of the oily constituents.#penetration_test q Separation.4.20) simulates short-term aging by heating a moving film of asphalt binder in an oven for 85 minutes at 163° C (325° F).2 Rolling Thin-Film Oven (RTFO) Test . Asphalt binder aging is usually split up into two categories: q Short-term aging.ce. 5 hours) It uses a rolling action that: q http://training. The RTFO test is generally considered superior to the TFO because: q It achieves the same degree of hardening (aging) in less time (85 minutes vs.1 Thin-Film Oven (TFO) Test The thin-film oven (TFO) test simulates short-term aging by heating a film of asphalt binder in an oven for 5 hours at 163° C (325° F). Simulating the effects of aging is important because an asphalt binder that possesses a certain set of properties in its as-supplied state. There is no direct measure for asphalt binder aging. The standard TFO test is: q AASHTO T 179 and ASTM D 1754: Effects of Heat and Air on Asphalt Materials (Thin-Film Oven Test) 3. The moving film is created by placing the asphalt binder sample in a small jar (see Figure 3. Long-term aging. The effects of heat and air are determined from changes incurred in physical properties measured before and after the oven treatment by other test procedures.edu/wsdot/modules/03_materials/03-3_body. may possess a different set of properties after aging. bending beam rheometer (BBR) and the direct tension test (DTT)).Superpave The rolling thin-film oven (RTFO) test (see Figure 3.washington. This occurs after HMA pavement construction and is generally due to environmental exposure and loading.4. Rather.
htm (8 of 33)5/13/2010 11:21:39 AM .1.20: Rolling Thin-Film Oven Test (left . Superpave adopted the RTFO test to simulate short-term asphalt binder aging.22) was adopted by Superpave to simulate the effects of long-term asphalt binder aging that occurs as a result of 5 to 10 years HMA pavement service (Bahia and Anderson. 1994). which may inhibit aging r r Although it has been in common use by some western states for some time.ce. center .23) and exposes them to high air pressure (2070 kPa (300 psi)) and temperature (90° C (195° F).after aging in the RTFO.before aging in the RTFO. if used.empty sample jar) The standard RTFO test is: q AASHTO T 240 and ASTM D 2872: Effects of Heat and Air on a Moving Film of Asphalt ( Rolling Thin-Film Oven Test) 3.3 Pressure Aging Vessel (PAV) – Superpave The pressure aging vessel (PAV) (see Figure 3. http://training. to remain dispersed in the sample Prevents the formation of a surface skin on the sample.#penetration_test r Allows continuous exposure of fresh asphalt binder to heat and air flow Allows asphalt binder modifiers. Prior to Superpave. Figure 3. The PAV is an oven-pressure vessel combination that takes RTFO aged samples (see Figure 3. right . the general concept of the pressure aging vessel had been used for many years in rubber product aging.edu/wsdot/modules/03_materials/03-3_body.4.washington.21: RTFO Samples Figure 3. 100° C (212° F)° or 110° C (230° F) depending upon expected climatic conditions) for 20 hours.
Since the rheological properties of asphalt binder vary with temperature. HMA pavements that deform and flow too much may be susceptible to rutting and bleeding. Deformation and flow of the asphalt binder in HMA is important in determining HMA pavement performance.edu/wsdot/modules/03_materials/03-3_body.washington. HMA pavement deformation is closely related to asphalt binder rheology.#penetration_test Aging the asphalt binder samples under pressure is advantageous because: q There is a limited loss of volatiles The oxidation process can be accelerated without resorting to extremely high temperatures q The standard PAV test is: q AASHTO PP1: Practice for Accelerated Aging of Asphalt Binder Using a Pressurized Aging Vessel Figure 3. http://training.2 Rheology Rheology is the study of deformation and flow of matter.4. rheological characterization involves two key considerations: q To compare different asphalt binders. their rheological properties must be measured at some common reference temperature.22 (left): Pressure Aging Vessel Figure 3. while those that are too stiff may be susceptible to fatigue or thermal cracking.ce.23 (above): PAV Sample 3.htm (9 of 33)5/13/2010 11:21:39 AM .
Roberts Parabola Sharps No. Bowen of the Barber Asphalt Paving Company invented the forerunner to the penetration test. ASTM even went as far as specifying the brand of needle (R. the Bowen Penetration Machine (Halstead and Welborn.1 Chewing Originally. A sample of asphalt binder was literally chewed to subjectively determine its softness. Figure 3. time and temperature.4.4. 1974).C. and the basic principle of the penetration test.#penetration_test q To fully characterize an asphalt binder. its rheological properties must be examined over the range of temperatures that it may encounter during its life.edu/wsdot/modules/03_materials/03-3_body. was to determine the depth to which a truncated No. In 1915. 1974). 2 sewing needle penetrated an asphalt sample under specified conditions of load. 1974). the penetration test is the oldest asphalt test.J.24). http://training. This method is no longer in use today for obvious reasons.ce. In 1888.2 Penetration Test Aside from chewing.2. first published in 1959.htm (10 of 33)5/13/2010 11:21:39 AM . 2) (Halstead and Welborn. The current penetration test (see Figure 3. the degree of asphalt binder softening was determined by chewing (Halstead and Welborn. 3. It’s basic principle.washington.24: Penetration Test 3. describes the following basic procedure: q Melt and cool the asphalt binder sample under controlled conditions. H.2.
if the needle penetrates 8 mm.2.g. are heated at a controlled rate in a liquid bath while each supports a steel ball. enveloped in bitumen.#penetration_test q Measure the penetration of a standard needle into the asphalt binder sample under the following conditions: r Load = 100 grams Temperature = 25° C (77° F) Time = 5 seconds r r The depth of penetration is measured in units of 0. cast in shouldered brass rings (see Figure 3. The standard softening point test is: q AASHTO T 53 and ASTM D 36: Softening Point of Bitumen (Ring-and-Ball Apparatus) 3. poise = dyne-sec/cm2 = g/cm-sec (the SI unit of viscosity is the Pa-sec = N-sec/m2 = 10 poise) τ γ = = shear stress shear rate Figure 3. it is mostly used for roofing asphalts in the U.. The softening point is reported as the mean of the temperatures at which the two disks soften enough to allow each ball.1 mm and reported in penetration units (e.4. Although it is commonly used in Europe. the asphalt penetration number is 80). The standard penetration test is: q AASHTO T 49 and ASTM D 5: Penetration of Bituminous Materials 3.washington.25: Softening Point Sample http://training.htm (11 of 33)5/13/2010 11:21:39 AM .5-g steel ball. Penetration grading is based on the penetration test. to fall a distance of 25 mm (1.2.edu/wsdot/modules/03_materials/03-3_body. Basically. two horizontal disks of bitumen.4 Absolute (Dynamic) Viscosity at 60° C (140° F) Viscosity is simply a measure of a fluid’s resistance to flow and is described by the following equation: where: ¼= viscosity (in cgs units of poise).0 inch) (AASHTO. 2000).25).3 Softening Point The softening point is defined as the temperature at which a bitumen sample can no longer support the weight of a 3.S.ce.4.
26) measures asphalt binder ductility by stretching a standard-sized briquette of asphalt binder (see Figure 3.#penetration_test Asphalt binder viscosity is typically measured at 60° C (140° F) because it approximates the maximum HMA pavement surface temperature during summer in the U.5 Kinematic Viscosity at 135° C (275° F) The kinematic viscosity of a liquid is the absolute (or dynamic) viscosity divided by the density of the liquid at the temperature of measurement.2. 2001).edu/wsdot/modules/03_materials/03-3_body. The standard kinematic viscosity test is: q AASHTO T 201 and ASTM D 2170: Kinematic Viscosity of Asphalts (Bitumens) 3. under closely controlled conditions of vacuum and temperature (ASTM.4. The standard absolute viscosity test is: q AASHTO T 202 and ASTM D 2171: Viscosity of Asphalts by Vacuum Capillary Viscometer 3. The basic absolute viscosity test measures the time it takes for a fixed volume of asphalt binder to be drawn up through a capillary tube by means of vacuum. it still only measures viscosity at one temperature and thus does not fully characterize an asphalt binder’s consistency over the expected range of construction and service conditions. The stretched distance in centimeters at breaking is then reported as ductility. 2001). Like the penetration test. The basic kinematic viscosity test measures the time it takes for a fixed volume of asphalt binder to flow through a capillary viscometer under closely controlled conditions of head and temperature (ASTM.htm (12 of 33)5/13/2010 11:21:39 AM . http://training. The 135° C (275° F) measurement temperature was chosen to simulate the mixing and laydown temperatures typically encountered in HMA pavement construction.4.ce. this test has limited use since it is empirical and conducted at only one temperature (25° C (77° F)). Although absolute viscosity is an improvement over the penetration test.washington.6 Ductility Test The ductility test (see Figure 3.S.27) to its breaking point.2.
edu/wsdot/modules/03_materials/03-3_body. http://training.26: Ductility Test The standard ductility test is: q Figure 3.27: Ductility Samples AASHTO T 51 and ASTM D 113: Ductility of Bituminous Materials 3. This torque is then converted to a viscosity and displayed automatically by the RV.28 and 3.htm (13 of 33)5/13/2010 11:21:39 AM .2.washington. The basic RV test measures the torque required to maintain a constant rotational speed (20 RPM) of a cylindrical spindle while submerged in an asphalt binder at a constant temperature (see Figure 3.ce.29) is used in the Superpave system to test high temperature viscosities (the test is conducted at 135° C (275° F)).#penetration_test Figure 3.7 Rotational (or Brookfield) Viscometer (RV) – Superpave The rotational viscometer (RV) (see Figures 3.30).4.
28: Rotational Viscometer (1) Figure 3. Since the goal is to ensure the asphalt binder is sufficiently fluid for pumping and mixing. The standard rotational (or Brookfield) viscometer test is: q AASHTO TP 48 and ASTM D 4402: Viscosity Determination of Asphalt Binder Using Rotational Viscometer 3.htm (14 of 33)5/13/2010 11:21:39 AM .8 Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR) – Superpave The dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) (see Figure 3. The actual temperatures anticipated in the area where the asphalt binder will be placed determine the test temperatures used. Superpave specifies a maximum RV viscosity.edu/wsdot/modules/03_materials/03-3_body.ce. The RV is more suitable than the capillary viscometer (used for kinematic viscosity) for testing modified asphalt binders because some modified asphalt binders (such as those containing crumb rubber particles) can clog the capillary viscometer and cause faulty readings. http://training.31) is used in the Superpave system for testing medium to high temperature viscosities (the test is conducted between 46° C (115° F) and 82° C (180° F)).29: Rotational Viscometer (2) Figure 3.30: Rotational Viscometer Schematic The RV high-temperature viscosity measurements are meant to simulate binder workability at mixing and laydown temperatures.4.#penetration_test Figure 3.washington.2.
1996).32) sandwiched between two plates.washington.33). These oscillations at 1.32: Dynamic Shear Rheometer Samples Figure 3.33: Dynamic Shear Rheometer Schematic The basic DSR test uses a thin asphalt binder sample (see Figure 3. The lower plate is fixed while the upper plate oscillates back and forth across the sample at 1.edu/wsdot/modules/03_materials/03-3_body. The following equations are then used to determine a http://training.htm (15 of 33)5/13/2010 11:21:39 AM .59 Hz (10 radians/sec) are meant to simulate the shearing action corresponding to a traffic speed of about 90 km/hr (55 mph) (Roberts et al.59 Hz to create a shearing action (see Figure 3.#penetration_test Figure 3..31: Dynamic Shear Rheometer Figure 3.ce.
89°.5 or 4 mm) maximum resulting shear strain deflection (rotation) angle specimen height (either 1 or 2 mm) complex shear modulus phase angle. T r γ max θ h G* δ Asphalt binders in the medium to high temperature range behave partly like an elastic solid (deformation due to loading is recoverable – it is able to return to its original shape after a load is removed) and a viscous liquid (deformation due to loading is non-recoverable – it cannot return to its original shape after a load is removed). http://training. For a typical neat asphalt (no modifiers) the phase angle is about 88 . δ: where: τ max = = = = = = = = maximum applied shear stress maximum applied torque radius of binder specimen (either 12.34). while some modified binders can have phase angles as low as 60°.washington. G* and a phase angle.edu/wsdot/modules/03_materials/03-3_body. the DSR is able to determine the total complex shear modulus as well as its elastic and viscous components (see Figure 3. This is the time lag (expressed in radians) between the maximum applied shear stress and the maximum resulting shear strain.htm (16 of 33)5/13/2010 11:21:39 AM .#penetration_test complex shearing modulus.ce. By measuring G* and δ .
The standard dynamic shear rheometer test is: q AASHTO TP 5: Determining the Rheological Properties of Asphalt Binder Using a Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR) 3. 2. using basic http://training. Fatigue. should be small. Intuitively. when fatigue cracking is of greatest concern (late in an HMA pavement’s life).washington. Therefore.34). In order to resist fatigue cracking.4.2.htm (17 of 33)5/13/2010 11:21:39 AM . specifying a large G*cosδ and a small G*sinδ are not the same. when rutting is of greatest concern (during an HMA pavement’s early and mid life). G*sinδ (see Figure 3. an asphalt binder should be stiff (not deform too much) and it should be elastic (it should be able to return to its original shape after load deformation).34: Complex Shear Modulus Components G* and δ are used as predictors of the following two HMA parameters: 1. In order to resist rutting. the stiffer the asphalt binder is (able to resist deformation). G*cosδ (see Figure 3.34).35) is used in the Superpave system to test asphalt binders at low temperatures where the chief failure mechanism is thermal cracking. should be large. This relationship between G*sinδ and fatigue cracking is more tenuous than the rutting relationship discussed in #1.#penetration_test Figure 3. and the lower the δ value. Then. see Figure 3. Rutting. Therefore. Note that although they appear similar. the higher the G* value. the complex shear modulus viscous portion. Superpave specifies a maximum value for the viscous component of the complex shear modulus. They both involve small phase angles (δ ) but the key is getting an asphalt binder whose complex shear modulus (G*) is neither too large nor too small. The BBR basically subjects a simple asphalt beam to a small (100-g) load over 240 seconds (see Figure 3.ce. Therefore.9 Bending Beam Rheometer (BBR) – Superpave The bending beam rheometer (BBR.edu/wsdot/modules/03_materials/03-3_body. the complex shear modulus elastic portion.36). the greater the elastic portion of G* is (able to recover its original shape after being deformed by a load). Superpave specifies a minimum value for the elastic component of the complex shear modulus. an asphalt binder should be elastic (able to dissipate energy by rebounding and not cracking) but not too stiff (excessively stiff substances will crack rather than deform-then-rebound). Therefore.
ce. Figure 3.35: Bending Beam Rheometer Figure 3.8 m/s2) = 0.washington. Superpave binder specifications require a maximum limit on creep stiffness (thermal stress not too great) and a minimum limit on m-value (must have some minimum ability to relieve thermal stresses without cracking). The standard bending beam rheometer test is: http://training. t = 60 seconds applied constant load (980 ± 20 mN).htm (18 of 33)5/13/2010 11:21:39 AM . 12.25 mm deflection at time. 102 mm beam width. obtained using a 100 g load. the BBR calculates beam stiffness (S(t)) and the rate of change of that stiffness (m-value) as the load was applied.#penetration_test beam theory. where: S(t) P = = creep stiffness at time. 6.edu/wsdot/modules/03_materials/03-3_body. t = 60 seconds The m-value is simply the rate of change of the stiffness at time.5 mm beam thickness.36: Bending Beam Rheometer Schematic The BBR test is meant to simulate asphalt binder stiffness after two hours of loading at the minimum HMA pavement design temperature. or 980 mN L b h δ (t) = = = = distance between beam supports. Creep stiffness (S(t)) is related to thermal stresses in an HMA pavement due to shrinking while the m-value is related to the ability of an HMA pavement to relieve these stresses. Note that 100 g multiplied by the force of gravity (9. t = 60 seconds and is used to describe how the asphalt binder relaxes under load.98 N. Thus.
washington. asphalt binders with BBR creep stiffness values below 300 MPa are assumed satisfactory and the DTT is not needed. The DTT is used because creep stiffness. However. as measured by the BBR is not sufficient to predict thermal cracking in some asphalt binders that exhibit high creep stiffness (> 300 MPa).edu/wsdot/modules/03_materials/03-3_body.10 Direct Tension Tester (DTT) – Superpave The direct tension tester (DTT) (see Figure 3. The DTT identifies these asphalt binders.37) is used in the Superpave system to compliment the BBR in testing asphalt binders at low temperatures.ce. some asphalt binders (especially modified asphalt binders) may be able to stretch far enough before breaking that they can absorb these high thermal stresses without cracking.4. The failure strain is then calculated from the following equation: Figure 3. The DTT basically loads a small sample of asphalt binder in tension until it breaks (see Figure 3. The assumption is that the asphalt binder will crack because of these high thermal stresses.#penetration_test q AASHTO TP1: Method for Determining the Flexural Creep Stiffness of Asphalt Binder Using the Bending Beam Rheometer 3. Recall that a high creep stiffness BBR test value implies that the asphalt binder will possess high thermal stresses in cold weather as a result of shrinkage.2. The DTT is only used for testing asphalt binders with a high BBR creep stiffness (300 – 600 MPa). S (t).37: Direct Tension Tester Apparatus where: ε f = = = failure strain change in length corresponding to the specimen’s maximum loading effective length ∆L Le http://training.38).htm (19 of 33)5/13/2010 11:21:39 AM .
the flash point of asphalt cement is tested and controlled.washington. volatilizes (gives off vapor) when heated.3 Safety Tests Asphalt cement like most other materials. This is called the flash point.#penetration_test Figure 3.htm (20 of 33)5/13/2010 11:21:39 AM .38: Direct Tension Tester Schematic If a particular asphalt binder has a high BBR creep stiffness (indicating high thermal stress). The test can be continued up to the fire point – the point at which the test flame causes the sample to ignite and remain burning for at least 5 seconds. which occurs after the flash point. At extremely high temperatures (well above those experienced in the manufacture and construction of HMA) asphalt cement can release enough vapor to increase the volatile concentration immediately above the asphalt cement to a point where it will ignite (flash) when exposed to a spark or open flame. The fire point.4. The standard direct tension tester procedure is: q AASHTO TP 3: Method for Determining the Fracture Properties of Asphalt Binder in Direct Tension (DT) 3. For safety reasons.ce. it must have a minimum failure strain (indicating it will stretch rather than crack) to meet Superpave binder specifications.edu/wsdot/modules/03_materials/03-3_body. Standard flash point tests are: q AASHTO T 48 and ASTM D 92: Flash and Fire Points by Cleveland Open Cup (more common for asphalt cement used in HMA) AASHTO T 73 and ASTM D 93: Flash-Point by Pensky-Martens Closed Cup Tester q http://training. A typical flash point test involves heating a small sample of asphalt binder in a test cup. The flash point is the lowest liquid temperature at which application of the test flame causes the vapors of the sample to ignite. is the temperature at which the material (not just the vapors) will sustain combustion. The temperature of the sample is increased and at specified intervals a test flame is passed across the cup.
Cracked asphalt cements tend to be less ductile and more susceptible to aging effects. as used for HMA paving. If the spot formed is uniformly brown then the test is negative. called "cracking". The specific gravity at 15. Today.1 trichloroethane through a filter mat. Impurities are not active cementing constituents and may be detrimental to asphalt cement performance.4. A small drop of prepared asphalt cement is dropped onto a filter paper. specific gravity tests are useful in making volume corrections based on temperature.4.ce.4.6 Spot Test The spot test is used to determine whether or not an asphalt cement has been damaged during processing due to overheating. should consist of almost pure bitumen.washington. The standard spot test is: http://training. This damage. Standard purity tests are: q AASHTO T 44 and ASTM D 2042: Solubility of Bituminous Materials AASHTO T 55 and ASTM D 95: Water in Petroleum Products and Bituminous Materials by Distillation AASHTO T 110 and ASTM D 1461: Moisture or Volatile Distillates in Bituminous Paving Mixtures q q 3.03. Anything remaining on the mat is considered an impurity. Water impurities are quantified through distillation. the spot test is not often specified. Mineral impurities can be quantified by dissolving a sample of asphalt cement in trichloroethylene or 1.edu/wsdot/modules/03_materials/03-3_body. A typical specific gravity for asphalt is around 1. occurs because the actual molecules are thermally broken apart.4 Purity Asphalt cement.htm (21 of 33)5/13/2010 11:21:39 AM . The standard specific gravity test is: q AASHTO T 228 and ASTM D 70: Specific Gravity and Density of Semi-Solid Bituminous Materials 3. If the spot formed is brown with a black center then the test is positive.1. the spot test is rarely used.#penetration_test 3.6° C (60° F) is commonly used when buying/selling asphalt cements. the spot test is a form of paper chromatography (a method for analyzing complex mixtures by separating them into the chemicals from which they are made). Basically.5 Specific Gravity Test Because the specific gravity of asphalt binders change with temperature. Since modern refining practices rarely cause cracking.
The commonly used grade in this old system was AR4000W. WSDOT Asphalt Binder Specifications WSDOT uses the Superpave asphalt binder performance grading system and specifications.#penetration_test q AASHTO T 102: Spot Test of Asphaltic Materials 3. This subsection briefly describes the major grading systems and discusses what they use to grade asphalt and how prevalent they are in the U. asphalt binder must meet the requirements of AASHTO MP 1. Previously. 3. asphalt binders with high penetration numbers (called "soft") are used for cold climates while http://training. WSDOT uses three baseline asphalt binder performance grades based on geography. Therefore. the deeper the needle will penetrate.edu/wsdot/modules/03_materials/03-3_body. These baseline grades are typically used and then adjusted as necessary. Therefore. These systems range from simple (penetration grading) to complex (Superpave performance grading) and represent an evolution in the ability to characterize asphalt binder. This penetration depth is empirically (albeit only roughly) correlated with asphalt binder performance. WSDOT had used the aged residue (AR) viscosity grading.washington.5.S. Penetration grading quantifies the following asphalt concrete characteristics: q Penetration depth of a 100 g needle 25° C (77° F) Flash point temperature Ductility at 25° C (77° F) Solubility in trichloroethylene Thin-film oven test (accounts for the effects of short-term aging) r q q q q Retained penetration Ductility at 25° C (77° F) r Penetration grading’s basic assumption is that the less viscous the asphalt. asphalt binders are typically categorized by one or more shorthand grading systems.5 Grading Systems Rather than refer to an extensive list of its physical properties.ce.htm (22 of 33)5/13/2010 11:21:39 AM . today.1 Penetration Grading The penetration grading system was developed in the early 1900s to characterize the consistency of semi-solid asphalts.
7.100 http://training.edu/wsdot/modules/03_materials/03-3_body.htm (23 of 33)5/13/2010 11:21:39 AM Comments Hardest grade. May also provide a better correlation with lowtemperature asphalt binder properties than the viscosity test. The test does not provide information with which to establish mixing and compaction temperatures. Temperature susceptibility (the change in asphalt binder rheology with temperature) can be determined by conducting the test at temperatures other than 25° C (77° F). Shear rate is variable and high during the test. Penetration grades specified in AASHTO M 20 and ASTM D 946 are listed in Table 3. Disadvantages The test is empirical and does not measure any fundamental engineering parameter such as viscosity. Table 3. which is performed at 60° C (140° F). Therefore. which is reasonably close to a typical pavement average temperature.washington. Table 3. it can easily be used in the field.6: Advantages and Disadvantages of the Penetration Grading (from Roberts et al. Penetration grading key advantages and disadvantages are listed in Table 3. Temperature susceptibility (the change in asphalt binder rheology with temperature) cannot be determined by a single test at 25° C (77° F).70 85 . .6. Penetration grades are listed as a range of penetration units (one penetration unit = 0.ce. 1996) Advantages The test is done at 25° C (77° F). The test is quick and inexpensive. Since asphalt binders typically behave as a non-Newtonian fluid at 25° C (77° F).. this will affect test results.7: AASHTO M 20 and ASTM D 946 Penetration Grades Penetration Grade 40 – 50 60 . Typical grades used in the U.#penetration_test asphalt binders with low penetration numbers (called "hard") are used for warm climates.1 mm) such as 120 – 150.S.
.#penetration_test 120 – 150 200 – 300 Softest grade.8: Advantages and Disadvantages of Viscosity Grading (from Roberts et al. 1996) Advantages http://training. This scientific test replaced the empirical penetration test as the key asphalt binder characterization.edu/wsdot/modules/03_materials/03-3_body.htm (24 of 33)5/13/2010 11:21:39 AM Disadvantages .ce.2 Viscosity Grading In the early 1960s an improved asphalt grading system was developed that incorporated a rational scientific viscosity test. These will most likely disappear as the Superpave PG system becomes more prevalent. With AC grading. Viscosity grading quantifies the following asphalt binder characteristics: q Viscosity at 60° C (140° F) Viscosity at 135° C (275° F) Penetration depth of a 100 g needle applied for 5 seconds at 25° C (77° F) Flash point temperature Ductility at 25° C (77° F) Solubility in trichloroethylene Thin film oven test (accounts for the effects of short-term aging): r q q q q q q Viscosity at 60° C (140° F) Ductility at 25° C (77° F) r Viscosity grading can be done on original (as-supplied) asphalt binder samples (called AC grading) or aged residue samples (called AR grading)..8 lists key advantages and disadvantages of the viscosity grading system. The AR grading system is an attempt to simulate asphalt binder properties after it undergoes a typical HMA manufacturing process and thus. Table 3. The AR viscosity test is based on the viscosity of aged residue from the rolling thin film oven test. the asphalt binder is characterized by the properties it possesses before it undergoes the HMA manufacturing process.5. Used for cold climates such as northern Canada (Roberts et al.washington. it should be more representative of how asphalt binder behaves in HMA pavements. 3. 1996) A few states still have provisions for the penetration grading system. Table 3.
60° C (140° F) – high pavement temp. Typical grades used for HMA paving in the U. When using the AC grading system.5 AC-2.S. 25° C (77° F) – average pavement temp. AR-4000 and AR 8000. Thus. AC-5 (viscosity is 500 ± 100 poise at 60° C (140° F)) is less viscous than AC-40 (viscosity is 4000 ± 800 poise at 60° C (140° F)). Table 3. The lower the number of poises.9 shows standard viscosity grades for the AC and AR grading systems from AASHTO M 226 and ASTM D 3381. 135° C (275° F) – HMA mixing temp.htm (25 of 33)5/13/2010 11:21:39 AM .edu/wsdot/modules/03_materials/03-3_body.#penetration_test Unlike penetration depth. q q Temperature susceptibility (the change in asphalt binder rheology with temperature) can be somewhat determined because viscosity is measured at three different temperatures (penetration only is measured at 25° C (77° F)). viscosity is a fundamental engineering parameter. although asphalt binders are of the same AC grade they may behave differently after construction. AC-30. Testing equipment and standards are widely available.9: AASHTO M 226 and ASTM D 3381 Viscosity Grades Standard AASHTO M 226 ASTM D 3381 Grading based on Original Asphalt (AC) AC-2. thin film oven test residue viscosities can vary greatly with the same AC grade. Viscosity is measured in poise (cm-g-s = dyne-second/cm2.ce. The testing is more expensive and takes longer than the penetration test. named after Jean Louis Marie Poiseuille). Therefore. AC-20. are AC-10.washington. Table 3.5 AC-5 AC-5 AC-10 AC-10 AC-20 AC-20 AC-30 AC-30 AC-40 AC-40 Grading based on Aged Residue (AR) AR-10 AR-1000 AR-20 AR-2000 AR-40 AR-4000 AR-80 AR-8000 AR-160 AR-16000 http://training. Test temperatures correlate well with: q The principal grading (done at 25° C (77° F)) may not accurately reflect low-temperature asphalt binder rheology. the lower the viscosity and thus the more easily a substance flows.
washington. Superpave Method. Superpave Testing and Specification Features (after Roberts et al. Tests are conducted at one standard temperature without regard to the climate in which the asphalt binder will be used. as part of the Superpave research effort new binder tests and specifications were developed to more accurately and fully characterize asphalt binders for use in HMA pavements.10 shows how the Superpave PG system addresses specific penetration. Table 3. Test criteria remain constant.htm (26 of 33)5/13/2010 11:21:39 AM .10: Prior Limitations vs. the previous grading systems are somewhat limited in their ability to fully characterize asphalt binder for use in HMA pavement.3 Superpave Performance Grade (PG) Although in common use throughout the U.5. fatigue cracking and thermal cracking. temperature at which the criteria must be met changes in consideration of the binder grade selected for the prevalent climatic conditions. however.S. AC and AR grading system general limitations.edu/wsdot/modules/03_materials/03-3_body.. These tests and specifications are specifically designed to address HMA pavement performance parameters such as rutting.. Therefore. Therefore.#penetration_test 3. this involves expected climatic conditions as well as aging considerations. Table 3.ce. the PG system uses a common battery of tests (as the older penetration and viscosity grading systems do) but specifies that a particular asphalt binder must pass these tests at specific temperatures that are dependant upon the specific climatic conditions in the area of use. 1996) Limitations of Penetration. http://training. Superpave performance grading (PG) is based on the idea that an HMA asphalt binder’s properties should be related to the conditions under which it is used. Therefore. For asphalt binders. Information on how to select a PG asphalt binder for a specific condition is contained in Module 5. AC and AR Grading Systems Superpave Binder Testing and Specification Features that Address Prior Limitations The physical properties measured are directly related to field performance by engineering principles. a binder used in the Sonoran Desert of California/Arizona/Mexico would have different properties than one used in the Alaskan tundra. the Penetration and ductility tests are empirical and not directly related to HMA pavement performance. This concept is not new – selection of penetration or viscosity graded asphalt binders follows the same logic – but the relationships between asphalt binder properties and conditions of use are more complete and more precise with the Superpave PG system. Section 5.
a PG 58-22 is intended for use where the average seven-day maximum http://training. Modified asphalt binders are not suited for these grading systems. Aged asphalt binder after HMA production and construction. Thus. Three critical binder ages are simulated and Test methods only consider short-term asphalt binder aging (thin film oven test) although long-term aging is a significant factor in fatigue cracking and low temperature cracking.washington. 3. Asphalt binders can have significantly different characteristics within the same grading category.edu/wsdot/modules/03_materials/03-3_body. Tests and specifications are intended for asphalt "binders" to include both modified and unmodified asphalt cements. there is no test method for asphalt binder stiffness at low temperatures to control thermal cracking. Long-term aged binder.htm (27 of 33)5/13/2010 11:21:39 AM .#penetration_test The range of pavement temperatures at any one site is not adequately covered. Grading is more precise and there is less overlap between grades. 2. For example. Original asphalt binder prior to mixing with aggregate. The entire range of pavement temperatures experienced at a particular site is covered.ce. tested: 1. Superpave performance grading uses the following asphalt binder tests: q Rolling thin film oven (RTFO) Pressure aging vessel (PAV) Rotational viscometer (RV) Dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) Bending beam rheometer (BBR) Direct tension tester (DTT) q q q q q Superpave performance grading is reported using two numbers – the first being the average seven-day maximum pavement temperature (°C) and the second being the minimum pavement design temperature likely to be experienced (°C).
The standard method for PG asphalt binder grading is: q AASHTO PP6: Practice for Grading or Verifying the Performance Grade of an Asphalt Binder http://training. These baseline grades are typically used and then adjusted as necessary. The commonly used grade in this old system was AR4000W.htm (28 of 33)5/13/2010 11:21:39 AM .11: Prediction of PG Grades for Different Crude Oil Blends WSDOT Asphalt Binder Specifications WSDOT uses the Superpave asphalt binder performance grading system and specifications.11). Previously. WSDOT uses three baseline asphalt binder performance grades based on geography.ce.washington. As a general rule-ofthumb. Table 3. Notice that these numbers are pavement temperatures and not air temperatures (these pavement temperatures are estimated from air temperatures using an algorithm contained in the LTPP Bind program). Therefore. WSDOT had used the aged residue (AR) viscosity grading. asphalt binder must meet the requirements of AASHTO MP 1.edu/wsdot/modules/03_materials/03-3_body.#penetration_test pavement temperature is 58°C and the expected minimum pavement temperature is -22°C. PG binders that differ in the high and low temperature specification by 90°C or more generally require some sort of modification (see Table 3.
Asphalt cement modification has been practiced for over 50 years but has received added attention in the past decade or so. q Environmental and economic issues. This will reduce thermal cracking. There are numerous binder additives available on the market today. which resulted in almost no aggregate-asphalt binder adhesion. Superpave asphalt binder specifications developed in the 1990s require asphalt binders to meet stiffness requirements at both high and low temperatures. q q http://training. while decreasing its stiffness at low temperatures to improve its resistance to thermal cracking. roofing shingles. The benefits of modified asphalt cement can only be realized by a judicious selection of the modifier(s).6 Asphalt Binder Modifiers Some asphalt cements require modification in order to meet specifications. Increased adhesion between the asphalt binder and the aggregate in the presence of moisture. q Superpave asphalt binder specifications. The added attention can be attributed to the following factors (Roberts et al.#penetration_test 3. Thus. The asphalt binder used with the sample on the right contains 0.edu/wsdot/modules/03_materials/03-3_body. It is both environmentally and economically sound to recycle waste and industrial byproducts (such as tires. Many modifiers can improve the asphalt binder's stiffness at normal service temperatures to increase rut resistance. Figure 3..5% (by weight of asphalt binder) of an anti-stripping modifier.washington. This will reduce rutting and shoving. which can cause increased rutting and cracking.39 shows two aggregate samples from the same source after they have been coated with asphalt binder. 1996): q Increased demand on HMA pavements. loads and tire pressures have increased substantially in recent years. Modified asphalt cement is usually higher in initial cost than unmodified asphalt cement. not all modifiers are appropriate for all applications. glass and ash) in order to gain added benefit. In regions with extreme climatic conditions this is not possible without asphalt binder modification. The asphalt binder used with the sample on the left contain no anti-stripping modifier. 1996): q Lower stiffness (or viscosity) at the high temperatures associated with construction. but it should provide a longer service life with less maintenance.. q Higher stiffness at high service temperatures.htm (29 of 33)5/13/2010 11:21:39 AM . This facilitates pumping of the liquid asphalt binder as well as mixing and compaction of HMA. In general. This will reduce the likelihood of stripping. asphalt cement should be modified to achieve the following types of improvements (Roberts et al. when they can benefit the final product without creating an environmental liability they are often used as additives in HMA. Traffic volume. Lower stiffness and faster relaxation properties at low service temperatures. q Public agency willingness to fund higher-cost asphalt additives.ce. which results in good aggregate-asphalt binder adhesion.
1 Emulsified Asphalts Emulsified asphalt is simply a suspension of small asphalt cement globules in water..7. Generally. emulsions appear as a thick brown liquid when initially applied (see Figure 3.htm (30 of 33)5/13/2010 11:21:39 AM . supporting layer or subgrade stabilization. the application rate. ASTM D 3628 contains guidance on selection and use of emulsified asphalt. subgrade.39: Anti-stripping Modifier Example. 2000). stabilization material). When the asphalt cement starts to adhere to the surrounding material (aggregate.40). etc. existing surface. the emulsion is said to have "set". the temperature of the surface onto which it is applied and environmental conditions (TRB. bituminous surface treatments (BST).) the color changes from brown to black (see Figure 3. three other forms of asphalt that are used prominently in the paving industry are emulsified asphalt.ce.edu/wsdot/modules/03_materials/03-3_body.washington. The emulsifying agent assists by imparting an electrical charge to the surface of the asphalt cement globules so that they do not coalesce (Roberts et al.41) and the emulsion is said to have "broken" (see Figure 3. 3. cutback asphalt. hot in-place recycling (HIPR). fog seals. and foamed asphalt. 2000). the emulsion begins to behave more and more like pure asphalt cement. cold in-place recycling (CIR) and full depth recycling (FDR). slurry seals. 1996). fog seals. Under most circumstances.#penetration_test Figure 3. The time required to break and set depends upon the type of emulsion. Emulsions are typically either anionic (asphalt droplets are negatively charged) or cationic (asphalt particles are positively charged). Emulsions are used because they effectively reduce asphalt viscosity for lower temperature uses (tack coats. tack coats. slurry seals. 3. which is assisted by an emulsifying agent (such as soap). Once all the water has evaporated. http://training. an emulsion will set in about 1 to 2 hours (TRB. As water begins to evaporate. These types of asphalt are not used in HMA pavements but are used extensively in pavement repairs.42).7 Other Forms of Asphalt Used in Paving Although asphalt cement is probably the most well known type of asphalt. bituminous surface treatments (BSTs).
fog seals. The brown color indicates that it has not yet broken.htm (31 of 33)5/13/2010 11:21:39 AM .#penetration_test Figure 3. Like emulsions. A cutback asphalt is said to "cure" as the petroleum solvent evaporates away. The brown color now appears in splotches indicating it is beginning to break. slurry seals.2 Cutback Asphalts A cutback asphalt is simply a combination of asphalt cement and petroleum solvent. The black color indicates it has broken.edu/wsdot/modules/03_materials/03-3_body. Emulsified asphalts evaporate water into http://training. Cutback asphalts contain volatile chemicals that evaporate into the atmosphere.ce.. cutbacks are used because they reduce asphalt viscosity for lower temperature uses (tack coats. after a cutback asphalt is applied the petroleum solvent evaporates leaving behind asphalt cement residue on the surface to which it was applied. Figure 3. Figure 3. stabilization material).42 (left): Tack Coat Using an Asphalt Emulsion. Similar to emulsified asphalts. 3. q The use of cutback asphalts is decreasing because of (Roberts et al. 1996): Environmental regulations.40 (upper left): Freshly Placed Emulsion Tack Coat.washington.7.41 (upper right): The Same Tack Coat After 23 Minutes.
The petroleum solvents used require higher amounts of energy to manufacture and are expensive compared to the water and emulsifying agents used in emulsified asphalts. Since chemical knowledge and testing is limited. 2001). Over the years many tests have been developed to fully characterize asphalt’s physical attributes. 3.edu/wsdot/modules/03_materials/03-3_body. after which the asphalt binder resumes its original properties. Asphalt cement can also be modified using certain chemical and organic products to . asphalt is a mixture of polar and non-polar complex organic molecules. Modern asphalt binder produced using the PG system is often modified. asphalt binders are classified for use (graded) based on their physical properties as measured through testing.7. asphalt is most commonly described by its physical attributes. theoretically they offer the best and most complete asphalt binder characterization. The microstructure of these molecules tends to govern asphalt’s physical behavior. 3.ce.washington. Thus. They are also the most complex and the most expensive. Asphalt binders can be characterized by chemical and physical properties. To date. These asphalt grades are what is http://training. today’s asphalt is almost entirely produced from petroleum refining. which becomes trapped in tiny asphalt binder bubbles (World Highways.000 tonnes (tons) per year at a cost of almost $3 billion per year (Anderson. HMA use exceeds 500.000. Chemically. these tests have reached an apogee with the Superpave binder tests.3 Foamed (Expanded) Asphalt Foamed asphalt is formed by combining hot asphalt binder with small amounts of cold water. In the HMA paving industry. The result is a thin-film. In many places. Foamed asphalt can be used as a binder in soil or base course stabilization. and is often used as the stabilizing agent in full-depth asphalt reclamation. asphalt functions as an adhesive that holds aggregate together. Using the tests discussed in this section.8 Summary Humans have used asphalt for thousands of years. When the cold water comes in contact with the hot asphalt binder it turns to steam. This high volume foam state only lasts for a few minutes. The most common asphalt binder classifications are: penetration grade. 2000). alter its behavior. WSDOT Cutback Asphalt Use WSDOT does not specify cutback asphalts because of their potential effect on the environment.htm (32 of 33)5/13/2010 11:21:39 AM Although natural sources still exist. high volume asphalt foam with approximately 10 times more coating potential than the asphalt binder in its normal liquid state (World Highways. 2001). Superpave tests measure specific asphalt binder physical properties that are directly related to field performance by engineering principles. Youtcheff and Zupanick. cutback asphalt use is restricted to patching materials for use in cold weather. q Loss of high energy products. viscosity grade and performance grade (from Superpave).#penetration_test the atmosphere. Currently.
#penetration_test generally specified in HMA mix design. we have the most control over the asphalt binder. Of all the HMA pavement constituents. asphalt binder is also used in other road-related products: emulsions. Generally.htm (33 of 33)5/13/2010 11:21:39 AM .washington. cutbacks and foamed asphalt. and aggregate is usually taken from the closest source as long as it meets minimum standards.edu/wsdot/modules/03_materials/03-3_body. http://training. Although this section has concentrated on asphalt binder characterizations and tests associated with HMA. However. These products are often used in an HMA pavement's supporting layers as well as by themselves for lowvolume roads. roads will be built where they can or need to be regardless of the subgrade. This is reflected in the substantial level of effort put forth to accurately characterize asphalt binder.ce. we generally specify asphalt binder characteristics for each and every HMA pavement.
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