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Ta,ng.Atman(S).Self,ego,personality,soul.
Tab,sab.Sah(S).Thatwhichbears,theearthintpasbearing,enduringtheplaceofgoodandevilauniverse,orgreatchiliocosm,whereallaresubjectto
transmigrationandwhichaBuddhatransforms.ItisdividedintothreeregionstamgiiandMahBrahmSahmpatiPhmThinisitslord.
Tabha.Svh(S).Anoblationbyfire,alsoHail!abrahminicalsalutationattheendofasacrifice.Italsomeans:successful,auspicious,blissful,etc.
Tagila.Sgara(S).Theocean.TheNgakingoftheoceanpalacenorthofMtMeru,possessedofpricelesspearlsthedragonkingofrainhiseightyearold
daughterinstantlyattainedBuddhahood,v.theLotusstra.
Taha.Amiraculousmedicine.
Takitla.XemTagila.
Tala.Sla,sla(S).TheSltree.
Talasongth,Talalm.Slavana(S).ThegroveofSltreesnearKusinagara,thereputedplaceoftheBuddha'sdeath.
TamaV.SmaVeda(S).The3rdoffourbooksofVeda.
Tara.Tr(S).NameofaGoddessrelatedtoAvalokitesvara.
Tha.Xemtabha.
T.Deflected,erroneous,heterodox,depravedtheoppositeofchnhright.
Tchp.Heterodoxtenetsandattachmenttothem.
Tdm.Kmamithycra(S).Unlawfulsexualintercourse.
To.Mithyamrga(S).Heterodoxways,ordoctrines.Wrongpath.
Tokin.Heterodoxypervertedviewsoropinions.
Tgio.Heterodoxteachings.
Thnh.Erronousways,theninetysixhereticalwaysthedisciplinesofnonBuddhistsects.Thnhchnnh,thephenomenalbhtatathat,fromwhicharisesthe
accumulationofmisery.
Tkin.Drsti(S).Hetericalviews,notrecognizingthedoctrineofmoralkarma,oneofthefiveheterodoxopinionsandtenevilsngkinthpc.
Tma.Mra(S).TheEvilOne,theDeathpersonified,theTempter.
Tmn.Mithymana(S).Perverseorevilpride,doingevilforselfadvancementtoholdtoheterodoxviewsandandnottoreverencetheTriratna.
Tmnh.Heterodoxorimproperwaysofobtainingalivingonthepartofamonk,e.gbydoingworkwithhishands,byastrology,hiswits,flattery,magics,etc.
Begging,orseekingalms,wastheorthodoxwayofobtainingaliving.
Tmnhthuytphp.Theheterodoxwayofpreachingorteaching,forthepurposeofmakingaliving.
Tphp.Heterodoxy,falsedoctrinesormethods.
Tphin.Heterodoxfanning,i.e.toinfluencepeoplebyfalsedoctrines.
Tqun.Heterodoxcontemplation.
Tsn.Amountainoferrororheterodoxideassuchideasasgreatasamountain.
Ttnhnh(t).Theaccumulation(ofsuffering)tobeenduredinpurgatorybyoneofheterodoxnature.Oneofthethreeaccumulationstamt.
Tt.Theaccumulationofmisery,producedbtfalseviews,oneofthetamt.
Tt.Depravedandselfishdesires,lust.
Ttduy.Heterodoxreflection,orthought.
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Tvn.Cloudsoffalsityorheterodoxy,whichcoverovertheBuddhanatureintheheart.
Tvng.Thenetofheterodoxy,orfalsity.
Tc.Tomake,do,act,bearise.
Tcc.Todoevil.
Tcbch.Jnpti(S).Announciation,declaration.
Tcc.Theaccusationofsinmadeagainstparticularmonksbythevirtuousmonkwhopresidesatthepravranagatheringonthelastdayofthesummer'srest.
Tcdng.Function,activity,act.
Tcgia.Leader,founder,headofasect,atermusedbyThintng.
Tcgi.Kartr(S).Adoer,hewhodoesthings,hencethetman,ego,orpersonwithintheactiveelementorprincipleoneofthesixteennonBuddhistdefinitionsof
thesoul.Alsokran,acause,maker,creator,deity.
Tcgii.Obediencetothecommandments,externalfulfilmentofthemalsocalledbiusc,incontrastwithvtcgii,vbiusctheinnergracemoralactionin
contrastwithinnermoralcharacter.
Tcl.Topayone'srespectbyworshiptomakeanobeisance.
Tcnghip.Karmaproduced,i.e.bytheactionofbody,words,andthought,whicheducethekernelofthenextrebirth.
Tcnghipcn.Karmndriya(S).Senseorganswhichproducekarma.
Tcnguynmn.Tomakeavowtobenefitselfandothers,andtofulflthevowsoastobeborninthePureLandofAmitbha.Thethirdofthefivedoorsorwaysof
enteringthePureLand.
Tcphm.Transgression,sinbyaction,activesin.
Tcphp.Karma,whichresultsfromaction,i.e.the"deeds"ofbodyormouthtoperformceremonies.
Tcphpc.Toreceiveceremonialordinationasamonk.
Tcphpgii.Theplaceofassemblyforceremonialpurposes.
Tcphpsm.Oneofthethreekindsofmonasticconfessionandrepentance.
TcPht.TobecomeorbeaBuddhatocutoffillusion.attaincompleteenlightenment,andendthestageofbodhisattvadiscipline.
TcPhts.TodotheworksofBuddhaperformBuddhistceremonies.
TcthinTodogood,e.g.worship,bestowalms,etc.
Tctrgii.Activekeepingofthecommandments,activelaw,incontrastwithchtrgiipassive,suchasnotkilling,notstealing,etc.
Tc.Cittotpda,Cetna(S).Tohavethethoughtarise,bearoused,begettheresolve.Intentionalaction,wilfulaction.
Tisinh.Pratisamdhi(S).Rebirth.
Ti.Vasu,artha(S).Wealth,riches.
Tich.Awealthyman,rich.
Tith,ticngdng.Offeringsorgiftsofmaterialgoods.
Ti.At,on,in,present.
Tigia.Athome,alaymanorwomannotxutgia.i.e.notleavinghomeasamonkornun.
Tigianhgii.Thetwogradesofcommandmentsobservedbythelay,onethefive,theothertheeightngandbtgii.ThesearetheHnaynarulesthe
Mahynaarethethpthingiitengoodrules.

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Tigiaxutgia.Onewhowhileremainingathomeobservesthewholeofamonk'soranun'srules.
Titixx.Ineveryplace.
Tith.Intheworld,whilealivehere.
Titrin.Inbonds,i.echnnhtitrinthebhtatathatinlimitations,e.g.relativev.KhitnlunAwakeningofFaith.
Titc.Inandoftheworld,unenlightenedinalaycondition.
Tam.Tri,trayas(S).Three.
Tamc.Threeevilpathsoftransmigrationalsotamco,tamcth,thehells,hungryghosts,animals.
Tamco.Thethreeevilways.
Tamcgic.Thethreeevilmentalstates:dcdesire,snhate,himalevolance.
Tamcth.Threeevildirectionsordestinies.
Tamanc.Varsh(S).Thethreemonthsosummerretreat.
Tamn.ThreesignsorproofsofaHnaynastra:1Vthngnonpermanence2Vngnonpersonality3NitbnNirvnawithoutthesethestraisspurious
andthedoctrineisofMra.
Tambchtthpbtgii.348rulesforanun.
Tambo.Triratna,orRatnatraya(S).ThethreePreciousOnes:Buddha,Dharma,Sangha,i.e.Buddha,theLaw,theOrder.Popularlythetamboarereferredtothe
threeimagesinthemainhallofmonasteries.ThecentreoneisSkyamuni,onhisleftBhaisajyaDcS,andonhisrightAmitbha.ThreeGems,threejewels.
Tambotng.TheTriratnaasthetreasuryofallvirtueandmeritalsotheTripitakatamtng,straskinh,vinayalut,lunabhidharmaalsosravakasthanhvn,
pratyekabuddhasduyngic,bodhisattvasbtt.
Tambovt.ThethingsappertainingtotheTriratna,i.e.totheBuddhatemplesandimagesetctotheDharmathescripturestotheSanghacassock,bowletc.
Tambtnh.Threeperfectenlightenments:(1)thctngbtnhwisdominitsessenceorreality(2)qunchiubtnhthewisdomofperceivingthereal
meaningofthelast(3)phngtinorvntbtnhthewisdomofknowingthingsintheirtemporaryandchangingcondition.
Tambth.Thethreethatneednoguarding,i.e.thetamnghipofaBuddha,hisbody,mouthandmindwhichhedoesnotneedtoguardastheyareaboveerror.
Tambtkinphp.Threeunstablethingsthebodythn,lengthoflifethmnh,wealthtisn.
Tambttamtn.Thisreferstothestateoffaithintheworshipperthethreebtareimpure,notsingle,notconstantthethreetnaretheopposite.
Tambttht.Thethreeneverlost,idemtambth.
Tambtthincn.Threebadroots,orqualitiesdesiretham,angersn,andstupiditysi.Alsotamc.
Tambtthoi.Thethreenonbackslidings,i.e.frompositionattained,fromlineofactionpursued,andindhyna.
Tambttnhnhc.Thethreekindsoffleshuncleantoamonk.
Tambnh.Threeailments.
Tambmt.Thethreemysteries,atermoftheesotericschoolforthn,khu,i.e.thesymbolthemysticword,orsoundthemeditationofthemind.Tambmt
thnisatermforthemysticletter,themysticsymbolandtheimage.
Tambnhng.Theesotericdoctrinethatthethreebody,mouth,andmindareoneanduniversal.ThusinsamdhitheBuddha"body"isfoundeverywhereandin
averything(panBuddha),everysoundbecomesa"trueword",dhraniorpotentphrase,andthesearesummedupinmind.Otherdefinitionsofthethreeare:Pht,
Php,TngtheTriratna
Tm,Pht,Chngsinh.Mind,Buddha,andtheliving.

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Tambnhnga.Thethreeuniversalpositionsorstages,i.e.thethreestatesexpressedbykhng,vtng,andvnguyn.
Tambnh.Threeailments(1)(a)Thamlust,forwhichthebttnhqunmeditationonuncleanessistheremedy(b)Snangerorhate,remedytbiqunmeditation
onkindnessandpityorcompassion(c)Sistupidityignorance,remedynhnduynqunmeditationoncausality.(2)(a)BngslanderofMahyna(b)Ngnghch
tithefivegrosssins(c)tobea"heathen"oroutsider.
Tamb.Sambodhi(S).Chnhnggic.Perfectuniversalawareness,perfectlyenlightened.
TamCadip.ThreebrothersKsyapa,allthreesaidtobedisciplesoftheBuddha:ulutnloaCadipUruvilvaKsyapa,GidaCadipGayaKsyapa,Na
CadipNadiKsyapa.
Tamcn.Thethree(evil)rootsdesire,hate,stupidity,idemtamc.Anothergroupisthethreegradesofgoodroots,orabilities,thng,trung,hsuperior,medium
andinerior.Anotheristhethreegradesoffaultlessnesstamvlucn.
Tamcu.Thethreedefilersdesire,hate,stupidity(orignorance)
Tamchnnh.Threeaspectsofthebhtatathat,implyingitisabovethelimitationsofform,creation,orasoul:(1)(a)vtngchnnhwithoutform(b)v
sinhchnnhwithoutcreation(c)vtnhchnnhwithoutanythingthatcanbecalledanatureforcomparisone.g.chaos,orprimalmatter.(2)(a)thinphpchn
nhthebhtatathatasgood(b)btthinphpchnnhasevil(c)vkphpchnnhasneutral.
Tamchi(tlng).Threemembersofasyllogism:pratijntngtheproposition,hetunhnthereason,udharanadtheexample.cfNhnminh.
Tamchiu.Thethreeshiningsthesunfirstshiningonthehilltops,thenthevalleysandplains.So,accordingtoThinThaiteachingoftheHoaNghimstra,the
Buddha'sdoctrinehadthreeperiodsofsuchshining:(a)first,hetaughttheHoaNghimstra,transforminghischiefdisciplesintobodhisattva(b)second,the
HnaynastrasingeneraltosravakaandpratyekabuddhaintheLumbinigarden(c)thephngngstrasdowntotheNitbnkinhforalltheliving.
Tamchng.Threekinds,sorts,classes,categories,etc.
Tamchngbalamt.Thethreekindsofpramitideals,ormethodsofperfection:(a)Thgianbalamtthatofpeopleingeneralrelatingtothisworld(b)xutth
gianbalamtthatofsrvakasandpratyekabuddhas(c)xutthgianthngthngbalamtthesupremeoneofbodhisattvas,relatingtothefuturelifeofall.
Tamchngcngdng.Threemodesofserving(theBuddha,etc.):(a)Licngdngfferingsofincense,flowers,food,etc.(b)Knhcngdngofpraiseand
reverence(c)Hnhcngdngofrightconduct.
Tamchngchqun.ThreeThinThaimodesofenteringdhyna:(a)Timthgradual,fromtheshallowtothedeep,thesimpletothecomplex(b)bt
nhirregular,simpleandcomplexmixed(c)vinnimmediateandwhole.
Tamchngdc.Thethreekindsofdesirefood,sleep,sex.
Tamchngduynt.Xemtamchngtbi.
Tamchngitr.Thethreemajorkindsofwisdom:(a)vstrselfacquired,nomasterneeded(b)tnhintrunacquiredandnatural(c)vnghitruniversal.
Tamchngangc.Thethreekindsofhellshot,cold,andsolitary.
Tamchngon.Thethreekindsofuccheda,cuttingoff,excision,orbringingtoanend:(1)(a)ttnhonwiththeincomingofwisdom,passionorillusionceases
ofitself(b)btsinhonwithrealizationofthedoctrinethatalliskhngunreal,evilkarmaceasestoarise(c)duynphconillusionbeingended,thecausal
nexusofthepassionsdisappearandtheattractionoftheexternalceases.(2)Thethreesrvakasorasceticstagesare:(a)kinsonendingtheconditionoffalse
views(b)tuhnhongettingridofdesireandillusioninpractice(c)phisonnomoreillusionordesiretobecutoff.
Tamchnggiotng.ThethreemodesoftheBuddha'steachingoftheSouthSectsnimmediatetimgradualorprogressivebtnhindeterminate.
Tamchnghu.Threekindsofexistence(a)Tngihuthatofqualities,asofopposites,e.g.lengthandshortness(b)gidanhhuthatofphenomenalthings
socalled,e.g.ajar,aman(c)phphuthatofthenounenal,orimaginary,understoodasfactsandnotasillusions,suchasa"hare'shorn"ora"turtlefur".

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Tamchngkhng.Thethreevoidsorimmaterialities.Thefirstsetofthreeis(a)khng(b)vtng(c)vnguynxemtamtammui.Thesecond(a)ng(b)
php(c)cukhng,theself,things,allphenomenaasemptyorimmaterial.Thethirdrelatestocharity(a)giver(b)receiver(c)gift,allareaemptytamlunkhng
tch.
Tamchngkinhoc.Threeclassesofdelusiveviews,orillusionsthosecommontohumanitythoseofinquiringmindandthoseofthelearnedandsettledmind.
Tamchngsmhiphp.Threemodesofrepentance:(a)vsinhsmtomeditateonthewaytopreventwrongthoughtsanddelusions(b)thtngsmtoseek
thepresenceoftheBuddhatoridoneofsinfulthoughtsandpassions(c)tcphpsminproperformtoconfessone'sbreechoftherulesbeforetheBuddhaand
seekremission.
Tamchngqunnh.Thethreekindsofbaptism:(1)(a)ManhqunnheveryBuddhabaptizesadisciplebylayingahandonhishead(b)thkbypredicting
Buddhahoodtohim(c)phngquangbyrevealinghisglorytohimtohisprofit.(2)ShingonChnngntnghas(a)baptismonacquiringthemysticword(b)on
remissionofsinandprayerforblessingandprotection(c)onseekingforrewardinthenextlife.
Tamchngquangminh.Thethreekindsoflights:(a)externalsun,moon,stars,lamps,etc.(b)dharma,orthelightofrightteachingandconduct(c)the
effulgenceorbodilyhaloemittedbyBuddha,bodhisattva,deva.
Tamchngsc.Threekindsofrpa,i.e.appearanceorobject:(1)(a)visibleobjects(b)invisibleobjects,e.g.sound(c)invisible,immaterial,orabstractobjects.(2)
(a)colour(b)shape(c)quality.
Tamchngsinh.Thethreesources,orcausesoftheriseofthepassionsandillusions:(a)Tngsinhthemind,oractivethought(b)tngsinhtheobjective
world(c)luchsinhtheirconstantinteraction,orthecontinuousstreamoflatentpredispositions.
Tamchngtammui.ThethreemeditationsontherelationshipofthenoumenalandphenomenaloftheHoaNghimtng:(a)lphpgiitheuniverseaslawor
mind,thatallthingsarechnnh,i.e.allthingsorphenomenaareofthesameBuddhanature,ortheAbsolute(b)lsvngiphpgiithattheBuddhanatureand
thething,ortheAbsoluteandphenomenaarenotmutuallyexclusive(c)ssvngiphpgiithatphenomenaarenotmutuallyexclusive,butinacommon
harmonyaspartofthewhole.
Tamchngtamqun.Thethreetypesofmeditationontheprinciplesoftam,i.e.khng,gi,trung.
Tamchngtmkh.Thethreekindsofmentaldistress,desiretham,angersn,stupiditysiidemtamc.
Tamchngtnhnghip.Thethrefoldwayofobtainingapurekarma,idemtamphc
Tamchngthanhtnh.Thethreepuritiesofabodhisattva:(a)Tmthanhtnhamindfreefromallimpurity(b)thnthanhtnhabodypurebecausenevertobe
rebornsavebytransformation(c)tngthanhtnhanapparenceperfectlypureandadorned.
Tamchngthn.TheThinThaischoolhasadefinitionofscthnthephysicalbodyofBuddhaphpmnthnhispsychologicalbodywithitsvastvarietytht
tngthnhisrealbodyordharmakya.Theesotericsectascribesatrikyatoeachofitshonouredones.
Tamchngthin.Threedefinitionsofheaven:(a)asaname,ooname,ortitle,e.g.divineking,sonofHeaven,etc.(b)asaplaceforrebirth,theheavensofthe
gods(c)thepureBuddhaland.
Tamchngthincn.Thethreekindsofgoodrootsalmsgivingbth,mercytbi,andwisdomtrtu.
Tamchngtho.Threewaysinwhichbodhisattvasmanifestthemselvesforsavingthosesufferingthepainsofhell,i.e.thnphysically,bysupernaturalpowers,
changeofform,etc.mentally,throughpowerofmemoryandenlightenmentkhuorally,bymoralexhortation.
Tamchngthng.ABuddhainhisthreeeternalqualities:(a)bntnhthnginhisnatureordharmakyaphpthn(b)btonthnginhisunbrokeneternity,
sambhogakyabothn(c)inhiscontinuousandeternallyvariedforms,nirmnakyanghathn.(c)tngtcthng
Tamchngtbi(duynt).Thethreereasonsofabodhisattva'spity:becauseallbeingsarelikehelplessinfantschngsinhduyntbibecauseofhis

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knowledgeofalllawsandtheirconsequencesphpduyntbiwithoutexternalcause,i.e.becauseofhisownnature,vduyntbi.
Tamchngtng.Thethreekindsofappearance:(1)Inlogic,thethreekindsofpercepts:(a)Tiutnginferential,asfireisinferredinsmoke(b)hnh
tngformal,orspatial,aslength,breadth,etc.(c)thtngqualitative,asheatisinfire,etc.(2)(a)Gidanhtngnames,whicharemerelyindicationsofthe
temporal(b)phptngdharmas,orthings(c)vtngtngtheformlessallthreesareincorrectpositions.
Tamchngvindung.Threekindsofunityoridentityof:(a)Slphenomenawith"substance"e.g.wavesandthewater(b)Ssphenomawithphenoma,e.g.
wavewithwave(c)Llsubstancewithsubstance,e.g.waterwithwater.
Tamchuynphplun.ThethreeturnsofthelawwheelwhentheBuddhapreachedintheDeerParkLcUyn:(a)thchuynindicative,i.e.postulationand
definitionofthetfournobletruths(b)khuynchuynhortative,e.g.khngtrisufferingshouldbediagnosed(c)chngchuynevidential,e.g.Ihave
overcomesufferingetc.
Tamchng.Thethreevighna,i.e.hinderersorbarriersofwhichthreegroupsaregiven:(1)(a)phinnochngthepassions(b)nghipchngthedeedsdone
(c)bochngtheretributions.(2)(a)bphinnochng(b)nhcphinnochng(c)tmphinnochngskin,fleshandheart(ormind)troublers,i.e.
delusionsfromexternalobjects,internalviews,andmentalifnorance.(3)tamtrngchngthethreeweightyobstructions:(a)ngmnselfimportance(b)tt
envy(c)thamdcdesire.
Tamctc.Thethreeessentialarticlesforworship:flowervase,candlestickandcenser.
Tamc.Thethreeexposures,i.e.thethreesinsofamonk,eachentailinghisunfrockingwilfulnonconfessionofsin,unwillingnesstorepent,claimingthatlustis
notcontrarytothedoctrine.
Tamccthiu.Thethreesmallestthings,i.e.anatom,asthesmallestparticleofmatteraletter,astheshortestpossiblenameaksana,astheshortestperiodof
time.
Tamcng.Thethreebonds,i.e.directorsofamonastery:(a)thngtasthavira,elder,president(b)tch,vinchvihrasvmin,trtrtheabbot(c)duy
nakarmdanawhodirectsthemonks.
Tamdiuhnh.Amuni,recluseormonk,whocontrolshisbody,mouth,andmindthnkhu.Alsotammuni.
Tamdc.Thethreelusts,i.e.forform,carriageorbeauty,andrefinementorsoftnesstothetouch.
Tamduyn.ThethreenidnasorlinkswiththeBuddharesultingfromcallinguponhim,atermofthePurelandsect:(1)thnduynthathehearsthosewhocallhis
name,seestheirworship,knowstheirheartsandisonewiththem(2)cnduynthatheshowshimselftothosewhodesiretoseehim(3)tngthngduynthatat
everyinvocationaeonsofsinareblottedout,andheandhissacredhostreceivesuchadiscipleatdeath.
Tamd.Thethreeafterdeathremainders,orcontinuedmortalexperiencesofsrvakasandpratyekabuddhaswhomistakenlythinktheyaregoingtovdnit
bnfinalnirvna,butwillstillfindphinnodfurtherpassionandillusion,nghipdfurtherkarmaandqudcontinuedrebirth,inrealmsbeyondtamgiitrailokya.
Tami.ThethreegreatcharacteristicsofthechnnhbhtatathatntheKhitnlunAwakeningofFaith:(1)Thithegreatnessofthebhtatathatinits
essenceorsubstanceitischngsinhtmchithtnhtheembodiednatureofthemindofalltheliving,universal,immortal,immutable,eternal(2)Tngithe
greatnessofitsattributesormanifestations,perfectinwisdomandmercy,andeveryachievement.(3)Dngithegreatnessofitsfunctionsandoperationswithin
andwithout,perfectlytransformingallthelivingtogoodworksandgoodkarmanowandhereafter.
Tamn.Thethreekindsofdna,i.e.charitygivingofgoods,ofthedharma,ofabhayaorfearlessness.Idemtamth.
Tamo.(1)Thethreepathsallhavetotreadlunhitamo,tamlun,i.e.(a)phinnoo,hocothepathofmisery,illusion,mortality(b)nghipothe
pathofworks,action,ordoing,productiveofkarma(c)khotheresultantpathofsuffering.Aseverrecurringtheyarecalledthethreewheels.(2)Thanh,Duyn,
B,srvakas,pratyekabuddhas,bodhisattvas.

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Tamt.Xemtamminh.
Tamng.ThethreeequalanduniversalcharacteristicsoftheoneTathgata,anesotericdefinition:(1)(a)hisbodythn(b)discourseng(c)mind(2)(a)hislife
orworkstuhnh(b)spiritualbodyphpthn(c)salvationsinhintheirequalvaluesanduniversality.
Tamnglu.Threeequaloruniversalcurrentsorconsequences,i.e.chnngluthecertainconsequencesthatfollowonagood,evil,orneutralkindofnature,
respectivelygingluthetemporalorparticularfatederivedfromapreviouslife'silldeeds,e.g.shortenedlifefromtakinglifephnvnglueachorganas
reincarnatedaccordingtoitspreviousdeeds,hencetheblind.
Tam.Thethreedogmas.The"middleschool"ofThinThaisaystckhng,tcgi,tctrung(a)bykhngsnyaismeantthatthingscausallyproducedarein
theiressentialnatureunreal(orimmaterial)(b)githoughthingsareunrealintheiressentialnaturetheirderivedformsarereal(c)trungbutbothareone,beingofthe
onenhorreality.ThesethreedogmasarefoundedonaverseofNgrjuna:Nhnduynssinhphp,Ngthuyttcthkhng,Dicvithgidanh,Dicthtrung
ongha.Allcausallyproducedphenoma,Isay,areunreal,Arebutapassingname,andindicatethe"mean".
Tamtngtc.Theunityofkhng,gi,trung,threeaspectsofthesamereality,taughtbythevingioasdistinguishedfromthebitgiowhichseparates
them.
Tamino.Thethreesubversionsorsubverters:tngoevilthoughts,kinofalseviews,tmodeludedmind.
Tamin.Thethree"fields"ofvarayingqualitiesoffertility,i.e.bodhisattvas,srvakas,andicchantis,respectivelyproducingahundredfold,fiftyfold,onefold.
Tamon.Thethreecuttingofforexisions(ofhocbeguilingdelusionsorperplexities.1aKinsontocutoffdelusionsofview,ofwhichHnaynahaseighty
eightkindsbTusoninpractice,eightyonekindscPhisonnothinglefttocutoff,perfect.2aTtnhontocutoffthenature,orroot(ofdelusion)b
Duynphcontocutofftheexternalbonds,orobjectivecauses(ofdelusions)cBtsinhon(delusion)nolongerarising,thereforenothingproducedtocutoff.
Thethirdstageinbothgroupsisthatofanarhat.
Tam.Thethreeunhappygatiorways:(1)Hatothefireofhell(2)Huyttothehellofblood,whereasanimalstheydevoureachother(3)aothe
asipattrahellofswords,wheretheleavesandgrassesaresharpedgedswords.
Tamc.Thethreepoisons,alsostyledtamcn.TheyareThamconcupisceceorwrongdesireSnanger,hate,orresentmentSistupidity,ignorance,
unintelligence,orunwillingnesstoacceptBuddhatruththesethreesarethesourceofallthepassionsanddelusions.
Tamng.Threepenetrations.
Tamc.Thethreevirtuesorpowersofwhichthreegroupsaregivenbelow:(1)aPhpthnc,Thevirtue,orpotencyoftheBuddha'seternal,spiritualbody,the
dharmakyabBtnhc,ofhisprajn,orwisdom,knowingallthingsintheirrealitycGiithotc,ofhisfreedomfromallbondsandhissovereignliberty.Each
ofthesehasthefourqualitiesofthng,lc,ng,tnh,eternity,joy,ersonality,andpurity.(2)aTrc,thepotencyofhisperfectknowledgebLyc,ofhiscutting
offallillusionandperfectingofsupremenirvnatheabovetwoaretliforhisownadvantagecnc,ofhisuniversalgraceandsalvation,whichthalibestows
thebenefitshehasacquiredonothers.(3)aNhnvinc,TheperfectionofhiscausativeorkarmaicworksduringhisthreegreatkalpasofpreparationbQuvin
c,theperfectionofthefruit,orresultsinhisowncharacterandwisdomcnvinc,theperfectionofhisgraceinthesalvationofothers.
Tamgi.Prajnapti(S).ThewordgiinBuddhistterminologymeansthateverythingismerelyphenomenal,andconsistofderivedelementsnothingthereforehas
realexistence,butallisemptyandunrealhvngbttht.Thethreegiarephpthings,thsensations,anddanhnames.
Tamgiththit,tamnhip.Thethreefallaciouspostulatesinregardtophp,th,danh.Tamgiqunthemeditationontheabove.
Tamgic.Thethreekindsofenlightenment:(1)(a)tgicenlightenmentforself(b)gicthaforothers(c)gichnhvinmnperfectenlightenmentand
accomplishmentthefirstisanarhat's,thefirstandsecondabodhisattva's,allthreeaBuddha's.(2)FromtheAwakeningofFaithKhitnlun:(a)bngicinherent,
potentialenlightenmentorintelligenceofeverybeing(b)thygicinitial,orearlystagesofsuchenlightenmentbroughtaboutthroughtheexternalperfumingor

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influenceofteaching,workingontheinternalperfumingofsubsconsciousintelligence(c)cucnhgiccompletionofenlightenmentthesubjectivemindinperfect
accordwiththesubsconciousmind,ortheinherentintelligence.
Tamgicn.AthreecorneredaltarinthefireworshipofChnNgntng,connectedwithexorcism.
Tamgiithotmn,Thethreeemancipations,idemTamkhngandTamtammui.Theyarekhnggiithotmn,vtnggiithotmn,vtcgiithot
mn.
Tamgio.Thethreeteachings,i.e.NhoConfucianism,PhtBuddhismandoTaoismorKhng,Lo,ThchConfucianism,Taoism,Buddhism.InJapantheyare
Shintothno,ConfucianismandBuddhism.InBuddhismthetermisappliedtothethreeperiodsofSkyamuni'sownteachingofwhichthereareseveral
definitions:(1)TheGiangNamschooldescribehisteachingas(a)timprogressiveorgradual(b)nimmediate(c)btnhindeterminate.(2)Quang
Thngdescribesthethreeare:(a)timprogressiveforbeginners(b)nimmediateforthemoreadvanced(c)vincompleteforthemostadvanced.(3)TheNam
Sndealswith(a)TnhkhngofHnayna(b)TngkhngofMahyna(c)Duythcvintheperfectidealism.ThinThaiacceptsthedivisionoftim,n
andbtnhforpreLotusteachingtrcthiPhpHoa,butadoptstim,n,vinwiththeLotusastheperfectteachingitalsohasthedivisionoftamtng
gio,thnggioandbitgio.
Tamgii.Thethreesetsofcommandments,orprecepts,i.e.thetenfortheordainedwhohavelefthome,theeightforthedevoutathome,andthefiveforthe
ordinarylaity.
Tamgii.Trailokya,Triloka(S).Thethreerealmsalsotamhu.ItistheBuddhistmetaphysicalequivalentfortheBrahmaniccosmologicalbhuvanatraya,ortriple
worldofbhr,bhuvah,andsvar,earth,atmosphereandheaven.TheBuddhistthreearedc,sc,andvscgii,(a)DcKmadhtuistherealmofsensuous
desire,ofdmsexandthcfooditincludesthesixheavensofdeiresucitridc,thehumanworld,andthehells(b)ScgiiRpadhtuistherealmofform,
meaningchtngithatwhichissubstantialandresistantitisabovethelustworldandcontainsbodies,palaces,things,allmysticandwonderful,itisrepresentedin
thetthinthinBrahmalokas(c)VscgiiArpadhtu,orarpyadhtu,istheformlessrealmofpurespirit,wherethereisnobodies,places,things,atanyrate
nonetowhichhumantermswouldapply,butwheretheminddwellsinmysticcontemplationitsextentisindefinable,butitisconceivedofinfourstages,i.e.t
khngxthefour"empty"regions,orregionsofspaceintheimmaterialworld,whicharetvscthefourformlessrealms,orrealmsbeyondformbeingabovethe
realmofform,theirboundscannotbedefined.
Tamgiiduynhttm.ThetripleworldisbutonemindfromaverseofHoaNghimstraitproceedsTmngoivbitphp,TmPhtcpChngsinh,thtam
vsaibit"outsidemindthereisnootherthingmindBuddhaandalltheliving,thesetherearenotdifferent"inotherwordsthereisnodifferentiatingbetweenthese
three,forallismind.
Tamgiiduytm.Tribhvacittamtra(S).Thethreefoldexistenceisnothingbutthemind.
Tamgiihatrch.Theburninghouseofthetripleworld,asintheLotusparable.
Tamgiihng.Theheroofthetrailokya,Buddha.
Tamgiisng.Thesickbedofthetrailokya,especiallythisworldofsuffering.
Tamgiitng.Thetrailokyagarba,thewomborstorehouseofallthetransmigrational.
Tamgiitn.Thehonouredoneofthethreeworlds,i.e.Buddha.
Tamgiitph.Thekindlyfatherofthetripleworld,Buddha.
Tamhnh.Threelinesofactionthataffectkarma,i.e.phchnhthetengooddeedsthpthinthatcausehappykarmaTihnhthetenevildeedsthpcthat
causeunhappykarmabtnghnh(nghip)orvnghnhkarmaarisingwithoutactivity,e.g.meditationonerroranditsremedy.
Tamha.Theunionofthethree,i.e.cnindriya,cnhlambana,thcvijnna,i.e.organ,object,cognition.

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Tamha.Thethreefiresdesire,hate,andstupidity.Xemtamc.
Tamhoc.AThinThaiclassificationofthethreeillusionsalsostyledtamphinnotrialsortemptations,tamluleakages,tamcuuncleanesses,tamktbonds.
Thefirstofthefollowingthreeiscommontoalldisciples,thetwolasttobodhisattvas.TheyarisefromaKinThocthingsseenandthought,i.e.illusionsfrom
imperfectperceptionwithtemptationtolove,hate,etc.toberidofthesefalseviewsandtemptationsisthedisciplineandnirvnaofasceticorHnaynaBuddhists.
Mahynaproceedsfurtherinandbyitsbodhisattvaaims,whichproducetheirowndifficulties,i.e.bTrnsahocillusionandtemptationthroughtheimmense
varietyofdutiesinsavingmenandcVminhhoctheillusionsandtemptationsthatarisefromfailurephilosophicallytounderstandthingsintheirreality.
Tamhc.The"threestudies"orvehiclesoflearningdisciplinegii,meditationnh,wisdomtu.Threefoldformation:moralformation,spiritualformation,formation
ofwisdom.AlsotheTripitakatamtngthegiibeingreferredtothelutvinaya,thenhtothestras,andthetutothesstras.
Tamhu.Thethreekindsofbhava,orexistenceidemtamgii.Thethreestatesofmortalexistenceinthetrailokya,i.e.intherealmsofdesire,ofform,andbeyond
form.Anotherdefinitionishinhupresentexistence,orthepresentbodyandmindnghuinafuturestatetrunghuantarbhavaintheintermediatestate.
Tamhui.Thethreesetsoflimitationonfreedom:(a)directresistanceoropposition(b)environmentorcondition(c)attachment.
Tamhuviphp.Thethreeactive,orfunctioningdharmas:(1)pratigha,matterorform.i.e.thatwhichhas"substantialresistance"(2)mindand(3)phiscphi
tmentitiesneitherofmatternormind.Tamhuvitng.Thethreeformsofallphenomena,birth,stay(i.e.life),deathutpda,sthiti,andnirvna.
amkt.Thethreeties:(1)kinktthetieoffalseviews,e.g.ofapermanentego.(2)giithkt(3)nghikt
Tamkhoa.Thethreecategoriesofngm,thpnhx,thpbtgii.
Tamkh.Thethreekindsofdukkha,pain,orsuffering:khkhthatproducedbydirectcauseshoikhbylossordeprivationhnhkhbythepassingor
impermanencyofallthings.
Tamkin.Thethreesureorcertainthingsarethn,mnhandti.i.e.therewardofthetruediscipleisaninfinitebodyorpersonality,anendlesslife,andboundless
(spiritual)possessions,vccchithn,vcngchimnh,vtnchiti.
Tamkip.Thethreeasankheyakalpas,thethreecountlessaeons,theperiodofabodhisattva'sdevelopmentalsothepasttrangnghim,thepresenthin,andthe
futuretinhtkip.
Tamkinhnhtlun.ThethreestrasandonesstraonwhichthePurelandsectbasesitsteaching:Phtthuytvlngthkinh,Phtthuytqunvlngth
kinh,PhtthuytAdikinhThinthnTnhlun.
Tamlc.Thethreejoysthejoyofbeingbornadeva,thejoyofmeditation,thejoyofnirvna.
Tamlcxoa.Thethreelaksaalaksaisamark,sign,token,aim,objectitisalso100,000,i.e.anc.Thethreelaksaoftheesotericsectsarethetormagic
word,nsymbol,andbntnobjectworshipped.
Tamkbch(i)kip.TheperiodnecessaryforabodhisattvatobecomeaBuddha,i.e.threeasankhyeyastoattainthelcand100kalpastoacquirethethirty
twotngorcharacteristicmarksofaBuddha.
Tamlu.Thethreeaffluentsthatfeedthestreamofmortality,ortransmigration:dcdesirehu(material,orphenomenal)existencevminhignorance(oftheway
ofescape).
Tamlun.Thethreewheels:(1)TheBuddha's(a)bodyordeeds(b)mouthordiscourses(c)mindorideas.(2)(a)thnthng(orbin)hissupernaturalpowers,or
powersofselftransformation,associatedwiththnbody(b)ktmlunhisdiscriminatingunderstandingofothers,associatedwithmind(c)giothnhlun
orchnhgiolunhis(oral)powersofteaching,associatedwithkhumouth.(3)Similarly(a)thntclun(b)thuytphplun(c)cnimlun.(4)hoc,nghipand
kh.Thewheelofillusionhocproduceskarmanghip,thatofkarmasetsrollingthatofsufferingkh,whichinturnsetsrollingthewheelofillusion.(5)(a)
impermanencevthng(b)uncleannessbttnh(c)sufferingkh.

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Tamlungio.ThethreeperiodsoftheBuddha'steachingasdefinedbyParamrthachn:(a)chuynphplunthefirstrollingonwardsofthelawwheel,thefirst
sevenyearsteachingofHnayna,i.e.t,andkhng(b)chiuphplunilluminatingorexplainingthelawwheel,thethirtyyearsteachingofthebtnhprajnor
wisdomstras,illuminatingkhng,andbykhngilluminatinghureality(c)trphplunmaintainingthelawwheel,i.e.theremainingyearsofteachingofthedeeper
truthsofkhnghubothunrealityandreality.AlsothethreefoldgroupoftheLotusschhol:(a)cnbnphplunradicalorfundamental,asfoundinHoa
Nghimstra(b)chimtphplunbranchandleaf,i.e.allotherteachinguntil(c)nhipmtquibnphplunbranchesandleavesarereunitedwiththerootinthe
LotusstraPhphoakinh.
Tamlunthgii.Thethreewheelworld,i.e.phong,thy,kimlun.Everyworldisfoundedonawheelorwhirlingwindabovethisisonewithwaterabovethisis
onewithmetal,onwhichitsninemountainsandeightseasareformed.
Tamluntng.Thethreewheelconditiongiver,receiver,gift.
Tamluntng.Mdhyamika(S).TheMiddleSchoolbasesitsdoctrinesonthreesstras:TrungqunlunMdhyamikasstraTreatiseontheMdhyaka,Thpnh
mnlunDvdasanikyastraTreatiseonthetwelvegates,BchlunSatasstraTreatiseonthehundredverses.
Tamlc.Thethreepowers,ofwhichtherearevariousgroups:1apersonalpowerbTathgatapowercpoweroftheBuddhawithin.2apowerofawiseeyetosee
theBuddhamedecine(forevil)bofdiagnosisofailmentcofsuitingandapplyingthemedecinetothedisease.3athepowerofBuddhabofsamdhicof
personalachievementormerit.
Tamlck.Thetriplepowerverse:DngcngclcInthepowerofmyvirtue,NhLaigiatrlcAndtheaidingpoweroftheTathgata,Cpdphp
giilcAndthepowerofthespiritualrealm,ChubinchngsinhgiiIcangoanywhereinthelandoftheliving.
Tamma.Sama(S).Level,equal,sameetccftammuiandbnhng.
Tammabnda.Sampanna(S).Inthestateofsamdhi.
Tammabt.Samdhi(S).Mentalconcentration.
Tammab.Samaveda(S).ThethirdofthefourVedas.
Tamma.Samdhi(S).Mentalconcentration.
Tammaa.Samdhi(S).Mentalconcentration.
Tammn.Samanta(S)Tr.byng,ph,bin.Universal,everywhere.Samantagandha(S).Phhun,universalfragrantatreeinparadiseatitleofaBuddha.
Tammnabtla.Samantabhadra(S).Fouguen(J).PhHin.Pervadinggoodness,or"allgracious'.AlsoBinCtuniversalfortunealsostyledVisvbhadra.
TheprincipalBodhisattvaofNgaMisn.HeisthespecialpatronoffollowersoftheLotusStra.Heisusuallyseatedonawhiteelephant,andhisabodeissaidtobe
intheEast.HeisoneofthefourBodhisattvasoftheYogaschool.
Tammt.Thethreemysticthings:thebody,mouth(i.e.voice),andmindoftheTathgataNhLai,whichareuniversal,allthingsbeingthismysticbody,allsounds
thismysticvoice,andallthoughtsthismysticmind.Allcreaturesinbody,voice,andmind,areonlyindividualizedpartsoftheTathgata,butillusionhidestheir
Tathgatafromthem.TheesotericsseektorealizetheirTathgatanaturebyphysicalsignsandpostures,byvoicingofchnngndhranisandbymeditationsso
thatnhpngngnhpHemayentermeandIHim,whichistheperfectionofsiddhitta.
Tammtlci.Thethreemysticthingsassociatedwiththesixelements,i.e.themysticbodyisassocitedwithearth,waterandfirethemysticwordswithwind
andspacethemysticmindwiththcconsciousness(orcognition).
Tammttngng.Thethreemysticthings,body,mouth,andmindoftheTathgataareidenticalwiththoseofalltheliving,sothateventhefleshlybodybornof
parentsisthedharmakya,orbodyofBuddha.
Tammiu.Samyak(S).Chnhng,Perfect,right.

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Tammiutamb.Samyakcambodhi(S).Correctuniversalintelligence,Chnhbintri(o).CorrectequaloruniversalenlightenmentChnhnggic.Correct
universalperfectenlightenmentChnhngchnhgic.AnepithetoeveryBuddha.Thefulltermisanuttarasamyaksambodhi,perfectuniversalenlightenment,
knowledge,orunderstandingomniscience.
Tammiutampht.Samyaksambuddha(S).ThethirdofthetentitlesofBuddhadefinedasChnhbintriorChnhnggiconewhohasperfectuniversal
knowledgeorunderstanding,omniscient.
Tamminh.Tevijja(P).Threefoldknowledge.TamminhkinhTevijjavacchagotasutta.
Tamminh.Thethreeinsightsalsotamt.AppliedtoBuddhastheyarecalledtamt,toarhatstamminh:aTcmmhminhinsightintothemortalconditionsof
selfandothersinpreviouslivesbThinnhnminhsupernaturalinsightintofuturemortalconditionscLutnminhnirvnainsight,i.e.intopresentmortalsufferings
soastoovercomeallpassionsortemptations.
Tamminhtr.Trividy(S).Thethreeclearconceptionsthat:aAllisimpermanentvthnganityaballissorrowfulkhdukkhacallisdevoidedofaselfv
ngantman.
Tammc.Thethreeeyed,atermforSiva,i.e.Mahesvarasimiliforthedharmakya,orspiritualbody,prajnorwsdom,andnirvnaemancipation.
Tammui.Samdhi(S).Puttingtogether,composingthemind,intentcontemplation,perfectabsorption,unionofthemeditatorwiththeobjectofmeditation.Alsotam
maa,tamma,tamma.Interpretedbynhorchnhnhthemindfixedandundisturbedbychnhthcorrectsensationoftheobjectcontemplatedbychnh
tmhnhxtheconditionwhenthemotionsofthemindaresteadiedandharmonizedwiththeobjectbytclnghitmthecessationofdistractionandthefixation
ofthemindbyngtrthemindheldinequilibrumbysamathai.e.chtctostaythebreathing.Itisdescribedasconcentrationofthemind(uponanobject).The
aimisgiithot,mukti,deliverancefromallthetrammelsoflife,thebondageofthepassionsandreincarnations.Therearenumerouskindsanddegreesofsamdhi.
Tammuilcchnhthsinhthn.Samdhisukhasampattimanomayakya(S)
Tammuida.Samya(S)isvariouslydefinedashicomingtogether,meeting,conventionthitimelytnginagreement,atthesameclassbnhngequal,
equalizedcnhgicaroused,warnedtrcuchngridanceofuncleanhindrances.EspeciallyitisusedasindicatingthevowsmadebyBuddhasandbodhisattvas,
henceasatallysymbol,oremblemofthespiritualqualityofaBuddhaorbodhisattva.
Tammuidagii.Samyacommandments:therulestobestrictlyobservedbeforefullordinationintheesotericsects.
Tammuidagii.Samyaworld,ageneralnamefortheesotericsect.
Tammuidahnh.ThedistinguisingsymbolofaBuddhaorbodhisattva,e.g.theLotusofQunthm.
Tammuidahi.TheSamyaassembly,i.e.thesecondoftheninemandalas,consistingofseventythreesaintsrepresentedbythesymbolsoftheirpower.
Tammuidamnla.Samyamandala(S).Oneofthefourkindsofmagiccirclesinwhichthesaintsarerepresentedbythesymbolsoftheirpower,e.g.pagoda,
jewel,lotus,sword.
Tammuidathn(hnh).TheembodimentofSamya,atermoftheesotericsecti.e.thesymbolofaBuddhaorbodhisattvawhichexpresseshisinnernature,e.g.
thestpaasoneofthesymbolsofVairocanainhtthelotusofQunthmetc.ThnisusedforaBuddha,hnhforabodhisattva.Theexotericsectsassociate
thetermwiththebothnsambhogakya.
Tammuidatr.Samayawisdom(S).Inesotericteaching,thecharacteristicsofaBuddhaorbodhisattva'swisdom,asshowninthemandala.
Tammuiha.Fireofsamdhi,thefirethatconsumedthebodyofBuddhawhenHeenterednirvna.
Tammuima.Samdhimra(S).Oneofthetenmras,wholurksintheheartandhindersprogressinmeditation,obstructsthetruthanddestroyswisdom.
Tammuimn.Thedifferentstagesofabodhisattva'ssamdhi.
TammuiPht.SamdhiBuddha(S).OneofthetenBuddhasmentionedintheHoaNghimKinh.

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Tammuitngng.Thesymbolsorofferingsshouldtallywiththeobjectworshipped,e.g.awhiteflowerwithamercifulorawhiteimage.
Tammuivngkinh.Samdhirjastra(S).StraoftheKingofConcentration.
Tamnngtambtnng.ThethreethingspossibleandimpossibletoaBuddha.Hecan(a)haveperfectknowledgeofallthings(b)knowallthenaturesofall
beings,andfathomtheaffairsofcountlessages(c)savecountlessbeings.Buthecannot(a)annihilatecausality,i.e.karma(b)saveunconditionally(c)endthe
realmoftheliving.
Tamnimtr.Whetherallcreaturesbelieve,donotbelieve,orpartbelieveandpartdonotbelieve,theBuddhaneverrejoices,norgrieves,butrestsinhisproper
mindandwisdom,i.e.thoughfullofpity,hisfarseeingwisdomchnhnimchnhtrkeepshimabovethedisturbancesofjoyandsorrow.
Tamnimx.Xemtamnimtr.
TamNitbnmn.Thethreegatestothecityofnirvna,i.e.KhngtheVoidVtngFormlessness,andVtcInactivityidemTamgiithotmn.
Tamnghi.Thethreedoubtsofself,ofteacher,ofthedharmatruth.
Tamnghch.ThethreeunpardonablesinsofDevadattawhichsenthimtotheAvicihellschism,steningtheBuddhatothesheddingofhisblood,killinganun.
Tamnghip.Trividhdvra.Thethreeconditions,inheritances,orkarmasofwhichthereareseveralgroups.(1)Deed,word,thoughtthn,khu,.(2)(a)Presentlife
happykarma(b)presentlifeunhappykarma(c)btnhkarmaofanunperturbablenature.(3)(a)Good(b)evil(c)neutralkarma.(4)(a)Lunghipkarmaof
ordinaryrebirth(b)vlunghipkarmaofHnaynanirvna(c)philuphivlukarmaofneither,independentofboth,Mahynanirvna.(5)(a)Presentdeedsand
theirconsequencesinthislife(b)presentdeedsandtheirnextlifeconsequences(c)presentdeedsandconsequencesafterthenextlife.
Tamnghipcngdng.Toserveorworshipwithperfectsincerityofbody,mouthandmind.
Tamnghiptngng.Inworshipallthree(body,mouth,mind)correspond.
Tamng.Buddha'sthreemodesofdiscourse,i.e.withoutreserve,orthewholetruthtactical,orpartial,adaptingtruthtothecapacityofhishearersanda
combinationofboth.
Tamnhn.Thesix"causes"oftheAbhidharmaKosaCuxlunasreducedtothreeintheSatyasiddisstraThnhthtlun,i.e.sinhnhnproducingcause,tp
nhnhabitcause,ynhndependentorhypostaticcause,e.g.thesixorganslccnandtheirobjectslccnhcausingthecognitionslcthc.
Tamnhntamqu.Thethreecausesproducetheirthreeeffects:(1)Dthcnhndthcqudifferentlyripeningcausesproducedifferentlyripeningeffects,i.e.
everydevelopedcauseproduceitsdevelopedeffect,especiallytheeffectofthepresentcausesinthenexttransmigration(2)Phcnhnphcboblesseddeeds
produceblessedrewards,nowandhereafter(3)Trnhntrquwisdom(now)produceswisdomfruit(hereafter).
Tamnhn.Threeformsofksnti,i.e.patience(orendurance,tolerance).OneofthegroupsispatienceunderhatredNionhinhn,underphysicalhardshipAnth
khnhn,andinpursuitofthefaithstphpnhnorVsanhphpnhn.AnotherispatienceoftheblessedinthePureLandinunderstandingthetruththey
hearmhngnhn,patienceinobeyingthetruthNhuthunnhn,patienceinattainingabsoluterealityVsanhphpnhn.Anotherispatienceinthejoyof
rememberingAmitbhaHnhn,patienceinmeditationonhistruthNgnhn,andpatienceinconstantfaithinhimTnnhn.Anotheristhepatienceofsubmission,of
faithandofobedience.
TamPhm.ThethreeBrahnaheavensofthefirstdhyna:thatofPhmchngBrahmaprasidya,theassemblyofBrahmaPhmphBrahmapurohitas,his
attendantsiPhmMahbrahm,GreatBrahm.
Tamphp.Thethreedharmas,i.e.giophptheBuddha'steachinghnhphpthepracticeofitchngphprealizationorexperientialproofofitinbodhiand
nirvna.
Tamphpn.Xemtamn.
Tamphttm.ThethreeresolvesoftheKhitnlunAwakeningofFaith:(a)tnthnhtuphttmtoperfectthebodhioffaith,i.e.inthestageoffaith(b)gii

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hnhphttmtounderstandandcarryinpracticethewisdom(c)chngphttmtherealization,orproofof,orunionwithbodhi.
Tamphm.Thegeneralmeaningisthng,trung,hsuperior,medium,ihferior.
Tamphmsadi.Thethreegradesofsrmanera,i.e.713yearsoldstyledkhusadi,1419ngphpsadi,and20andupwardsdanhtsadi.
Tamphmtta.Thethreeesoterickindsofsiddhi,i.e.completeattainment,supremefelicity.Theyarethngsuperior,tobobornintheMtnghim
qucVairocanaPureland,trungmediuminoneoftheotherPurelandsamongwhichistheWesternParadise,hinferiorintheTulacungSunpalacesamongthe
devas.Alsostyledtamphmthnhtu,
Tamphmthnhphp.Thethreegradesofhearers,i.e.thngwiththethnspirit,trungwiththetmmind,hwiththenhears.
Tamphnkhoakinh.Thethreedivisionsofatreatiseonastra,i.e.tphnintroduction,chnhtngphndiscussionofthesubject,luthngphnapplication.
TamPhtb.Thebodhi,orwisdom,ofeachofthetrikyastamthn,i.ethatunderthebodhitree,thatofparinirvna,thatoftathgatagarbainitseternalnirvna
aspect.
TamPht.Sambuddha(S).Thetrulyenlightenedone,orcorrectenlightenment.
TamPhtng.TheBuddha'sthreemodesofdiscourseunqualified,i.e.outofthefullnessofhisnaturequalifiedtosuittheintelligenceofhishearersandboth.
TamPhttnh.ThethreekindsofBuddhanature:1TtnhtrPhttnhtheBuddhanaturewhichisinalllivingbeings,eventhoseinthethreeevilpaths2Dn
xutPhttnhtheBuddhanauredevelopedbytherightdiscipline3ChcquPhttnhthefinalorperfectBuddhanature.
TamPhtthn.Xemtamthn.
Tamphtt.AllthelivingareBuddhasons,buttheyareofthreekindsthecommonaltyarengoitexternalsonsthefollowersofthetwoinferiorBuddhist
vehiclestiuandtrungthaaretht,secondarysonsthebodhisattvas(i.e.mahynists)areottruesons.
Tamphc.Thethree(sourcesof)felicity:(1)TheVlngthkinhhasthefelicityof(a)thphcfilialpiety,regardforelders,keepingthetencommandments(b)
giiphcofkeepingtheothercommandments(c)hnhphcofresolveoncompletebodhiandthepursuitofBuddhaway.(2)TheCuxlunhastheblessedness
of:(a)thloiphcalmsgiving,inevokingresultingwealth(b)giiloiphcobservanceofthetnhgii(againstkilling,stealing,adultery,lying)andthegi
gii(againstalcohol,etc.),inobtainingahappylotintheheavens(c)tuloiphcobservanceofmeditationinobtainingfinalescapefromthemortalround.
Tamphcnghip.Thethreethingsthatbringahappylotalmsgiving,impartialkindnessandlove,ponderingoverthedemandsofthelifebeyond.
Tamphc.Thethreebondsdesire,anger,stupidity.Xemtamc.
Tamphngtin.Atermoftheesotericsforbody,mouth(orspeech),andmind,theircontrolandtheentryintothetammtthreemysteries.
Tamqun.Thethreestudies,mediatations,orinsights.ThemostgeneralgroupisthatofThinThai:(a)khngqunstudyofallasvoid,orimmaterial(b)giqunof
allasunreal,transient,ortemporal(c)trungqunastheviamediainclusiveofboth.TheHoaNgimgroupischnkhngqun,lsvngiqun,chubinhm
dungqun.TheNamSngroupistnhkhngqun,tngkhngqun,duythcqun.TheTngroupishuqun,khngqun,andtrungqun.
Tamquangthin.Sun,moon,andstars.Alsointheseconddhynaoftheformworrldtherearethetwodevaregionsthiuquangthin,vlngquangthin,
andquangmthin.AlsoQunthmbttisstyledNhthintsunprince,ordivinesonofthesunithchbttisstyledNguytthint,divinesonofthe
moonandHkhngtngbtt,thebodhisattvaoftheempyreanisstyledMinhtinhthint,divinesonofthebrightstars.
Tamqui.Trisarana,Saranagamana(S).Thethreesurrendersto,"orformulasofrefuge"intheThreePreciousOnesTamBo,i.e.toBuddhaPht,theDharmaPhp,
theSanghaTng.ThethreeformulasareQuiyPhtBuddhamsaranamgacchmi,QuiyPhpDharmamsaranamgacchmi,QuiyTngSanghamsaranam
gacchmi.ItisthemostprimitiveformulaoftheearlyBuddhism.ThesurrenderistotheBuddhaasteacherS,theLawasmedicineDc,theEcclesiaasfriens
Hu.TheseareknownastheTamQuiY.Threefoldrefuge:ItakemyrefugeintheBuddha,intheDharma,intheSangha.
Tamquithphp.ThereceivingoftheLaw,oradmissionofalaydisciple,afterrecantationofhispreviouswrongbeliefandsincererepetitiontotheabbotormonk

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oftheabovethreerefuges.Tamquinggii.Theceremonywhichmakestherecipientaubtcupasaka,malediscipleorubdiupsik,femaledisciple,
acceptingthefiveprecepts.
Tamqu,bama.The"threeseasons"ofanIndianyearspring,summer,andwinterayear.
Tamqu.ThethreerulesoftheThinThaiLotusschool:(a)chntnhqutheabsoluteandreal,thechnnhorbhtatathat(b)qunchiuqumeditationuponand
understandingofit(c)tthnhqutheextensionofthisunderstandingtoallitsworkings.InthetamquhongkinhthethreearetracedtothePhpsphmofthe
LotusStraandaredevelopedas:(a)tbitht(vonhtbi)theabodeofmercy,ortodwellinmercy(b)nhnnhcy(mcgipnhnnhc)thegarmentof
endurance,orpatienceunderopposition(c)phpkhngta(ngitatnhkhng)thethroneofimmateriality(orspirituality),astateofnirvnatranquility.Mercytoall
isanextensionoftthnhqu,patienceofqunchiu,andnirvnatranquilityofchntnhqu.
Tamquynnhttht.TheThinThaidivisionoftheSchoolsofBuddhismintofour,threetermedquyntemporary,i.e.tng,thng.bit,thefourthisthethtorvin
realorperfectSchoolofSalvationbyfaithtoBuddhahood,especiallyasreavealedintheLotusStra.
Tamsc.Thethreekindsofrpa,orformrealms:thefiveorgans(ofsense),theirobjects,andinvisibleperceptions,orideas.
Tamsinh.Thethreebirths,orreincarnations,past,present,future.ThinThaihas:(a)Chngplantingtheseed(b)Thcripening(c)Giithotliberating,stripping,
orharvesting,i.e.beginning,developmentandrewardofbodhi,aprocesseithergradualorinstantaneous.Hoanghimhas:(a)Kinvnsinhapastlifeofseeingand
hearingBuddhatruth(b)Giihnhsinhliberationinthepresentlife(c)ChngnhpsinhrealizationoflifeinBuddhahood.ThisisalsocalledTamsinhthanhPht
Buddhahoodinthecourseofthreelives.
Tamsthtchng.Thethreesuperiormonksandaminimumofsevenwitnessesrequiredforanordinationtofullordersexceptinoutlandishplaces,whentwo
witnessesarevalid.
Tams.Thethree(divine)messengersbirth,sickness,death.Alsothins.
Tamsnp.Atermforamonk'srobeoffive,seven,orninepatches.
Tamsgii.Thecommandsrelatingtobody,speechandmind.
Tamtai.Thethreecalamitiestheyareoftwokindsminortiutaiandmajoritai.Theminorappearingduringadecadentworldperiod,areswordaobinhtai,
pestilencettdchtai,andfamineccntaithemajor,forworlddestruction,arefirehatai,waterthytaiandwindphongtai.
Tamtammui(a).Thethreesamdhi,orthesamdhionthreesubjectsalsocalledtamnh,tamngtr,tamtrtamgiithotmn,tamchngtammuitam
chngngtr.Therearetwoformsofsuchmeditation,thatofhulureincarnational,ortemporal,calledtamtammuiandthatofvluliberation,ornirvna
calledtamgiithot.Thethreesubjectsandobjectsofthemeditationare:(1)Khngtoemptythemindoftheideasofmeandmineandsuffering,whichareunreal
(2)Vtngtogetridtheideaofform,orexternals,i.e.thethptngwhicharethefivesenses,maleandfemale,andthethreehu(3)Vnguyntogetridofall
wishordesire,alsotermedvtc,vkhi.
Tamtng.Tripitaka(S).ThreeCollectionsoftheBuddhistCanon.Threebaskets:Basketofsutra,basketofdiscipline,basketofphilosophicaltreatises
Tamtngphps.Masteroftripitaka.
Tamtm.Thethreeminds,orheartsvariousgroupsaregiven:(1)ThreeassuredwaysofreachingthePureLand,byaChthnhtmperfectsinceritybThmtm
profoundresolveforitcHihngphtnguyntmresolveondemittingone'smeritstoothers.(2)aCnbntmthe8thorlayavijnnaconsciousness,thestore
house,orsourceofallseedsofgoodorevilbYbntmthe7thormanovijnnaconsciousness,themediatingcauseofalltaintcKhistmthesadyatana
vijnnaconsciousness,theimmediateinfluenceofthesixsenses.(3)aNhptmbTrtmcXuttm.Themindenteringintoacondition,stayingthere,departing.
(4)Apure,asingle,andanundistractedmind.
Tamt.Past,present,future,idemtamth.

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Tamt.Thethreerefined,orsubtleconceptions,incontrastwithlcthcruderorcommonconcepts,intheAwakeningofFaithKhitnlunThethreeare:(1)v
minhnghiptngignorance,ortheunenlightenedcondition,consideredasinprimalaction,thestirringoftheperceptivefaculty(2)nngkintngabilityto
perceivephenomena,perceptivefaculty(3)cnhgiitngtheobjectperceivedortheempiricalworld.Thefirstisassociatedwiththethcorpusorsubstance,the
secondandthirdwithfunction,butbothmusthavecoexistence.e.g.waterandwave.
Tamthnh.Thethreesages,orholyones,ofwhomthereareseveralgroups.TheHoaNghimhaveVairocanaTlxnainthecentrewithManjusriVnths
lionhisleftandSamantabhadraPhHinonhisright.TheTnhPurelandsecthaveAmitbhainthecentre,ithAvalokitesvaraQunthmonhisleftand
Mahsthmaprptaonhisright.
Tamthn.Trikya(S).ThethreefoldbodyornatureofaBuddha,i.e.theDharmakyaphpthn,Sambhogakyabothn,Nirmnakyangthn.Thethreeare
definedasttnh,thdng,binha,theBuddhabodyperse,orinitsessentialnaturehisbodyoblisswhichhe"receives"forhisown"use"andenjoymentand
hisbodyoftransformation,bywhichhecanappearinanyformi.e.spiritual,oressentialglorifiedrevealed.
Tamthnnghip.Thethreephysicalwrongdeedskilling,robbing,adultery.
Tamthntamc.Thetamthnarephp,bo,ngthetamcarephp,bt,gii,i.e.thevirtueormeritofthe(a)phpthnbeingabsolute,independence,
reality(b)bothnbeingbtnhprajnorwisdom(c)ngthnbeinggiithotcliberationornirvna.
Tamthplcvt.Thethirtysixphysicalpartsandexcretionsofthehumanbody,allbeingunclean,i.e.thevilebody.
Tamthpnhthn.ThethirtytwoformsofQunthmandofPhHin,rangingfromthatofaBuddhatothatofaman,amaid,araksassimilartothethirtythree
formsnamedintheLotusstra.
Tamthpnhtng.Dvtrimsadvaralaksana(S).Thethirtytwolaksanasorphysicalmarksofacakravartiorwheelkingchuynlunthnhvng,especiallyofthe
Buddha,i.e.levelfeet,thousandspokewheelsignonfeet,longslenderfingers,plianthandsandfeet,toesandfingersfinelywebbed,fullsizedheels,archedinsteps,
thighslikearoyalstag,handsreachingbelowtheknees,wellretractedmaleorgan,heightandstretchorarmsequal,everyhairrootdarkcoloured,bodyhairgraceful
andcurly,goldenhuedbody,a10ft.haloaroundhim,softsmoothskin,thethtx,i.e.twosoles,twopalms,twoshoulders,andcrownwellrounded,belowthe
armpitswellfilled,lionshapedbody,erect,fullshoulders,fortyteeth,teethwhiteevenandclose,thefourcanineteethpurewhite,lionjawed,salivaimprovingthe
tasteofallfood,tonguelongandbroad,voicedeepandresonant,eyesdeepblue,eyelasheslikearoyalbull,awhitrnorcurlbetweentheeyebrowsemittinglight,
anusnisaorfleshyrotuberanceonthecrown.
Tamthpsinh.Ineachofthethpatenstatestherearethreeconditions,nhp,tr,xut,entry,stay,exit,hencethe"thirtylives".
TamthptamQunm.ThethirtythreeformsofQunm.
Tamthptamthin.Triyastrimsas(S).Thethirtythreeheavens,therealmofthirtythreegods.
Tamthpthtophm.Bodhipaksika(S).ThethirtysevenconditionsleadingtoBodhi.Tnimx:fourobjectsofmindfulnessTchnhcn:fourproperlinesof
exertionTnhtc:fourstepstowardssupernaturalpowersNgcn:fivespiritualfacultiesNglc:theirfivepowersThtgicchi:sevenbranchesof
enlightenmentBtchnho:eightfoldnoblepath.
Tamthtnhttduy.ThetwentyonedaysspentbytheBuddha,afterhisenlightenment,inwalkingroundthebodhitreeandconsideringhowtocarryhiswayof
salvationtotheworld.
Tamth.Threeperiods:past,present,future.
Tamthgicmu.AnameforMansjusriVnthasguardianofthewisdomofVairocana,heisthebodhimotherofallBuddhas,past,present,andfuture.
Tamthgian.Therearetwodefinitions:(1)Therealmsofkhmatter,chngsinhlife,andtrchnhgicmind,especiallytheBuddha'smind.(2)Theng
mpsychologicalrealm(mind),chngsinhlife,andqucorkhmaterialrealm.

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Tamthbtkhc.Everythingpast,present,futurewhethermentalormaterialisintangible,fleeting,andcannotbeheld.
Tamthgitht.Therealityorotherwiseofthingsoreventspast,presentandfuture.SomeHnaynaschoolsadmittherealityofthepresentbutdisputethereality
ofthepastdhuandthefuturenghu.
TamthPht.TheBuddhasofthepast,presentandfuture,i.e.Ksyapa,Skyamuni,andMaitreya.
TamthtamthinPht.ThethousandBuddhasofeachofthethreekalpasofthepastcalledtrangnghimkip,thepresenthinkip,andthefuturetinhtkip.
Tamthtm.Mind,orthought,past,present,orfuture,ismomentary,alwaysmoving,unrealandcannotbelaidholdof.
Tamthtm,tamthliut.ABuddha'sperfectknowledgeofpast,presentandfuture.
Tamthththuphpthhnghu.TheSarvstvdahschoolNhtthithubmaintainsthatthethreestates(past,present,future)arereal,sothesubstance
ofallthingsispermanent,i.e.timeisreal,matteriseternal.
Tamthtr.OneofaTathgata'sNhLaitenkindsofwisdom,i.e.knowledgeofpast,present,andfuture.
Tamthvchngngitrgii.Thewisdomlawormorallawthatfreesfromallimpedimentspast,presentandfuture.AlsostyledTammuidagii,Ttnhbn
nguyngii,Tambnhnggii,Thintmgii,Vvigii,andChnphpgii.
Tamth.Worshipwiththnbody,khumouth,mind.
Tamth.Thethreeformsofgiving:(1)(a)Tithone'sgoods(b)PhpththeLaworTruth(c)Vythcourageorconfidence.(2)(a)Vtthgoods(b)Cng
dngcungknhthworship(c)Phpthpreaching.(3)(a)mthcthfood(b)Trnbothvaluables(c)Thnmngthlife.
Tamthin.Trisahasra(S).ThreethousandatermusedbytheThinThaischoolfornhtthitchphp,i.e.allthings,everythinginachiliocosmorBuddhaworld.
Tamthinithinthgii.Trisahasramahsahasralokadhtu(S).Agreatchiliocosm.MtSumeruanditssevensurroundingcontinents,eightseasandringof
ironmountainsformonesmallworld1,000oftheseformasmallchiliocosmtiuthinthgii1,000ofthesesmallchiliocosmsformamediumchiliocosmtrung
thinthgiiathousandoftheseformagreatchiliocosmithinthgii,whichthusconsistsof1,000,000,000smallworlds.Tamthinithinthgiiisthe
sameasithinthgiiwhichisoneBuddhaworld.
Tamthinoainghi.Abhiksu'sregulationsamounttoabout250,thesearemultipliedbyfourfortheconditionsofwalking,standing,sitting,andsleepingandthus
make1,000againmultipliedbythreeforpast,present,andfuture,theybecome3,000regulations.
Tamthin.Thethirddhynaheavenofform,thehighestparadiseofform.
Tamthincn.Thethreegood"roots",thefoundationofallmoraldevelopment,i.e.vtham,vsn,vsinolust(orselfishdesire),noire,nostupidity(or
unwillingnesstolearn).Alsothgiving,tkindness,tumoralwisdom.
Tamthino.Thethreegoodorupwarddirectionsorstatesofexistence:thinthehighestclassofgoodnessrewardedwiththedevalifenhnthemiddleclassof
goodnesswithareturntohumanlifeatulatheinferiorclassofgoodnesswiththeasrastate.Alsotamthinth.
Tamthintrithc.Thethreetypesoffriendswithwhomtobeintimate,i.e.ateacher(oftheWay),afellowendeavourerandencourager,andapatronwhosupports
bygifts(dnapati).
Tamthnh.Arequestthricerepeatedimplyingearnestdesire.
Tamthoikhut.Thethreefeelingsofoppressionthatmakeforabodhisattva'srecreancythevastnessofbodhi,theunlimitedcalltosacrifice,theuncertaintyof
finalperseverance.
Tamthi.Thethreeperiods,afterhisnirvna,ofeveryBuddha'steaching.ChnhcorrectortheperiodoforthodoxyandvigourTngsemblanceortheperiodof
scholasticismMtend,theperiodofdeclineandtermination.
Tamthigiophn.ThethreeperiodsandcharacteristicsofBuddha'steachingasdefinedbytheDharmalaksanaschoolPhptngtng.Theyare:(1)Huwhen

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hetaughttheththurealityoftheskandhasandelements,butdeniedthecommonbeliefinthtngrealpersonality,orapermenentsoulthisperiodisrepresented
bythefourAhmkinhAgamasandotherHnaynastras(2)KhngSnya,whenhenegativedtheideaofthtphprealityofthingsandadvocatedthatallwas
khngunrealtheperiodoftheBtnhkinhprajnstras(3)TrungMadhyama,themean,thatmindorspiritisreal,whilethingsareunrealtheperiodofthisschool's
specificstraGiithmmtscriptureunlockingthemysteriesalsothePhpHoaLotusstraandlaterstras.
Tamthininhn.ThethreeperiodsofBuddhism1,000yearsofChnhphppureororthodoxdoctrine,1,000yearsofTngphpresemblancetopurity,and
10,000yearsofMtphpdecay.OtherdefinitionsareChnhandTng500yearseach,orChnh1,000andTng500,orChnh500andTng1,000.
Tamthitathin.Thethriceadaymeditationabout10am,and4and8pm.
Tamth.Thethreeanimalshare,horse,elephantcrossingastream.Thesravakaisliketheharewhocrossesbyswimmingonthesurfacethepratyekaislike
thehorsewhocrossesdeeperthantheharethebodhisattvaisliketheelephantwhowalksaccrossonthebottom.
Tamth.ThethreestatesofVedan,i.e.sensation,aredividedintopainfulkh,pleasurablelc,andfreedomfrombothx.
Tamthnghip.Thekarma,orresultsarisingfromthepursuitofcoursesthatproducepain,pleasure,orfreedomfromboth.
Tamthut.ThreedevicesinmeditationforgettingridofMrahindrancesmachng:within,togetridofpassionsanddelusionwithout,torefuseortowithdraw
fromexternaltemptation.
Tamtha.Triyna(S)Thethreevehicles,orconveyanceswhichcarrylivingbeingsacrosssamsra,ormortality(birthanddeath)totheshoreofnirvna.Thethree
arestyled:(1)TiuthaHnayna,lesservehicle(2)TrungthaMadhyamayna,mediumvehicle(3)ithaMahayna,greatervehicle.
Tamthc.Thethreestatesofmindorconsciousness:chnthctheoriginalunsulliedconsciousnessorMind,theTathgatagarbh,theeighthorlayahin
thcmindorconsciousnessdiversifiedincontactwithorproducingphenomena,goodandevilphnbitthcconsciousnessdiscriminatingandevolvingtheobjects
ofthefivesenses.Alsothcmanas,Tmthclaya,Vcuthcamala.
Tamtim.ThethreeprogressivedevelopmentsoftheBuddha'steachingaccordingtoPrajnschool:(a)theLcuyninitialstageintheDeerPark(b)thePhng
ngperiodoftheeightsucceedingyears(c)theBtnhPrajnorwisdomperiodwhichsucceeded.
Tamtnh.Trayahsvabhvah(S).Threeformsofknowledge.
Tamtnhphnbit.Thedifferentiationofthethreeconditionsgood,evil,andneutral.
Tamtnhnhc.Thethreekindso"clean"fleshwhenamonkhasnotseenthecreaturekilled,hasnotheardofitsbeingkilledforhim,andhasnodoubtthereon.
Tamtn.Thethreehonouredones:Buddha,TheLaw,TheOrder.Othersare:AmitbhaAdi,AvalokitesvaraQunthm,andMahsthmaprptaithCh.
Anothergroupis:BhaisajyaDcs,VairocanaTlxna,Candraprabhaandanother:SkyamuniThchcamuni,ManjusrVnthsli,and
SamantabhadraPhHin.
TamtnPht.ThethreehonouredBuddhasoftheWest:Amitbha,Avalokitesvara,Mahsthmaprpta.Thoughbodhisattvas,thetwolatterarecalledBuddhaswhen
thusassociatedwithAmitbha.
Tamtng.ThethreeschoolsofPhptngtng,Phtngtng,Phptnhtng,representingtheideasofkhng,gi,andbtkhnggi,i.e.unreality,temporary
reality,andneitherorabsolute,realtive,andneither.
Tamtrangnghim.Thethreeadornments,orglories,ofacountry:materialattractionsreligionandlearningmen,i.ereligiousmenandbodhisattvas.
Tamtr.Thethreekindsofwisdom:(1)(a)Nhtthittrsrvakaandpratyekabuddhaknowledgethatallthedharmasorlawsarevoidandunreal(b)ochng
trbodhisattvaknowledgeofallthingsintheirproperdiscrimination(c)NhtthitchngtrBuddhaknowledgeorperfectknowledgeofallthingsintheireveryaspect
andrelationshippast,present,andfuture.ThinThaiassociatestheabovewithKhng,Gi,Trung(2)(a)Thgiantrearthlyorordinarywisdom(b)Xutthgian
trsupramundane,orspiritual(srvakaandpratyekabuddha)wisdom(c)Xutthgianthngth()trsupremewisdomofbodhisattvasandBuddhas.

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Tamtu.Thethreewaysofdiscipline,i.e.threesrvakathanhvnandthreebodhisattvaways.Thethreesrvakawaysarevthngtunorealizationoftheeternal,
seeingeverywhereastransientphilctujoyless,throughonlycontemplatingmiseryandnotrealizingtheultimatenirvnajoyvngtunonegodiscipline,seeing
onlytheperishingselfandnotrealizingtheimmortalself.Thebodhisattvathreearetheoppositeofthese.
Tamtgii.Xemtamttnhgii.
Tamt.Thethreegroups,i.e.chnhnhtthosedecidedforthetruthtnhtthosewhoaredecidedforheresybtnhttheundecided.Definitionsvaryin
differentschools.
Tamttnhgii.Thethreecumulativecommandments:(a)nhiplutnghigiitheformal5,8,or10,andtherest(b)nhipthinphpgiiwhateverworksfor
goodness(c)nhiuchhutnhgiiwhateverworksforthewelfareorsalvationofliving,sentientbeings.
Tamtu.Thethreemodesofattainingmoralwisdom:Vntufromreading,hearing,instructionTtufromreflection,etc.Tutufrompractice(ofabstract
meditation).
Tamt.Allactionandspeechhavethreementalconditionsreflection,judgement,decision.
Tamt.Thethreesons,onefilial,wise,andcompetentoneunfilialbutcleverandcompetentoneunfilial,stupidandincompetenttypesrespectivelyof
bodhisattvasbtt,srvakasthanhvnandicchantikasnhtxin.
Tamt.Threedivisionsoftheeightfoldnoblepath,thefirsttothethirdtiuselfcontrol,thefourthandfifthttnhselfpurification,thelastthreetself
developmentinthereligiouslifeandinwisdom.Alsotth,ttng,tdng,substance,formandfunction.
Tamttnhtng.Svabhvalaksanatraya(S).Thethreeformsofknowledgebinyvintamtnhthethreeaspectsofthenatureofathingbinkschptnh
parikalpita,partial,aswhenaropeismistakenforasnakeythakhitnhparatantra,onlypartlyreliable,i.e.incompleteinference,aswhenitisconsideredasmere
hempvinthnhthttnhparinispanna,allround,orperfectwhencontent,form,etc.,areallconsidered.
Tamtcnht.Thethreevehicles(Hnayna,Madhyamayna,Mahyna)areone,i.e.thethreeleadtobodhisattvashipandBuddhahoodforall.
Tamtng.Thethreeformsorpositions:giithottngnirvnalytngnonirvnadittngorphihuphivchitrungoabsenceofboth,orthe"middle
way"ofneither.
Tamtngtc.Thethreelinks,orconsequences:(a)theworldswiththeirkingdoms,whicharisefromthekarmaofexistence(b)allbeingswhoarisefromthefive
skandhas(c)rewardsandpunishments,whichariseoutofmoralkarmacauses.
Tamtng.Thethreeevilthoughtsaredesire,hate,malevolencethethreegoodthoughtsareOntngthoughts(oflove)toenemies,Thntngthesameto
familyandfriends,Trungnhntngthesametothosewhoareneitherenemiesnorfriends,i.e.toall.
Tamun.Thethreekindsofskandhas,aggregations,orcombinations,intowhichalllifemaybeexpressedaccordingtotheHaaBorMahssakhschool:nht
nimuncombintionforamoment,momentaryexistencenhtkuncombinationforaperiod,e.g.asinglehumanlifecngsinhtunthetotalexistenceofall
beings.
Tamv.Thethreeflavours,orpleasantsavours:themonasticlife,readingthescriptures,meditation
TamV(V).ThethreeemperorsVwhopersecutedBuddhismThiVofNgydynastyA.D.424452VoftheChuA.D.561578VtngofngA.D.841
7.
Tamvluhc.Thethreestudies,orendeavours,afterthepassionlesslifeandescapefromtransmigration:(a)Giimoraldiscipline(b)nhmeditation,ortrance
(c)Tutheresultingwisdom.
Tamvsaibit.Thethreethatarewithout(essential)difference,i.e.areofthesamenature:(a)TmthenatureofmindisthesameinBuddhasandmen,andallthe
living(b)PhtthenatureandenlightenmentofallBuddhasisthesame(c)Chngsinhthenatureandenlightenmentofallthelivingisthesame.

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Tamvtntrangnghimtng.Thetreasuryofthethreeinexhaustibleadornmentsorgloriesi.e.thethn,khu,deeds,words,andthoughtsofaBuddha.
Tamvtnh.Thethreethingswithoutanatureorseparateexistenceoftheirown:(a)Tngvtnhform,appearanceorseeming,isunreal,i.e.aropeappearinglike
asnake(b)Sinhvtnhlifeditto,foritisliketherope,whichisderivedfromconstituentmaterials(c)Thngnghavtnhthethngngha,conceptofthechn
nhorbhtatathatisunreal,e.g.thehemofwhichtheropeismadethebhtatathatisperfectandeternal.Everyrepresentationofitisabstractandunreal.The
threearealsoknownastngvtnh,vtnhintnh,phpvtnh.
Tamxa.Triyna(S).Thethreevehiclesacrosssamsraintonirvna,i.e.thecartofferedbythefatherintheLotusStratolurehischildrenoutoftheburninghouse:
(a)goatcarts,representingsrrvakas(b)deercarts,pratyekabuddha(c)bullockcarts,bodhisattvas.
Tamy.Tricvara(S).Thethreeregulationgarmentsofamonk,csaksya,i.e.(1)tnggilsanght,cuiuiy,ceremonialrobe(2)utalatng
uttarsanga,thtiuthngy,uppergarmentwornoverthe(3)anhiantaravsaka,ngiuniy,innergarm
Tn.Viprakr(S).Scatter,disperse,dismiss.
Tndng.Topraise,laud,commend.
Tna.Thestageofdistraction.
Tnhoa.ToscatterflowersinhonourofaBuddha,etc.
Tnlon.Scattered,dispersed,unsettled,disturbed,restless.
Tnnghitammui.Asamdhifreefromalldoubt.
Tnnghip.Thegoodkarmaacquiredinalifeofactivity.
TnnghipnimPht.TorepeatthenameofBuddhagenerallyandhabitually.
Tnnht.Thedispersingday,thelastofanassembly.
Tnphc.Toadmire.Alsothnphc,khmphc.
Tnsinhtrai.Almsgivinginpetitionforrestorationfromillness.
Tntm.Adistractedorunsettledmindinattentive.
Tnthn.Toeulogize,tooverpraise.
Tntng.Stotra(S).SongsinpraiseoftheBuddhas.Tolauds.o.tosings.o'spraises.
Tnphpgiitng.Dharmadhtustotra(S).
Tng,tng.Treasury,thesaurus,store,tohidetheCanon.Anintp.ofpitaka,abasket,box,granary,collectionofwritings.TamtngTripitakaconsistsofthestras,
vinanaandsstras.
Tngin.Alibraryofthescriptures.
Tnggio.ThePitaka,i.e.Tripitakaschool,oneofthefourdivisionsTng,Thng,Bit,VinasclassifiedbyThinThai.
Tngkinh.TheCanon,ofwhichtherearecataloguesvaryinginnumberofcontents,thefirstbyLngVof5,400quynKhaiNguyn5,048quyn.Theoldest
existingcanonisbelievedtobetheKoreanwith6,467quyntheTngcanonhas5,714quyntheNguyn5,397quyntheJapanese665coverstheMinh6,771
quyn,reprintedintheThanhdynastywithsupplement.
Tngl.TheTathgatagarbha,oruniversalstorehousewhencealltruthcomes.
Tngthc.TheAlayavijnna,thestorehouseofallknowledge,theeighthconsciousness.
Tp.Mixed,variegated,heterogenous,hybrid,confused,disordered.
TpAhmkinh.TheSamyuktgamastratr.byGunabhadra.

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TpHoakinh.XemHoaNghimkinh.
Tpnhim.Allkindsofmoralinfectionimputity,defilement.
Tpnghip.Aworldofvariedkarma.
Tpsinhthgii.Aworldofvariousbeings,i.e.thatoffivedestinies,hells,demons,animals,menanddevas.
TpscBohoanghimthnPht.RatnakusumasanpuchpitagtraBuddha(S).
Tptnhgii.Theworldofmixeddwellers,i.e.thefivespeciesngth.
Ttbab.Sarvastivda,Sarvastivdin(S).Nhtthithub.
Ttbnh.XemNhtthittr.
Tta.Sattva(S).Creature,livingbeing.
Tng.Samgha(S).Anassembly,collection,company,society.Thecorporateassemblyofatleastthree(formerlyfour)monksunderachairmanempoweredtohear
confession,grantabsolution,andordain.Thechurchormonasticorder,thethirdmemberoftheTriratna.Thetermtngusedalonehascometomeanamonkor
monksingeneral.
Tngbo.Theidealizedchurch,thethirdmemberoftheTriratna.
Tngchibkinh.AngutaraNikaya(P).
Tngchng.Samgha(S).Thebody,orassemblyofmonksBuddhistclergy.
Tnggi.Xemtng.
Tnggibala.Samghapla(S).AlsoChngDng.
Tnggibthisa.Samghavasesa(S).
Tnggibtla.Samghabhadra(S).AlsoChngHin.
Tnggibtma.Samghavarman(S).AlsoChngKhi.
Tnggibttrng.Samghvarti(S).AlsoChngHin
Tnggidax.Samghayathata(S).18thIndianpatriarch.AlsoChngXng.
Tnggib.Samghadeva(S).AlsoChngThin.
Tnggilam.Samghrma(S).Amonasterywithitsgardenorgrove.
Tnggil.Sanghti(S).Thepatchrobe,oneofthethreegarmentsofamonk.
Tngginan.Samghanandi(S).17thIndianpatriarch.AlsoChngH.
Tnggiytma.Samghakarma(S).
Tnggii.Thetenprohibitionsthecompletecommandsformonks.
Tngk.Sanghika(S).Relatingtoasanghaacompletesetoflandandbuildingsoramonastery.
Tnglp.Monasticage.
Tngl.Monasticcompanion,orcompany.
Tngnghi.Themonasticcustom,i.e.shavingheadandbeard,wearingtherobe,etc..
TngnhtAhmkinh.Ekottarikgama(S).
Tngnhttp.AnguttaraNikya(P)
Tngni.Monksandnuns.

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Tngphng.Amonasteralsoanunnery.
Tngquan.Directorofmonk.
Tngtn.Sanghvasesa(S).Asinofanordainedpersonrequiringopenconfessionbeforetheassemblyforabsolution,orriddancetnfailingconfession,dismissal
fromtheorder.
Tngthng.Samgharja(S).ChiefoftheBuddhistclergyinacountry.SupremePatriarchoftheSanghaCouncil.
Tngthngqu.Adhipatiphala(S).Dominantfruition.
Tngthngtmkinh.Vitakkasanthbasuttam(P).
Tngtrngthinvng.Virdhaka(S).SouthernGodProtector.AlsoTluli.
Tngtc.Monksandthelaity.
Tngth.Inorderofmonasticage,accordingtoyearsofordination.
Tngthngmn.Pride,regardingoneselfassuperior.
Tm.Hrd,Hrdeya(S).Heartmindintentionwillsensedesirecentremiddle.
Tmn.Mentalimpression,intuitivecertaintythemindistheBuddhamindinall,whichcansealorassurethetruth.
Tmba.Waveofthoughtsuninterruptedsequenceofthoughts.
Tmbo.Preciousmind.
Tmbng.Theheartchasteasicethemindcongealedasice.
Tmbtti.Absentminded,inattentiveuneasymind.
Tmbnh.Serenity,calmness(ofthemind).
Tmcan.Heartandliverwillandcourage.
Tmcnh.Moodstateofmind.
Tmcu.Theimpuritiesofthemind.
Tmch.Will,determination.
Tmc.Cunningnessofmindsagacity,shrewdnesscontrivances.
Tmcc.ThepoleorextremeofthemindthementalreachtheBuddha.
Tmchu.Thegemofmind.Themindstuffofalltheliving,beingofthepureBuddhanatureislikenedatranslucentgem.
Tmchn.Ourmindisbynaturethatofthebhtatathat.Truemind.
Tmch.Mindspell,truemantra.
Tmchng.Theinnerwitness,orassurance,mindandBuddhawitnessingtogether.
Tmdit.Mindextinction
Tmdc.Desire.
Tmduyn.Mentalcognitionoftheenvironmenttolayholdofexternalthingsbymeansofthemind.
Tmdc.Mindmedicament.
Tmc.Tohaveaninsightinto,toseethrough,topenetratetheessenceof(things)
Tmng.Thelampofthemind.Penetrationofmindperspicacity,insight,acumen.
Tma.Thebottomoftheheartthementalgroundorconditionmind,nature.

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Tmin.Thefieldofthemind,orheart.
Tmnh.Thepavilionofthemind,i.e.thebody.
Tmgiithot.Cetovimutti(P).EmancipationofHeart(Mind).
Tmgii.Theworldofthemind.
Tmgii,ithagii.ThecommandmentsofMahayna.
Tmhi.Mindasaseaorocean.
Tmhnh(hnh).Theactivitiesofthemindalsoworkingonthemindforitscontrolmindandactions.
Tmhoa.Heartflower.Goodspiritscheerfuldisposition.
Tmhn.Soulspiritheart,feelingnatureessence,inspiration,life.
Tmhng.Theincenseofthemind.Fervour.
Tmkinh.Heartstra.
Tmknh.Themirrorofthemind.
Tmkh.Mindasreceptacleofallphenomina.
Tmkh.Mentalanguish,sorrow.
Tmkhng.Mindspace,ormindspaciousnessalsotheemptiedmind.
Tmlin.Thelotusofthemind.
Tmlinh.Themindspiritorgeniusintellect,intelligencepsyche.
Tmlc.Mentalvigourstrenghtofmindmentalpowerpsychicalenergy.
Tmlng.Mindmeasuretheordinaryman'scalculatingmindalsocapacityofmind.
Tmma.Mindmara.
Tmm.Restlessmind.
Tmnguyn.Wish,desire,intention,vow,resolvewillofthemind.
Tmnguyt.Mind(asthe)moonheartpureandbrightasthemoon.
Tmnhn.Themind'seyementalvisionacumenperspicacityclairvoyance.
Tmnhtcnhtnh.Cittekgrata(S).Concentration,"Onepointednessofmind"
Tmnbim.Tothinkoftoreflectupontomediatateupontoponderoversth.
Tmnimbtkhngqu.Ponderingon(Buddha)andnotpassing(thetime)invain.
Tmnimthuytgii.AditthnaUposatha(P).Observancewithdetermination.
Tmphp.Cittadharmas(S)Mentaldharmas.Eightmentaldharmas:(1)nhnthccaksurvijnna,eyeconsciousness(2)nhthcsrotravijnna,ear
consciousness(3)tthcghrnavijnna,noseconsciousness(4)thitthcjihvvijnna,tongueconsciousness(5)thnthckyavijnna,bodyconsciousness
(6)thcmanovijnna,consciousmind(7)mtnathcmananavijnna,subsconciousmind(8)alidathclayavijnna,ideationstore.
Tmphnbittng.Cittvikalpalaksana(S).Discriminatedappearancebythemind.
TmPht.TheBuddhawithintheheartfrommindisBuddhahoodtheBuddharevealedinortothemindMindisBuddha.
Tmqun.Contemplationofthemindanditsthoughts.
Tmquang.Thelightfrom(aBuddha's)mindmercifulheart.

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Tmsinhkhi.Pravrttivijnna(S).Evolvingofmind.AlsoChuynthc.
Tms.Oldertermfortms.
Tms.Caitasika(S).Mentalfactors.Mentalconditionstheattributesofthemind.
Tmshuphp.Caitasikadharma(S).Mentalfunctions.Fiftyonementalfunctionsare:(A)5Tmsbinhnhpancasarvatrag,5generalmentalfunctions:(1)
xcsparsa,touch(2)tcmanaskra,volition(3)thvedana,sensation(4)tngsamjn,idea(5)tcetan,thought.(B)5Tmsbitcnhpancaviniyat,5
specialmentalfunctions:(1)dcchanda,desire(2)thnggiiadhimoksa,resolve(3)nimsmrti,remembrance(4)nhsamdhi,concentration(5)tuprajn,
wisdom.(C)11Tmsthinekdasakusal,11goodmentalfunctions:(1)tnsraddh,belief(2)tmhr,shame(3)quapatrap,bashfulness(4)vthamalobha,
absenceofcovetousness(5)vsnadvesa,absenceofhatred(6)vsiamoha,absenceofignorance(7)cnvryeenergy(8)khinhanprasrabhdi,reposeofmind
(9)btphngdtapramada,vigilance(10)hnhxupeksa,equanimity(11)bthiahims,noninjury.(D)6Cnbnphinnosadkles,6evilmentalfunctions:
(1)thamraga,greed,covetousness(2)snpratigha,hatred(3)simoha,ignorance(4)mnmna,arrogance(5)nghivicikits,doubt(6)ckinmithydrsti,false
view.(E)20Typhinnovimsatirpakles,20minorevilmentalfunctions:(1)phnkrodha,anger(2)hnupanha,enmity(3)phmraksa,concealment(4)no
pradsa,affliction(5)ttrsy,envy(6)sanmtsarya,parsimony(7)cungsthya,fraudulance(8)simmy,deception(9)hivihims,injury(10)kiumada,
pride(11)vtmhrkya,shamelessness(12)vquanapatrkya,nonbashfulness(13)trocauddhatya,restlessness(14)hntrmstyna,lowspiritedness
(15)bttnsraddhya,unbelief(16)giiikausidya,sloth(17)phngdtpramda,negligence(18)thtnimmusitasmrti,forgetfulness(19)tnlonviksepah,
distraction(20)btchnhtriasamprajn,nondiscernment.(F)4Btnhtmscatvroaniat,4indeterminatementalfunctions:(1)hikaukrtya,repentance(2)
minmiddha,drowsiness(3)tmvitarka,reflection(4)tvicra,investigation.
Tms.Themindasmaster.
Tmtm.Everymindmindandmentalconditions.
Tmthnh.Thecitadelofthemind,i.e.asguardianoveraction.
Tmthn.Thespiritofthemindmind,mentalintelligencestateofmind.
Tmthntc.Cittsamdhi(S).Concentrationonconsciousness.
Tmth.Mindtomindimpartationorimpartment(oftruth)intuitivehandingdown(oftheBuddha'steachings).
Tmth.Thebentordirectionofmind,ormoralnature.
Tmthy.Themindasreflectingsurfacethemindaswater,clearorturbid.
Tmtha.Mindvehicle,i.e.meditation,insight.
Tmthc.Mentalperceptionmentalcognitionintuitivecognition.
Tmtch.Footprintsorindicationsofmind,i.e.mindrevealedbydeeds.
Tmtnh.Immutablemindcorpus,mindnaturetheselfexistingfundamentalpuremindtheall,thetathgatagarbha
Tmtng.Theintuitivesect.Zensect.
Tmtrn.Minddustordirt.
Tmtr.Mindandknowledge,orthewisdomofthemindmindbeingtheorgan,knowingthefunction.
Tmtruyn.Mindtomindtransmission.XemTmth.
Tmtng.Heartshapemanifestationofmindinaction.
Tmvin(m).Themindasarestlessmonkeytobeirresolutewavering.
Tmvstr.Themindwithoutrestingplace.

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Tmvtng.Cittnirbhva(S).Mentalstateofnonsemblance.
Tmvng.Citta(S).Themindthewill,thedirectiveorcontrollingmindthefunctioningmindasawholedistinctfromitsconditions.
Tmx.Imposture,deceit.
Tmthc.Mind,thougtandperception.
Tmyu.Theverycore,oressence.
Tn.New,newly,just,oppositeofcuold.
Tnulphlaa.PindolaBhradvja(S).Nameofanarhat.
Tnpht.OnewhohasnewlyresovedonbecomingaBuddhist,oronanynewlineofconduct.
Tntu.Thenewyearofthemonks,beginningonthedayafterthesummerretreat.
Tnbsala.Bimbisra(S).Nameofaking.
Tngi,calngtngi.Karavinka(S).Birdwithmiraculoussong.
Tn.Allusedupend,finish,complete,nothingleftall,utmost,entirely.
Tnhkhnggii.Totheendoftheemptyspace.
Tnlu.Extinctionofthecankers.
Tnnghip.Karmaksaya(S).Consumationofthepreviousactionsandtheresultstherof.
Tnthpphng.Theentiretendirections,theuniverse,everywhere.
Tnth.Ayuksaya(S).Consumationoflife.
Tntnhhdung.Theidentityoftheabsoluteandtheempirical,adoctrineofthePrajnapramit.
Tnvlait.Totheendofalltime,eternal.
Tp.Samudaya(S).Origin.Repetition,practice,habit,skilled.
Tp.Samudayaryasatya(S).Causesofthedukkha.
Tp.Learn
Tpdit.Topractice(thegood)anddestroy(theevil).
Tpkh.Vsan(S).Habit,theforceofhabittheuprisingorrecurrenceofthoughts,passions,ordelusionsafterthepassionordelusionhasitselfbeenovercome,
theremainderorremaininginfluenceofdelusion.Formerimpressionrecollectionofthepast.
Tpnhntpqua.Thecontinuityofcauseandeffect,asthecausesotheeffect.
Ttbtla.(Th).Pippala(S).
Tt.Toend,final,complete,all.
Ttcnh.Atyanta(S).Atbottom,finally,atlast,fundamental,final,ultimate
Ttcnhkhng.Fundamentallyunreal,immaterial,orvoid.
Ttcnhgic.Theultimateenlightenment,orbodhi,ofaBuddha.
Ttcnhtr.Ultimate,orfinalwisdom,orknowledgeoftheultimate.
Ttcnhv.Never,fundamentallynot,ornone.
Ttcnhy.Afinaltrust,ultimatereliance,i.e.Buddha.
Ttm(ttn).Xemtttn.

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Ttn.Siddhi(S).Success.Alsothnhtu.
Ttta.Siddharta(S)OnewhohasaccomplishedhistaskprinceSiddharta.
Tta.Siddharta(S)
Ttlnggibsa.Palindavatsa(S).AlsoDTp.
Ty.Pascima(S).West.
Tyduk.JourneytotheWest.
Tyhnh.GoingwestpracticesoftheAmitbhacult,leadingtosalvationintheWesternParadise.
Tynguhachu.Aparagodna(S).ContinentatthewestoftheMeruMount.
Typhng.Thewest,orwesternregionsbutitisalsomuchusedforthewesternheavensofAmitabhaBuddha.
TyphngCclc.Sukhvati(S).WesternPureLand,WesternParadise.
Typhngtipdn.GuideandwelcomertotheWesternPureLand,AmitabhaBuddha.
Tysntrb.Avarasail(S).ThesecondsubdivisionoftheMahsanghikaschool.
Tythingioch.TheLordoftheWest,AmitabhaBuddha.
TyTng.Tibet.
Tythin.India,thewesternthintrcquc.
Tyvc.Westerncountries.
Tyvccuphpcaotngtruyn.Biographiesoffamouspilgrims,fiftysixinnumber,withfouraddeditisbyNghaTnh.
Tyvck.RecordsofWesterncountries.
T.Even,level,equal,uniformcomplete,perfectequalizetranquilizealikeallatthesametime,altogether.
T.Tocrossastreamaidcausebringabouttosave,succour,relieve.
Tbn.Torelieve,assistthepoor.
Tcp.Toaffordassistancetos.o.inurgentcircumstancestoministertos.o.'swants.
T.Toferrythelivingacrosstheseaofreincarnationtotheshoreofnirvnatosavesinnersfromtheseaofmisery.
Tkhn.Torelieves.o.indistress.
Tth.Tosavetheworld.
T.Fine,small,minuteindetailcareful.
Thotdc.Sexualattractionthroughsoftnessandsmoothness.
Ttm.Carefully,indetail.
Tthc.Thevijnnaofdetailed,unintermittingattention.
Tnghipthn.Thefinalbodywhichbringstoanendallformerkarma.
Tnhuynng.Refinedandsoftspeech.
Tsc.Refinedappearance.
Tha.Another,other,theother,his,her,its,etc.
Thahattithin.Pranirmitavasavarti(S).Thesixthofthesixheavensofofdesire,orpassionheavens,thelastofthesixdevalokas,theabodeofMahesvara
(i.e.Siva)andofMara.

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Thalc.Another'sstrength,especiallythatofaBuddha,orbodhisattva,obtainedthroughfaithinMhaynasalvation.
Thalctng.Thosewhotrusttosalvationbyfaith,contrastedwithtlctngthosewhoseeksalvationbyworks,orbytheirownstrength.
ThalcnimPht.TrustingtoandcallingontheBuddha,especiallyAmitbha.
Thatmthng.Paracittjnna(S).Intuitiveknowledgeofthemindsofallotherbeings.
Thatmtr.Xemthatmthng.
Thathngti.Overcomebyspecificsin:i.e.anyofthefourparajikas,orsinsofexcommunication.
Thathdng.ThatpartoftheBuddhaksetra,orarewardlandofaBuddhainwhichallbeingsreceiveandobeyhistruth.
Thai.Garbha(S).Thewomb,uterus.
ThaiiNht.VairocanaintheGarbhadhtu.
Thaingc.Thewombprison,thewombregardedasaprison.Alsothaicung.
Thainonthpha.Thefouryoni,ormodesofbirth:wombborn,eggborn,spawnborn,andbornbytransformation(e.g.moths,certaindeitiesetc.)
Thaisinh.Uterinebirth,wombborn.
Thaitnggii.Garbhdhtu(S).Thewombtreasury,theuniversalsourcefromwhichallthingsareproducedthematrixtheembryo.
Tham.Rga(S).Abhijjh(P).Cupidity,greed,covetousness.
Thami.Desire,cupidity.
Thamdc.Kmarga(S).Desireforandloveof(thethingsofthislife).
Thamdcci.Thecoverofdesirewhichoverlaysthemindandpreventsthegoodfromappearing.
Thamdctctho.Desireispartoftheuniversallaw,andmaybeusedforleadingintothetruth,atenetofThinThai.
Thamc.Thepoisonofdesire.
Thamkt.Thebondofdesire.
Thamkin.Theillusion,orfalseviewscausedbydesire.
Thamlang.Greedywolf,wolfishdesireorcupidity.
Thamnhim.Thetaintofdesireorgreed.
Thamnhusi.Rga,dvesa,moha(S).Desire,anger,ignorance.
Thamphinno.Theklesa,temptationorpassionofdesire.
Thamphc.Thetieofdesire.
Tham,Sn,Si.Desire,Anger,Ignorance.
Thams.Themessenger,ortemptationofdesire
Thamtp.Thehabitofdesire,desirebecomehabitual.
Thamtpnhn.Habitualcupidityleadingtopunishmentinthecoldhells.
Thamthy.Desireislikewatercarryingthingsalong.
Thamtrc.Thecontaminationofdesire.
Thamtrc.Theattachmentofdesire.
Tham.Reflecton,counsel,visit,superior.Anassembly,agatheringforthepurposeofmeditation,preaching,worship.Tothammorningassemblyvn
thameveningassemblytiuthamaspecialmeetingadiscussionfollowinganaddress.

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Thamthin.Toinquire,discuss,seekreligiousinstruction.
Thamvn.Toseekinstructiongenerallyasaclass.
Thanh.Nila(S).Blue,darkcoloralsogreen,black,orgreyclear.
Thanhn.ThemotherofMaudgalyyana,notedforhermeanness.
Thanhlin.Utpala(S).Bluelotus.
Thanhtm.Anunperturbedmind.
Thanh.Amala(S).Pure,clear.
Thanhbch.Pureandwhite,purewhite,asBuddhatruth,oraspuregoodness.
ThanhBin.Bhvaviveka(S).AnotedBuddhistphilosophercircaAD600,afollowerofNgrjuna.
Thanhlng.Clearandcoolclear,pure.
ThanhLngQucs.Puremindedpreceptorofthestate,tittleofthefourthpatriarchoftheHoaNghimschool.
ThanhLngt.AmonasteryatNgisn.
ThanhLngsn.AnameforNgisninnorthShansiSnTy.
Thanhlngnguyt.Thepuremoon,i.e.theBuddha.
Thanhminh.Clearandbright.
ThanhMc.Pingala(S).
Thanhphm.PureSanskritBuddha'sresonantvoice,orpureenunciation.
Thanhtnnam.Upsaka(S).Malelaydevotee.
Thanhtnn.Upsik(S).Femalelaydevotee.
Thanhtnh.Parisuddhi,visuddhi(S).Pureandclean,freefromevilanddefilement,perfectlyclean.
Thanhtnhbnnhin.Purelyandnaturallyso,spontaneous.
Thanhtnhchnnh.Oneofthesevenchnnh.
Thanhtnho.Visuddhimrga(S).Thepathofpurity.
Thanhtnhgiithottammui.Asamdhifreefromallimpurityandinwhichcompletefreedomisobtained.
Thanhtnhgichi.Thepureoceanofenlightenment.
ThanhtnhLinhoamcNhlai.
Thanhtnhnghipx.Thestatewhichonewhohasapurekarmareaches.
Thanhtnhnhn.Thepureandcleanman,especiallytheBuddha.
Thanhtnhphp.Dharmaviraja(S).Puretruth.
Thanhtnhphpgii.ThepureBuddhatruth(realm).
Thanhtnhphpnhn.Thepuredharmaeye.
Thanhtnhquangminhthn.Thepure,shiningbody,orappearance(oftheBuddha)
Thanhtnhtm.Cittdrisyadhrvisuddhi(S).Apuremindfreefromdoubtordefilement.Purityofmind.
Thanhtnhthgii.Pureworldpurityofworld.
Thanhtnhthc.Amalavijnna(S).Pure,uncontaminatedknowledgeearlierregardedastheninth,laterastheeighthorlayavijnna.

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Thanhtnhtrai.Pureobservanceofmonasticrulesforfood,i.e.vegetarianfoodfasting.
Thanhtnhtr.Undefiledknowledge.
Thanhtnhvin.Puregarden,orgardenofpurity,i.e.amonasteryorconvent.
Thanhvn.Srvaka(S).Hearer.
Thanhvntha(thng).Srvakayna(S).VehicleoHearer.
Thanhvnthathpa.Xemthpa.
Thnh.Arya,sdhu(S).Asagewiseandgoodupright,orcorrectinallhischaractersacred,holy,saintly.Thethnhnhnistheoppositeofthephm
nhncommonorunlightenedman.
ThnhBotngThn.Thedeva,ordevas,ofthesacredtreasuryofpreciousthings(whobestowsthemontheliving).
ThnhchSt.Theholylionlord,i.e.Buddha.
ThnhchThintrungthin.Theholylorddevaofdevas,i.e.Buddha.
Thnhchng.Theholymultitude,allthesaints.
Thnhchnglainghnh.Amitbha'ssaintlyhostcometowelcomeatdeaththosewhocalluponhim.
Thnhchng.(1)Theholyseed,i.e.thecommunityofmonks(2)thatwhichproducesthedisciplineofthesaints,ormonasticcommunity.
Thnhcng.Holyofferings,orthosemadetothesaints,especiallytotheTriratnatambo.
Thnhdiumulanikinh.Aryagrahamatrkadhrani(S).
Thnhduyn.Holyconditionsof,oraidstotheholylife.
Thnho.Aryamrga(S).Theholyway,Buddhismthewayofthesaints,orsagesalsothenobleeightfoldpath.Noblepath,thepathofholiness.
Thnhomn.Theordianaryschoolsofthewayofholinessbytheprocessesofdevotion,incontrastwithimmediatesalvationbyfaithinAmitbha.
Thnh.Thesacredprinciples,orthoseofthesaints,orsagesespeciallytheFourNobleTruthstthnh.
Thnhb.Aryadeva(S).AnativeofSriLankaanddiscipleofNgrjuna,famousforhiswritingsanddiscussions.AlsoThnhThin.
Thnha.HolyLand.
Thnhin.Thesacredcanon,orholyclassics,theTripitakatamtng.
Thnhc.Asaint'svirtue.
Thnhgi.Arya(S).Holyorsaintlyoneonewhohasstartedonthepathtonirvnaholiness.
Thnhgio.Theteachingofthesage,orholyoneholyteaching.
Thnhgiolng.Theargumentorevidenceofauthorityinlogic,i.e.thatofthesacredbooks.
Thnhhnh.Theholybodhisattvalifeofgiinhtuthe(monastic)commandments,meditationandwisdom.
Thnhhin.Greatsage,saintsandsages.
Thnhkinh.Biblesacredcanonholyscripture.
Thnhminh.Holyenlightenmentortheenlightenmentofsaints.
Thnhnghi.Thesaintlyappearance,i.e.animageofBuddh.
Thnhngn.Holywordsthewordsofasaint,orsagethecorrectwordsofBuddhism.
Thnhng.Aryabhs(S).Sacredspeech,language,wordsorsayingsSanscrit.
Thnhnhn.Aryapudgala(S).Nobleone,saint,sage.Thnhnhnikkhkh,theraceisnottotheswift,northebattletothestrong.Alsotngi.

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Thnhphp.TheholylawofBuddhathelaworteachingofthesaints,orsages.
Thnhphpnkinh.Acaldharmamudr(S).
Thnhphc.Holyhappiness,thatofBuddhism,incontrastwithPhmphcthatofBrahmaandBrahmanism.
Thnhphng.Aryadesa(S).Theholyland,Indiathelandofthesage,Buddha.
Thnhqu.Theholyfruit,orfruitofthesaintlylife,i.e.bodhi,nirvna.
Thnhs.Gurdeva(S).Highestteacher.
Thnhtng.Theholymonk,theimageinthemonks'assemblyroominMahynathatofManjusriinHnaynathatofKasyapa,orSubhti,etc.
Thnhtm.Theholymind,thatofBuddha.
Thnhtch.Relicofasaint.
Thnhtin.Theholyrsi,Buddha.
Thnhtnh.Theholynature,accordingtotheAbhidharmakosaCuxlun,ofthepassionlesslifeaccordingtotheVijnnamtrasiddhiDuythclun,of
enlightenmentandwisdom.
Thnhtnhlisinh.Thelifeofholinessapartordistinguishedfromthelifeofcommonunenlightenedpeople.
Thnhtnh.TheschoolsofBuddhismandthePureLandSchool.
Thnhtn.Theholyhonoredone,Buddha.
Thnhthai.Thewombofholinesswhichenfoldsanddevelopsthebodhisttva,i.e.thetamhinvthreeexcellentpositionsattainedinthethptr,thphnh,
andthphihng.
Thnhthin.Divinesaintly,godly(person,life)
Thnhtr.Aryajnna(S).ThewisdomofBuddha,orthesaints,orsagesthewisdomwhichisaboveallparticularization,i.e.thatoftranscendentaltruth.
Thnhtunhn.Aryaprajncaksu(S).Nobleeyeofwisdom.
Thnhtng.Icon,ikoniconicstatue.Sphhythnhtngiconoclasm.
Thnhng.TheinfluenceofBuddhatheresponseofBuddha,orsaints.
Thnhv.Theholyposition,theholylifeofBuddhism.
Thnhvng.Theholyjla,ornet,ofBuddha'steachingwhichgathersallintothetruth.
Thnhvng.HolyKing.
Thnh.Complete,finish,perfect,become.
Thnho.ToattaintheWay,orbecomeenlightened,e.g.Buddhaunderthebodhitree.
Thnhduythclun.Vidymtrasiddhisstra(S).
Thnhngchnhgic.Toattaintoperfectenlightenment,becomeBuddha.
Thnhkip.Vivartakalpa(S).Oneofthefourkalpas,consistingoftwentysmallkalpasduringwhichworldsandthebeingsonthemareformed.Cosmicperiodofthe
creationoftheworld.
ThnhPht.TobecomeBuddha,asaBodhisattvadoesonreachingsupremeperfectbodhi.
Thnhtht.Completelytrue,orreliable,pefecttruth.Anabbreviationforthnhthttng,thnhthtlun,thnhthts.
Thnhthttng.Satyasiddi(S)Jjitsush(J).Satyasiddisect,basedupontheSatyasiddisstraThnhthtlunofHarivarman.InChinaitwasabranchofTam
Luntng.

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Thnhthcgi.Theripethosewhoattainthoseinwhomthegoodnature,immanentinalltheliving,completetheirsalvation.
Thnhtnhingic.Toattaintonaturalenlightenmentasallmaydobybeholdingeternaltruththctngwithintheirownhearts.
Thnhtu.Siddi(S).Accomplishment,fulfilment,completion,tobringtoperfection.
Thnhtuchngsinh.TotransformallbeingsbydevelopingtheirBuddhanatureandcausingthemtoobtainenlightenment.
Thp.Stpa(S).Atumulus,ormound,forthebones,orremainsofthedead,orforothersacredrelics,especiallyoftheBuddha.ThpCuphmLinhoa:Towerof
theNineHolyGradeofLotus.ThptMinhHi:TowerofPatriarchMinhHi.ThpXli:Relicsstpa.ThpXliPht:ThestpaofBuddharelics.
Thpmiu.Pagodasandtemples.
Thng.Jina(S).Victorioustoovercome,surpass.
Thngchu.Xemngthngthnchu.
Thngcngc.Surpassingmerits.
Thnggi.Pradhna(S).Preeminent,predominant
Thnghnh.Surpassingaction,virtues.
Thnghi.Apleasantgatheringahappymeeting.
ThngHu.Jinamitra(S).NameofaneloquentmonkatNlad,circaAD630,authorofSarvastivdavinayasangraha.
Thnglun.Vaisesikasstra(S).
Thngluntng.TheVaisesikaschoolofIndianphilosophy,whosefoundationisascribedtoKanda(Ulka)heandhissuccessorsarerespectfullystyledlun
sorslightinlylunngoiotheschoolwhencombinedwiththeNyya,isalsoknownasNyyavaisesika.
ThngMnphunhn.Mlyasr,Srimla(S).DaughterofPrasenajit,wifeofthekingofKosala(Oudh),afterwhomtheSrimldevisimhandahiandkinhare
named.
ThngMnkinh.Srimlastra(S).StraofthequeenSrimla.
ThngMt.Srgupta(S).AlsocH.
Thngngha.Beyonddescription,thatwhichsurpassesmereearthlyideassuperlative,inscrutable.
Thngnghacn.Thesurpassingorgan,i.e.intellectualperception,behindtheordinaryorgansofperception,e.g.eyes,ears,etc.
Thngngha.Paramrthasatya(S).Thesuperiortruth,enlightenedtruthascontrastedwithwordlytruth.Alsochn,nhtngha.
Thngnghalun.Paramrthasatyasstra(S).AphilosophicalworkbyVasubandhuThThn.
Thngnghakhng.Nirvnaassurpassinglyrealortranscendental.
Thngnghaphp.Thesuperlativedharma,nirvna.
Thngnghip.Surpassingkarma.
Thngqu.Thesurpassingfruit.
Thngqun.Prasenajit(S).Conqueringarmy,orconquererofanarmykingofKosalaandpatronofSkyamuni.AlsoBatnc.
Thngs.Victor,onewhokeepsthecommandments.
Thngtm.Thevictoriousmind,whichcarriesouttheBuddhistdiscipline.
Thngtha.Thevictoriousvehicle,i.e.Mhayna.
Thngtch.Famousplacesofruinsfamoushistoricalvestiges,ormonuments.
Thngtth.Jetavana(S).TheJetagrove.

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Thn.Kya,tanu,deha(S).Thebody,theself.
Thnbnhng.Kyasamat(S).Equalstateobody.
Thncn.Kyendriya(S).Theorganoftouch.
Thnng.Thebodyasalamp,burntinofferingtoaBuddha,e.g.theMedicineKingintheLotusstra.
Thnin.Thebodyregardedasafieldwhichproducesgoodorevilfruitinfutureexistence.
Thnhnhnim.Kyagatsmrti(S)Mindfulnesswithregardtothebody.Alsonimthn.
Thnkh.Thebodyasautensil.i.e.containingallthetwelvepartsskin,flesh,blood,hair,etc.
Thnkin.Satkyadrsti(S).Theillusionthatthebody,orselfisrealandnotsimplyacompoundofthefiveskandhasoneofthefivewrongviewsngkin.
Thnlin.Thelotusinthebody,i.e.theheartoreightleavedlotusinallbeingsitrepresentsalsotheGarbhadhat,whichisthematrixofthematerialworldoutof
whichallbeingscome.
Thnmnh.Bodyandlife.
Thnnghip.Thekarmaoperatinginthebody
Thnnhp.Thesenseoftouch,oneofthesixsenseslcnhp.
Thnnhthng.Rddhividhijnna(S).Thepowertotrasnferoneselftovariousregionsatwill,alsotochangethebodyatwill.Alsothnthng,thntcthng.
Thnnimx.Mindfulnesswithregardtothebody.
Thnquang.ThebodyshiningfromthepersonofaBuddha,oraBodhisattvaahalo,aura.
Thntm.Bodyandmind,thedirectfruitofthepreviouslife.
ThnThng.Badhusr(S).
Thnthc.Kyavijnna(S).Cognitionoftheobjectsoftouch.
Thnta.ThebodyasthethroneoBuddha.
Thntng.Bodilyformthebody.
Thnvn.ThenumberlessbodiesofBuddhas,hoveringlikecloudsovermenthenunberlessformswhichtheBuddhastaketoprotectandsavemen,resembling
cloudsthenumberlesssaintscomparedtoclouds.
Thn.Personallyrealated,own,intimatefamily,wife,marriage.Phthnfathermuthnmother.
Thngios.Updhyaya(S).One'sownteacher.
Thnhu.Anintimatefriend.
Thn.Inscrutablespiritualpowers,orpoweraspiritadeva,godordivinitythehumanspiritdivine,spiritual,supernatural.Thnchintranhgodofwar.
Thnti.Goddessoffortune.
Thnm.Thedarkenedmindwithoutfaith.
Thnb.Mystic(al)mysteriousoccult.
Thnbin.Supernaturalinfluencescausingthechangesinnaturaleventsmiraclesmiraculoustransformations,e.g.thetransformingpowersofaBuddha,bothin
regardtohimselfandothers.
Thncn.Thevitalspiritasthebasisofbodilylife.
Thnch.Rddhimantra,dhrani(S).Divine,ormagicincantations.
Thnch.Ancestraltablet.

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Thncng.Offeringsplacedbeforethegodsorspirits.
Thndiu.Wonderful,miraculous,marvellous.
Thno.Thespiritworldofdevas,asurasandpretas.Thedoctrinesconcerningthesoul.Shint(J),theWayoftheGods,aJapanesenationalreligion.
Thniu.Garuda(S).Mysticalbird.Alsokimxiu,calula.
Thngiao.Spiritualrelations.
Thngiaocchcm.Telepathy.
Thnha.Miraculouschangetospiritualizetodivinize,deify.
Thnhc.Theology.
Thnhn.Soul,mind,spirit.Liucithnhnmindyourself.Thnhnntthntnhtotakefright,tobeafraidofone'sownshadow.
Thnhmnh.Guardianangel,guardianspirit.
Thnlinh.God,deity,spirit.
Thnlc.Rddhibala(S).Divinepower.Superhumanstrength.
Thnminh.Thespiritsofheavenandearth,thegodsalsotheintelligentorspiritualnature.
Thnnhn.Gods,orspirits,andmen.
Thnng.Purusa,Atman(S).Thesoul,thespiritualego,orpermanentperson,whichbynonBuddhistswassaidtomigrateonthedeathofthebody.Purusaisalso
theSupremeSoul,orSpirit,whichproducesallformsofexistence.
Thnn.Adevi,agoddess,afemalespirit.
Thnquang.Devalight,thelightofthegods.
Thnquyn.Divinerightspiritualpower.
Thnthoi.Myth,legend.
Thnthng.Rddhi(S).Ubiquitoussupernaturalpower,especiallyofaBuddha,histenpowersincludingpowertoshaketheearth,toissuelightfromhispores,extend
histonguetotheBrahmaheavenseffulgentwithlight,causedivineflowerstorainfromthesky,beomnipresentandotherpowers.Supernaturalpowersofeye,ear,
body,mindetc.Thnthngtha,thesupernaturalormagicvehicle,i.e.theesotericsectofChnNgnShingon.
Thntch.Myth,legend.
Thntin.Thegenii,immortals,rsi,ofwhomthefivekindsarethintindevaimmortals,thntinspiritimmortals,nhntinhumanimmortals,atinearth(or
cave)immortalsandqutinpretaimmortals.
Thnta.Devaorspiritthrones.
Thntr.Spiritualwisdom,divinewisdomwhichcomprehendsallthings,materialandimmaterial.
ThnT.ShinShau(C).Name.
Thntcthng.Rddhipdarddhiskstkriy(S).Supernaturalpowertoappearatwillinanyplace,toflyorgowithouthindrance,tohaveabsolutefreedom.Also
thncnhtrthng,nhthng.Thntcnguyt,thefirst,fifth,andninthmonths,whenthedevasgooncircuitthroughouttheearth.
Thnthc.Theintelligentspirit,alsocalledlinhhnthesoulincomprehensibleordivinewisdom.
Thp.Dasa(S).Ten.
Thpc.Daskusala(S).Tenevilthings:(1)stsinh,pnatipto(P)killing(2)trmcp,dinndnam(P)stealing(3)tdm,kamesumicchcro(P)adultery
(4)vngng,musvdo(P)lying(5)ng,sambhppalpo(P)filthylanguage(6)lngthit,pisunvc(P)doubletongue(7)ckhu,pharusavc(P)coarse

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language(8)tham,abhijjh(P)covetousness(9)sn,bypto(P)anger(10)si,micchditthi(P),pervertedviews.Alsothpcnghip,thpbtthinnghip.
Thpbaladi.Thetenprjikas,orsinsunpardonableinamonkinvolvinghisexclusionfromthecommunity.
Thpbalamt.Dasapramit(S).Thetenpramits:(1)Bthbalamtdnapramit,charity(2)Trgiisilapramit,purity(ormorality)(3)Nhn
nhcksantipramit,patience(4)Tinhtinviryapramit,zealousprogress(5)Thinnhdhynapramit,meditation(6)Btnhprajnpramit,wisdom
(7)Phngtinthinxoupayapramitadaptability(orteachingassuitedtotheoccasionandhearer(8)Nguynpranidanapramitvows(9)Lcbalapramit,
forceofpurpose(10)Trjnnapramit,knowledge.
Thpbt.Astdasa(S).Eighteen.
Thpbtbtcphp.Avenikadharma,buddhadharma(S).TheeighteendifferentcharacteristicsofaBuddhaascomparedwithbodhisattvas:(1)hisperfectionof
body(orperson)thnvtht(2)mouth(orspeech)khuvtht(3)memorynimvtht(4)impartialitytoallvdtng(5)serenityvbtnhtm(6)self
sacrificevbttridx(7)unceasingdesiretosavedcvdit(8)unflaggingzealthereintinhtinvdit(9)unfailingthoughttheretonimvdit(10)wisdomin
ittuvdit(11)powersofdeliverancegiithotvdit(12)theprinciplesofitgiithottrikinvdit(13)revealingperfectwisdomindeednhtthitthn
nghiptytrtuhnh(14)inwordnhtthitkhunghiptytrtuhnh(15)inthoughtnhtthitnghiptytrtuhnh(16)perfectknowledgeofpasttrtutri
qukhthvngi(17)futuretrtutrivlaithvngi(18)andpresenttrtutrihintithvngi.
Thpbtchngangc.Theeighteenlayersofhells,whicharedescribedbyonewriterastheconditionsinwhichthesixsenseorgans,theirsixobjectsandtheir
sixperceptionsdonotharmonize.Anothersaystheeighteenarethehellofknives,theboilingsands,theboilingexcrement,thefierycarriage,theboilingcauldron,
theironbed,etc.
Thpbto.InthetwomandalaVajradhtuandGarbhadhtueachhasninecentralobjectsofworship.TheShingonChnngndiscipledevoteshimselfto
meditationononeoftheseeighteeneachday.
Thpbtgii.Theeighteendhtu,orrealmsofsense,i.e.lccnthesixorgans,lccnhtheirobjectsorconditions,lcthcandtheirperceptions.
Thpbtsinhx.TheeighteenBrahmalokas,whererebirthisnecessary,i.e.wheremortalitystillexists.
Thpbtthin.Brhmaloka(S).Theeighteenheavensofform,rpadhatuscgiithreeofthefirstdhyana:Phmchng,Phmph,iPhmthreeofthe
second:Thiuquang,Vlngquang,Quangm:threeofthethird:Thiutnh,Vlngtnh,Bintnhandnineofthefourth:Vvn,Phcsinh,Qungqu,V
tng,Vphin,V,Thinkin,Thinhin,Sccuknh.
Thpbtnhmn.TheschoolofthetenpairsofunifiedoppositesfoundedbyKinhKhisontheteachingoftheLotusstra.Theunifyingprincipleisthatofthe
identityofcontraries,andthetenapparentcontrariesarematterandmindsctmbtnhmn,internalandexternalningoibnm,practiceandproof(or
realization)tutnhbnm,causeandeffectnhnqubnm,impurityandpuritynhimtnhbnm,objectiveandsubjectiveychnhbnm,selfandothertthabnm,action
speechandthoughttamnghipbnm,relativeandabsolutequynthtbnm,thefertilizedandthefertilizer(i.e.receiverandgiver)thnhunbtnhmn.
Thpcnh.TenobjectsoforstagesinmeditationqunintheThinThaischool,i.e.cim,thefiveskandhascnhphinno,life'sdistressesandillusion
cnhbnhhon,sickness,ordukkha,itscauseandcurecnhnghiptng,agelongkarmaicinfluencecnhmas,mraaffairs,howtooverthrowtheirrule
cnhthinnh,theconditionsofdhynaandsamdhicicckin,variousviewsanddoubtsthatarisecimn,prideinprogressandthedelusionthatonehas
attainednirvnacinhtha,temptationtobecontestwiththelowernirvna,insteadofgoingtothegreaterrewardcibtt,bodhisattvahood.
Thpchnnh.Thetenaspectsofbhtatathatchnnh.
Thpchng.Tenhindrancesbodhisattvasinthestageofthpaovercomethesetenhindrancesandrealizethethpchnnh.Thehindrancesare:(1)Dsinh
tnhchng,thecommonillusionsoftheunenlightened,takingtheseemingforreal(2)Thnhchng,commonunenlightenedconduct(3)mnchng,
ignorantanddullideas(4)Thochinhnhchng,theillusionthatthingsarerealandhaveindependantexistence(5)HthaNitbnchng,thelowerideas

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inHnaynaofnirvna(6)Thtnghinhnhchng,theordinaryideasofthepureandimpure(7)Ttnghinhnhchng,theideaofreincarnation(8)V
tnggiahnhchng,thecontinuanceofactivityevenintheformlessworld(9)Btdchnhchng,nodesiretoactforthesalvationofothers(10)Phpvt
tichng,nonattainmentofcompletemasteryofallthings.
Thpcngc.Tenmerits(orpowers)commendedbytheBuddhatohisbhiksuszealousprogress,contentmentwithfewdesires,couragelearning(soasto
teach),fearlessness,perfectobservanceofthecommandsandthefraternity'sregulations,perfectmeditation,perfectwisdom,perfectliberation,andperfect
understandingofit.
Thpdiu.Thetenwondersorincomprehensiblestherearetwogroups,thetchtraceableormanifestedandbnmnthefundamental.Thetchmnthpdiuare
thewonderof:(1)cnhdiu,theuniverse,sphere,orwhole,embracingmind,Buddhaandallthingsasaunity(2)trdiu,aBuddha'sallembracingknowledgearising
fromsuchuniverse(3)hnhdiu,hisdeeds,expressiveofhiswisdom(4)vdiu,hisattainmentofallthevariousBuddhastages,i.e.thptrandthpa(5)tam
phpdiu,histhreelaws(6)cmngdiu,hisresponsetoappeal(7)thnthngdiu,hissupernaturalpowers(8)thuytphpdiu,hispreaching(9)quynthuc
diu,hissupernaturalretenue(10)lichdiu,theblessingsderivedthroughuniversalelevationintoBuddhahood.Thebnmnthpdiuarethewonderof:(1)bn
nhndiu,theinitialimpulseorcausativestageofBuddhahood(2)bnqudiu,itsfruitorresult(3)qucdiu,his(Buddha)realm(4)cmngdiu,his
response(tohumanneeds)(5)thnthngdiu,hissupernaturalpowers(6)thuytphpdiu,hispreaching(7)quynthucdiu,hissupernaturalretinue(8)nit
bndiu,hisnirvna(9)thmnhdiu,his(eternal)life(10)lichdiu,hisblessings.
Thpit.ThetenchiefdisciplesofSakyamuni,eachofwhomwasmasterofonepowerorgift:(1)Xlipht,trtunht,Sariputraofwisdom(2)Mc
kinlin,thnthngnht,Maudgalyyanaofsupernaturalpowers(3)MahaCadip,unht,Mahksyapaofdiscipline(4)Analut,thinnhnnht,
Aniruddhaofdevavision(5)Tub,giikhngnht,Subhtiofexplainingthevoidorimmaterial(6)Phluna,thuytphpnhtPrnaofexpoundingthe
law(7)Cachindin,lunnghnht,Ktyyanaofitsfundamentalprinciples(8)unali,trlutnht,Upliofmaintainingtherules(9)Lahula,mt
hnhnht,Rhulaoftheesoteric(10)Anan,avnnht,Anandaofhearingandremembering.
Thpa.Dasabhmi(S).Tengrounds,tenstagesinthefiftytwosectionsofthedevelopmentofabodhisattvaintoaBuddha.Aftercompletingthethpthnghe
proceedstothethpa.Thereareseveralgroups.IThetenstagescommontothethreevehiclesare:(1)cntuadrywisdomstage,i.e.unfertilizedbyBuddha
truth(2)tnhatheembryostageofthenatureofBuddhatruth(3)nhpnhn(ornhn)athestageoftheeightpatientendurances(4)kinaoffreedomfrom
wrongviews(5)bcaoffreedomfromthefirstsixoftheninedelusionsinpractice(6)lidcaoffreedomfromtheremainingthree(7)dbinacomplete
discriminationinregardtowrongviewsandthoughts,thestageofanarhat(8)chiPhtapratyekabuddhahood,onlythedeadashesofthepastlefttosift(9)btt
abodhisattvahood(10)PhtaBuddhahood.IIithabttthpathetenstagesofMahynabodhisattvadevelopmentare:(1)hoanhapramudita,joyat
havingovercometheformerdifficultiesandnowenteringonthepathtoBuddhahood(2)licuavimal,freedomfromallpossibledefilement,thestageofpurity
(3)phtquangaprabhkari,stageoffurtherenlightenment(4)dimtuaarcismati,ofglowingwisdom(5)ccnanthngasudurjay,masteryofutmostor
finaldifficulties(6)hintinaabhimukhi,theopenwayofwisdomabovedefinitionsofimpurityandpurity(7)vinhnhadramgam,proceedingafar,getting
aboveideasofselfinordertosaveothers(8)btngaacal,attainmentofcalmunperturbedness(9)thintuasdhumati,ofthefinestdiscriminatory
wisdom,knowingwhereandhowtosave,andpossessedofthethplctenpowers(10)phpvnadharmamega,attainingtothefertilizingpowersofthelawcloud.
Eachofthetenstagesisconnectedwitheachofthetenpramits.IIIThanhvnthathpa,tenSrvakastagesare:(1)thtamquia,initiationasadiscipleby
receivingthethreerefugesintheBuddha,DharmaandSangha(2)tna,belief,orthefaithroot(3)tnphpa,beliefinthefourtruths(4)niphmphua,
ordinarydiscipleswhoobservethengnhtmqunetc.(5)hctngiia,thosewhopursuethetamhcthreestudies(6)nhpnhna,thestageofkin
oseeingthetrueWay(7)Tuhona,Srotapanna,nowdefinitelyinthestreamandassuredofnirvna(8)Thma,sakrdgmin,onlyonemere
rebirth(9)Anahma,angmin,norebirth(10)Alahna,arhatship.IVDuyngictha,thetenstagesofthePratyekabuddhaare:(1)khhnhctca,

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perfectasceticism(2)tgicthmthmthpnhnhnduyna,masteryofthetwelvelinksofcausation(3)gicliuTthnha,ofthefournobletruths
(4)thmthmlitra,ofthedeeperknowledge(5)cuThnhoa,oftheeightfoldnoblepath(6)gicliuphpgii,hkhng,chngsinhgiia,ofthe
threerealms(7)chngtchdita,ofthenirvnastage(8)lcthnga,ofthesixsupernaturalpowers(9)trithamtaarrivalattheintuitivestage(10)tp
khtimbca,masteryoftheremaininginfluenceoftheformerhabits.VPhtthathpa:(1)thmthmnantriqungminhtrtua(2)thanhtnhtphnoai
nghimbttnghminhca(3)thinminhnhttrngthttnghitnga,(4)tinhdiukimquangcngchthnthngtrca(5)ilunoaitngminh
ca(6)hkhngnithanhtnhvcuvimquangkhaitnga(7)qungthngphpgiitngminhgiia(8)phthngtrtngnngtnhvcubinv
ngitrthnga(9)Vbinctrangnghimhihngnngchiuminha(10)tlxnatrhitnga.Thetenstages,orcharacteristicsofaBuddhaare
thoseofthesovereignorperfectattainmentofwisdom,exposition,discrimination,mrasubjugation,suppressionofevil,thesixtranscendentfaculties,manifestation
ofallbodhisattvaenlightenment,powersofprediction,ofadaptability,ofpowerstorevealthebodhisattvaTruth.
Thpatm.Tenstagesofmind,ormentaldevelopment,i.e.(1)tvlngtm,thefourkindsofboundlessmind(2)thpthintm,themindofthetengood
qualities(3)minhquangtm,theilluminatedmind(4)dimtutm,themindofglowingwisdom(5)ithngtm,themindofmastery(6)hintintmthemindof
theopenway(abovenormaldefinitions)(7)vsinhtm,themindofnorebirth(8)bttnghtm,themindoftheinexpressible(9)tuquangtm,themindof
wisdomradiance(10)thvtm,themindofperfectreceptivity.
ThpaTbsalun.Dasbhmivibhsasstra(S).TreatiseontheExplanationofthetenbhmi(grounds,stages)
Thpin.ThetenpalacesofYamaking.
ThpinDimVng.ThetenYamacourts.
Thp.Thetenpramitsorvirtues.Xemthpbalamt.
Thpc.Thetenvirtues,powers,orqualitiesofwhichthereareseveralgroups.
Thpgii.Dasasila(S).Thetenprohibitions:(1)chnggitmnhsng,nottodestroylife(2)chngtrmcp,nottosteal(3)chngdmdc,nottocommit
adultery(4)chngniby,nottolie(5)chngungru,nottotakeintoxicatingliquor(6)chngeochuianhlc,chngthoaduthmvomnh,nottouse
garlandsorperfumes(7)chngngvaitrmahtvcixemnghe,nottotakepartinsinging,dancing,musicalortheatralperformances,nottoseeorlistento
such(8)chngcngitrnginglncaorng,nottosleeponhighorbroadbeds(9)chngcntriba,nottoeatfoodoutofregulatedhours(10)chng
cchatinvvngbcchubu,torefrainfromacquiringuncoinedorcoinedgold,silverorjewels.
Thpgii.Thetendharmaworlds,orstatesofexistence:(1)Pht,Buddhas(2)Btt,bodhisattvas(3)Duyngic,pratyekabuddhas(4)Thanhvn,sravakas(5)
Thin,devas(6)Nhn,men(7)Atula,asuras(8)Scsinh,animals(9)Ngqu,pretas(10)angc,hells.
Thphnh.Thetenlinesofactions:(1)Hoanhhnh,joyfulservice(2)Nhiuchhnh,beneficialservice:(3)Vsnhnhnh,neverresenting(4)Vtnhnh,
withoutlimit(5)Lisilonhnh,neveroutoforder(6)Thinhinhnh,appearinginanyformatwill(7)Vtrchnh,unimpeded(8)Tntrnghnh,exaltingthe
pramitsamongstallbeings(9)Thinphphnh,perfectingtheBuddhalawbycompletevirtue:(10)Chnththnh,manifestinginallthingsthepure,final,true
reality.
Thphiu.TentittlesofaBuddha:(1)NhlaiTathgata,Thuscomeones(2)ngcngArhat,worthyofofferings:(3)ChnhbintriSamyaksambuddha,ofproper
anduniversalkhowledge(4)MinhhnhtcVidycarana,perfectinunderstandingandconduct(5)ThinthSugata,skillfulThgiangiiLokavidinleavingtheworld
throughliberation(6)VthngsAnuttara,unsurpassedknights(7)iungtrngphuPurusadamyasrathi,tamingheroes(8)ThinnhnsSstdeva
manusynm,teachersofgodsandpeople(9)PhtBuddha,Buddhas(10)Thtnlokantha,Bhagavn,worldhonoredones.
Thpkin.Thetenwrongviews.
Thpkip.ThetenkalpasthathaveexpiredsinceAmitbhamadehisfortyvows,,orthpkipchnhgicattainedcompletebodhi,henceheisstyledthpkipDi

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.ThesetenkalpasasseenbyPhHinarethpkiptudubutasamoment.
Thpkimcngtm.Tencharacteristicsofthe"diamondheart"asdevelopedbyabodhisattva:(1)Gicliuphptnh,completeinsightintoalltruth(2)Ha
chngsinh,savingofallcreatures(3)Trangnghimthgii,glorifyingallBuddhaworlds(4)Thincnhihng,supererogationofhisgooddeeds(5)Phng
sis,serviceofallBuddhas(6)Thtchngchphp,realizationofthetruthofallBuddhalaws(7)Qunghnhnhnnhc,manifestationofallpatienceand
endurance(8)Trngthituhnh,unflaggingdevotiontohisvocation(9)Thnhmntc,perfectionofhiswork(10)Linhthanguynmn,aidingalltofulfiltheir
vowsandaccomplishtheirspiritualends.
Thplc.Sodasa(S).Sixteenistheesoteric(Shingon)perfectnumber
Thplcilc.Thesixteengreatpowersobtainablebyabodhisattva:chlcofwilllcmindhnhlcactiontmlcshame(todoevil)cnglcenergytr
lcfirmnesstulcwisdomclcvirtuebinlcreasoningsclcpersonalappearancethnlcphysicalpowerstilcwealthtmlcspiritthntclc
magichongphplcspreadingthetruthhngmalcsubduingdemons.
Thplciquc.ThesixteenancientkingdomsofIndiawhosekingsareaddressedintheNhnVngKinh,i.e.VaisliTxli,KosalaCuttla,SrvastiXv,
MagadhaMakit,BrnasiBalani,KapilavastuCatlav,KusinagaraCuthina,Kausmbi,Pancla,PtaliputraHoaththnh,Mathur,Usa(Usira),
Punyavardhana,Devvatara,KsiCathi,andCampChimb.
Thplchnh.ThesixteenhnhtngoftheFourNobleTruthsTdiu,i.e.fourformsofconsideringeachoftheTruths,associatedwithkino.
Thplcqun.ThesixteenmeditationsofAmitbhaonthesettingsun,water(asice,crystal,etc.),theearthandsoon.
Thplcs.ThesixteennonBuddhistIndianphilosophers.
Thplctm.Thebtnhneightkindsofpatienceandbttreightkindsofjnnaorgnosisacquired.
Thplc.Dasabala(S).ThetenpowersofaBuddha,givingcompleteknowledgeof(1)trithxphixtrlcwhatisrightandwrongineverycondition(2)tritamth
nghipbotrlcwhatisthekarmaofeverybeing,past,presentandfuture(3)trichthingiithottammuitrlcallstagesofdhynaliberation,andsamdhi
(4)trichngsinhtmtnhtrlcthepowersandfacultiesofallbeings(5)trichngchnggiitrlcthedesires,ormoraldirectionsofallbeings(6)trichngchng
giitrlctheactualconditionofeveryindividual(7)trinhtthitsotrlcthedirectionandconsequenceofalllaws(8)trithinnhnvngitrlcallcauses
ofmortalityandofgoodandevilintheirreality(9)tritcmnhvlutrlctheendofallbeingsandnirvna(10)trivnhontpkhtrlcthedestructionofall
illusionofeverykind.
ThplcCadip.DasabalaKsyapa(S).OneofthefivefirstdisciplesofBuddha.
Thpnolon.Thetendisturbersofthereligiouslife:(1)hoth,adomineering(spirit)(2)tnhnphp,hereticalways(3)hungh,dangerousamusements
(4)chinla,abutcher'soranylowoccupation(5)nhtha,asceticism(orselfishhnaynasalvation)(6)btnam,theconditionofaneunuque(7)dctng,
lust(8)nguyhi,endangering(thecharacterbyimproperintimacy(9)chim,contempt(10)scdng,breedinganimals.
Thpmn.Theten"doors"orconnectionsbetweensandlsisdefinedashintngform,andlasbnthsubstancethecommonillustrationofwaveand
waterindicatestheideathusexpressed.TheLSVNgithpmnmeansthatintenwaysformandsubstancearenotseparate,unconnectedentities:(1)Lthe
substanceisalwayswithSthephenomena(2)SisalwayspresentwithL(3)SdependsonLforitsexistence(4)theScanrevealtheL(5)TheS(mere
form,whichisunreal)candisappearintheL(6)TheScanconcealtheL(7)ThetrueListheS(8)TheSisL(9)ThetrueL(orreality)isnottheS(10)
TheSisnotthe(whole)L.
Thpnguyn.Tenvows:(1)NhtgilknhchPht,thefirstistoworshipandrespectallBuddhas(2)NhgixngtnNhlai,thesecondistopraisetheThus
ComeOnes(3)Tamgiqungtucngdng,thethirdistocultivatethegivingofofferings(4)Tgismhinghipchng,thefourth,torepentandreformall
karmicfaults(5)Nggityhcngc,thefifth,tocompliantlyrejoiceinmeritandvirtue(6)Lcgithnhchuynpholun,thesixth,torequesttheturningof

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Dharmawheel(7)ThtgithnhPhttrth,theseventh,torequestthatBuddhasdwellintheworld(8)BtgithngtyPhthc,theeighthistoalwaysfollow
Buddhasinstudy(9)Cugihngthunchngsinh,theninth(10)Thpgiphgiaihihng,thetenth,touniversallytransferallmeritandvirtue.
Thpnguynvng.TheKingofthetenvows,PhHinBTt,Samantabhadra.
Thpngu.Thetenoxherdingpictures.IMahyna:(1)Vmc,undisciplined(2)Siu,disciplinebegun(3)Thch,inharness(4)Hith,facedround
(5)Tunphc,tamed(6)Vngi,unimpeded(7)Nhmvn,laissezfaire(8)Tngvong,allforgotten(9)cchiu,thesoltarymoon(10)Songdn,both
vanished.IIZen:(1)Tmngu,searcingfortheox(2)Kintch,seeingthetraces(3)Kinngu,seeingtheox(4)cngu,catchingtheox(5)Mcngu,
herdingtheox(6)Knguquigia,cominghomeontheox'sback(7)Vongngutnnhn,theoxforgottenleavingthemanalone(8)Nhnngucuvong,theox
andthemanbothgoneoutofsight(9)Phnbnhonnguyn,returningtotheorigin,backtothesource(10)Nhptrinthyth,enteringthecitywithbliss
bestowinghands.
Thpnhn.Thetenkindsofeye:(1)Nhcnhn,eyesofflesh(2)thinnhn,devaeyes(3)tunhn,wisdomeyes(4)phpnhn,dharmaeyes(5)Phtnhn.
Buddhaeyes(6)trnhn,eyesofjudgement(7)quangminhnhn,eyesshiningwithBuddhalight(8)xutsinhtnhn,immortaleyes(9)vngi,unhinderedeyes
(10)nhtthittrnhn,omniscienteyes.
Thpnhn.Thpnhclutnghi.Thetwelvebadoccupations:sheepbutcherpoulterer(orhenbreeder)porkbutcherfowlerfishermanhunterthiefexecutioner
jailerjugglerdogbutcherbeater(i.e.huntservant).
Thpnhbkinh.TwelvedivisionsoftheMahynacanon:(1)khkinhstra(2)ngtnggeya(3)phngtnggtha(4)nhnduynnidna(5)bnsitivrttaka
(6)bnsinhjtaka(7)vtnghuadbhutadharma,i.e.theabhidharma(8)thdavadna(9)lunnghupadesa(10)tthuytudna(11)phngqungvaipulya
(12)thkvykarana.
Thpnhchnnh.Thetwelveaspectsofthebhtatathatortheultimate,whichisalsostyledthpnhvvi"inactive",ornirvnalikeandthethpnhkhng
"void"orimmaterial:(1)chnnhitself(2)phpgiiasthemediumofallthings(3)phptnhasthenatureofallthings(4)bthvngthuytitsrealitycontrathe
unrealityofphenomena(5)btbindtnhitsimmutabilitycontramortalityandphenomenalvariation(6)bnhngtnhasuniversalorundifferentiated(7)lysinh
tnhasimmortal,i.e.apartfrombirthanddeath,orcreationanddestruction(8)phpnhaseternal,itsnatureeversure(9)phptrastheabodeofallthings
(10)thttastheboundsofallreality(11)hkhnggiiastherealmofspace,thevoidorimmateriality(12)bttnghgiiastherealmbeyondthoughtor
expression.
Thpnhdukinh.Dvdasaviharanastra(S).ThelifeofSkyamunitohistwelfthyear,translatedbyKlodakaAD392.
Thpnhithakinh.Xemthpnhbkinh.Thpnha.Tothethpaaddnggicanddiugic.
Thpnhmnlun.Dvdasanikyasstra(S).OneoftheTamluncomposedbyNgarjuna,translatedbyKumrajivaAD408.
Thpnhmnlun.Dvdasadvarasstra(S).Treatiseonthetwelvegates.
Thpnhnguynvng.ThetwelvevowsoftheMasterofHealingDcS.
Thpnhnhnduyn.Dvdasngapratiyasamtpda(S).Thetwelvenidnas.Theyarethetwelvelinksinthechainofexistence:(1)vminhavidy,ignorance(2)
hnhsamskra,karmaformation(3)thcvijnna,consciousness(4)danhscnmarpa,nameandform(5)lcnhpsadyatana,thesixsenseorgans(6)xc
sparsa,contact,touch(7)thvedna,sensation,feeling(8)itrsn,thirst,desire,craving(9)thupdna,layingholdof,grasping(10)hubhava,being,existing
(11)sinhjti,birth(12)lotjarmarana,oldagedeath.
Thpnhphpnhn.Thosewhofollowthetwelvepracticesoftheascetics:(1)liveinahermitage(2)alwaysbegforfood(3)taketurnsatbeggingfood(4)one
mealaday(5)reduceamountoffood(6)donottakeadrinkmadeoffruitorhoneyaftermidday(7)weardustheapgarments(8)wearonlythethreeclerical
garments(9)dwellamonggraves(10)stayunderatree(11)onthedewyground(12)sitandneverlie.

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Thpnhthn(Minhvng).ThetwelvespiritsconnectedwiththecultofDcStheMasterofHealing.Alsothpnhthntng.Theyare:Cungtla
KumbhiraPhtchitlaVajraMsilaMihiraAnlaAndiraAtnlaAnilaSanlaSandilaNhntlaIndraBagilaPajraMahlaMahoragaChntla
KinnaraChiulaCaturaTytlaVikarala.AlsoMihaiitngDcxoa.
Thpnhthin.Thetwelvedevas(especiallyoftheShingonsectChnngntng):BrahmthedevaofearthofthemoonofthesunIndraoffireYamaofthe
raksa(ordemons)ofwaterofwindVaisramana(wealth)andMahesrava(Siva).Thpnhx.
ThpnhquangPht.Amitbha'stwelvetittleoflight.
Thpnhtthitx.Tenuniversals,ormodesofcontemplatingtheuniversefromtenaspects,i.efromtheviewpointofearth,water,fire,wind,blue,yellow,red,
white,spaceormind
Thpnhth.Thetenessentialqualities,orcharacteristics,ofathing,accordingtothephmphngtinoftheLotusstra:nhthtng,formnhthtnh,
naturenhthth,corpusorembodimentnhthlc,powersnhthtcfunctionnhthnhn,primarycausenhthduyn,environmentalcausenhthqu,
effectnhthbo,karmaicrewardnhthbnmtcuknh,theinseparability,orinevitabilityofthemall.
Thpnim.Thetenrepetitionsofaninvocation,e.g.NamoAmitbha.
Thpnimvngsinh.TheseteninvocationswillcarryadyingmanwithanevilkarmaintothePureland.
Thpnimx.Abodhisattva'stenobjectsofthoughtormeditation,i.e.body,thesenses,mind,things,environment,monastery,city,goodname,Buddhalearning,
riddanceofallpassionanddelusion.
Thpphp.ThetenthnhtuperfectorperfectingMahynarulesi.e.in(1)rightbelief(2)conduct(3)spirit(4)thejoyofthebodhimind(5)joyinthedharma(6)
joyinmeditationinit(7)pursuingthecorrectdharma(8)obedienceto,oraccordancewithit(9)departingfrompride,etc.(10)comprehendingtheinnerteachingof
Buddhaandtakingnopleasureinthatofthesravakaandpratyekabuddhaorder.
Thpphpgii.Thetendharmaworlds,orstatesofexistence,i.e.angcthehellsngqu,pretasscsinh,animalsatula,asurasngi,mentri,
devasthanhvn,sravakasduyngic,pratyekabuddhasbtt,bodhisattvasPht,Buddhas.
Thpphphnh.TenwaysofdevotiontotheBuddhiststras:tocopythemservetheplaceswheretheyarekept,asifservingtheBuddha'sshrinepreachorgive
themtootherslistenattentivelytotheirexpositionreadmaintaindiscourseonthemtoothersintonethemponderoverthemobservetheirlessons.
Thpphtthtm.Thetendirectionaldecisions:(1)Xtm,renouncementoftheworld(2)giitm,observanceofthecommandments(3)nhntm,patienceor
endurance(4)tintm,zealousprogress(5)nhtm,meditation(6)tutm,wisdomorunderstanding(7)nguyntm,thewillforgoodforoneselfandothers(8)
htm.protection(ofBuddha,DharmaandSangha)(9)htm,joy(10)nhtm,highestwisdom.
Thpphmn.Thetenuniversalsofabodhisattva:tbiphmn,universalpityhongtritpm,vowofuniversalsalvationtuhnhpm,accordantactionlihoc
pm,universalcuttingoffdelusionsnhpphpmnpm,freedomofentryintoallformsoftruththnthngpm,universalsuperhumanpowersphngtinpm,
universalaccordancewithconditionsofthereceptivityofothersthuytphppm,powersofuniversalexplicationofthetruthcngdngchPhtpm,powerof
universalserviceofallBuddhasthnhtuchngsinhpm,theperfectingofallbeingsuniversally.Thpphng.Thetendirectionsofspace,i.e.theeightpointsof
thecompasstmphngcaabnandthenadirhphngthe,zeniththngphng.ThereisaBuddhaforeachdirection.
ThpphngPht.ABuddharealm.Alsoithinthgii.
Thpphngthgii.Theworldsinalldirections.
Thpphngthngtrtngvt,hintintngvt.Xemtchngtngvt.
Thpqun.ThetenarmiesofMra,whichtheBuddhaattacksanddestroysthearmiesaredesire,anxiety,hungerandthirst,longing,torpidity,fear,doubt,poison,
gain,haughtiness(i.e.disdainingmonks)

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Thps.Dasasamyojana(S).Tenfetters,deluders,fundamentalpassions.Theyaredividedinfivesharplisandfivedullns.Thefivedullonesare:tham
desire,snhate,sistupidity,mnpride,nghidoubtthefivesharponesare:thnkinpersonalitybelief,binkintakingsideviews,tkinwrongviews,kinth
kintoholdheterodoxdoctrinesandbeobsessedwiththesenseoftheself,giicmthkinclingingtomererulesandrituals.Alsothpihoc,thpcnbn
phinno.
Thpscngc.ThebodhisattvameritresultingfromtheattainmentoftengroupsofexcellencesinthesouthernversionoftheNirvnastranambnNitbn
kinh.Thptamlc.
Thptm.Thetenkindsofheartormindtherearethreegroups.IThunluthptm,thetenmindsremainingintheflowofreincarnation:(1)vminhhnm,
mindsignorantanddark(2)ngoigiachu,affectedbyevilcompanions(3)thinbttytng,notfollowingthegood(4)tamnghiptoctm,doingevilin
thought,word,deed(5)ctmbinb,spreadingevilabroad(6)ctmtngtc,unceasinglywicked(7)phququthttm,secretsin(8)btyco,open
crime(9)vtmvqu,utterlyshameless(10)xvnhnqu,defyingcauseandeffect(retribution).IINghchluthptm,thetenmindsstrivingagainstthe
streamofperpetualreincarnation:(1)thmtnnhnqu,itshowsitselfindevoutfaith(2)sinhtrngtmqu,shameforsin(3)sinhiby,fearofwrongdoing
(4)phtlsmhi,repentanceandconfession(5)ontngtctm,reform(6)phtbtm,bodhii.e.thebodhisattvamind(7)onthinctu,doinggood
(8)thhchnhphp,maintainingtherightlaw(9)nimthpphngPht,thinkingonalltheBuddha(10)quntitnhkhng,meditatingonthevoid(orthe
unrealityofsin)IIIThethirdistheChnNgngroup:the"seed"heart(i.e.theoriginalgooddesire),thesprout(underBuddhistreligiousinfluence),thebud,leaf,
flower,fruit,itsserviceablenessthechildheart,thediscriminatingheart,theheartofsettledjudgement(orresolve).IIIThptmcaBtt,thetenmindsofa
Bodhisattva:(1)tntmtr(2)nimtmtr(3)tinhtintm(4)tutmtr(5)nhtmtr(6)btthoitm,noretrogression(7)hphptm(8)hihngtm(9)
giitmtr(10)nguyntm.
Thptn.Thetengradesofbodhisattvafaith:(1)tntmfaith(whichdestroysillusionandresultsin)(2)nimtmremembrance,orunforgetfulness(3)tinhtintm
zealousprogress(4)tutmwisdom(5)nhtmsettledfirmnessinconcentration(6)btthoitmnonretrogression(7)hphptmprotectionoftheTruth
(8)hihngtmreflexivepowers,e.g.forreflectingtheTruth(9)giitmthenirvnamindineffortlessness(10)nguyntmactionatwillinanythingand
everywhere.
Thptng.ThetenshoolsofChineseBuddhism:(1)Luttng,vinayadisciplineorNamsntng(2)Cuxtng,Kosa,Abhidharma,orReality(Sarvstivdin)hu
tng(3)Thnhthttng,satyasiddhisectfoundedonthissstrabyHarivarman(4)Tamluntng,mdhyamikaorkhngtng(5)Phphoatng,lotus,"law
flower"orThinthaitng(6)Hoanghimtng,Huayen(7)Phptngtng,dharmalaksana(8)Thintng,ch'anorzen,mindonly,orintuitive(9)Chnngn
tng,JapaneseShingon,esotericmttng(10)Lintng,Amitabhalotus,orPureLand,JapaneseJdo,Tnh.
Thpt.Caturdasa(S).Fourteen.
Thptbinha.Thefourteentransformationsthatareconnectedwiththefourdhynaheavens.
Thpthn.TenaspectsoftheBuddhakya.
Thpthin.Thetengoodcharacteristics,orvirtues,definedasthenoncommittalofthetenevils.Thntamkhuttam.Thethreecommandmentsdealingwith
thebody,probihitingtakingoflife,thief,unchastitythefourdealingwiththemouthagainstlying,exaggeration,abuseandambiguoustalkthethreebelongingtothe
mind,covetousness,maliceandunbelief.Thpthingii.Thetencommandments(asobservedbythelaity).
Thpthinnghip.Theexcellentkarmaresultingfrompracticeofthetencommandments.
Thpthaqun.AThinThaimodeofmeditationinten"vehicles",orstagesfortheattainmentofbodhi.
Thptrainht.Theten"fast"daysofamonthare1,8,14,15,23,24,28,28,and30.
ThptrainhtPht.ThetenBuddhasorbodhisattvasconnectedwiththesedayswhointurnare:Ngy1:nhQuangPht8:DcSNhLai14:PhHinB

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tt15:AdiNhlai18:QunmBtt23:ThChBtt24:aTngBtt28:TlginaPht29:DcVngBtt30:ThchCaNhlai.
Thptr.Thetenformsofunderstandings:ITiutha,Hnayna:(1)thtctr,commonunderstanding(2)phptr,enlightenedunderstanding,i.e.ontheFour
Truthsinthislife(3)loitr,ditto,appliedtothetwoupperrealms(4)khtr(5)tptr(6)dittr(7)otr,understandingeachoftheFourTruthsseparatelyboth
intheupperandlowerrealms(8)thatmtr,understandingofthemindsofothers(9)(lu)tntr,theunderstandingthatputsanendtoallpreviousfaithinorfor
self(10)vsinhtr,nirvnawisdom.IIitha,Mahyna.ATathagata'stenpowersofunderstandingorwisdom:(1)tamthtr,perfectunderstandingofpast,
presentandfuture(2)Phtphptr,dittoofBuddhaLaw(3)phpgiivngitr,unimpededunderstandingofthewholeBuddharealm(4)phpgiivbintr,
unlimitedorinfiniteditto(5)sungmnnhtthitthgiantr,ofubiquity(6)phchiunhtthitthgiantr,ofuniversalenlightenment(7)trtrnhtthitthgiantr,
ofomnipotence,oruniversalcontrol(8)trinhtthitchngsinhtr,ofomnisciencerealllivingbeins(9)trinhtthitphptr,ofomnisciencerethelawsofuniversal
salvation(10)trivbinchPhttr.ofomnisciencereallBuddhawsdom.
Thptrin.Thetenboundsthatbindmentomortality:(1)Vtm,tobeshameless(2)Vqu,unblushing(3)Tt,envious(4)San,mean(5)Sn,regretful
(6)Thymin,torpid(7)Troc,busy(8)Hntrm,absorbed(9)Snnhu,anger(10)Phc(trotr),secretive(ofsin).
Thptr.Thetenstages,orperiods,inbodhisattvawisdom:(1)phttmtrthepurposivestage,themindsetuponBuddhahood(2)tratrclearunderstanding
andmentalcontrol(3)tuhnhtrunhamperedlibertyineverydirection(4)sinhqutracquiringtheTathgatanatureorseed(5)phngtinctctrperfect
adaptabilityandresemblanceinselfdevelopmentanddevelopmentofothers(6)chnhtmtrthewholemindbecomingBuddhalike(7)btthoitrnoretrogression,
perfectunityandconstantprogress(8)ngchntrasaBuddhasonnowcomplete(9)phpvngttrasprinceofthelaw(10)qunnhtrbaptismassuch,
e.g.theconsecrationofking.
Thptrtm.TenstagesofmentalorspiritualdevelopmentintheChnngntng,beginningwiththehumananimalandendingwithperfectenlightenment.
Thptrngdngtm.Thetenkindsofwellnourishedheart,essentialtoentryintothecultofhigherpatienceandendurance:(1)Ttm,aheartofkindness
(2)Bitm,ofpity(3)Htm,ofjoy(inprogresstowardsalvationofothers)(4)Xtm,renunciation(5)Thtm,almsgiving(6)Hongtm,delightintellingthe
doctrine(7)chtm,benefitingoraidingotherstosalvation(8)ngtm,unity,oramity(9)nhtm,concentrationinmeditation(10)Tutm,wisdom.
Thpvnh.TenpowersonlypossessedbyBuddhas:(1)prediction(2)knowingandfulfillingthedesiresoftheliving(3)(10)arevariousformsofomniscience,i.e.
(3)ofallBuddharealmsandtheirinhabitants(4)theirnatures(5)goodroots(6)laws(7)wisdom(8)everymoment(9)evolvingdomains,orconditions(10)
language,words,anddiscussions.
Thpvng.Thetenkingspresidingoverthetendepartmentsofpurgatory.
Tht.Sapta(S).Seven.
Thtbo.Saptaratna(S).Theseventreasures,orpreciousthings,ofwhichtherearevariousdescriptions,e.g.kimsuvarna,goldngnrpya,silverlulivaidrya,
lapislazuliphalsphatika,crystalxacmusragalva,agate,motherpearlxchchurohitamukta,rubiesorredpearlsmnoasmagarbha,cornelian.Alsothe
sevenroyaltreasures:thegoldenwheelelephantsdarkswifthorsesthedivinepearlableministerofthetreasuryjewelsofwomenandloyalgenerals.
Thtbothlm.Thegroveofjeweltrees,ortreesofthesevenpreciousthingsapartofthePureLand.
Thtbtkht.Thesevenunavoidables:(1)Sinhchngtrnhc,rebirth(2)Gichngtrnhc,oldage(3)Bnhchngtrnhc,sickness(4)Chtchng
trnhc,death(5)Tichngtrnhc,punishment(forsin)(6)Phcchngtrnhc,happiness(forgoodness)(7)Nhnduynchngtrnh
c,consequences(causeandeffect).
Thtbphn.Saptabodhyanga(S).Sevencharacteristicsofbodhi.Itrepresentssevengradesinbodhi:(1)Trchphp,dharmapravicayasambhodyanga,
discriminationofthetrueandfalse(2)Tinhtin,vryasam.,zealorundeflectedprogress(3)H,prtis.,joy,delight(4)Khinhan,prasrabidhis.,riddanceofall
grossnessorweightofbodyormind,sothattheymaybelight,freeandatease(5)Nim,smrtis.,powerofrememberingthevariousstagespassedthroughin

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contemplation(6)nh,samdhis.,powertokeepthemindinagivenrealmundiverted(7)Hnhx,upekss.,completeabandonment,orindifferencetoall
disturbancesofthesubconsciousorecstaticmind.
Thtcu.Thesevendefilements:dcdesire,kinfalseviews,nghidoubt,mnpride,kiuarrogance,hntrmtorpor,andsanstinginess.
Thtchnnh.Thesevenaspectsofthebhtatathat:(1)Luchuynchnnh(2)Thttngchnnh(3)Duythcchnnh(4)Anlpchnnh(5)T
hnhchnnh(6)Thanhtnhchnnh(7)Chnhhnhchnnh.
Thtchng.Thesevenclassesofdisciples:(1)Tkhu,bhiksu,monk(2)Tkhuni,bhiksuni,nun(3)Thcxoamana,siksamna,anovicenun(4)Sadi,
srmanera,novicemonk(5)Sadini,srmanerika,novicenun(6)ubtc,upsaka,layman(7)ubdi,upsik,laywoman.
Thtchngbttnh.Thesevenkindsofuncleaness:(1)Htgingchngschderivedfromtheparentalseed(2)Thsinhchngsch,parentalintercourse(3)Ni
uchngsch,thewomb(4)nungchngsch,theprenatalbloodofthemother(5)Lcmisinhchngsch,birth(6)Ttcthnthchngsch,one'sown
flesh(7)Rtccchngsch,one'sownputridcorpse.
Thtchngbin.Thesevenrhetoricalpowersormethodsofbodhisattvas:(1)Tipttbin,directandunimpeded(2)Libin,acuteanddeep(3)Bttnbin,
unlimitedinscope:(4)Btkhonbin,irrefutable(5)Tyngbin,appropriate,oraccordingtoreceptivity(6)Nghabin,purposiveorobjective(i.e.nirvna)
(7)Nhtthitthgiantithngbin,provingtheuniversalsuprememethodofattainment,i.e.Mahyna.
Thtchngbth.Thesevenkindsofalmsgiving:(1)Bthchongikhch,tocallers(2)Bthchongiing,totravellers(3)Bthchongibnhthe
sick(4)Bthchongihubnh,theirnurse(5)Bthvntcchocha,monasteries(6)Bththcnhngngy,regularfood(tomnks)(7)Tylcbth,
generalalms.
ThtchnglPht.SevendegreesofworshippingBuddharangingfromthemerelyexternaltothehighestgrade.
Thtchngng.Buddha'ssevenmodesofdiscourse:(1)Nhnng,frompresentcausetofutureeffect(2)Qung,frompresentsffecttopastcause(3)Nhn
qung,inherentcauseandeffect(4)Dng,illustrativeorfigurative(5)Btngthuytng,spontaneousorparabolic(6)Thlubng,ordinaryorpopular
(7)Nhng,unreserved,orashereallythought,e.g.sawhenhesaidthatallthingshavetheBuddhanature.
Thtchngsmhitm.Thesevenmentalattitudesinpenitentialmeditationorworship:shame,atnotbeingfreefrommortalityfear,ofthepainsofhell,etc.
turningfromtheevilworlddesireforenlightenmentandcompleterenunciationimpartialityinlovetoallgratitudetotheBuddhameditationontheunrealityofthesin
nature.
Thtchngvthng.ThesevenpeerlessqualitiesofaBuddha:thn,hisbodywithitsthirtytwosignsandeightyfourmarkso,hiswayofuniversalmercy
kin,hisperfectinsightordoctrinetr,hiswisdomthnlc,hissupernaturalpowerlichng,hisabilitytoovercomehindrances,e.g.illusion,karma,sufferingtr,
andhisabidingplacei.e.nirvna.
Thtchngx.Sevenabandonmentsorriddances:cherishingnoneandnothingnorelationwithothersriddanceofloveandhateofanxietyaboutthesalvationof
othersofformgivingtoothers(e.g.supererogation)benefitingotherswithouthopeofreturn.
Thtchngy.Thesevenkindsofclothing,i.e.ofhair,hemp,linen,felt,finelinen,wool,orsilk.
Thtdittrnhphp.Saptdhikaranasamatha(S).SevenrulesgivenintheVinayaforsettingdisputesamongthemonks.Disputesarisefromfourcauses:from
argumentsfromdiscoveryofmisconductjudgementandpunishmentthecorrectnessorotherwiseofareligiousobservance.
Thtd.ThesevenparablesoftheLotusstra.
Thti.Thesevenelements:eartha,waterthy,firaha,windphong,spacekhng,sightkin,perceptionthc.
Thtiuy.Theoutermantle,ortoga,ofamonk,composedofsevenpieces.
Thtgicchi.Xemthtbphn.

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Thtgic.Xemthtbphn.
Thtgicphn.Xemthtbphn.
Ththinv.Xemthtphngtinv.
Ththu.Thesevenstagesofexistenceinahumanworld,orinanydcgiidesireworld:(1)angchu,inthehells(2)Scsinhhu,asanimals(3)Ng
quhu,hungryghosts(4)Thinhu,gods(5)Nhnhu,men(6)Nghiphu,karmaand(7)Trunghu,theintermediatestage.
Thtkhng.Thesevenunrealities,orillusions.Therearetwolists:(1)Tngkhng,Tnhttnhkhng,Hnhkhng,Vhnhkhng,Nhtthitphplingn
thuytkhng,nhtnghathnhtrikhng,Bbkhng(2)Cikhngcatnh,Cikhngcatngmnh,Cikhngcaccphp,Chngthclkhng,
Khngcphplkhng,Cicphplkhng,Cphpkhngphplkhng.
Thtmn.Thesevenpretensionsorarrogances.
Thtnghchti.Thesevenrebelliousacts,ordeadlysins:(1)LmthnPhtramu,sheddingaBuddha'sblood(2)Gitcha,killingfather(3)Gitm,mother(4)
GitHathng,monk(5)GitAxl,teacher(6)PhTng,subvertingordisruptingthemoks(7)GitbcThnh,killinganArhat.
Thtphpti.Thesevenriches,orsevenwaystobecomerichintheLaw:tn,faithtin,zealgii,moralrestrainttmqu,shamevn,obedienthearing(ofthe
law)abnegationandnhtu,wisdomarisingfrommeditation.
ThtPht.SaptaBuddha(S).ThesevenancientBuddhas:Tbthi,VipasyinThikh,SikhinTxph,VisvabhCulutn,KrakucchandaCunahmmuni,
KanakamuniCadip,KasyapaThchcamuni,Skyamuni.
ThtPhtDcs.ThesevenHealingBuddhas.
Thtphngtinv.(1)Theseven"expedient"ortemporaryattainmentsorpositionsofHnayna,supersidedinMahynabytheththinvorthtgiahnhvall
preparatorytothethtthnhv.(2)Thesevenvehiclesi.e.thoseofordinaryhumanbeings,ofdevas,ofsravakas,ofpratyekabuddhas,andofthethreebodhisattvas
ofthethreeteachingstng,thngandbit.
Thts.Thesevenmessengers,agents,orklesas:dci,desiresnnhu,angerorhatehui,attachmentmn,pride,orarrogancevminh,ignorance,or
unenlightenmentkin,falseviewsnghi,doubt.
Thtstythn.Thesevenappartenancesofamonk:thethreegarments,bowl,censer,duster(ordrybrush),stool(nisidana),paper,andmaterialforwashing,
Thttainn.ThesevencalamitiesintheNhnVngKinhThtrphm,duringwhichthatstrashouldberecited:(1)Mttrimttrngli,sunandmoonlosing
theirorder(2)Ccvsaoli,constellationsirregular(3)La,fire(4)Nc,water(5)Gid,windstorms(6)Khdngquthnh,drought(7)Gicd,
brigands.Anothersetis:pestilence,invasion,rebellion,unluckystars,eclipses,tooearlymonsoon,toolatemonsoon.
Thtthnhti.Saptadhana(S).Tn,faithGii,observanceofthecommandmentsTm,shame(forself)Qu,shame(forothers)avn,hearinginstructionTr
tu,wisdomXli,renunciation.
Thtthngs.ThesevensurpassingqualitiesofaBuddha.Alsothtchngvthng.Theyarehisbodyorperson,hisuniversallaw,wisdom,perfection,
destination(nirvna),ineffabletruth,anddeliverance.
Thttht.Theperiodoffortyninedaysafterdeath,whenmassesaresaideveryseventhdaytilltheseventhseventhday.
Thtthp.Saptati(S).Seventy.
Thtthpng.Pancasaptati(S).Seventyfive.
Thtthpngphp.TheseventyfivedharmasoftheAbhidharmaKosa,whichclassifiesallphenomenaunderseventyfivecategories,orelements,dividedintofive
groups:(1)Scphprpani,material,11(2)Tmphpcittam,mind,1(3)Tmshuphp,cittasamprayuktasamskrh,mentalqualities,46(4)Tmbttng
nghnhphpcittavipravuktasamskrah,nonmental,14(5)Vviphpasamskrta,nonphenomenalelements,3.

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Thtthptamtn.The"Diamondworld"mandala,orpantheon,oftheesotericsect,containingseventythreehonouredones.
Thtthin.ThesevenexcellencesclaimedfortheBuddha'steaching:goodinitsthitimingorseasonableness,nghameaning,ngexpression,cphp
uniqueness,ctccompleteness,thanhtnhiunhupureadaptability,andphmhnhitsnobleobjective,nirvna.
Thttnh.Thesevenemotions:hpleasurenangerilovehateaisorrowdcdesirelcjoy.
Thttng.ThesevenJapanesesectsofLutRitsu(J),PhptngHoss,TamlunSanron,HoanghimKegon,ThinthaiTendai,ChnngnShingon,andThin
Zen.
Thttr.ThesevenknowinstoknowtheLaw,itsmeaning,thetimesforallduties,moderation,oneself,thedifferentclassesofpeople,andpeopleasindividual.
Tht.Real,true,honest,sinceresolidfixedfulltofillfruit,kernel,effectsverily,infactitisusedforchnasinchnthtthesupremefact,orultimatereality
alsoforbhta.
Thtbo.ThelandofBuddharewardinRealityfreefromallbarriers,thatofthebodhisattva,thethirdofthefourlandsofThinThai.ABuddhaksetra.
Thtithagio.TherealMahyna,freedfromtemporal,relativeorexpedientideastheThinThai,HoaNghim,Thin,Chnngnschoolsclaimtobesuch.
Thto.Thetrueway,thetruereligion,absoluteBuddhatruth.
Tht.Atruththetruestatementofafundamentalprinciple.
Thtgio.TheteachingofRealityalsothereal,orreliableteaching.
Ththa.TherealornoumenalBuddhaascontrastedwithquynhathetemporalorphenomenalBuddhatheththanhthnarehisbothnsambhogakyaand
hishathnnirmnakya.
Thtkhng.Absolutesnya,orvacuityallthingsbeingproducedbycauseandenvironmentareunreal.
Thtkinh.Thetruestraascontrastedtotherelativeortemporarystras,atermoftheLotusschool.
Thtng.Thetrueego,incontrastwithgingphenomenalego.
Thtng.True,orreliablewordswordscorrespondingtorealitydiscussionsofReality.
Thtnhn.Aneyeabletodiscernreality,i.e.theBuddhaeye.
Thtscthn.TherealBuddhabody,orhissambhogakyaincontrastwithhisnirmnakya.
Thttnh.Realnature,oressence,i.e.thechnnhbhtatathat.
Thtt.TheregionofReality.
Thttla.Thenoumenaluniverse,thebhtatathat.
Thttng.Reality,incontrastwithhvngabsolutefundamentalreality,theultimate,theabsolutethephpthndhamakya,orchnnhbhtatathat.Other
termsarenhttht,nhtnh,nhttng,vtng,phpchng,nitbn,vvi,chn,chntnh,chnkhng,thttnh,tht,thtt.
Thttngn.Thesealorwitnessofreality,whichispassedonfromBuddhatoBuddha.
Thttngqun.Insightinto,ormeditationonReality.
Thttngtrthn.Thebodyofabsolute,knowledgeorofcompleteknowledgeofreality,i.e.thatofVairocana.
Thttngtu.Wisdominregardtoreality.
Thttngphpgii.ThefirsthalfisaLotusstratermforReality,thelatterhalfaHoaNghimtermforthesame.
Thttngtammui.Thesamdhiofreality,inwhichtheunrealityofthephenomenalisrealized.
Thttngvtng.RealityisNullity,i.e.isdevoidofphenomenalcharacteristics,unconditioned.
Thttr.TheknowledgeorwisdomofRealityincontrastwithquyntrknowledgeoftherelative.

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Thtxoanan.Siksnanda(S).AsramanaofKustana(Khotan)whoinA.D.695introducedanewalphabetintoChinaandtranslatednineteenworks.
Th.Yuga(S).Anage,1,000thpartofakalpa.Loka(S).Theworld.
Thanh.Worldhero,likeBuddha.AlsoThhng.
Thi.Ageneration,alifetimetheworld.
Th.Ordinaryorworldlytruth,oppositetoChntruthinreality.AlsoTc,Thtc.
Thnhtphp.ThehighestoftheTgiahnhv.
Thin.NonBuddhistclassicalworks.
Thgian.Theworldintheworldthefiniteimpermanentworld.AlsoThgii..
Thgiangii.Lokavid(S).KnoweroftheWorld,oneofthetentitlesofaBuddha.
Thgiannhn.TheEyeoftheworld,theeyesthatseeforallmen.Worldlyorordinaryeyes.AlsoThnhn.
Thgianphp.Theworldlaw,orlawofthisworld,especiallyofbirthanddeath.
Thgiantha.TheVehicle,orteachingfortheattainmentofgoodfruitinthepresentlife,incontrastwithXutthgianthathatforattainmentinlivesoutsidethis
world.
Thgiantr.Wordlyknowledge.
Thgiantngthngtr.Worldforms,systems,orstatesareeternal(asexistingintheAbsolute,thechnnh).
Thgii.Loka(S).Thefiniteworld,theworld,aworld,whichisoftwokinds:(1)Chngsinhthgii,thatoftheliving,whoarereceivingtheirchnhbocorrect
recompenseofkarma(2)Khthgii,thatofthematerial,orthatonwhichkarmadependsforexpression.
Thgiich.Thelord,orruleroveraworldordhynaheaven,oneforeachofthefourdhynaheavens.
Thgiittn.OneofthefoursiddhantastheBuddha'slineofreasoninginearthlyorcommontermstodrawmentothehighertruth.
ThHu.Vasumitra(S).
Thlun.Wordlydiscussionsordinaryunenlghtenedwaysofdescriptionordefinitionalsostyledclunevildiscussions,especiallywhenappliedtothehedonistic
Lokyatikateachings.
Thnhn.Xemthgiannhn.
Thphp.Commonorordinarydharmas.
ThTn.Lokajyestha(S).World'smostVenerable,World'sHonouredOne.Worldhonoured,anepithetofallBuddhas.
ThThn.Vasubhandu(S).AlsoThinThn.
Ththsinhsinh.Transmigrationaftertransmigrationinthesixstagesofmortalexistence.
Ththin.TheLordoftheworld,BrahmPhmthinMahesvaraittithinThefourmahrajstithinvng.Alsothch.
Thtr.Xemthtctr.
Thtrbinthng.Worldlyeloquent.
ThchBtt.XemithchBtt.
Thpht.Mundaka,munda(S).Toshavethehair,followingSkyamuni,whocutoffhislockswithasharpswordtosignifyhiscuttinghimselfofftheworld.AlsoTh
trtupht,Cttccoru.
Thtc.Laukika(S).Commonorordinarythings,custom,experiences,commonorwordlyways(orviews).
Thtctr.Ordinary,orworldlyknowledge,orwisdom.

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ThTtiVng.Lokesvararja(S).ABuddhaunderwhomAmitbha,inapreviousexistence,enteredintotheasceticlifeandmadehisfortyeightvows.
Thy.HeonwhomtheworldreliesBuddha.
Thalm.Jetavana(S)
Thnguyn.Pranidhna(S).Vow.
Thi.Acorpsetomanage.
Thibalamt.Slapramit(S)Morality,thesecondofthepramits.
ThiCaLaVit.Siglovada(P).
ThiCaLaVitkinh.Siglovadasutta(P).AlsoThinsinhkinh.
ThiKh.Sikkhin(S).(1)The999thBuddhaofthelastkalpa,whomSkyamuniissaidtohavemet.(2)ThesecondofthesevenBuddhasofantiquity.
Thila.Sla(S).Restraint,orkeepingthecommandments.Thesecondpramit,moralpurity.
ThilaBalamt.XemThibalamt.
Thilabla.Silabhadra(S).AlsoGiiHinluns.
Thilathanhtnh.Moralpurity,essentialtoenterintosamdhi
Thili.Sri(S).Alsosli,thtli,thtli,tuli(1)Fortune,prosperityhighrank,success,goodfortune,virtues.(2)ThewifeofVisnu.(3)Anhonorificprefixor
affixtonamesofgods,greatmen,andbooks.(4)Anexclamationattheheadofliturgies.(5)AnabbreviationforManjusri.
Th.Dna(S).Almscharity.Togive,grant,bestow,todistribute.Alsothi.
Thn.Togrants.o.afavourtodos.o.akindness.Thinbtcubotodogoodforitsownsake.
Thbalamt.Dnapramit(S).
Thch.Dnapati(S).Analmsgiver,abenefactor,apatronofBuddhism.
Thha.Tobestowthetransformingtruth.
Thphp.TodispensetheBuddha'steachings.
Thtng.Togivealmstomonks.
Ththc.Tobestowfood.
Thvy.Abhayandada(S).Thebestoweroffearlessness,atittleofQunm.
Th.Toindicate,notify,proclaim.
Tho.ToindicatetheWay.
Thgio.Topointoutandinstruct.
Thhin.Toappear,tomanifest
Thtch.Toindicatethewayofnirvna.
Thgi.Aseniorbonze'sattendant.
Thch.Toseparateout,setfree,unloose,explainBuddhism,Buddhist.
ThchCaMuNi.Skyamuni(S)
Thchchng.Buddhist.
Thchchng.SkyaseedtheSkyaclanthedisciplesofSkyamuni,especiallymonksandnuns.
Thchhonnhn.Sakrodevnmindra(S).SakratheIndraofthedevas,theskygod,thegodofthenaturegods,rulerofthethirtytreeheavens,adevaprotector

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ofBuddhism.
Thchin.ThescripturesofBuddhism.
Thchgia.TheSkyafamily,i.e.theexpoundersofBuddhiststrasandscriptures.
Thchgio.Buddhism.
Thchlun.ThePrjnapramitstraalsoexplanatorydiscussions,ornotesonfoundationtreatises.
ThchMaNam.SkyaMahanamaKulika(S).OneofthefirstfiveoftheBuddha'sdisciples.
Thchmn.TheschoolofSkyamuni,Buddhism.
Thchnghi.Explanationofdoubtfulpoints,solutionofdoubts.
Thchn.ThewomanoftheSkyaclan.
Thcht.Skyaputrya(S).SonsofSkyamuni,i.e.hisdisciplesingeneral.
ThchPhmHTh.IndraandBrahma,bothprotectorsofBuddhism.
Thin.Heaventheskyaday.Adevaordivinebeing,deity.Tamchngthin,thethreeclassesofdevas:(1)Danhthin,famousrulersonearthstyledthin
vng,thint(2)Sinhthin,thehighestincarnationsofthesixpaths(3)Tnhthin,thepure,orthesaints,fromsravakastopratyekabuddhas.Thefourclassesof
devasinclude(1),(2),(3)aboveand(4)Nghathin,allbodhisattvasabovethetenstagesthptr.nhtnghathin:asupremeheavenwithbodhisattvasand
Buddhasineternalimmutability.
Thinb.Theclassesofdevasthehostofdevas,thehostofheaven.
Thinbthinthn.Brahm,Indra,theFourDevalokarjas,andtheotherspiritguardiansofBuddhism.
Thinci.ABuddha'scanopy,orumbrellaanimbusofraysoflight,ahalo.
Thinchn.Bhtatathat(S).Permanentrealityunderlyingallphenomena,pureandunchanging.e.g.theseaincontrastwiththewavesnature,thenatural.
ThinchnPht.TherealorultimateBuddha.
Thinchng.Thehostofheaven,Brahma,Indra,andalltheirhost.
Thinch.Devapati(S).TheLordofdevas,atittleofIndra.
Thinc.ThedivinedrumintheThinphpngGoodLawHalloftheTrayastrimsasheavens,whichsoundsofitself,warningtheinhabitantsofthethirtythree
heavensthateventheirlifeisimpermanentandsubjecttokarmaatthesoundofthedrumIndrapreachesagainstexcess.
Thinc.NaturalcapacitythenaturebestowedbyHeaven.
Thincung.Devapura,devaloka(S).Thepalaceofdevas,theabodeofthegods.
Thincungbotng.Alibraryofthestras.ThetreasuryofallthestrasintheTusitaHeaveninMaitreya'spalace.AnothercollectionissaidtobeintheLong
cungorDragon'spalace,butisassociatedwithNagrjuna.
Thinitng.Tendaishu(J).XemThinThai.
Thinitngqun.Devaguardian.
Thino.Devagati,devasopna(S).Thehighestofthesixpathslco,therealmofdevas,i.e.theeighteenheavensofformandfourofformlessness.Aplace
ofenjoymentbutnotaplaceofprogresstowardbodhisattvaperfection.
Thin.King,orEmperorofHeaven,i.e.NhnlaIndra,ThchSakrakingofthedevaloka.
Thinng.Themansionsofthedevas,locatedbetweentheearthandtheBrahmalokastheheavenlyhallsheaven.
Thinngangc.Theheavensandthehells,placesofrewardorpunishmentformoralconduct.

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Thinhnh.Abodhisattva'snaturalorspontaneouscorrespondencewithfundamentallawoneofthenghnhoftheNitBnkinh.
Thinh.Theworldherebelowonearth.
Thinhoa.Divineflowers,statedintheLotusstraasoffourkinds,mnlamandras,mahamnlamahmandras,mnthsamanjsakas,mahamnth
samahmanjsakas,thefirsttwowhite,thelasttwored.
Thinhng.Devaincense,divineorexcellentincense.
Thinlong.Devas,includingBrahm,Indra,andthedevas,togetherwiththengas.
Thinlongbtb.Devas,ngasandothersoftheeightclasses:thin,devaslong,ngasdxoa,yaksascnthtb,gandharasatula,asurascalula,
garudaskhnnala,kinnarasmahulagi,mahoragas.
Thinma.DevaMra(S).Oneofthefourmrastmawhodwellsinthesixthheaven,Paranirmitavasavartin,atthetopoftheKmadhtu,withhisinumerablehost
,whenceheconstantlyobstructtheBuddhatruthanditsfollowers.HeisalsostyledStgitheslayeralsoBatunexplainedbycisinfulloveordesireashe
sendshisdaughterstoseducethesaints.
Thinmangoio.Mrasandheretics.
Thinng.Thedevalanguage,i.e.thatoftheBrahman,Sanskrit.
Thinnhc.Heavenlymusic,themusicoftheinhabitantsoftheheavens.
Thinnhn.Divyacaksus(S).Thedevaeyethefirstofabhijnlcthngoneofthefiveclassesofeyesdivinesightunlimitedvisionallthingsareopentoit,large
andsmall,nearanddistant,thedestinyofallbeingsinfuturerebirths.
Thinnhnlc.Thepowerofthecelestialordevaeye,oneofthetenpowersofaBuddha.
Thinnhnminh.Oneofthethreeenlightenmentstamminh,orclearvisionofthesaints,whichenableshimtoknowthefuturerebirthsofhimselfandallbeings.
Thinnhnthng.Diviyacaksu(S).Divineeye.
Thinnhntrthngnguyn.ThesixthofAmitbha'sfortyeightvows,thathewouldnotenterthefinalstageuntilallbeingshadobtainedthisdivinevision.
Thinnhntr.Thewisdomobtainedbythedeavaeye.
Thinnhntrchngthng.Thecompleteuniversalknowledgeandassuranceofthedevaeye.
Thinnhn.Devasandmen.
Thinnhns.SastaDevamanusynm(S).Teacherofdevasandmen,oneofthetenepithetofaBuddha.
Thinn.Devakany,apsaras(S).Goddessingeneral.
Thinnh.Divyasrotra(S).Devaear,divineearcelestialear.
Thinnhthng.Thesecondoftheabhijnslcthng,bywhichdevasintheformworld,certainarhatsthroughthefourthdhyna,andotherscanhearallsounds
andunderstandalllanguagesintherealmofform,withresultingwisdom.
Thinnhtrchngthng.Thecompleteuniversalknowledgeandassuranceofthedevaear.
Thinnhtrthngnguyn.TheseventhofthefortyeightvowsofAmitbha,nottobecomeBuddhauntilallobtainedthedivineear.
Thins.Divinemessengers,especiallythoseofYamaalsohistamthinsoldage,sicknessanddeath.
ThinThaiis.TheactualfounderoftheThinThaischool,TrKhi.
ThinThaitng.TheT'ienT'aiorTendaisectoundedbyTrKhi.ItbasesitstenetsontheLotusstra.
ThinThaiTrGi.TrKhi,histiscAnandhissurnameisTrn,AD538597.StudyingunderHuT,hewasgreatlyinfluencedbyhisteachingandfoundin
theLotusstra,therealinterpretationofMahynism.In575hefirstcametoThinThaiSnorHeavenlyTerracemountainandestablishhisschool,whichinturn

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wasthefoundationofimportantBuddhistshoolsinKoreaandJapan.
ThinThn.Vasubandhu,youngerbrotherofAsanga,wroteCuXLun,DuyThcLun,etc.HewasthetwentyfirstIndianpatriarch.
Thinthn.Deva,Devat(S).(1)Brahmandthegodsingenaral,includingtheinhabitantsofthedevalokas,allsbjecttometempsychosis(2)Thefifteenth
patriarch,discipleofNgrjuna,alsostyledDevabodhisattvaBBtt,AryadevaThnhThinandNilanetraThanhMcblueeyed.
Thinthnak.ThespiritsThinthnareIndraandhisretenuedevasingeneralandakaretheearthspirits,ngas,demons,ghosts,etc.
Thinthvng.Theprijtatreebalichta,whichgrowsinfrontofIndra'spalacethekingamongtheheavenlytree.
Thinthc.Sudh(S).Foodofthegods,sweetdew,ambrosia,nectar.
Thintha(thng).Devayna(S).Thedevavehicle,oneofthefivevehicles.Ittransportsobserversofthetengoodqualitiesthpthintooneothesixdeva
realmsofdesire.
Thinthng.Theheavensabove.
Thinthngthinhduyngctn.ThefirstwordsattributedtoSkyamuniafterhisfirstsevenstepswhenbornfromhismother'srightside:"Intheheavens
aboveand(earth)beneathIaloneisthehonouredone."ThisannouncementisascribedtoeveryBuddha.
Thintin.Devarsis(S).Immortals.
Thintrungthin.Devtideva(S).Devaofdevas,thenamegiventoSiddharthawhen,onhispresentationinthetempleofThinVngMahesvara(Siva),the
statuesofallthegodsprostratedthemselvesbeforehim.
Thintrc.India.
Thintn.Themosthonouredamongdevas,atittleofaBuddha,i.e.thehighestofdivinebeings.
Thint.Devlaya,Devatgra(S).Brahminicaltemples.
Thint.AsonofHeavens,theEmperorPrinces.
Thinvng.Maharjadevas(S).Tthinvng,Caturmahrja,Thefourdevakingsinthefirstorlowestdevakoka,onitsfoursides.EastTrqucThin
vngDhrtarstraSouthTngtrngThinvng,VirdhakaWestQungmc
Thinvng.VirpaksaNorthavnThinvng,Dhanada,orVaisravana,asguardiansofthemonasteries,wheretheirimagesareseeninthehallatthe
entrance,whichissometimescalledThinvngng,hallofthedevakings.
ThinvngNhlai.DevarjaTathgata(S).ThenamebywhichDevadatta,theenemyofSkyamuni,willbeknownonhisfutureappearanceasaBuddhainthe
universecalledThinoDevasopna.
Thiny.Devagarmentsofextremelightness.
ThinththinnhnQunthm.SahasrabhjriyAvalokitesvara(S).Avalokitesvarawithathousandhandsandathousandeyes.
Thin.Tolevelaplaceforanaltar,tosacrificetothehillsandmountainstoabdicate.AdoptedbyBuddhistsfordhynathinna,i.e.meditation,abstraction,trance.
Dhynais"meditation,thought,reflection,especiallyprofoundandabstractreligiouscontemplation".Itwasintp.as"gettingridofevil",etc.,laterastnhlquiet
meditation.Itisaformofnhbutthatwordismorecloselyalliedwithsamdhi.
Thinbalamt.Dhynaparamita(S).Perfectionofthemeditation.
Thinbnh.Theillsofmeditation,i.e.wandewingthoughts,illusions.Theillusionsandnervoustroublesofthemystic.
Thinc.Ameditationabodetodwellinmeditationahermitageahermitmonk.
Thinduyt.Joyofthemystictrancejoyderivedfrommeditation.
Thinduytthc.Nourishingpowersfrommeditation.

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Thinnh.Oneofthesixpramits.Therearenumerousmethodsandsubjectsofmeditation.Thinisdhyna,nhisaninterpretationofsamdhi.Thinisone
elementofnh,whichcoversthewholegroundofmeditation,concentrationabstraction,reachingtotheultimatebeyondemotionorthinking.
Thin.Dhyanaparamita(S).Xemthinbalamt.
Thinng.MeditationhallofThintng.Acommonnameofthemonastichall.
Thingio.TheteachingofThintng.Alsothintheesoterictraditionandgiotheteachingofthescriptures.
Thinh.Thedhynariver.
Thinhnh.ThemethodsemployedinmeditationthepracticesordisciplineofThintng.Zensect.Walkingmeditation.
Thinha.ThetransformingcharacterofThin.
Thinhc.Zenstudy.
Thinlc.Joyandpeaceoftheabstractmeditation.
Thinlm.Groveofmeditation,i.e.amonastery.Monasteriesarenumerousastreesinaforest.
Thinlc.TherecordsofThintng.
Thinl.Fellowmeditatorsfellowmonks.
Thinmn.Themeditativemethodingeneral.TheintuitionalschoolestablishedinChinabyBodhidharma.
Thinmnngtng.FiveCh'anschools:Lmt,Quingng,Vnmn,PhpnhnandTong.
Thinmnquic.Themonasticroutine.
Thinna.Dhyna(S).Abstractcontemplation.
ThinPhmThin.ThethreeBrahmalokaheavensofthefirstdhyna.
Thinphp.Methodsofmeditation.
Thinquyn.Themeditationfist(musti),thesignofmeditationshownbytheleftfist,therightindicatingwisdom.
Thinqun.Dhynacontemplation.
Thins.Amaster,orteacher,ofmeditation,orofThintng.
Thintammui.Dhynaandsamdhi,dhynaconsideredastduymeditating,samdhiasnhabstraction.
Thintng.AmonkofThintngCh'ansectamonkinmeditation.
Thintm.Themindinastateofabstraction.
Thintp.Thepracticeofmeditationthepracticeofreligionthroughthemystictrance.
Thintht.Meditationhallorroomothersimilartermsarethinqun,thinphng,thinvin,thinng,thinc.
Thintnh.Meditationandquietness.
Thintng.ZenBuddhism.
Thintu.DhynaandWisdom.
Thinty.ThemarrowofmeditationatermfortheLankavatarastra.
Thinta.Tositcrossleggedinmeditation.
Thintng.TheCh'an,meditativeorintuitionalsect,usuallysaidtohavebeenestablishedinChinabyBodhidharma,thetwentyeighthpatriarch,whobroughtthe
traditionoftheBuddhamindfromIndia.Thissect,believingindirectenlightenment,disregardedritualandstrasanddependedupontheinnerlightandpersonal
influenceforthepropagationofitstenets.

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Thintngnglc.RecordsoftheZensect.
Thinthin.Dhynaheavens,fourinnumbers.wherethosewhopractisemeditationmaybereborn.
Thintr.Meditationandwisdom.
Thintrng.Astafforpolefortouchingthosewhofallasleepwhileassembledinmeditation.Bonze'scrosier.
Thinv.Meditationflavourthemysterioustasteorsensationexperiencedbyonewhoentersabstractmediatation.
Thin.Su,sdhu,bhadra,kusala(S).Good,virtuous,wellgoodatskilful.
Thinc.Goodandevilgood,interalia,isdefinedasthunltoaccordwiththeright,evilasnghchltodisobeytheright.
Thinbn.Goodstock,orroots,plantinggoodseedorrootsgoodintherootofenlightenment.
Thincn.Kusalamla(S).Goodroots,goodqualities,goodseedsownbyagoodlifetobereapedlater.
Thino.Goodway,gooddirection.
Thinc.Morality,virtue.
Thingithinbo.Agoodturndeservesanother.
ThinGicVng.KingSuppabuddha,fatheroftheprincessYasodhara.
Thinhnh.Gooddeed,virtuousact.
ThinH.Upananda(S).Name
ThinHin.Subhadra(S).ThelastdiscipleoftheBuddha.AlsoTubtla.
ThinHin.Wellappearing,nameofSubhti.
Thinhinthin.Sudrsa(S).TheseventhBrahmalokatheeighthregionofthefourthdhyna.
Thinhu.Kalynamitra(S).Afriendofvirtue,areligiouscounsellerafriendinthegoodlife,oronewhostimulatestogoodness.
ThinKin.Sudarsana(S).Goodtosee,goodforseeing,bellevue,etc.AnothernameofAxthAjatasatru.
ThinKinthin.Sudarsana(S).AheavenofthefourthdhynaintheRealmofForm.
Thinkip.Bhadrakalpa(S).Agoodkalpa,especiallythatinwhichwenowlive.
Thinlai.Svgata,susvgata(S)."Welcome"wellcome,atitleofBuddha.
Thinnam.Xemubtc.
Thinnamt.Goodsons,orsonsofgoodfamilies.oneoftheBuddha'stermofaddresstohisdisciples,somewhatresembling"gentlemen".
Thinnamtnn.Goodmenandbelievingwomen.
Thinnghip.Punyakarma(S).Meritoriousaction.AlsoNghiplnh.
Thinngn.Goodword.
ThinNha.Sudna(S).AformernameoftheBuddha.AlsoTtn.
Thinnhn.Agoodman,especiallyonewhobelievesinBuddhistideasofcausalityandlivesagoodlife.
Thinnhn.Goodcausation,i.e.agoodcauseforagoodeffect.
Thinn.Xemubdi.
Thinphp.Kusaladharma(S).Meritoriousaction,gooddharma.
Thinqu.Goodfruitfromthinnhngoodfortuneinliferesultingfrompreviousgoodness.
ThinSinh.Sujta(S).Wellborn,ofhighbirth.AlsoSusambhava,aformerincarnationofSkyamuni.

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ThinSinhkinh.Siglovdasutta(P).Nameofastra.AlsoThicalavitkinh.
Thintai.Sdhu(S).Good!Excellent!
ThinTingt.Sudhana(S).AdisciplementionedintheHoaNghimKinh.
Thintm.Agoodheart,ormind.
ThinTh.Sudatta(S).Name.AlsoTta.
Thintnh.Goodnature,goodinnature,orinfundamentalquality.
Thinthn.Thegooddevas,orspirits,whoprotectBuddhism.
Thinthe.Sugata(S).Welldeparted,goneasheshouldgoatittleofBuddha.
Thintri.Vibhvana(S).Clearanddeepunderstanding.
Thintrithc.Agoodfriendorintimate,onewellknownandintimate.
Thintua.Sdhumati(S)
Thint(tc).Abidingingoodness,discipleswhokeepeightcommandments,upavasatha,posadha.
Thinvluphp.Kusalansravh(S).Goodthingsfreefromevilflowings
ThinVy.Subhkarasimha(S).AfamousIndianmonk,cametoChinain716topropagatetheEsotericBuddhism.
Thinxo.Clever,skilful,adroit,apt.
Thinx.Goodabode,realm.
Thitvisn.Thegreatcircularironenclosure.
Thit.Jihv(S).Thetongue.
Thitcn.Theorganoftaste.
Thitthc.Tongueperception.
Thittng.Thebroad,longtongueofaBuddha,oneofthethirtytwophysicalsigns.
Thiulmt.Shaolin(C).ThemonasteryatThiutht,whereBodhidharmasatwithhisfacetoawallfornineyears.
Thiutht.Shaoshih(C).AhillontheTungSnwhereBodhidharmasetuphisThiulmt.
Thiuthtlcmn.SixbrieftreatisesattributedtoBodhidharma.
Thiu.Few.
Thiudctritc.Contentwithfewdesires.
Thiuquangthin.Parittbha(P).Aheaven.
Thiutnhthin.Parittasubhas(S).Thefirstandsmallestheaveninthethirddhynaregionofform.
Thnh.Tohear,listen,hearkenlistento,obey.
Thnhgio.ThosewhoheartheBuddha'sdoctrinethosewhoobey.
Thnhkinh.Toheartherecitationofthescripture.
Thmnh.Jvita(S).Spanoflife,life.
Thoi.Retire,withdraw,backslide,recede,yield.
Thoichuyn.Towithdrawandturnbacki.e.fromanypositionattained.
Thoii.TobackslidefromMahyna(andreverttoHnayna)

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Thoinh.Tobackslidefrommeditation.
Thoimt.Tobereborninalowerstageofexistence.
Thoistm.Torecedetheinitialmind.
Thoiu.Xemcngn.
Thotkhi.Vivarjana(S).Abandoning,abstainimgfrom.
Th.Sthla(S).Coarse,rough,crude,unrefined,immature.
Thcng.Coarse,evil,slanderouslanguage
Thcuyn.Theroughandevilpark,oneofIndra'sfourparks,thatofarmamentsandwar.
Thngn.Coarse,crude,rough,immaturewordsortalk.
Thng.Coarselanguage.
Thtng.ThesixgrosserorcruderformofenlightenmentorignorancementionedintheKhitnlunincontrastwithitsthreefinerforms.
Thnhn.TheimmaturemanofHnayna,whohasaroughfoundation,incontrastwiththematureorrefinedtnhnmanofMahyna.ThinThaiTngappliedth
totheTng,Thng,Bitschools,resevingtfortheVinschool.
Thtng.Crudeappearance,unrefinedmanifestation.
Thgic.Sasavisna(S).Arabbit'shorns,i.e.thenonexistentallphenomenaareasunrealasarabbit'shorns.
Thc.Bald.Thccs.Thcnhn.Amonk,sometimesusedasatermofabuse.
Thng.Permeate,passthrough,pervadeperceiveknowthoroughlycommunicatecurrentfreewithouthindrance,unimpeded,universal,e.g.thn
thngsupernatural,ubiquitouspowers.Therearecategoriesofngthng,lcthngandthpthng,allreferringtosupernaturalpowers.
Thngbitnht.Thegeneralandspecificintroductiontoastranhthngvnbeingthethngtgeneralintroductionineverystra.
Thngt.Topervade,perceiveunimpeded,universal.
Thngttm.Toattaintotheenlightenedmindthestageofonewhohaspassedthroughthenovitiateandunderstandthetruth.
Thnggio.ThinThaiclassifiedBuddhistschoolsintofourperiodstng,thng,bit,andvin.ThetngpitakaschoolwasthatofHnayna.Thethnginterrelated
orintermediateschool,wasthefirststageofMahyna,havinginitelementsofallthethreevehicles.Thebitisseparate,ordifferentiatedMahynateaching.The
vinisfullorbed,complete,orperfectMahyna.TheThngGioheldthedoctrineoftheVoid,buthadnotarrivedatthedoctrineoftheMean.
Thnghnh.Thethoroughfare,orpathwhichleadstonirvna.
Thngha.Perpicacious,orinfluentialteachinguniversalpowersofteaching.
Thnghoc.Thetwoallpervadingdeluderskinandt,seeingandthinkingwrongly,i.e.takingappearanceforreality.
Thnghuyn.Toseethroughthemysteries(ofnature,etc.)
Thngli.Intelligencekeenasablade,abletopenetratetruth.
Thnglc.Thecapacitytoemploysupernaturalpowerswithouthindrance.Buddhas,bodhisattvas,etc.,havethnlcspiritualortranscendentpowerdemons
havenghiplcpoweracquiredthroughtheirkarma.
Thngminhtu.Thesixthng,threeminhandthreetu.
Thngtu.Supernaturalpowersandwisdom,theformerbeingbasedonthelatter.
Thphng.Apacyana(P).Worship,reverence.AlsoKnhl.
Thigian.Kala(S).Time.AlsoThtthi.

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Thilungio.KlacakraTantra(S).Nameofasect.
Thitit.Samaya(S).Time,Season.AlsoGithi.
Th.Tokill,exterminatedifferentvery.
Thdiuthn.Surpassinglywonderfulbody,i.e.Padmottara,the729thBuddhaofthepresentkalpa.
Thc.Particular,veryspecial.
Ththng.Rare,extraordinary,surpassing,astheththnginandtrsurpassingpalaceandlakeofIndra.
Th.Head.
Th.Sdra(S).Thefourthofthefourcastes,peasants.
Thna.Suddhodana(S).XemTnhPhnVng.
Thhithinquckinh.Mahsahasrapramardana(S).Nameofastra.
Thlnggima.Surangama(S).AlsoThlngnghim.
Thlngnghim.Suramgama(S).Heroic,resolutethevirtueorpowerwhichenablesaBuddhatoovercomeeveryobstacle,obtainedintheThlngnghim
nhortammui.
Thlngnghimnh.Suramgamadhynaorsamdhi.
ThlngNghimkinh.Suramgamastra(S).
Thlngnghimtammui.Xemthlngnghimnh.
Thta.Thechiefseat,president,chief.
Th.Updna(S).Tograsp,holdonto,heldby,beattachedto,loveusedasindicatingbothiloveordesireandphinnothevexingpassionsandillusions.Itis
oneofthetwelvenidnasthpnhnhnduynthegraspingatorholdingontoselfexistenceandthings.
Thn.Mudrhasta(S).Mysticpositionsofthehand(tomakeaseal).
Thkhutngng.InYogapractices,itmeanscorrespondanceofhand,mouth,andmind,i.e.manualsigns,esotericwords,andthoughtormentalprojection.
Thkimcngch.Vajrapni(S).Whoholdsthethunderbolt.AlsoCmchykimcng.
Thtrc,Tograsp,holdonto,orbeheldbyanythingoridea.
Thtng.Thestateofholdingtotheillusionsoflifeasrealities,
Thtngsm.ToholdrepentancebeforetheminduntilthesignofBuddha'spresenceannihilatesthesin.
Thun.Theskandhaswhichgiverisetograspingordesire,whichinturnproducestheskandhas.
Th(Th).Vedan(S).Toreceive,be,bear.Perception,knowledgeobtainedbythesenses,feeling,sensation.
Thbo.Receivetheretribution,thereward.
Thc.Toreceivetheentireprecepts.
Thdng.Receivedforuse.
Thdng.TherealmofSambhogakay.
Thdngthn.TheSambhogakya,i.e.thefunctioninggloriousbody,tthdngforaBuddha'sownuse,orblissthathdngforthespiritualbenefitofothers.
Thgi.Therecipient(e.g.oftherules).Theillusoryviewthattheegowillreceiverewardorpunishmentinafuturelife.
Thgii.Toreceiveoracceptthecommandments,orrules.
Thhng.Sambhoga(S).Enjoyment.

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Thk.ToreceivefromaBuddhapredestination(tobecomeaBuddha)theprophecyofabodhisattva'sfutureBuddhahood.Alsothquyt,thbit.
Thnghip.Dutiesofthereceiveroftherulesalsotoreceivetheresultsorkarmaofone'sdeeds.
Thquyt.Buddha'sprediction.Alsothk.
Thtr.Toreceiveandretain,orholdonto,orkeep(theBuddha'steaching).
Thtu.Toreceive,oradd,ayeartohismonasticage,ontheconclusionofthesummer'sretreat.
Th,Tng,Hnh,Thc.Thefourimmaterialskandhas:vedanfeeling,samjnideation,samskrareaction,vijnnaconsciousness.
Thun.Vedan(S).Sensation,oneofthefiveskandhas.
Th.Vrksa(S).Atreetostand,erect,establish.
Th.Tejas(S).Fire.
Thvng.Kingofthetrees,theBodhitree.
Thunnh.Snya(S).Emptiness.Alsokhng.
Thunnha.Snyat(S).StateofEmptiness,stateofbeingdevoid.Khng.
Thun.Onecoloured,unadulterated,pure,sincere.
Thun.Cunda(S).WhoisbelievedtohavesuppliedSkyamuniwithhislastmeal.
Thunkhit.Parisuddhi(S).Purity.Alsotrongsch.
Thunnht.Pure,unmixed,solely,simply,entirely.
Thun.Accordwith,comply,yield,obey,agreeable.
Thunhphnkt.Thefivetiesinthelowerrealm,whichholdtheindividualintherealmsofdesire,i.e.desire,resentment,egoism,falsetenetsanddoubt.
Thunha.Toaccordwithone'slessonstofollowthecustomstodie.
Thunlu.Goingwiththestream,i.e.oftransmigration,customs,etc.
Thunnhn.Thethirdofthefivebodhisattvastagesofendurance,i.e.fromthefourthtosixthstage.
Thunphn.Tofollowoutone'sdutiestoaccordwithone'scallingtocarryoutthelineofbodhisattvaprogressaccordingtoplan.
Thunth.Toaccordwiththeworld,itswayandcustomstodie.
Thunth.Accordingtoorderorrank,oneafteranother,thenextlifeinParadisetofollowimmediatelyafterthiswithoutinterveningstages.
Thunthngphnkt.Thefivetiesinthehigherrealmwhichholdtheindividualintherealmsofformandformless:desireforform,desireforformlessness,
restlessness,prideandignorance.
Thuts.Magician,prestidigitator.
Thuc.Bhaisajya(S).Medecine,medicament,remedy.Alsodc.
Thy.Jala(S).Waterliquid.
Thyba.Wavesofwaterthewaveandthewateraretwoyetoneanillustrationoftheidentityofdifferences.
Thyi.Apodhtu(S).Waterelement,oneofthefourelementsti.
Thynh.Thewaterdhyna,inwhichonebecomesidentifiedwithwater,forduringtheperiodoftranceonemaybecomewater.
Thylun.Thethirdofthefour"wheels"onwhichtheearthrestsspace,wind(orair),waterandmetal.
Thyluntammui.Thesamdhioftheabovewaterwheel,oneofthengluntammuiwaterisfertilizingandsoft,inlikemannertheeffectofthissamdhiis
thefertilizingofgoodroots,andthesofteningorreductionofambitionandpride.

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Thylctrai.Thefestivalofwaterandland,attributedtoVoftheLngdynastyconsequentonadreamitbeganwithplacingfoodinthewaterforwater
sprites,andonlandforghosts.
Thymt,Bo,Dim.Spume,bubblesandflame,e.g.thatallisunrealandtransient.
Thynguyt.Udakacandra(S).Themoonreflectedinthewater,i.e.allisillusoryandunreal.
Thynh.Waterandmilkanillustrationoftheinterminglingofthingsbuttheiressentialseparatenessisrecognizedinthattherjahamsa(akindofgoose)issaid
tobeabletodrinkupthemilkleavingbehindthewater.
Thyqun.Xemthynh.Alsothytng,thytngqun.
ThyQunm.Qunmgazingatthemooninthewater.
Thytai.Thecalamityofwater,orfloodoneofthethreefinalworldcatastrophesoffire,windandwater,tamtai.
Thytng.Waterburial,castingacorpseintothewater,oneofthefourformsofburiala,thy,ha,iutng.
Thythin.Varuna(S).Theheavens,orthesky,wherearecloudsanddragons.
ThythinPht.The743rdBuddhaofthepresentuniverse.
Thythngbo.Abubbleonthewater,emblemofallthingsbeingtransient.
Thytnh.Cleansedbywaterediblesrecoveredfromflowingwaterare"clean"foodtoamonk.
Thytrungnguyt.Jalacandra(S).Themoon'sreflexiononthewater.
Thytrn.Anatomofdustwanderingfreelyinwateroneofthesmallestofthings.
Thy.Beginning,first,initial,thereupon.
Thychung.Beginningandend
Thygic.Initialknowledge.XemBngic.
Thymin.Stynamiddha(S).Slothtorpor
Thuyn.Boat,junk,ship,vessel.Buddha'sTeaching.
Thuyns.Shipmaster,skipper.Buddha.
Thuyt.Tospeak,say,talk,discourse,expoundspeech,etc.
Thuytchuynb.Samkrntivdin(S).Nameofasect.
Thuytb.XemKinhlngb.
Thuytgib.Prajnptivdinah(S).AbranchofMhsanghikh,whichtooktheviewofphenomenalityandreality.
Thuytging.Desan(S).Topreach.
Thuytgii.Thebimonthlyreadingoftheprohibitionsfortheorderandofmutualconfession.
Thuytkinh.Toexpoundthestra.
Thuytmc.Speechandsilence.
Thuytnhnb.Hetuvdinah(S).IdemSarvstivdh.
Thuytnhtthithub.Sarvstivdh(S).Therealisticschool.
Thuytphp.Dharmadesan(S).Totellorexpoundthelaw,ordoctrinetopreach.AlsoGingo,Phpth.
Thuytslun.Kathvatthu(P).Bookofcontroversies.
Thuytth.Totellandindicate.

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ThuytTh.Asvajit(S).OneofthefivefirstdisciplesoftheBuddha.AlsoMThng,MS.
Thuytthng.Toexpoundthoroughly,penetrativeexposition.
Thuytti.Toconfesssinorwrongdoing.
Thuytxutthb.Lokottaravdinah(S).AbranchoftheMhsanghikh,whichheldtheviewthatallintheworldismerelyphenomenalandthatrealityexists
outsideit.AlsoXutthb,Lcuabthib.
Th.Vihrapla(S).Keeperofthepagoda.AlsoBla.XemDuyna.
Tha(thng).Yana(S).Avehicle,wain,anymeansofconveyanceatermappliedtoBuddhismascarryingmentosalvation.
Thc.Vijnna(S).Consciousnessmindperception.
Thco.Theillusionofperception,ormind.
Thcn.Ahra(S).Food,nutriment.
Thcbin.Mentalchanges,i.e.alltransformationsorphenomenalchanges,aremental,atermofthePhptngschool.
Thccn.Ajnendriya(S).Facultyofknowledge.
Thcch.Thelordoftheintellect,themind,thelayavijnnaasdiscriminator.
Thcgii.Vijnnadhtu(S).Theelementsofconsciousness,therealmofmind,thesphereofmind,mindasadistinctrealm.
Thchi.Theoceanofmind,i.e.thebhtatathatasthestoreofallmind.
Thclng.Thewavesornodesofparticularizeddiscernment,producedonthebhtatathatconsideredastheseaofmind.
Thctm.Thepercaptionmind.
Thctcmnhthng.Pvanivsnusmrtijnna(S).Knowledgeofallformsofpreviousexistenceofoneselfandothers.
Thcthc.Spiritualfood,mentalfood,bywhicharekeptalivethedevasoftheformlessrealmsandthedwellersinthehells.
Thcun.Vijnnaskandha(S).Oneofthefiveaggregatesorattributes.
Thcvbinx.Vijnnancyatana(S).SphereoftheboundlessofConsciousness.Thcvbinxnh,thedhynacorrespondingtoit.Thcvbinxgii
thot,thevimoksa,orliberationfromittoahigherstage.
Thcxthin.Theheavenof(limitles)knowledge,thesecondofthecaturrpyabrahmaloka,orfourformlessheavens.
Thcxoamana.Siksamnana(S).Noviceobserverofsixprecepts.
Thc.XemTht.
Thc.Ahra(S).Food,toeat,feed.
Thcthcatisinh.Upadhi(S).Substratumofrebirth,ofbeing.
Thctnh.Tathat(S).Suchness,therealtruthofthings.AlsoNhnh.
Thccara.Unfalteringwillsteadinessunswervinginone'sintentionstrongdeterminationfixedpurpose.
ThngNaHaTu.AryaSanavasa(S).The3rdIndianPatriarch.
Thngytlach.Sankarasvmin(S).Name.
Thng.Nitya,sasvata(S).Prolonged,constant,always,unceasing,permanent,perpetual,ever,eternalnormal,regular,ordinary.
Thngbalamt.Thefirstofthefourpramits,eternity.
ThngbtkhinhBtt.Sadparibhta(S).Amonkwhoneverslightedothers,butassuredallofBuddhahood,aformerincarnationofSkyamuni.
Thngbttngh.Nityamacintyam(S).Eternallyunthinkable.

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Thnghnh.Constantlydoing,orpractisingordinaryprocedure.
Thnghng.Aksaya(S).Constantly,eternalnondecaying.Alsotrngtn,vnhcu.
Thngkin.Theviewthat(personality)ispermanent.
Thnglc.Everlastingjoy.
Thng,Lc,Ng,Tnh.Thefourpramitsofknowledge:eternity,bliss,personality,purity,thefourtranscendentalrealitiesinnirvna.
Thngmt.Everdrowningintheseaofmortality.
Thngnghip.Acinnakamma(P).Habitualkarma.
Thngnim.Alwaysrememberingalwaysrepeating.
Thngquang.TheunceasingradianceoftheBuddha'sbody,representedasahalo.
Thngtch.Eternal,peace,nirvna.
Thngtchquang.Therealm(ofspirit)whereallareinperpetualpeaceandgloryThinThai'sfourthBuddhaksetra
ThngTinhtinBtt.EternalvigourBodhisattva.
Thngtr.Knowledgenotconditionedbyphenomena,abstract.
Thngtr.Permanent,alwaysabiding,eternal.
Thngtrnhttng.Theeternalunityorrealitybehindallthings.
Thngtrtambo.EternallydwellingTripleGems.
Thng.Uttar(S).Above,upper,superioronformer.Toascend,offertoasuperior.
Thngbi.Superior,orhighestclass.
Thngbiqun.ThefourteenthofthesixteencontemplationsoftheAmitbhaschool.
Thngcn.Amanofsuperiorcharacterorcapacity,e.g.withsuperiororgansofsight,hearing,etc.
Thngcubnlai.SimilartothefirsthalfofThngcuB,hhachngsinh.Abovetoseekbodhi,belowtosaveall.BnlaimeanstheoriginalorBuddha
nature.
Thngchuyn.Theupwardturn:(1)progressupward,especiallyintransmifration(2)increaseinenlightenmentforself,whilehchuynisforothers.
Thngcng.ToofferupanofferingtoBuddha,ortoancestors.
Thngng.Togointothehalltoexpoundthedoctrinetogotoatempleforthepurposeofworshiporbearingpresentstothemonkstogototherefectoryfor
meals.
ThngHnhBtt.VidistacritraBodhisattvawhosuddenlyroseoutoftheearthasBuddhawasconcludingoneofhisLotussermons.
Thnglu.Urdhvasrotas(S).Theflowupwards,ortogoupwardsagainstthestreamoftransmigrationtoparinirvna.
Thngnhn.Amanofsuperiorwisdom,virtueandconduct,atermappliedtomonksduringthengdynasty.
Thngphm.Superiororder,gradeorclass.Thngphmlini.ThehigheststagesinthePureLand.
Thngphmthngsinh,trungsinh,hsinh.ThethreehighestoftheninestagesofbirthinthePureLand.
Thngphinno.Theseverefundamentaltrialsarisingoutofthetengreatdelusionsalsothetrialsordistressesofpresentdelusions.
Thngphng,thngth.Anabbot.Thngphngoriginallymeantamountainmonastery.
Thngs.Thesuperiordisciple,whobecomesperfectin(spiritually)profitinghimselfandothers.Thetrungsprofitsselfbutnotothersthehsneither.
Thngta.SthaviraorMahsthavira(S).Oldman,orelderheadmonk,presidentorabbotthefirstBuddhistfathersatittleofMahksyapaalsoamonkof

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twentytofortynineyearsstanding,astrungtaarefromtentonineteen,andhtaunderten.
Thngtab.Sthavirh(S)>Theshoolofthepresidingelder,orelders.
Thngth.President,orpresidingelders.
Thngtha.Mahyna(S).Alsothngthut,itha.
Thngthamttng.TheMahynaesotericschool,especiallyChnngntngShingon.
Thngthadugi.Mahynayoga(S).
Thngthathin.MahynaZenschool,whichconsidersthatitaloneattainsthehighestrealizationofMahynatruth.
Thngtrunghphp.Thethreedharmas,systemsorvehicles,btt,duyngic,andthanhvn,bodhisattva,pratyekabuddha,srvaka.
Thngy.Amonk'souterrobe.
T,t.Contiguoussurroundedhemmedinliberaltoaidmanifest.
Tbhala.Ekavyavahrika(S).Buddhistsect.AlsoNhtthuytb,Chpnhtngngnb.
Tbsalun.Vibhsasstra(S).AphilosophicaltreatisebyKtyyaputra.
Tbthi.(Pht).Vipasyin(S).ThefirstofthesevenBuddhasofantiquity.
Tbxna.Vipasyan(S),Vipassana(P).Discernment,insight,correctperceptionorview.Alsoqun,minhstthin.
Tbttr,thoilui.
Tdali.Vesali(S).ActualBasarth.AlsoTxli,Qungnghimthnh.
Tha.Videha(S).ContinentattheeastofMtMeru.Alsongthngthnchu,ngichu.
Tgilana,Thk.Vykarana(S).Prediction,formalprophecy.
Thala.Vihra(S).Monastery.Alsotnhx.
Tkhu(kheo).Bhiksu(S).Monk,religiousmendiant.Alsokhts,sng.
Tkhuni.Bhiksuni(S).Nun.Alsosb.
Tlamphong.Vairambha(S).Thegreatwindwhichfinallyscatterstheuniversethecircleofwindunderthecircleofwateronwhichtheworldrests.Alsotlam
b,bophong.
Tlnggi.XemLnggi.
Tlda.Virya(S).Virility,strength,energy.
Tldabalamt.ViryaPramit(S).Zeal,pureprogress,thefourthofthetenpramits.
Tlida.Virya(S).Tinhtn,cnhnh.
Tlidabalamt.XemTinhtnbalamt.
TlginaPht.MahvairocanaBuddha(S).GreatSunBuddha.AlsoiNhtNhLai.
TlxnaPht.VairocanaBuddha(S).SunBuddha.inhtNhlai.
Tluli.Virdhaka(S).(1)SouthernGodProtector.AlsoTngtrngthinvng.(2)CrystalKing,orcsinhvng(3)bornking,akingofKosala(sonof
Prasenajit,Batnc),destroyerofKapilavastu.
Tmala.Vimla(S).AgreatdiscipleoftheBuddha.
Tmalact.Vimlakrti(S).AgreatBuddhist.AlsoDuyMact,TnhDanh.
Tmatckinh.Vekkhasanastra(S)

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Tnida.Vinaya(S)Monasticdiscipline.Alsolut,tni(cudch).
Tnidatng.VinayaPitaka(S).BasketofDiscipline.AlsoLuttng.
Tni.Vinaya(S).Moraltrainingthedisciplinaryrulespreceptsandcommands.
Tnialuchi.Vintaruchi(S).NameofaPatriarch.
Tnu(Thin).Vishnou(S)
Tphtlc(Kinh).Vaipulya(S).Large,spacious,phngqung.Thetermisappliedtostrasofanexpandednature,especiallyexpansionofthedoctrinein
HnaynatheAgmas,inMahynathestrasofHoaNghimandPhpHoatype.
Tphla.Vipula(S).AmountainnearKusgrapurainMagadha.
TsabPht.XemTxph.
Tsamtala.Visvmitra(S).TheteacheroftheprinceSiddhartha.
TsamnThinvng.Vaisravana(S).OneofthefourMahrajs,guardianofthenorth,kingoftheYaksas.HasthetittleaVn,PhVnuniversalormuch
hearingorlearning.
Tx.Vesa(S).Entrance,home,house,adornment,prostitutebutitisprobablyVaisya,thethirdcastoffarmersandtraders.AlsoPhx.
Txkhmu.Viskh(S).AwealthymatronwhowithherhusbandgaveavihratoSakyamuni,wifeofAnthapindika.AlsoLcmu.
Txli.Vaisali(S).AnancientkingdomandcityotheLicchavis,wherethesecondsynodwasheld,nearBasarth.
TxphPht.Visvabh(S).ThesecondBuddhaofthe31stkalpa.Thelast(1,000th)Buddhaoftheprecedingkalpa,thethirdofSaptaBuddhaThtPht.
T.Ghrna(S).Nose,theorganofsmell.
Tcchthins.Dhynamasterwithnose(andotherorgans)shutofffromsensation,i.e.astupidmystic.
Tcn.Theorganofsmell.
Tnhp.Organandsenseofsmell.
Tthc.Thesensationorperceptionofsmell.
Ttc.Thebreathofthenostrilsalsotheperceptionofsmell.
Tch.Pewter,tintobestow.
Tchlan.Ceylon,SriLanka.
Tchtrng.Khakkara(S).Amonk'sstaffpartlyofmetal,especiallywithmetalringsforshakingtomakeannouncementofone'spresence,andalsousedfordemon
expulsionetc.
Tchtnghip.Katattkamma(P).Storeupkarma.
Tch.Traces,footstepsexternalevidencesorindications.
Tchha(Tchmn).Teachingorlessonsderivedfromexternalevents,i.e.oftheBuddha'slifeandwork,showninthefirstfourteensectionsoftheLotusstrathe
secondfourteensectionsofthatworkarecalledbnha(bnmn)hisdirectteaching.
Tchmnthpdiu.Thetenmarvellousexternalindications.
Tch.Prasamaviviktasnti(S).Still,silent,quiet,solitary,calm,tranquil,nirvna.
Tchchiu.Nirvnailluminationultimaterealityshiningforth.
Tchchng.TheNirvnaclass.
Tchdit.Nirvna(S).Cessationoftheprocessofbecoming.EternalPeace.Calmnessandextinction.

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Tchditchn.ThetruthaboutNirvna.
Tchditchiphp.Viviktadharmamatibuddhi(S).Alsotchdittu,tchtnhphp.
Tchditnhn.Nirvnapatience(suppressionofallpassion).
Tchdittng.Nirvnaconsideredindependentlyofthephenomenal.
Tchditvnh.Nirvnaasabsolutewithoutdisunityorphenomena.
Tchnh.Tranquilconcentrationcontemplationinwhichdisturbingillusionisliminated.
Tchmnhtr.Buddhaknowoledgeofthetransmigratoryformsofallbeings.
Tchngn.Theshoreofpeace,nirvna.
Tchnghipst.Thelionofnirvna,Skyamuni.
Tchnhn.Calmnessandendurance,quietpatience.
Tchnhin.Incalmness,quietude,silenceundisturbed.
Tchnhingii.TheHnaynanirvnarealmorborder.
Tchnim.Calmthoughtstocalmthemindcontemplation.
Tchquang.CalmandilluminatingasareTruthandKnowledgethehiddentruthilluminating.
Tchquang.Theland(ofBuddha)whereiscalmillumination.
Tchtnh(anlc).Snti(S).Calmandquiettranquility,calmness.
Tchtnhmn.Nirvna,ortheabsolutenhtthitchphp,asthedoorofreleasefromtroubleandsuffering.
Tchtnhhnh.Hnaynadisciplinetoensurenirvna.
Tchtnh,(cqunh).Vivikta(S).Secluded,solitary.
Tim.Gradual,bydegrees,toflowlittlebylittle.
Timgio.ThegradualmethodofteachingbybeginningwiththeHnaynaandproceedingtotheMahynaincontrastwithngio.
Timth.Stepbystep,bydegrees,gradually.
Tin.Rsi(S).Animmortalanascetic,amanofthehillsahermittheBuddha.TheLngNghimKinhgivestenkindsofimmortals:walkersontheearth,ahnh
tinfliersphihnhtinwanderersatwillduhnhtinintospacekhnghnhtinintothedevaheavensthinhnhtintransformingthemselvesinanyformtuyt
hnhtinetc..Aclassificationoffiveisdevageniithintinspiritgeniithntinhumangeniinhntinearthorcaverngeniiatinandghostgeniiqutin.
Tincnh.Fairylandelysium.
Tindu.Tovisitthefairylandtodepartthislife.
Tinnhnlcvin.Rsipatana(S)Isipatana(P).DeerPark.AlsoThinnhnvin,Chthinax.
Tin,tn.Advance,progress,enter.
Tinb.Progress,improvement
Tinc.Toreachtheage(20)andadvancetofullordination.
Tinha.Toevolve,develop.
Tinhanhnguynlun.Samkhya(S).Nameofanonbuddhistsect.AlsoSlun.
Tintu.Advanceinthecultivation.
Tin.Prva(S).Before,former,previousinfront.

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Tincn.Earlierroot,earliercausecausegeneratedfromanearlierlife.
Tinduyn.Earlierconditions.Predestinedaffinitypredestinedunion.
Tinnh.Preordained,predetermined,predestined.
Tinng.Thefronthall,oritsfrontpart.
Tinhuton.Discontinuousfunction,thoughseeminglycontinuous,e.g.a"Catherinewheel",ortorchwhirledaround.
Tinkhin.Pastsins.
Tinkip.Prvakalpa(S).Formerexistencepreviouslife.
Tinnghip.Earlier,formerkarma.
Tinnhn.Predecessor,antecessor.
Tinoan.Acalamitywhichistheeffectofamisdeedperpatratedduringananteriorlifemalediction,curse.AlsoTinoannghipchng.
Tinsinh.Xemtinth.
Tins.Pvayoga(S).Formerconnections.
Tinthn.Thepreviousbody,orincarnation.
Tinth.Formerlife,orlives.
Tintrn.Previousimpureconditions(influencingthesucceedingstageorstages.
Tintrit.Theancientsages.
Tip.Toreceive,takejoinongraft.
Tipdn.Toreceiveandlead,towelcome.
Tipni.Tojointoabuttoresume,takeupagain.
Tiptctcl.Toembracethe(Buddha's)feetinreverenceorpleading,ortoextendthearmsinthatposture.
Tip.Thesuccessofanarmy,victoryquick,swift,prompt,active.
Tipknh.Compendiousway,shortcut.
Titch.Tocontrol,torestrain,tomoderate,totemper(desires,passions)
Titdc.Torestrainone'sdesirestorestrictprocreationcontinence,chastity.
Tithnh.Chastity.
Tiu.Melt,disperse,expend,digest,disposeof.
Tiucc.Negative,passive,pessimistic.
Tiudao.Toroamaboutleisurely.
Tiutai.Todisperse,dissipate,orputanendtocalamity.Togetridofmisfortune.
Tiutr.Toabolish,suppress,eradicate.
Tiutrng.Todecayandgrowwaxingandwaning.
Tiu.Small,littlemean,pettyinferior.
Tiubn.Smallvolume.ThinThaitermforthe(tiu)AdikinhthelargestrabeingtheVlngthkinh.
TiuB.Upacru(S).Nameofacakravartirja.Alsobagil.
Tiubkinh.Khuddakanikya(P).

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Tiucn.HavingamindfitonlyforHnaynadoctrine.
Tiudkinh.CullaMlinkyaputtasutta(P)
TiuHin.Bhadrika(S).OneofthefivefirstdiscipleoftheBuddha.AlsoBt.
Tiukip.Antarkalpa(S).Intermediatekalpa.
Tiuphp.ThelawsormethodsofHnayna.
Tiuphm.Summarizedversion.
Tiuphmbtnhkinh.Astashasrikprajnpramitstra(S).Kumrajiva'sabbreviatedversion,in10quyn,oftheMahprjnpramitstra.
Tiuphmkinh.XemTiudkinh.
Tiuphinnoaphp.Upaklesabhmikh(S).Thetenlesserevilsorillusions,ortemptations,oneofthefivegroupsofmentalconditionsoftheseventyfive
Hnaynaelements.Theyaretheminormoraldefectsarisingfromvminhunenlightenmenti.e.phnangerhnhatephhiddensinnovexationttenvysan
stinginescungdeceitximadulationhiillwillkiuprideTius.Ajuniormonkoflessthantenyearsfullordination,alsoacourtesytittleforadiscipleanda
selfdepreciatorytittleofanymonk.
Tiuthnh.Hnaynasaint,orarhat.Theinferiorsaint,orbodhisattva,ascomparedwiththeBuddha.
Tiutho.Smallerherbs,thosewhokeepthefivepreceptsanddothetengooddeeds,therebyattainingtorebirthasmenordevas.
Tiuthinthgii.Asmallchiliocosm,consistingofathousandworlds,eachwithitsMtSumeru,continents,seasandringofironmountainetc...
Tiuth.Smalltrees,bodhisattvasinthelowerstages.
Tiutha(Thng).Hnayna(S).Thesmall,lesservehicle.
Tiuthagii.ThepreceptsoftheHnaynaalsorecognizedbytheMahyna:thefive,eight,andtenprecepts,the250forthemonks,andthe348forthenuns.
Tiuthakinh.TheHnaynastras,thefoursectionsoftheAgamas.
Tiuthalun.TheHnaynasstrasorAbhidharma.ThephilosophicalcanonoftheHnayna,nowsupposedtoconsistofsomethirtysevenworks,theearliestof
whichissaidtobetheGunanirdesasstraPhnbitcngclunbeforeAD220.
Tiuthatamn.ThethreecharacteristicmarksofallHnaynastras:theimpermanenceofphenomenachhnhvthngtheunrealityoftheegochphpv
ngandnirvnaNitbntchtnh.
Tiuthatmn.ThinThai'sdivisionofHnaynaintofourschoolsordoctrines:(1)humnofreality,theexistenceofallphenomena,thedoctrineofbeing
(2)khngmnofunreality,ornonexistence(3)dichudickhngmnofboth,orrelativityofexistenceandnonexistence(4)phihuphikhngofneither,or
transcendingexistenceandnonexistence.
Tiuthc.Thesmallmeal,breakfast,alsocalledimtm.
Tiutng.ThesectsofHnayna.
Tn.Sraddh(S).Faithtobelieve,belief.Devotion.
Tncn.Sraddhendriya(S).Faith,oneofthefiverootsororgansproducingasoundmorallife.
Tnchu.Thepearloffaith.
Tniu.Drsti(S),Ditthi(P).Dogma.
Tn.Believer,follower,disciple,adept.
Tnc.Themeritofthebelievingheartthevirtueoffaith.
Tngii.Abhimukti(S).Faithandinterpretation,i.e.tobelieveandunderstandorexplainthedoctrine.

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Tn,Gii,Hnh,Chng.Faith,interpretation,performanceandevidenceorrealizationofthefruitofBuddha'sdoctrine.
Tngii.Faithandmorals,i.e.themorallaw,orcommandmentstoputfaithincommandments.
Tnhi.Theoceanoffaiththetruevirtueofthebelievingheartisvastandboundlessastheocean.
Tnhnh.Believingactionfaithandpractice.
Tnhnho.Practicebasedonfaith.
Tn,Hnh,Nguyn.Faith,Practice,Vows.
Tnhu.Xemtntu.
Tnhng.TobelieveinandentrustoneselftotheTriratnaTamBo.
Tnlc.Tobelieveandrejoiceinthedharmathejoyofbelieving.
Tnlc.Sraddhbala(S).Thepowerorforceoffaith.
Tnnam.Upsaka(P).Amaledevotee.Layadher
Tnn.Upsik(P).Afemaledevotee,whoremainsathome.Layfollower.
Tnnguyn.Faithandvows.
Tnngng.Tobelieveinandlookupto.Belief,faith,creed.
Tnnhn.Faithpatience,faithendurance.
Tnphc.Tobelieveinandsubmitoneselfto.Totrusttoacceptinfaith
Tntng.Thetreasuryoffaith.
Tntm.Abelievingmind,whichreceiveswithoutdoubting.Faith.
Tnth.Almsgivingbecauseoffaiththegiftsofthefaithful.
Tnth.Faith,regardedasahandgraspingtheprecioustruthofBuddha.
Tnth.Thereceptivityandobedienceoffaithtobelieveandreceive(thedoctrine).
Tnthphnghnh.Infaithreceiveandobey,asentencefoundattheendofstras.
Tnthun.Tobelieveandobey.
Tntu.Faithandwisdom.
Tinh.Cleanedrice,freedfromthehusk,pureessential,essence,germinatingprinciple,spiritfine,best,finest.
Tinhchn.Puretruth,apprehensionofultimatereality.
Tinhtin.Vrya(S).OneofthesevenBodhyangavigour,valour,fortitude.Pure,orunadulteratedprogress.Zeal,zealous,courageouslyprogressinginthegoodand
eliminatingtheevil.
Tinhtinbalamt.Vryapramit(S).Perfectionofenergy.
Tinhtincungtrtutin.Zealasthebow,wisdomthearrow.
Tinhtinlc.Vryabala(S).Thepowerofunfailingprogress.
Tinhthn.Vitalityalsothepureandspiritual,thesubtleorrecondite.
Tinhtht.Aplaceforpure,orspiritualcultivation,apureabode,theabodeofthecelibate,amonasteryornunnery.AlsoTinhx.
Tinhx.Xemtinhtht.
Tnh,ttnh.Svabhva,prakrti,pradhna(S).Thenature,intp.asembodied,causative,unchangingalsoasindependentorselfdependentfundamentalnature

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behindthemanifestationorexpression.AlsotheBuddhanatureimmanentinallbeings,theBuddhaheartormind.
Tnhchngtnh.Natureseednature,i.e.originalorprimarynature,incontrastwithtpchngtnhactiveorfunctioningnatureitisalsothebodhisattvathp
hnhstage.
Tnhdc.Desiresthathavebecomesecondnaturedesiresofthenature,
Tnha.Spiritualnature,thesecondofthetenstagesasdefinedbytheThnggioIntermediateSchool.
Tnh.Thesphereofthedharmanature,i.e.thebhtatathat.
Tnhc.Naturalcapacityforgood(orevil),incontrastwithtucpowers(ofgoodness)obtainedbypractice.
Tnhgic.Inherentintelligence,orknowledge,i.e.thatofthebhtatathat.
Tnhgii.Thenaturalmorallaw,e.g.nottokill,steal,etc...notrequiringthelawofBuddha.
Tnhhi.TheoceanoftheBhtatathat,theallcontaining,immaterialnatureoftheDharma.
Tnhkhng.Thenaturevoid,i.e.theimmaterialityofthenatureofallthings.
Tnhkhnggio.OneofthetheeNamSnsectswhichregardedthenatureofthingsasunrealorimmaterial,butheldthatthethingsweretemporallyentities.Tnh
khngqun.Themeditationofthissectontheunreality,orimmateriality,ofthenatureofthings.
Tnhkhi.Arisingfromtheprimalnature,orbhtatathat,contrastwithduynkhiarisingfromsecondarycauses.
Tnhmnh.Thelifeofconsciousbeingsnatureandlife.
Tnhng.TheBuddhanatureego,whichisapperceivedwhentheillusoryegoisbanished.
Tnhnimx.Cittasmrtyupasthna(S).Oneofthefourobjectsofthought,i.e.thattheoriginalnatureisthesameastheBuddhanature.Xemtnimx.
Tnhsc.TranscendentrpaorformwithinoroftheTathgatagarba.Alsochnsc.Goodbynature(ratherthabyeffort)naturallygoodincontrastwithtnhcevil
bynature.
Tnhthc.Naturalpowersofperception,ortheknowledgeacquiredthroughthesenseorgansmentalknowledge.
Tnhtng.XemPhptnhtn.
Tnhti.Sinsthataresuchaccordingtonaturallaw,apartfromBuddha'steachinge.g.murderetc.
Tnhtng.Thenature(ofanything)anditsphenomenalexpression.
Tnh.Thefeelings,passions,desires,affections,sensationssentientaffinitiesaffairsfacts.Particularaffections,duties,oraffairs.
Tnhi.Loveaffection.
Tnhdc.Thepassions,desires.
Tnhhu.Therealmoffeeling,i.e.anyworldofsentienceorfeeling,especiallythisworldasempiricallycosideredhutnhistohaveconsciousness,theconscious
orsentient.Tnhhulv,empiricallyorsentientlyexisting,inessenceorrealitynonexistent.
Tnhkin.Thepervertedviewsproducedbypassionoraffection.
Tnhly.Lovemisfortune.
Tnhtrn.Thesixgunasorobjectsofsensationofthesixorgansofsensesensationanditsdatasensationdatapassiondefilement.
Tnhvin.Thepassionslikeanape,neverstill.
Tnhvng.Netofpassion.
Tnh.Toawake,towakeup.
Tnhmng.Tolooseone'sillusionaboutsth.

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Tnh.Ekgra(S).Cessationofstrife,peace,calm,quietness,stillness.
Tnhl.Dhyna(S).Meditation.AlsoThin,thinna.
Tnhlc.Thepowerofabstractmeditation.
Tnhmc.Tokeepsilenttoholdone'speace.
Tnhtm.Ekgrat(S).Tranquilityofmindserenity.
Tnhtht.Abodeofpeace,thequietheart.
Tnhta.Tositincontemplation.
Tnhtu.Calmwisdom,insightintothevoid,orimmaterial,removedfromthetransient.
Tnht.Calmthoughtmeditation,ameditator,i.e.amonk.
Tnhtr.Calmwisdom,thewisdomderivedfromquietness,ormystictrance..
Tnh.Vimala(S).Clean,pure,spotless,unstainedtocleanse,purrifychastity.AlsoVcu.
Tnhbalamt.ThefourthpramitoftheNirvnastrathng,lc,ng,tnh.
Tnhbang.XemTnh.
Tnhbtngokinh.Smagmasuttanta(P).AlsoXadithnkinh.
Tnhbnh.Kunda(S).Nectarjug.AlsoQunl,thybnh,quntr.
Tnhbtm.Purebodhimind,ormindofpureenlightenment,thefirststageofthepractitionerintheesotericsect.
Tnhcthin.Thefiveheavensofpurity,inthefourthdhynaheaven,wherethesaintsdwellwhowillnotreturntoanotherrebirth.
Tnhchiuminh.(Tammui)
Tnhch.Thedonorofchastity,i.e.ofanabodeformonksornuns.
Tnhchng.Pureassembly,thecompanyofthechaste,thebodyofmonks.
Tnhchcn.Undefiledsensesi.e.undefiledeye,ear,mouth,nose,body.
Tnhdanh.Vimalakrti(S).Nameofperson.AlsoDuymact,Tmalact.
Tnhdanhkinh.Vimalakrtinirdesastra(S)
Tnho.ThepureenlightenmentofBuddha.
Tnhu.Themonkwhocontrolsthelatrines.
Tnha.Purelocality,i.e.whereachastemonkdwells.
Tnh.Sukhvati(S).ThePureLand,orParadiseoftheWest,presidedoverbyAmitbha.OtherBuddhashavetheirPureLandsseventeenotherkindsofpure
landarealsodescribed,allofthemofmoralorspiritualconditionsofdevelopment,e.g.thepurelandofpatience,zeal,wisdom,etc.
Tnhtng.PureLandsect,whosechieftenetissalvationbyfaithinAmitbha.
Tnhgic.Pureenlightenment.
Tnhgii.Thepurecommandments(precepts),ortokeeptheminpurity.
Tnhhnh.Pureconduct.
Tnhhnhgi.OnewhoobservesasceticpracticesoneofpureorcelibateconductaBrahman.
Tnhhoachng.Thepureflowermultitude,i.e.thosewhoarebornintothePureLandbymeansofalotusflower.
Tnhkhitngdc.Thefivepuredesires,orsenses,i.e.ofthehigherworldsincontrastwiththecoarsesensesofthelowerworlds.

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Tnhlulithgii.Thepurecrystalrealmintheeasternregion,theparadiseofPhtDcSitistheBhaisajyaguruvaidryaprabhsa.
Tnhl.Thecompanyofpureones,i.e.monksornuns.
Tnhmnh.Purelivelihoodchnhmnh,i.e.thatofthemonk.
Tnhmn.Gateofpuritytonirvnaoneofthelcdiuphpmn.
Tnhnghip.GoodkarmaalsothedeedswhichleadtobirthinthePureLand.
TnhNguyt.Suddhacandra(S).Name.
Tnhng.Purewordswordsthatexpressreality.
Tnhnhn.Theclearorpureeyesthatbehold,withenlightenedvision,thingsnotonlyastheyseembutintheirreality.
Tnhnhc.Pureflesh,thekindwhichmaybeeatenbyamonkwithoutsin,three,five,andnineclassesbeinggiven.
TnhPhmvng.Brhma,asthepuredivineruler.
TnhPhnvng.Suddhodana(S).ThefatheroftheBuddha.
Tnhphpgii.Therealmofpuredharma,theunsulliedrealm.
Tnhpht.Tocleansethehair,i.e.toshavetheheadasdothemonks.
TnhPht.PureBuddha,perfectBuddhahood,ofthedharmakyanature.
Tnhphng.ThePureLandofAmitbha.
Tnhqun.Purecontemplation,suchasthesixteenmentionedintheVlngthkinh.
TnhQuangPht.SuddharasmiprabhaBuddha(S).
Tnhquc.Thepureland,i.e.Buddhaland.
Tnhst.Pureksetra,i.e.Buddhaland.
TnhST.Subhkarasimha(S).AlsoThinVy,VyTamTng.
TnhTng.Vimalagarba(S).EldestsonofSubhavyhaintheLotusstra.
Tnhtm.Thepureheartormind,whichistheoriginalBuddhanatureineveryman.Tnhtmtr,thepureheartstage,thethirdofthesixrestingplacesofa
bodhisattva,inwhichallillusoryviewsareabandoned.
Tnhtn.Purefaith.
Tnhthnh.Puresaints,thesuperiorclassofsaints.
Tnhtht.Houseofchastity,i.e.amonasteryorconvent.
Tnhth.Purecharity,whichdoesnotseekfameorblessinginthisworld.
Tnhthin.Pureheaven,orpuredevassrotapannastopratyekabuddhasaresocalled.Tnhthinnhn,thepuredeveeye,whichcanseeallthingssmalland
great,nearandfar,andtheformsofallbeingsbeforetheirtransmigration.
Tnhthy.Purewater.
Tnhtrai.Strictabstinence.
Tnhtr.Apurerest,orabodeofpurity,atermforaBuddhistmonastery.
Tnhvingictm.Pureandperfectenlightenedmind:thecompleteenlightenmentoftheBuddha.
Tnhvc.ThePureLandsofallBuddhas.
Ta.Nisad,nisanna(S).Sit,rest,situated.

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Tac.Nisdana(S).Anarticleforsittingon,saidtobeaclothormat.AlsoNisn.
Tachng.Dhynacontemplation.
Tacuthnhlao.Toaccomplishone'slabourbyprolongedsitting,asdidBodhidharma.
Tang.Asittingroom,theassemblyroomofthemonks.
Tah,talp.Vars(S).Theretreatorrestduringthesummerrains.
Tatham.Theeveningmeditationatamonastery(precedinginstructionbytheabbot).
Tathin.Zazen(J).Tositindhyna,i.e.abstractmeditation.
Ta(ta).Asana(S).Aseatthroneclassifierofbuidingetc.
Tach.Achairman,presidenttheheadofthemonksanabbot.AlsoTathng,tath,tanguyn.
Talp.Theendofthesummerretreatthemonasticendoftheyear.
Taquang.Thehalobehindthethroneofanimageahalothrone.
Tongic.Tathgata(S).OnewhohasfoundtheTruth,Buddha.
Tnglm.Monastery.
T.Refreshingthymerevive,cheer.Translitsu,so,sa,s.MostfrequentlyittranslittheSanskritsu,whichmeansgod,well,excellent,very.
Tbaha.Svh(S).Hail!Amysticwordindicatingcompletion,goodluck,nirvna,mayevildisappearandgoodbeincreased.AlsoTabha,tha,ttbha.
Tbtla.Subhadra(S).ThelastdiscipleofBuddha.AlsoTubtla,ThinHin.
Tdu.Ghrta,ghee(S).Clarifiedbutterscentedoilextractedfromthesumanplant.
Tta.Sudatta(S).NameofAntpindaka.AlsoThinTh.
Ttn.Sudna(S).AformernameoftheBuddha.AlsoThinNha.
Tng.Alampusingbutterandfragrantoil.
Tn.Suvinda(S).Oneofthe16arhats.
Tml.Sumeru(S).SumeruMount.AlsoNiTuDi,TuDiSn.
Ttta.Susiddhi(S).AmysticwordoftheTantraSchool,meaning"mayitbeexcellentlyaccomplished".AlsoDiuthnhtu.
T.Grandfather,ancestorpatriarchfounder.
Tsng.ChinesePatriarch.(1)Btma.Bodhidharma(S).(2)HuKh.HoeiKeu(C).(3)TngXn.SengTsan(C).(4)oTn.TaoSinn(C).(5)Hong
Nhn.HoungJenn(C).(6)HuNng.HoeiNeng(C).
TsTyThin.IndianPatriarch.ThetwentyeightBuddhistPatriarchsasstatedbytheMahynists.TheThinThaischoolreckonstwentythree,ortwentyfour
butThinTngreckonstwentyeight:(1)iCadip.MahKasyapa(S).(2)Anan.Ananda.(3)Thngnahatu.Snakavsa.(4)ubacca.Upagupta.(5)
caa.Dhrtaka.(6)Dgica.Mikkaka,orMicchaka.(7)Btumt.Vasumitra.(8)Phtnan.Buddhanandi(9)Phtmta.Buddhamitra.(10)Hiptngi.
Prsva,orPrsvika.(11)Phnadxa.Punyayasas.(12)MMinh.Asvaghosa.(13)Catmala.Kapimala.(14)LongTh.Ngrjuna.(15)Canab.Knadeva.
(16)Lahulaa.Rahlata.(17)Tngginan.Samghanandi.(18)Tnggidax.Samghayasas.(19)Cumalaa.Kumrata.(20)Xda.Jayata.(21)B
tubnu.Vasubhandu.(22)Manla.Manorhita.(23)Hclcna.Haklena.(24)Sttkheo.Aryasimha.(25)Bxta.Basiasita.(26)Btnhmta.
Punyamitra.(27)Btnhala.Prajntra.(28)Btma.Bodhidharma.
Tsthin.Patriarch'sMeditation.
Ti.Most,very,superlative.

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Tichnhgic.SupremeperfectenlightenmenBuddhahood.
Tihu.Thelastofall,ultimatefinal,finally,atdeath.
Tihunim.XemTihutm.
Tihutm.Thefinalmind,orultimatethought,onenteringfinalNirvna.
Tihuthn.Thefinalbody,orrebirth,thatofanarhat,orabodhisattvainthelaststage.
Tihuthpnim.TocallonAmitbhatentimeswhendying.
Tithng.Jina,vjaya(S).Conquering,allconquering,preeminent,peerless,supreme.
TithngmPht.DundubhisvaranirghosaBuddha.
Tithngtn.Themosthonouredone,Buddha.
Tithngtha.Thesupremevehicle,Mahyna.
Tithng.Supreme,superlative.
Tithngitta.Thestageofsupremesiddhiorwisdom,Buddhahood.
Tithngtha.Thesupremevehicle,teaching.
Ti.Thatwhichisblameworthyandbringsaboutbadkarmaentangledinthenetofwrongdoingsin,crimemisdemeanour,offence.Ctivicham,tofailin
one'sdutytoone'sparents.Ctivitri,tosinagainstheaven.Lmthincphc,lmcphiti,gooddeedsarerewardedandevildeedspunished.
Tic.Sinandevil.
Tibo.Theretributionofsin,itspunishmentinsuffering.
Ticn.Therootosin,i.e.unenlightenmentorignorance.
Ticu.Thefilthofsin,moraldefilement.
Tichng.Theveil,orbarrierofsin,whichhinderstheobtainingofgoodkarma,andtheobedienthearingofthetruth.
Tihnh.Sinfulacts,orconduct.
Tinghip.Thatwhichsindoes,itskarma,producingsubsequentsuffering.
Tinhn.Causeofsin.Criminal,culprit,offender.
Tiphc.Sinfulnessandblessedness.
Tiphcvch.Sinfulnessandblessednesshavenolord,orgoverner,i.e.weinducethemourselves.
Titnh.Asinfulnaturethenatureofsin.
Tn.Arya(S).Tohonour,honoured,honourable.
Tnchng.Venerablewitness.
Tngi.Arya(S).Honourableone,asage,asaint,anarhat.
Tnkinh.Thehonourablescripture,Buddhiststra.
Tnk.ThepredictionofBuddhahoodtohisdisciplesbytheHonouredOnethehonourableprediction.
Tnnhan.Honourableface.
Tnsc.Thehonourablecommands,Buddha'steaching.
Tnsng.Toidolize,worships.o.,sth.
Tns.HonourableTeacher.

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Tnthng.Honouredandvictorious.Tnthnggi,thehonouredvictoriousone,oneofthefivePhtnhalsoknownasTrchngPhtnh,oneofthedivinities
oftheYogaSchool.
Tnthngphp.Thehonouredandvictoriousdharma.
Tntc.Amonkhonouredandadvancedinyears.
Tnlanan.Upananda,adiscipleoftheBuddha.
Tng.(Tn)Ancestors,ancestralclan,category,kindschool,sectsiddhnta:summary,maindoctrine,syllogism,prposition,conclusion,realization.Connhtng
chngginglngcnggingcnh,what'sbredinthebonecomesoutintheflesh.Likefatherlikeson.
TngCpBa.Sumatikirti(S).TsongKhaPa(Tib).ThereformeroftheTibetanchurch,founderoftheYellowHatSect.
Tngcc.Ultimateorfundamentalprinciples.
Tngch.hemainthesis,orideas,e.g.ofatext.
Tngdng.Principlesandtheirpractice,orapplication.
Tng.Disciplesofasect.
Tnggio.Theteachingofthesect.
Tnghc.Thestudyorteachingofasect.
TngMt.TsungMi(C).OneofthefivepatriarchsoftheHoaNghimsect.
Tngmn.Originally,thegeneralnameforsects.LaterappropriatedtoitselfbytheThintng,whichreferstotheotherschoolasGiomn,teachingsects,i.e.
thosewhorelyonthewrittenwordratherthanonthe"innerlight".
Tngnghi.Therulesorritualsofasect.
Tngngha.Thetenetsofasect.
Tngnguyn.Thebasicprincipleofasectitsoriginorcauseofexistence.
Tngnhnd.Proposition,reason,example,thethreepartsofasyllogism.
Tngphi.Sects(ofBuddhism).
Tngphp.Thethesisofasyllogismconsistingoftwoterms,eachofwhichhasfivedifferentnames:ttnhsubjectsaibititsdifferentiationhuphpthatwhich
actsphptheactionsbitthatwhichisdifferentiatednngbitthatwhichdifferentiatestintrnfirststatementhutrnfollowingstatementtngythaton
whichthesyllogismdepends,bothforsubjectandpredicate.AlsoTngth.
Tngphong.Thecustomsortraditionsofasect.IntheThintngitmeanstheregulationsofthefounder.
Tngs.Teacherofthesect.
Tngthngthuytthng.Indoctrineandexpression,boththorough,atermappliedtoagreatteacher.
Tngtha.Thevehicleofasect,i.e.itsessentialtenets.
Tngt.Thefounderofasectorschool.TngGiaanameforThinoShanTao,awriterofcommentariesonthestrasofthePureLandsect,andoneofits
principalliterarymen.
Tngtng.Themasterworkmanofasectwhofoundeditsdoctrine.
Tngy.Thatonwhichasectdepends.
Tngyu.Thefundamentaltenetsofasecttheimportantelements,ormainprinciple.
TngVn.Songyun(C).

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Tng.Sdhrana(S).Altogether,all,whole,generalcertainly.
Tngbo.Generalretribution.
Tngbonghip.Generalkarmadeterminingthespecies,race,anddountryintowhichoneisborn.Bitnghipistheparticularkarmarelatingtoone'sconditionin
thatspecies,e.g.rich,poor,well,ill,etc.
Tngminhlun.AnamefortheAbhidharmakosa.
Tngnguyn.UniversalvowscommontoallBuddhas,incontrastwithBitnguynspecificvows,e.g.thefortyeightofAmitbha.
Tngtng.Universalcharacteristicsofallphenomena,incontrastwithBittngspecificcharacteristics.
Tngtnggii.ThegeneralpreceptsforalldisciplesincontrastwiththeBittnggii,e.g.the250monasticrules.
Tngtr.Dhrani(S)Entirecontrolabsolutecontrolovergoodandevilpassionsandinfluences.
Tngtrmn.TheesotericorTantricsectsandmethods.
Trt.Cremation.Tocremate.AlsoThiu.Lthiu:crematorium.
Trai.Virati(S).Abstinence.Trngtrai,longabstinence,longfast.nchay,vegetarianism.
Train.Altarforexpiatoryoratonementceremony.
Traio.Tofastandpray.
Traigii.Abstinence,fasttofast,toobserveafast.
Traik.Fastingperiod.
Trainht.Upavasatha(S).Fastingday.
Traiphng.Fastingroom.AlsoTraix.
Traitng.Toofferpresentstothemonksandnunsontheoccaionofafastingceremony.
Trang.Sedate,serious,proper,stern.
Trangnghim.Alamkraka(S).Adorn,adornment,glory,honour,ornament,ornatee.g.theadornmentsofmorality,meditation,wisdom,andthecontrolofgoodand
evilforces.InAmitbha'sparadisetwentynineformsofadornmentsaredescribed.
Trangnghimkip.ThegloriouskalpatowhichthethousandBuddhas,onesucceedinganother,bringtheircontributionofadornment.
Trangnghimkinh.Vyharjastra(S).AnexpositionoftheprincipaldoctrinesoftheTantraschool.
Trangnghimlun.Mahynastralankarasatra(S).AsastrawrittenbyAsanga.
Trangnghimmn.Thegateorschooloftheadornmentofthespirit,incontrastwithexternalpractices,ceremonies,asceticism,etc.
TrangnghimvngBtt.Vyharja(S).ABodhisattvaintheretenueofSkyamuni.
Trng.Dhvaja,ketu(S).Apennant,streammer,flag,sign.
Trngphan.Aflag,banner.AlsoCphn.
Trngphan,boci.Banner,jewelledcanopy.
Troc.Anuddhatyakukrtya(S).Restlessness,Turmoil.AlsoXaong,chaong.
Trm.Toimmerse,sinkheavy.
Trmhng.Tgara(S)Fragantshrub.Aguru(S),thesandalincense.Eaglewood,aloeswood.
Trmkhng.Tosinkintoemptiness,oruselessness.
Trmlun.Tosinktobeengulfed,togodowntoimmerseoneselfintobelostin.Trmluntrongbkh,toimmerseoneselfintheseaofpainsandsorrows.

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Trmminh.Sunkinthegloomofreincarnationandignorance.
Trmmt.Tosinktobeimmersed,lost,inwater.
Trmnch.Tobeinfatuatedwith,tohaveaninfatuationfortobeaddictedto.Trmnchtusc,tobeaddictedtodrinkandwomentoindulgeindissipation.
Trmthy.Aguru(S).Xemtrmhng.
Trn.Dust,smallparticlesmolecules,atoms,exhalation.Atom,matter.
Trncnh.Theenvironmentofthesixgunasorqualitiesofsight,sound,smell,taste,touchandthought.
Trncu.Material,orphenomenaldefilementthedefilementofthepassions.
Trndc.Thedesiresconnectedtothesixgunas.
Trnduyn.Thecircumstancesorconditionenvironingthemindcreatedbythesixgunas.
Trnhng.Thenativeplaceorhomeofthesixgunas,i.e.thatoftransmigration.
Trnlao.Thetroubleoftheworld,thepassions.
Trnly.Thepassionkarma,whichentanglesthemind.
Trnsa.Dustandsand,i.e.numberless.
Trnsahoc.Theillusion,numberlessasdustandsandthetrialoftheBodhisattvainfacingthevastamountofdetailinknowledgeandoperationrequiredforhis
taskofsavingtheworld.
Trnst.Gunaksetra(S)."Fieldofqualities",certainsins.
Trntrnst.Numberlesslandsalsoineverygrain,oratom,thereisawholerealm.
Trnvng.Impureandfalse,asarealltemporalthings.
Tri.Toknow.SanskritrootVid,henceVidyknowledgethevedasetc.Trivijntoknow,Trisvijnna,wisdomarisingfromperceptionorknowing.
Tricn.Theorgansoperception,Toknowtheroots,orcapacities(ofallbeings,asdoesaBodhisattvahencehehasnofears).Tricnvsy.
Triogi.Theonewhoknowsthepathtosalvation,anepithetoftheBuddha.
Trikin.Toknow,toknowbyseeing,becomingaware,intellectionthefunctionofknowingviewsdoctrines.
Trikhch.Thedirectorofguests,i.e.thehost.
Trikh.Thebursar(ofamonastery)
Trikhontp.Toknow(thetruthof)sufferingandbeabletocutoffitsaccumulation.
Tril.Knowingtherightmodesofrespect,orceremonialcourteous,reverentialChihli,nameofthefamoustenthcenturymonkoftheTngdynasty,TMinhso
calledafterthenameofhismonastery,afolloweroftheThinThaischool,soughtoutbyaJapanesedeputationin1017.
Trinhtthitchngsinhtr.TheBuddhawisdomwhichknows(thekarmaof)allbeings.
Trinhtthitphptr.TheBuddhawisdomofknowingeverythingormethod(ofsalvation).
Triphp.ToknowtheBuddhalaw,ortherulestoknowthingsintheexotericsects,toknowthedeepmeaningofthestrasintheesotericsects,toknowthe
mysteries.
Tris.Toknowaffairs.Thekarmadnadirectorofaffairsinamonastery,nextbelowtheabbot.
Tritc.Completeknowledgesatisfaction.
Tritcthin.Tusita,thefourthdevaloka,Maitreya'sheavenoffullknowledge,whereallBodhisattvasarerebornbeforerebirthasBuddhas.
Trithgian.Lokavid(S).Hewhoknowstheworld,oneofthetencharacteristicsofanBuddha.AlsoThgiangii.

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Trithc.(1)Toknowandperceive,perception,knowledge.(2)Afriend,anintimate.(3)Thefalseideasproducedinthemindbycommon,orunenlightenedknowledge
oneoftheNgthcintheKhitnlun.
TrivbinchPhttr.TohavetheinfiniteBuddhawisdom(ofknowingalltheBuddhaworldsandhowtosavethebeingsinthem).
Tri.Blackgarmentsatonetimeblackwasusedformonasticrobes.
Tribch.Monkandlayperson.
Triin.Monk'srobe.
Triy.Blackrobes,monks.
Trilm.Amonastery.
Trilu.Monks.
Trimn.Theblackrobeorder,monks
Tr.Jnna(S)Knowledge,wisdom.
Trn.ThesealoftheknowledgethemeditationofDiumBttGadgadasvara.
Trbi.AllknowingandallpityingthesetwowithnhcontemplativemakeuptheTamcthreevirtuesorqualitiesofaBuddha.
Trbin.Wisdomanddialecticpowerwisediscriminationargumentfromknowledge.
Trcnh.Theobjectsofwisdom,oritsstate,conditions.
Trchng.Wisdomassurance,thewitnessofknowledge,thewisdomwhichrealizesnirvna.
Trc.Thetorchofknowledge.
Trdiu.Mysticknowledge(whichrevealsspiritualrealities).
Tron.Mysticwisdomwhichattainsabsolutetruth,andcutsoffmisery.
Tr.Prajnpramit(S).Thesixthothesixpramits,wisdomwhichbringsmentonirvna.
Trlun.Thesstra,orcommentaryonthePrajnpramitstra.ItisafamousphilosophicalMahynawork.
Trgi.Theknower,orwiseman.
Trgii.TherealmofknowledgeincontrastwithLgiithatoffundamentalprinciplesoflaw.
Trha.Thefireofknowledge.
Trhoc.Wisdomanddelusion.
Trknh.Themirrorofwisdom.
TrKhi.FounderoftheThinThaischool.AlsoTrgiis.
Trlc.Knowledgeandsupernaturalpowerpowerofknowledgetheefficientuseofmysticknowledge.
Trmn.WisdomgateBuddhawisdomandBuddhacompassionarethetwogatesorwaysthroughwhichBuddhismexpressesitselfthewayofenlightenment
directedtotheself,andthewayofcompassiondirectedtoothers.
TrNghim.FourthpatriarchofHoaNghimschool,alsocalledVnHoa,A.D.600668.
Trnguyt.Jnnacandra(S).KnowledgebrightasthemoonnameofaprinceofKarashahrwhobecameamonkA.D.625
Trnhn.Theeyeofwisdomwisdomasaneye.
Trnhn.Theswordofknowledgeknowledgelikeasword.(Nhnlmigm)
Trqu.Thefruitofknowledge,enlightenment.

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Trquang.Jnnaprabha(S).HavingthelightofknowledgenameofadiscipleofSilabhadra.
Trsn.Themountainofknowledgeknowledgeexaltedasamountain.
Trtng.ThetreasuryofBuddhawisdomposthumoustitleofAmogha.
Trtm.Themindofknowledgeawisemind.
Trthnh.Thecityofmysticwisdom,Buddhahood.
Trth.Theknowinghand,therighthand.
Trtch.Jnnkara(S).Accumulationofknowledge.EldestsonofMahbhijnaalsosaidtobeAksobhya.Prajnkuta.ABodhisattvaintheretenueofPrabhtratna,v.
Lotusstra.
Trtnhtng.Purewisdomaspectpurewisdomwisdomandpurity.
Trtu.JnnaasTrknowledgeandPrajnasTudiscernment,i.e.knowledgeofthingsandrealizationoftruthingeneralknowledgeandwisdom.
Trtubinti.Wisdomandeloquentpower.
Trtuhi.Buddhawisdomdeepandwideastheocean.
Trtukim.Theswordofwisdomwhichcutsawaypassionsandseversthelinkoftransmigration.
Trtulc.Wisdom,insight.
Trtumn.ThegateofBuddhawisdomwhichleadsintoalltruths.
Trtuqun.OneofthemeditationsofQunthm,insightintoreality.
TrtuquangPht.WisdomlightBuddha,Amitbha.
Trtuthy.Thewaterofwisdomwhichwashesawaythefilthofpassion.
Trtng.Wisemienorapparence,thewisdomlightshiningfromtheBuddha'sfacealsohumanintelligence.
Tr.Dhr,dhara(S).Layholdof,grasp,hold,maintain,keepcontrol.
Trbn.Holdingtotheroot,orfundamentalruleroftheearth,whichistherootandsourceofallthings.
Trc.Onewhoholdstoorretainsthewords(ofthedharani).
Trdanh.Toholdto,i.e.relyonthename(oAmitbha).
Tra.Dharanimdhara(S).Holderorruleroftheearth,orlandnameofaBodhisattva,whopredictedthefutureofAvalokitesvara.
Trgii,phgii.Tokeepthepreceptsorrulestooffensethelaw.
Trkimcng.Vajradara,Vajrapni(S).ABohisattvawhoholdsthevajraorthunderbolt,ofthesethereareseveralanameforIndra.AlsoChpkimcng.
Trlut.Akeeperorobserverofthediscipline.
Trminh.Thedhraniilluminant,i.e.theeffective"trueword"ormagicalterm.
Trnim.Toholdinmemory.
Tr,phm.Maintainingandtransgressing,i.e.keepingthepreceptsbyChtrceasingtodowrongandTctrdoinghatisright,e.g.worship,themonasticlife,etc.
transgressionisalsooftwokinds,i.e.TcphmpositiveindoingevilandChphmnegativeinnotdoinggood.
Trphpgi.AkeeperorprotectoroftheBuddhalaw.
TrQucThinVng.Dhrtarstra,oneofthefourdevaguardiansormahrjas,controllingtheeast,ofwhitecolour.
Trtrai.Tokeepthevegetariandietvegetarian.Tokeepthefast,i.e.noteatafternoon.
Trtcnim.Thecontemplationinwhichthebreathing

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Trin.Revolve,turnaround,whirl.
Trinlani.Aspellwhichendowswithextensivepowersofevolutiobalsovariedinvolutionsofmagicalterms.
Trinhalun.Awhirlingwheeloffire,acircleyetnotacircle,asimileoftheseemingbutunreal,i.e.theunrealityofphenoma.
Trinphong.Awhirlwind,cyclone.AlsoContrt,gixoy,gilc.
Trin.Xemnhtxin..
Trc.Turbid,muddy,impure,oppositofThanh
Trccth.Aworldofimpurityordegeneration,i.e.ottheNgtrcandThpc.
Trccx.Thepresentcontaminatedevilworld.
Trckip.Animpurekalpa,thekalpaofimpurity,degenerate,corruptanageofdisease,famineandwar.
Trcnghip.Contaminatedkarma,thatproducedbyDcdesire.
Trng.Heavy,weighty,grave,serioustolaystressupon,regardrespectfully.
Trngcm.Strictlyforbidden.
Trngchng.Serioushindrances(toenlightenment).
Trngton.Chzan(J).AlearnedJapanesemonkinthe10thcentury.
Tr.Help,aid,assistauxiliary.
Trduyn.Auxiliarycondition.
Tro.Auxiliarymeans,e.g.ofmeditationauxiliarydisciplineanyaidtofaithandvirtue.
Trnghip.Auxiliarykarma,i.e.deedsorworks,e.g.recitingthestrasaboutthePureLand,worship,praise,andoffering,asadditionaltodirectkarmaChnh
nghip,i.e.faithinAmitbha,expressedbyconstantthoughtofhimandcallingonhisname.
Tr.Sthiti(S).Toabide,dwell,stay,stop,settle.Sinhtrdit,birth,existence,death.
Tra.DwellingplaceabidingplaceintheTruth,i.e.theacquirementbyfaithofaselfbelievinginthedharmaandproducingitsfruit.
Trnh.Fixed,certain,firmly,settled.
TrnhBtt.ABodhisattvafirmlyfixed,orabidingincertainty.AfteraBodhisattvahascompletedthreegreatasamkhyeyakalpashehasstillonehundredgreat
kalpastocomplete.Thisperiodiscalledabidinginfixityorfirmnessdividedintosixkinds:certaintyofbeingborninagoodgati,inanoblefamily,withagoodbody,a
man,knowingtheabidingcharacterofhisgoodworks.
Trkip.Vivartasiddhakalpa(S).Theabidingorexistingkalpathekalpaofhumanexistence.
Trqu.Abidinginthefruite.g.srvakasandpratyekabuddhaswhorestsatisfiedintheirattainmentsanddonotstriveforBuddhahoodtheyareknownasTrqu
DuyngicorTrquLahn.
Trtr.Todwellandcontroltheabbotofamonasteryresidentsuperintendenttomaintain,orfirmlyholdto(faithintheBuddhaetc.)
Trtng.Sthiti(S).Abiding,being,thestateofexistence,oneofthefourcharacteristicsofallbeingsandthings,i.e.sinhbirth,trexistence,dchange(ordecay),
ditdeath(orcessation).
Trv.Abidingplace,oneofthetenstages,restinganddevelopingplacesorabodesoftheBodhisattva,whichisenteredafterthestageofBeliefTnhasbeen
passed.
Trclm.Venuvana(S).Bamboogrove.
Trcvin.ThemonasteryintheBmboogrovenearRajagrihainMagadha,

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Trung.Madhya(S).Middle,central,medium,themean,within.
Trungm.Bardo(Tib).Intermediatestate.Xemtrunghu.
Trungcn.Mediumcapacity,neitherclevernordull,ofeachofthesixorgans.LccntherearethreepowersofeachorganThng,TrungandH.
Trunghu.OneoftheThu,i.e.theantarbhavaorintermediatestatebetweendeathandreincarnation.AlsoTrungm.
Trungkip.Middlingkalpa,aperiodof336,000,000years.
Trungnguyn.ThefifteenthoftheseventhmoontheThngandHarethefifteenthofthefirstandtenthmoonsrespectively.
Trungqunlun.Madhyamakasstra.
Trungquc.Madhyadesa(S).Themiddlekingdom,i.e.CentralNorthIndia.
Trungthinthgii.Amiddlingchiliocosm.XemTamthinithinthgii
Trungtha(thng).Themiddlevehicletonirvna,includesallintermediateormedialsystemsbetweenHnaynaandMahyna.
Trungtn.ThecentralhonouredoneinanygroupofBuddhas,e.g.BtngTnamongthefiveMinhVng.
Trngccgingng.ThedoublestoreyedhallatVaisaliwheretheBuddhastayed.
Trngquan.Thegravebarriers(tomeditationandenlightenment).
Trngkhng.Thedoublespace,i.e.thespacebeyondspace,thevoidbeyondthevoid.
Trngtrng.Repeated,againandagain,manifoldetc.
Trngtrngvng.ThemultimeshednetofIndra.
Trngtng.Geya(S).Repetitioninverseofaprosesection.
Truyn.Totransmit,passon,handdown,promulgate,propagatetraditionsummon.
Truynb.Topropagatetospreadabroad,todiffuse,toradiate.
Truyno.Tospreadadoctrinetopreachareligion.
Truynng.Totransmitthelight,passonthelampoftruth.
Truynnglc.RecordsofthosewhohavepassedonthelampofBuddhisttruth.
Truyngio.Tospreadtheteaching,ordoctrinetotransmitandinstruct.
Truyngiois.DengyDaishi(J).ThefounderoftheThinThaischoolinJapan.
Truyngii.Totransmittheprecepts,tograntthemasatordination.
Truynkinh.Tohanddownthetradition,themeaningofastra.
Truynphp.Totransmit,orspreadabroadtheBuddhatruth.
Truyntm.Topassfrommindtomind,topassbynarrationortraditiontotransmitthemindofBuddhaasintheThintng,Intuitionalschool,mentaltransmission.
Truyntr.Tomaintainwhathasbeentransmitted,totransmitandmaintain.
Truyny.Tohanddownthemantle,orgarments.
Tr.Getridof.
Trcichng.Todisposeofhindrances.
Trcn.He(orshe)whoputsawaywant(byreceicingalms),anint.ofbhiksucnsnam,tkhuandbhisunicnsn,tkhuni.
Tron.Togetridofcompletely,tocutoff.
Trgicchi.Togetridofmentaleffortandproducementalandphysiacalbuoyancy.

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Trnghi.Eliminatedoubt.
Trnhtthitc.Togetridofallevil.
Trtai.Getridofcalamity.
Trc.Straight,upright,directtoarrange.
Trco.Thedirectway(toNirvnaorBuddhaland).
Trcgic.Intuition,immediateperception.Trcgicchngha.Intuitionism.
Trctm.Straightforward,sincere,blunt.
Trctruyn.Directinformation,ortransmission(bywordofmouth).
Trc,tr.Tobeattachedtotoadheretotobebound.
Trccnh.Tobeattachedtotheoutsideobjects.
Trcng.Tobeattachedtotheself.
Trcy.Todonclothes
Trc,trc.Turbid,impure.
Trng.Long,always.
Trngcu.Durable,lastinglonglived.
Trngd.Thewholenight,thelongnightofmortalityortransmigration.
Trnghng.Stra(S).Scripture,stra.
Trngkhtthc.Alwaystoaskfoodasalms,oneofthetwelvedutiesofamonk.
Trngk.Long,protractedlongtermlongrange.Trngkchinu,protractedstruggle.Trngkgiankh,toendurenoendotribulations.
Trngsinh.Longoreternallife(inParadise).Trngsinhbtt,longlifewithoutdeath.
Trngth.Longlife.
Trngththin.Devasoflonglife,inthefourthdhynaheaven.
Trngphu.Husband.Hero.Manospirit.Hnhngcaktrngphu,manlyaction.
Trnggi.Elder,senior.
Trnglo.Senioroldfolk,theaged,oldman.
Trngt.Eldestchild.
Tu.Toenterintoreligion,totakethevows,toentertheorder,tobeamonk.itu,toenterthepriesthood.Tuthnhchnhqu,toattainBuddhahood.Toputinorder,
mend,cultivate,observe.
TuBtthnh.TocultivatetheBodhisattva'svirtues.
Tuchng.TocultivatetheWayandattaintheRealization.
Tudng.Tocultivate,improve(one'smind,etc.).Tudngtinhthn,tofortifyoneselfspirituallytocultivatesereneness.
Tuala.Stra(S).StrasoraddressesattributedtotheBuddha,usuallyintroducedbyNhthngvnThusIhaveheard.
Tuo.Tocultivatethewayofreligionbereligiousthewayofselfcultivation.
Tuc.Tocultivatevirtuetoimproveoneselfmorally.
Tuhnh.Cary(S).Conducttoobserveanddotomendone'swaytocultivateoneselfinrightpracticebereligious,orpious.Tuhnhkhhnh,topractice

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ascetism.Npsngtuhnh,religiouslife.
Tuhnhtr.Abodhisattva'sstageofconduct,thethirdofhistenstages.
Tuhoc.Illusion,suchasdesire,hate,etc.,inpracticeorperformance,i.e.intheprocessofattainingenlightenment.
Tuhc.Tobendone'smindtostudytostudyandpractice
Tukin.Firmnessinobserving,ormaintainingestablishedconviction,e.g.ofthebitgiobodhisattvathatallphenomenainessenceareidentical.
Tula.Asura(S).DemonswhowarswithIndraatulaisalsoSura,whichmeansagod,ordeityatulaqunthearmyofasura,fightingonthetulatrngasura
battlefieldagainstIndra.
Tumlsn.Sumeru,Meru(S).
Tunhntchc.Todogoodandcultivatevirtue.
Tusm.Toundergothedisciplineofpenitence.
Tus.Religious,monk,priest.Giitus,thepriesthood,themonkdom.
Tutm.Tocultivatethehearttoselfimprovemorally.Tutmdngtnh,tocultivateone'sheartandimproveone'scharacter.
Tutplc.Thepoweracquiredbythepracticeofall(good)conductthepowerofhabit.
Tuthn.Toselfimprove.
Tuthn,gii,tm,tu.Tocultivatetheselfimprovement,themoraldiscipline,themindandtheperfectwisdom.
Tuthpthin.Tocultivatethetengooddeeds.
Tuthin.Tocultivategoodnessthegoodnessthatiscultivated,incontrastwithnaturalgoodness.
Tuthin.TopracticeZen,meditation.
TuthinLcdiumn.Thesixmysteriousgatesorwayofpractisingmeditation,consistingmostlyofbreathingexercises.
Tutnh.Tocultivatethenature,thenaturalproclivities.
Tutnhbtnhmn.Theidentityofcultivationandthecultivated.
Tu.Toexpect,waitfor,waitonnecessary,mustmoment,small,translitforsu.
Tub.Subhti(S).OneofthetengreatdiscoplesoftheBuddha,saidtohavebeenthebestexponentofSnya,ortheVoidGiikhngnht.heistheprincipal
interlocuterinthePrajnpramitstra.
Tudma.Suyma(S).TheruleroftheYamaheaven
Tudisn.Sumeru(S).Thecentralmountainofeveryworld.AlsoTudilusn,
Tumlsn,Diucaosn,Diuquangsn.
Tuding.SumerulampBuddha.
TudiquangPht.MeruprabhsaBuddha(S).SumerulightBuddha.
TudisnPht.SumerukalpaBuddha(S).
Tudita.AkindofthroneforaBuddha.AlsoTudii.
TuditngPht.MerudvajaBuddha(S).SumeruappearanceBuddha.
Tudimmathin.Yama(S).ThethirdofthesixheavensintheKarmaloka.
Tudu.Instant.
Tu.Sdra(S).Thefourthcaste.

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Tuhon.Srotapanna(S).Onewhohasenteredthestreamofholyliving.AlsoNhplu.Dlu.
Tut,Tuta.Sudatta(S).AlsoThinTi.
TutaAnabnn.SudattaAnathapindika(S).
Tulda.Srya(S).Thesun.
Tuma.Sukhavati(S).TheWesternParadiseofAmitbha.
Tumannahoa.
Tunitmt.Nirmnarati(S)AlsoHalcthin.
Tuxa.Sujta(S).AlsoThinSinh.
Tun.Wanderabout,patrol,inspect.
Tunliu.Toinspectallthebuildingsofamonastery.
Tuntch.Towalkaboutwithametalstick,i.e.toteach.
Tc.Ahaltingplacetopassthenight,sojourn,stayearly,formerleftover.
Tcbo.Theconsequenceofdeedsdoneinformerexistence.
Tccn.Therootofone'spresentlotplantedinpreviousexistence.
Tcchp.Thecharacteracquiredinapreviousexistenceandmaintained.
Tcduyn.Causationorinheritancefrompreviousexistence.
Tcmnh.Previouslife,orlives.
Tcmnhlc.Buddhapowertoknowallprevioustransmigrations.
Tcmnhminh.Theknowledgeofthearhatofhisownandotherprevioustransmigrations.
Tcmnhthng.Prvanivsnusmrti(S).Buddhaknowledgeofallformsofpreviousexistenceofselfandothers
Tcnghip.Formerkarma,thekarmaofpreviousexistence.
Tcnguyn.Thevowmadeinaformerexistence.
Tcnguynlc.Thepowerofanancientvow.
Tcnhn.Goodorevilcauseinpreviousexistence.
Tcphc.Happykarmafrompreviousexistence.
Tctc.Thedeedsofaformerlife.
Tctp.Thepractices,habitsordeedsoforinheritedfromformerexistence.
Tcth.Aformerexistence.
Tcthin.Gooddeedsdoneinpreviousexistence.
Tcthc.Havespreadgoodseedsinformerlives.
Tctri.Theunrepaiddebtsfrom,orsinsof,formerincarnations.
TVngPht.NatchatrarjaBuddha(S).KingofstarsBuddha.
TVngHoaBtt.Naksatrarjasankusumitbhijn(S).Kingofthestarflowers,abodhisattvaintheLotusstra.
Tc.Common,ordinary,usual,vulgar.
Tc.Commonprinciples,oraxiomsnormalunenlightenedidea,incontrastwithreality.

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Tcgii.Thecommonpreceptsforthelaity.
Tcly.Wordlybondage.
Tclu.Thecommonrunorflow.
Tcng.Thepopularideaoftheegoorsoul,i.e.theempiricalorfalseegogingcomposedoffiveskandhas,thisistobedistinguishedfromthetrueegochn
ngorthtng,themetaphysicalsubstratumfromwhichallempiricalelementshavebeeneliminated.
Tcnhn.Unenlightenedeyesordinaryeyes.
Tcnhn.Grhastha(S).Anordinaryhouseholderanordinarymanthelaity.
Tctnh.Wordlylove,vulgarlove.
Tct.Vulgar,ordinarypeopleuninitiatedperson.
Tctrn.Commondust,earthlypollution.
Tctr.Commonorworldlywisdom.
Tu(Hu).Prajn,jnna(S).Wisdom,insight,discernment,understandingthepowertodiscernthing,andtheirunderlyingprinciplesandtodecidethedoubtful.
Tuo.Wisdomillusion,wisdomconjuringthekaleidoscopeofwisdom.
Tun.Wisdomsign,orseal.
Tubalamt.Prajnpramit(S).Perfectionofwisdom.
Tucn.Theroot,i.e.theorgan,ofwisdom.
Tuc.Djnolka(S).Thetorchofwisdom.
Tuchiu.Thelightofwisdom.
Tung.Thelampofwisdom.
Tu.Prajnpramit(S),Thesupremewisdom,thewisdomleadingtotheshoreofenlightenment.
Tugic.Amoha(S).Wisdom.
Tugii.Thefunctionofwisdomtoexplainallthings.
Tugiithot.Pannavimutti(P).Deliverancethroughthewisdom.
Tuhi.Wisdomocean.
Tuhc.Adhiprajnsiksa(S).Formationofthewisdom.
TuKh.Huik'o(C).ThesuccessorofBodhidharma.
Tukim.Theswordofwisdomwhichcutsawayillusion.
Tukin.Wiseviews,orinsightintowisdom,theviewsofwisdom.
Tuknh.Themirrorofwisdom.
Tulc.Prajnbala(S).Forceofwisdom.
Tulu.Thelivingstreamofwisdomabletocleanseallimpurity.
Tumng,mnh.Wisdomlife,orwisdomaslife,wisdombeingthebasisofspiritualcharacter.
Tumn.Thegateofwisdom.
Tumc.Theeyeofwisdom.
TuNng,HuNng.ThepowerofwisdomnameofthesixthpatriarchofThintngtheIntuitionalorMeditationsect.

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Tungha.Theapprehensionofthemeaningofrealitythroughwisdom.
Tunghip.Undertakinganddoingpracticalgoodnessresultingfromwisdom.
Tunhn.Thewisdomeyethatseesallthingsasunreal.
Tunhn.Wisdompatience,oneofthethpnhn.
Tunht.Wisdomsun,Buddhawisdom
TuQun.Huikuan(C).OneofKumrajiva'schiefassistantintranslation,died424.
Tuquang.Wusdomlight.
Tus.Mentalconditionsincontrasttominditself.
Tutng.Wisdomstore,theAbhidharmapitakawhichembodiesthescienceofascertainingthemeaningofthestras.AlsothewholeoftheTripitaka.
Tuthn.Wisdombody,oneofthefivedivisionsoftheDharmakya,whichistheembodimentinteraliaofinherentwisdom.
Tutr.Pajnti(P).Clearlyknowledge.
Tutrin.Thebondofignoranceandstupiditywhichfetterswisdom.
TuT.ThesecondpatriarchoftheThinThaischool,NamNhciS.
Tuvn.ThecloudsofwisdomwithwhichtheTathgatacoversallbeings.
Tuvlu.Jnnamansravam(S).Wisdomnonoutflowings.,capability,oropportunity.ortyduynchnnhphenomenalrelativityandconsideredasimmutable,
thebtbinchnnhwhichislikenedtothewaterasopposedtothewaves.
Tng.Geyya(S).Tomurmur,recite,intone,memorizebyrepeatinginamurmur.
Tngnim.TochantthestraandrecitetheBuddha'sname.
Tngtr.Tochantandmaintainthestraandthemantra.
Tng.Gtha.
Ty.Follow,complywithsequent,consequent,after,accordingto,as.
Tycu.Accordingtoprayer.Nameofadevawhichwasformerlyawickedmonkwhodiedandwenttohell,butwhendyingrepented,prayedandwasrebornthe
deva.
Tyc.Accordingtocapacity,capability,oropportunity.
Tyduyn.Accordingwith,orresultingfromconditioningcauses,orcircumstances,aswavesresultfromwindalsosequentconditionsalsoaccordingto
circumstances,e.g.tyduynhavt,toconvertortransformpeopleaccordingtotheirconditions,ortocircumstancesingeneral.
Tyduynbtbin.Everchanginginconditionsyetimmutableinessence,i.e.thechnnh,initstwoaspectsoftyduynchnnhphenomenalrelativityand
consideredasimmutable,thebtbinchnnhwhichislikenedtowaterasopposedtothewaves.
Tyh.Torejoiceinthewelfareofothers.Todothatwhichoneenjoys,tofollowone'sinclination.
Tyhnhho.ExcellentineverydetailtheindividualexcellencesofothersunitedintheBuddha.
Tykinhlut.Accordingtothedisciplineasdescribedinthestras,i.e.thevariousregulationsforconductintheStrapitakathephrasetylutkinhmeans
accordingtothewisdomandinsightasdescribedintheVinayapitaka.
Tyloi.Accordingtothecategories.
Tyloisinh.Accordingtolifespecies.
Tymin.Yieldingtosleep,sleepiness,drowsiness,comatose,oneoftheklesaortemptationsalsousedbytheSarvstivdinsasanequivalentforklesa,the

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passionsanddelusions,bytheDuythcschoolastheseedofklesa.
Tynghi.Assuitable,proper,orneeded.
Typhphnh.Thosewhofollowthetruthbyreasonorintellectualability,incontrastwiththenonintellectual,whoputtheirtrustinothers.
Typhn.Accordingtothepartassignedorexpectedaccordingtolotorduty.
Typhngic.Partialenlightenment,thethirdoftgicintheAwakeningofFaithKhitnlun.
Typhinno.Sequentorassociatedklesatrials,orevilsorespeciallythosewhichfollowthesixtymin.Alsocalledtyhoc.
Typhng.Accordingtoplacesuitabletotheplaceinwhateverplacewherever.Typhngtni,vinayaorrules,suitabletolocalconditions,ortoconditions
everywhere.
Tytm.Accordingtomind,orwish.
Tytnhnh.Thereligiouslifewhichisevolvedfromfaithintheteachingofothersitisofthencnunintellectualtype.
Tytng.Thesecondarystates,i.e.ofbirth,stay,change,anddeath,inallphenomena.
Tytnggii.TofollowtheformsanddisciplineoftheBuddha,i.e.becomeamonk.
Tythun.Tofollow,accordwith,obeytobelieveandfollowtheteachingofanother.
Ty.Atwill,followingone's
Tuyt.Snow.
Tuytlnh.Thesnowmountains,theHimlayas.
Tuytsn.XemTuytlnh.
Tuytsnb.Haimavath(S).TheHimlayaschool,oneofthefivedivisionsoftheMahsanghihah.
Tuytsnis.ThegreatmanoftheHimlayas,theBuddhainaformerincarnation.AlsoTuytsnngt,theyouthoftheHimlayas.
T.Cint(S).Think,thoughtturntheattentiontointp.bytmsphpmentalactionorcontents,mentality,intellection.
Tduy.Toconsiderorreflectonanobjectwithdiscriminationthought,reflection.
Thm.Sakrdgmin(S).Onewhohasattainedthe2ndstageoftheNoblePath.
Tgi.Thoughtoritscontentasillusion.
Thoc.Theillusionofthought.
Tlng.Thinkingandmeasuring,orcomparingreasoning.
Tlngthc.Theseventhvijnna,intellection,reasoning.
Tthc.Thoughtfood,mentalfoodtodesirefood.
Ttrchlc.Powerinthoughtandselection(ofcorrectprinciples).
Ttu.Thewisdomattainedbymeditating(ontheprinciplesanddoctinesofBuddhism),
T.Catur(S).Four.
TAhm.ThefourAgamas,ordivisionsoftheHnaynascriptures:TrngAHmdirghgamas,longworks,cosmologicalTrungAHmmadhyamgamas,
metaphysical
TpAHmsamyuktgamas,general,ondhyna,tranceetc.TngNhtAHmekottarikgamas,numericallyarrangedsubjects.
Tco.Thefourapyaorevildestinies:thehellsangc,ashungryghostsngqu,animalsscsinh,orasurasatula.Theasurasaresometimesevil,
sometimesgood,hencethetermtamcothreeevildestiniesexceptstheasuras.

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Tcth.Cngnhtco.
Tanlchnh.Thefourmeansofattainingtoahappycontentment,byproperdirectionofthedeedsofthebodythnanlchnhthewordsofthemouthkhuan
lchnhthethoughtsofthemindanlchnhandtheresolve(ofthewill)topreachtoalltheLotusstrathnguynanlchnh.
Tn.Thefourdebtsofgratitude:(1)nchamdebtofgratitudetoone'sparents(2)nchngsinhdebtofgratitudetoalllivingcreatures(3)nqucvngdebt
ofgratitudetotherulersofthenation(4)nTambodebtofgratitudetotheTripleGems(Buddha,SanghaandDharma).
Tbaladi.Thefourprjikas,orgrievoussinsofmonksornuns:(1)dmgiiabrahmacarya,sexualimmorality,orbestiality(2)ogiiadattdna,stealing
(3)stgiivadha(hims),killing(4)ivngnggiitaramanusvadharmapralpa,falsespeaking.Alsottrng,tcctrnghocati.
Tbnchqun.ThefourbooksofThinThaionmeditation:Mahachqun,Thinbalamt,Lcdiumn,Tathinphpyu.
Tbothy.Fourviolenttorrentsofwater.
Tbtkhc.Thefourunattainables,perpetualyouth,nosickness,perenniallife,nodeath.
Tbtkhkhinh.Thefourthatmaynotbetreatedlightly:aprincethoughyoung,asnakethoughsmall,afirethoughtiny,anfabovealla"novice"thougha
beginner,forhemaybecomeanarhat.
Tbtkhtngh.ThefourthingsofaBuddhawhicharebeyondhumanconception:thgiihisworld,chngsinhhislivingbeings,longhisngas,andPht
cnhgiitheboundsofhisBuddharealm.
Tbtkin.Thefourinvisibleswatertofish,wind(orair)toman,thenature(ofthings)tothedeluded,andthekhngvoidtothengenlightened,becauseheisin
hisownelement,andthevoidisbeyondconception.
Tbtsinh.Thatathingisnotbornornotproducedofitself,ofanother,ofboth,ofneither.
Tbtthnh.Fourformsofasiddhaorincompletestatement,partofthethirtythreefallaciesinlogic.
Tbnh.Thefouraliments,ormistakenwaysofseekingprotection:tcbnh,worksoreffortnhimbnh,laissezfairechbnh,cessationofallmental
operationditbnh,annihilation(ofalldesire).
Tbinh.Caturangabalakya(S).Thefourdivisionsofacakravarti'stroops:tngbinhhastikya,elephantmbinhasvakya,horsexabinhrathakya,chariotb
binhpattikya,foot.
Tbtt.Thefourbodhisattvas:QunThmAvalokitesvara,DiLcMaitreya,PhHinSamantabhadra,VnThManjusri.Alsothefourchiefbodhisattvasinthe
Garbhadhtu.TherearealsotheBnhatbttoftheLotusstranamedThngHnh,VBinHnh,TnhHnh,andAnLcHnh.
Tbchng.FourkindsofdisciplesoftheBuddha.
Tcm.Parajika(S).Xemtbaladi.
Tc.Thefourterms,phrases,orfourlineverses.
Tck.Gtha(S).Astanzaoffourlineverses.
Tcphnbit.Thefourtermsofdifferentiation,e.g.ofallthingsintohutheexistingkhngnonexistingdichudickhngbothbthubtkhngneitheror
phenomenal,noumenal,both,neither.Alsodouble,single,both,neitherandothersimilarapplications.
Tcthnho.Theswansongofanarhat,whohasattainedtotheperfectlife."Chludtn,Phmhnhdlp,Stcdbin,Btthhuhu".Allrebirths
areended,Thenoblelifeestablished,Myworkisaccomplished,Nofurtherexistenceismine.
Tchp.Thefourerronoustenets.Alsott,tm.
Tchu.Caturdvipa(S).ThefourinhabitedcontinentsofeveryuniversetheyaresituatedS.E.W.andN.ofthecentralmountainSumeru:NamThimb
chuJambdvpa,ngthngthnchu,Prvavideha,Tynguhachu,Aparagodnya,Bcculchu,Uttarakuru.

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Tchnhcn.Samyakprahna(S).Thefourrightefforts:(1)iudsinhtrdti,toputanendtoexistingevil(2)iudchasinhkhinchochngsinh,
preventevilarising(3)iulnhchasinhkhinchosinhra,bringgoodintoexistence(4)iulnhsinhkhinchothmln,developexistinggood.
Tchnhon.Xemtchnhcn.
Tchng.Thefourvarga(groups,ororders),i.e.tkhubhiksu,monkstkhunibhiksuni,nunsubtcupsaka,maledevoteesandubdiupsik,female
devotees.
Tchng.Fourkinds.Xemttnh.
Tchngcnbnti.Thefourdeadlysins.Xemtchngtammuida.
Tchngc.Xemtc.
Tchngsinht.Fourkindsofrebirthdependentonpresentdeeds:fromobscurityandpovertytobereborninthesameconditionfromobscurityandpovertytobe
reborninlightandhonourfromlightandhonourtobereborninobscurityandpovertyfromlightandhonourtobereborninheavens.
Tchngtammuida.Thefoursamaya,i.e.thefourprjanikas:killing,stealing,carnality,lying.
Tchngtntm.ThefourkindsoffaithgivenintheKhitnluntheAwakeningofFaith:(1)intheChnnh,astheteacherofallBuddhasandfountofall
actions(2)inBuddha,ortheBuddhas(3)intheDharmaand(4)intheSangha.
Tchngthnhtuphp.Thefourkindsofaltarworshipoftheesotericsectfor:(1)avertingcalamitiesfromselfandothers(2)seekinggoodfortune(3)seeking
theloveandprotectionofBuddhas(4subduingenemies.Alsotchngnphp,tchngtta.
Tchngtngtr.Thefourkindsofdhrani.
Tdiu.Xemt.
Td.Thefourmetaphors(ofinfinity,etc.):sncntheweightofallmountainsinpoundhithedropsintheoceanatrntheatomsofdustintheearthkhng
giitheextentofspace.
Tdc.Thefourdesiresorpassions:tnhdcsexuallovescdcsexualbeautyorattractivenessthcdcfooddmdclust.
Ti.Mahbhta(S).Thefourelementsofwhichallthingsaremade:(1)aprithin,earth(2)Thyapas,water(3)Hatjas,fire(4)Phongvayu,wind.
Tibtiu.Theinharmoniousworkingofthefourelementsinthebody,whichcausesthe440ailments.
Tibtt.ThefourgreatBodhisattvasoftheLotusstra,i.e.DiLcMaitreya,VnThSLiManjusri,QunThmAvalokitesvara,andPh
HinSamantabhadra.AnotherlistofpreviousBodhisattvasis:ThngHnhVisistacritra,VBinHnhAnantacritra,TnhHnhVasudhacritra,andAnLp
HnhSupratisthitacritra.
Tibkinh.Fourgreatstras:HoaNghim,NitBnNirvna,BoTchMahratnakta,BtNhPrajn.
Tichu.Thefourgreatcontinentsofaworld.
Tidanhsn.Thefourfamous"hills"ormonasteriesinChina:PhP'uT'o,forQunthm,elementwaterNgiWuT'ai,Vnth,windNgaMiO
mei,PhHin,fireCuhoaChiuhua,atng,earth.
Tit.ThefourgreatdisciplesoftheBuddha:XliphtSariputra,MckinlinMahMaudgalyyana,TubSubhti,andMahaCadipMahKsyapa.
Tihi.Thefourgreatoceansinaworld,aroundSumeru,inwhicharethefourgreatcontinents.
Tithinvng.Caturmahrja,Lokapla(S).Thefourdevakingsofthefourquarters,guardiansinamonastery.Xemtthinvng.
To.Xemtino.
Tp.TheBuddha'sfourmethodsofdealingwithquestions:
Tng.ThefourvirtueswhichaBuddhaoutofhisinfiniteheartmanifestsequallytoall.Theyare:t,bi,h,x.AnothergroupisT,Ng,Php,Thn,i.e.tthat

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allBuddhashavethesametittleortittlesngspeakthesamelanguagephpproclaimthesametruthandthnhaveeachthethreefoldbodyortrikya.Athird
groupischphpallthingsareequallyincludedinthebhtatathatphttmthemindnaturebeinguniversal,itsfieldofactionisuniversalongthewayor
methodisalsouniversalthereforetbithecompassion(oftheBuddha)isuniversalforall.Alsotvlngtm.
T.Catvriryasatyni(S).TheFourNobleTruths,theprimaryandfundamentaldoctrinesofSakyamuni.Thefourare:(1)Khdukkharyasatya,TheNoble
TruthofSuffering(2)Tpdukkhasamudayaryasatya,TheNobleTruthoftheCauseofSuffering(3)Ditdukkhanirodharyasatya,TheNobleTruthofthe
CessationofSuffering(4)odukkhanirodhamrgaryasatya,TheNobleTruthofthePathleadingtotheCessationofSuffering.Alsotchn,tdiu
,tthnh.
Tino.Thefourviparvaya,i.e.invertedorfalsebeliefsonregardtoThng,Lc,Ng,Tnh.Therearetwogroups:(1)Thecommonbeliefinthefourabove,
deniedbytheearlyBuddhistdoctrinethatallisimpermanent,suffering,impersonal,andimpure(2)ThefalsebeliefoftheHnaynaschoolthatnirvnaisnotastate
ofpermanence,joy,personality,andpurity.
Tin.Thefourfieldsforcultivatinghappiness:animalsthepoorparentsthereligion.
T.ThefourBuddhaksetra,orrealms,ofThinThai:(1)Phmthnhngc,realmswhereallclassesdwellmen,devas,Buddhas,disciples,nondisciples
ithastwodivisions,theimpure,e.g.thisworld,andthepure,e.g.theWesternPureland.(2)Phngtinhud,temporaryrealms,wheretheoccupantshave
gotridoftheevilsofkintunenlightenedviewsandthoughts,butstillhavetobereborn.(3)Thtbovchngngi,realmofpermanentrewardandfreedom
forthosewhohaveattainedtobodhisattvarank.(4)Thngtchquang,realmofeternalrestandlight(i.e.wisdom)andofeternalspirit(dharmakya),theabodeof
Buddhasbutinrealityalltheothersareincludedinthis,andareonlyseparatedforconveniencesake.
Tctin.Thefourpoisonousarrows:desire,anger,ignorance,pride.
Tcx.Fourpoisonoussnakes(inthebasket),e.g.thefourelementsearth,water,fireandair,ofwhichamanisformed.
Tc.Thefournirvnavirtues,orvaluesaccordingtotheMahynaNirvnastra:(1)Thngpermanenceoreternity(2)Lcjoy(3)Ngpersonality(4)Tnh
purity.Thefourimportantterms,whiledeniedinthelowerrealms,areaffirmedbythestrainthetranscendentalornirvnarealm.
Tcbalamt.Thejoyfulrealmoracmeofthetc,thenirvnarealm,theabodeofdharmakyaotheTathgata.
Tgiahnh.Xemtthincn.
Tgic.Thefour"intelligences,orapprehensions"oftheAwakeningofFaithKhiTnLun:bngic,tngtgic,typhngicandcuknhgic.
Thnh.Thefourdisciplinaryprocesses:enlightenmentgooddeedswisdomandworship.
Thoa.Thefour(divine)flowers:mnlamandra,mahamnlamahmandra,mnthsamanjsaka,mahamnthsamahmanjsaka.Alsopundarka,
utpala,padma,andkumuda,orwhite,blue,red,andyellowlotuses.
Thongthnguyn.ThefouruniversalvowsofaBuddhaorbodhisattva:Chngsinhvbinthnguyn,tosavealllivingbeingswithoutlimitPhinnov
tnthnguynon,toputanendtoallpassionsanddelusionshowevernumerousPhpmnvlngthnguynhc,tostudyandlearnallmethodsandmeans
withoutendPhtovthngthnguynthnh,tobecomeperfectintheSupremeBuddhaLaw.Thefourvowsareconsideredasarisingonebyoneoutofthe
FourNobleTruthsTDiu.
Thth.Xemtthinvng.
Thng.ThefourstagesinHnaynasanctity:tuhonsrotapanna,thmsakrdgminanahm,angminandalahn,arhan.
Thuvitng.Thefourfunctioningforms:sinhbirth,trstay,dchange,ditextinction.
Tkt.Thefourknots,orbonds,samyojana,whichhinderfreedevelopment.
Tkh.Thefourmiseries,orsufferings,sinhbirthloagebnhdiseaseandtdeath.

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Tkhngx.Caturrpya(brahma)loka(S).Thefourimmaterialorformlessheavens,arpadhtu,abovetheeighteenbrahmalokas:(1)khngvbin
xksmantyyatana,thesateorheavenofboundlessspace(2)thcvbinxvijnnanntyyatana,ofboundlessknowledge(3)vshu
xkincanyyatana,ofnothingornonexistence(4)phitngphiphitngxnaivasanjnnsanjnyatana,thestateofneitherthinkingnornotthinking.
Tkip.Thefourkalpas,orepochs,ofaworld,thnhkipthatofformationandcompletiontrkipexistingorabidinghoikipdestructionandkhng
kipannihilation,orthesucceedingvoid.
Tliugin.AsummaryoftheLmTtnginreferencetosubjective,objective,both,neither.
Tl.Thefourfurnaces,oraltarsoftheesotericcult,eachdifferinginshape:earth,squarewater,roundfire,triangularwind,halfmoonshape.
Tlun.Fourfamoussstras:(1)TrungqunlunPrnyamlasstratkabyLongThNgrjuna(2)BchlunSatasstrabyBDevabodhisattva(3)Thpnh
mnlunDvdasanikya(mukha)sstrabyNgrjuna(4)itrlunMahprajnparmitsstrabyNgrjuna.
Tlc.Thefourpowersforattainingenlightenment:tlcindependentpersonalpowerthalcpowerderivedfromothersnhnduynlcpowerofpastgood
karmaphngtinlcpowerarisingfromenvironment.
Tlu.Thefourcurrents(thatcarrytheunthinkingalong)i.e.theillusionsofkinseeingthingsastheyseem,notastheyreallyaredcdesireshuexistence,
lifevminhignoranve,oranunlightenedcondition.
Tminh.FourChnngnShingonemblems,aidstoYogapossessionbyaBuddhaorbodhisattvatheyarecuahook,thngacord,taalock,andlinhabellthe
hookforsummoning,thecordforleading,thelockforfirmlyholding,andthebellforresultantjoy.AlsothefourVedasstras:ThMinh,RigVedaTMinh,Yajur
VedaBnhMinh,SamaVedaThutMinh,ArtharvaVeda.
Tnhnqunth.Theworldfromfourpointsofview:thatofmeningeneralitspleasure,thoughtlesslyofsrvakasandpratyekabuddhas,asaburninghouse,
uneasilyofbodhisattvasasanemptyflowerofBuddha,asmind,allthingsbeingfor(orof)intelligentmind.
Tnht.Thefour"ones",ortheunitycontained(accordingtoThinThai)inthePhngtinphmoftheLotusstrai.egionhtitsteachingofonevehiclehnh
nhtthesolebodhisattvaprocedurenhnnhtitsmenallandonlyasbodhisattvalnhtitsoneultimatetruthoftherealityofallexistence.
Tnhipphp.Catuhsamgrahavastu(S).Fourallembracing(bodhisattva)virtues:(1)bthdna,givingwhatotherslike,inordertoleadthemtoloveandreceive
thetruth(2)ingpriyavacana,affectionatespeech,withthesamepurpose(3)lihnharthakrtya,conductprofitabletoothers,withthesamepurpose(4)ng
ssamnrthat,cooperationwithandadaptationofoneselftoothers,toleadthemintothetruth.
Tnhipbtt.ThefourBodhisattvasintheVajradhtuwiththehook,therope,thechainandthebellwhoseofficeistohathaconverttheliving.Alsotnhip
chng,tnhipkimcng.
Tnhtc.Rddhipda(S).Thefourstepstorddhi,orsupernaturalpowers,makingthebodyindependentofordinaryornaturallaw.Thefourstepsaresaidtobet
chngthinnhfourkindsofdhyna,butthereareseveraldefinitionse.g.dcnhtcchandarddhipda,desire(forintensivelonging,orconcentration)cnnh
tcvryarp.,energy(orintensifiedeffort)tmnhtccittarp.,memory(orintenseholdingontothepositionreached)qunnhtcmimmsarp.,meditation
(orsurvey,thestateofdhyna).Alsotthntc.
Tnimchu.Thefourclassesof"prayerbeads"numbering27,54,108,1080.
Tnimtr.Xemtnimx.
Tnimx.Smrtiupasthna(S).Thefourfoldstageofmindfulness,ormeditationthatfollowstheNgnhtmqunfivefoldprocedureforquietingthemind.This
fourfoldmethod,orobjectivityofthought,isforstimulatingthemindinethicalwisdom.Itconsistsofcontemplating:(1)qunthnbttnhthebodyasimpureand
utterlyfilthy(2)qunththkhsensation,orconsciousness,asalwaysresultinginsuffering(3)quntmvthngmindasimpermanent,merelyonesensation
afteranother(4)qunphpvngthingsingeneralasbeingdependentandwithoutanatureoftheirown.Thefournegatetheideasofpermanence,joy,personality

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andpurity.
Toainghi.Fourrespectinspiringformsofdemeanourinwalking,standing,sitting,lying.
Ton.Thefourenemiesthepassionsanddelusionsmrasdcmadeathmratmathefiveskandhasmrangmmaandthesuprememrakingthinma.
Tphmtr.Thenoblestageoftbihxlove,pity,joyandindifference
Tphp.Thereareseveralgroupsoffourdharmas:(I)(1)Giophp,theteachinhofBuddha(2)Lphp,itsprinciples,ormeaning(3)Hnhphp,itspractice(4)
Quphp,itsfruitorrewards.(II)AnothergrouprelatestoBodhisattvas:(1)BtxBtm,theirneverlosingthebodhimind(2)Btxthintrithcorthe
wisdomattained(3)Btxkhamnhni,lc,orperseverenceinprogress(4)Btxalannh,orthemonasticforestlife.(III)Alsotnfaith,giidiscernment,hnh
performance,andchngassurance.(IV)A"Lotus"divisionoftphpistheanswertoaquestionofPhHinSamantabhadrahowtheLotusistobepossessedafter
theBuddha'sdemise,i.e.bythought(orprotection)oftheBuddhathecultivationofvirtueenterintocorrectdhynaandhavingamindtosaveallcreatures.
Tphpn.Thesealorimpessionofthefourdogmas:suffering,impermanence,nonego,nirvna.
Tphpbnmt.Thealphaandomegainfourlawsordogmasthatnothingispermanent,thatallthingsinvolvesuffering,thatthereisnopersonality,andthat
nirvnaiseternalrest.
Tphpgii.ThefourdharmarealmsofHoaNghimschool:(1)Sphpgii,thephenomenalrealm,withdifferentiation(2)Lphpgii,noumenal,withunity(3)
Lsvngiphpgii,bothlnoumenalandsphenomenalareinterdependent(4)Ssvngiphpgii,phenomenaarealsointerdependent.
Tphn.ThePhptngDharmalaksanaschooldividesthefunctionofThcconsciousnessintofour,i.e.tngphnmentalphenoma,kinphndiscriminating
suchphenomena,tchngphnthepowerthatdiscriminates,andchngtchngphntheprooforassuranceofthatpower.Anothergroupistnfaith,giiliberty,
hnhaction,andchngassuranceorrealization.
Tphnlut.ThefourdivisionVinayaordisciplineoftheDharmaguptaschool,dividedintofoursections.
Tphntnggiibn.ExtractsfromtheTphnlutforuseondayswhenthedisciplineisrecited.
Tphinno.Thefourdelusionsinreferencetotheego:ngsiignoranceinregardtotheegongkinholdingtotheegoidesngmnselfesteem,egotism,
pridengiselfseeking,ordesire,boththelatterarisingfrombeliefintheego.
Tphc,phc.Thefourbandhana,orbonds:(1)desire,resentment,hereticalmorality,egoism(2)desire,possession(orexistence),ignorance,andunenlightened
views.
Tphng.Caturdis(S).Belongingtothefourdirections.
Tqu.Thefourphala,i.e.fruition,orrewards:tuhonqusrotapannaphalathmqusakradgmiphalaanahmquangmiphalaalahn
quarhatphala.
Tsinh.Caturyoni(S).Thefourformsofbirth:(1)thaisinhjaryuja,viviparous,aswithmammalia(2)nonsinhandaja,oviparous,aswithbirds(3)thp
sinhsamsvedaja,moisture,orwaterborn,aswithwormsandfishes(4)hasinhaupapduka,metamorphic,aswithmothsfromthechrysalis,orwithdevas,orinthe
hells.
Tsn.Likefourclosinginmountainsarebirth,age,sickness,anddeath.
Ts.Thefournecessariesofamonkclothing,victuals,bedding,medicines.
Tscngdng.Thefourofferingsorprovisionsforamonk.
Tsphpmn.Fourmethodsofabodhisattava'spreparationforpreachingtheLaw:entryintomeditationintowisdomintocompletemoralcontrolandintoclear
discernmentorreasoningbintimn.
Ttmtqun.AstudyorcontemplationofthePhpTngTngDharmalaksanasect,ondanhthetermsused,nghathemeaningsofthethingsor

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phenomena,ttnhthenatureofthethings,saibittheirdifferentiation.
Tttn.Thefoursiddhnta.TheBuddhataughtby:(1)Thgiittnmundaneorordinarymodeofexpression(2)Vnhnttnindividualtreatment,adapting
histeachingtothecapacityofhishearers(3)itrttndiagnostictreatmentoftheirmoraldiseases(4)andnhtnghattntheperfectandhighesttruth.
Tthnh.Thefourkindsofholymen:thanhvnsrvakas,duyngicpratyekabuddhas,bttbodhisattvas,PhtBuddhas.
Tthnh.Thefourholyornobletruths.
Tthnhhnh.Thefourholyways:phntoywearingragsfromdustheapskhtthcbeggingforfoodthhsittingundertressandthntmtchtnhentire
withdrawalfromtheworld.
Tthp.ThefourstupasattheplacesofBuddha'sbirth,KapilavastuenlightenmentMagadhapreaching,Benaresandparinirvna,Kusinagara.
Tthn.Thefourkya,or"bodies".TheLankvatrastragivesHaPhtCngcPhtTrTuPhtandNhNhPhtthefirstishathnnirmnakya,the
secondandthirdbothnsambhogakya,andthefourthphpthndharmakya.TheDuyThcLungives:TTnhThn,ThaThDngThn,TThDngThn,
andBinHaThnthefirstbeingphpthn,thesecondandthirdbothn,andthefourthhathn.TheThinThaiTnggives:phpthn,bothn,ngthn,ha
thn.
Tthntc.Xemtnhtc.
Tthp.Catvrimsat(S)Forty
Tthpbtnguyn.ThefortyeightvowsofAmitabhaBuddha.
Tthpcunht.Theseventimessevendaysoffuneralservicesthefortyninthday.
Tthpcutng,ng.TheservicetoDcSPhttheMasterofHealing,whenfortyninelampsaredisplayedandfortyninemonksengagedsevenofhis
imagesareused,sevenofthelampsbeingplacedbeforeeachimage.
Tthpnhchngkinh.Dvchatvrmsatkhandastra(S)The"StraofFortytwosections"generallyattributedtoKsyapaMtangaandGobharana,thefirst
IndianmonkstoarriveofficiallyinChina.
Tthpnhphmvminh.Thefortytwospeciesofignorancewhich,accordingtoThinThai,aretobecutoffseriatiminthefortytwostages.
Tthpnhv.Thefortytwostages,i.e.allabovethethptnofthefiftytwostages.
Tthpnhtmn.ThedoctrineofthefortytwoSiddhamlettersasgivenintheHoaNghimandBtNhkinh.
Tthpv.The"fortybodhisattvapositions"ofthePhmVngKinh.Theyareclassifiedintofourgroups:(1)Thpphtth,teninitialstages,i.e.themindstmof
abandoningthingsoftheworld,ofkeepingthemorallaw,patience,zealousprogress,dhyna,wisdom,resolve,guarding(theLaw),joyandspiritualbaptismbythe
Buddha.Theseareassociatedwiththethptr.(2)Thptrngdng,tenstagesinthenourishmentofperfection,i.e.mindsofkinfness,pity,joy,relinquishing,
almsgiving,gooddiscourse,benefiting,friendship,dhyna,wisdom.Theseareassociatedwiththethphnh.(3)thpkimcng,ten"diamond"stepoffirmness,
i.e.amindoffaith,remembrance,bestowingone'smeritsonothers,understanding,uprightness,noretreat,mahyna,formlessness,wisdom,indestructibility.These
areassociatedwiththethphihng.(4)Thpa,xemthpa.
Tthinh.Thefourquartersorcontinentsoftheworld.
Tthinvng.Caturmahrjs,Lokapalas(S).Thefourdevakings.Indra'sexternal"generals"whodwelleachonasideofMountMeru,andwhowardofffromthe
worldtheattacksofmaliciousspirits,orasuras,hencetheirnameHthTThinVng,thefourdevakings,guardiansoftheworld.TheirabodeistheTThin
Vngthincaturmahrjskyikasandtheirtitlesare:(1)East,TrqucThinVngDhrtarstra,Devawhokeeps(his)kingdom,white.(2)South,Tngtrng
ThinVngVirdhaka,Devaofincreaseandgrowth,blue.(3)West,QungmcThinVngVirpaksa,thebroadeyedDeva,red.(4)North,avnThin
VngVaisravanaorDhadana,theDevawhohearsmuchandiswellversed,colouryellow.HeisaformofKuvera,thegodofwealth.

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Tthinthin.Thefourdhynaheavens,ttnhlthin,i.e.thedivisionoftheeighteenbrahmalokasintofourdhynasthediscipleattaintooneoftheseheavens
accordingtothedhynaheobserves:(1)Sthinthin,thefirstregion,"aslargeasonewholeuniverse",comprisesthethreeheavens:(a)Phmchngthin,
Brahmaprisadya(b)PhmphthinBrahmapurohita(c)iPhmthin,Mahbrahmatheinhabitantsarewithoutgustatoryorolfactoryorgans,notneedingfood,
butpossesstheotherfourofthesixorgans.(2)Nhthinthin,thesecondregion,equalto"asmallchiliocosmo",comprisesthethreeheavens:(a)Thiuquang
thinParittabha,minorlight(b)VlngquangthinApramnbha,infinitelight(c)QuangmthinAbhsvara,utmostlightpuritytheinhabitantshaveceasedto
requirethefivephysicalorgans,possessingonlytheorganofmind.(3)Tamthinthin,thethirdregion,equalto"amiddingchiliocosmo",comprisesthethree
heavens:(a)ThiutnhthinParittsubha,minorpurity(b)VlngtnhthinApramnasubha,infinitepurity(c)BintnhthinSubhakrtsna,universalpuritythe
inhabitantsstillhavetheorganofmindandarereceptiveofgreatjoy.(4)Tthinthin,thefourthregion,equalto"agreatchiliocosmo",comprisestheremaining
nineBrahmalokas,namely:(a)PhcsinhthinPunyaprasava,felicitousbirth(b)VvnthinAnabhraka,cloudless(c)QungquthinBrhatphala,largefruitage
(d)VphinthinAsanjnisattva,novexations(e)VnhitthinAtapa,noheat.(f)VtngthinAvrha,theheavenabovethought(g)ThinkinthinSudrsa,
beutifultosee(h)ThinhinSudarsana,beautifulappearing(i)SccuknhthinAkanisthatheendofformtheinhabitantsofthisfourthregionstillhavemind.
ThenumberofthedhynaheavensdifferstheSarvstivdinssay16,theStraschool17,andtheSthavirh18.
Tthinbtnh.Thefourdhynasconcentrations,i.e.fourontheformrealms,andfourontheformlessrealms.
Tthincn.Catuskusalamla(S).Thefourgoodroots,orsourcefromwhichspringgoodfruitordevelopment.InHnaynatheyformthestageafterBittng
nimtrasrepresentedbytheCuXandThnhThtinMahynaitisthefinalstageoftheThphihngasrepresentedbythePhpTngTng.Thereare
alsofoursimilarstagesconnectedwithsravka,pratyekabuddhaandBuddhastyledTamPhmTThinCn.ThefouroftheCuXTngareNonphp,nh
php,NhnphpandThnhtphp.ThefouroftheThnhThtTngarethesame.ThePhpTngTngretainsthesamefourtermsbutconnectsthemwith
thefourdhynastagesoftheChnDuyThcQuninitsfourfirstGiaHnhdevelopments.
Tth.Durgati(S).Thefourevildirections,ordestinations:hells,hungryghosts,animals,andasuras.
Tth.Catuhparmarsas(S).Thefourattachments,i.e.desire,unenlightenedviews,(fakir)morals,andideasarisingfromtheconceptionoftheself.
Ttha.Thegoat,deerandoxcartsandthegreatwhitebullockcartoftheLotusstra.Xemtxa.
Tthc.Thefourkindsoffood,i.e.onthcforthebodyanditssensesxcthcfortheemotionstthcforthoughtandthcthcforwisdom.
Tthcth.Thefourtimesforfood,i.e.forthedevaatdawn,ofallBuddhasatnoon,ofanimalsintheevening,andofdemonsandghostsatnight.
Ttnh.ThefourIndiancastes:(1)Blamnbrhmana,priestly,bornfromthemouth(2)Stliksatriya,militaryandruling,bornfromtheshoulders(3)Ph
xvaisya,farmersandtraders,bornfromtheflanksand(4)Thlasdra,serf,bornfromthefeetofBrahm.
Ttnhhnh.ThefourkindsofconductnaturaltoaBodhisattva,thatarisingfrom:(1)Ttnhhnhhisnativegoodness(2)Nguyntnhhnhhisvownature(3)
Thuntnhhnhhiscompliantnature,i.e.tothesixpramitsand(4)Chuyntnhhnhhistransformingnature,i.e.hispowersofconversionorsalvation.
Ttr.ThefourformsofwisdomofaBuddhaaccordingtothePhpTngtngDharmalaksanaschool:(1)ivincnhtrthegreatmirrorwisdomofAksokhya
(2)BnhngtnhtrtheuniversalwisdomofRatnaketu(3)DiuquansttrtheprofoundobservingwisdomofAmitbha(4)Thnhstctrtheperfectingwisdom
ofAmoghasiddhi.Therearevariousothergroups.
Ttrng(cm).Thefourgraveprohibitions,orsins.Tchngtiprjiks:killing,stealing,carnality,lying.Allfouroftheesotericsect.i.e.discardingthetruth
discardingthebodhimindbeingmeanorselfishinregardtothesupremelawinjuringtheliving.
Ttrngbttrng.Thefourprjiksformonksandeightfornuns.
Ttr.ThefourabodesorstagesintheTrlun:(1)Thintr,thedevalokas,equivalentsofcharity,morality,abdgoodnessofheart(2)Phmtrthe
brahmalokas,equivalentsofbenevolence,pity,joy,andindifference(3)Thnhtr,theabodeofsrvakas,pratyekabuddhasandbodhisattvas,equivalentofthe

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samdhioftheimmaterialrealm,formlessandstill(4)Phttr,theBuddhaabode,theequivalentofthesamdhiotheinfinite.
Ttra.Thefourstagesorconditionsfoundinmortality,whereinarethedelusionsofmisleadingviewsanddesires.Theyare:(1)Kinnhtthittra,the
delusionsarisingfromseeingthingsastheyseem,notastheyreallyare(2)Dcitra,thedesiresinthedesirerealm(3)Scitra,thedesiresintheform
realm(4)Huitra,thedesiresintheformlessrealm.WhenVminhtra,thestateofignorance,isaddedwehavetheNgtra,fivestates.
Ttu.Thefourkindsofwisdomreceived:(1)bybirth,ornature(2)byhearingorbeingtaught(3)bythought(4)bydhynamotivation.
Ttuyt.Thefourideastobegotridofinordertoobtainthe"mean"orultimatereality,accordingtothetrungluntheyarethatthingsexist,donotexist,both,
neither.
Ttti.Thefoursovereignpowers:giithemorallawthnthngsupernaturalpowerstrknowledgeandtuwisdom.
Ttxm.Thefourselfraidings,orselfinjuries:inyouthnottostudyfrommorntillnightinadvancingyearsnottoceasesexualintercoursewealthyandnotbeing
charitablenotacceptingtheBuddha'steaching.
Ttng.Thefouravasth,orstatesofallphenomena,sinhbirth,trbeing,dchange(i.e.decay),ditdeath,alsothuvitng.Thereareseveralgroups,
e.g.qubottngbirth,age,disease,death.Alsotngthcttngofthe"AwakeningofFaith"(Khitnlun),referringtotheinitiation,continuation,change,
andcessationoftheAlayavijnna.Alsongnhnttng.Theideas:(1)ngtng,thatthereisanego(2)nhntng,thatmanisdifferentfromotherorganism
(3)chngsinhtng,thatallthelivingareproducedbytheskandhas(4)thgitng,thatlifeislimitedtotheorganism.
Tv.Thefour"tastes",theThinThaidefinitionofthefourperiodsoftheBuddha'steachingpreliminarytothefifth,i.e.thatoftheLotusstra.
Tvlng.Catvriapramnni(S).Thefourimmeasurables,orinfiniteBuddhastatesofmind,alsostyledtngthefourequalities,oruniversals,andtphm
hnhfournobleactsorcharacteristicsi.e.fourofthetwelvethindhynas(1)tvlngtmmaitri,boundlesskindness,orbestowingofjoyandhappiness(2)bi
vlngtmkaruna,boundlesspity,tosavefromsuffering(3)hvlngtmmudit,boundlessjoy,orseeingothersrescuedfromsuffering(4)xvlng
tmupeksa,limitlessindifference,i.e.risingabovetheseemotions,orgivingupallthings,e.g.distinctionsoffriendanfenemy,loveandhate,etc.Alsostyledthe
foursublimestates:lovingkindness,compassion,sympatheticjoy,equanimity.
Tvngitr.Pratisamvid(S).Thefourunhinderedorunlimitedbodhisattvapowersofinterpretation,orreasoning,i.e.(1)phpvngitrdharma,intheletterofthe
law(2)nghavngitrartha,itsmeaning(3)tvngitrnirukti,inanylanguage,orformofexpression(4)lcthuytvngitrpratibhna,ineloquenceor
pleasureinspeaking,orargument.
Tvscnh.Thelastfourofthetwelvedhynas,theecstaticentryintothefourstatesrepresentedbythefourdhynaheavens,i.e.tkhngx.Inthefirst,the
mindbecomesvoidandvastlikespaceinthesecondthepowersofperceptionandunderstandingareunlimitedinthethird,thediscriminativepowersofmindare
subduedinthefourth,therealmofconsciousnesswithoutthoughtisreached,e.g.intuitivewisdom.
Tvthngk.EightstanzasintheNhnVngKinh,twoeachonVthngimpermenence,Khsuffering,Khngthevoid,andVngnonpersonaliythe
wholefoursetsembodyingtheimpermanenceofallthings.
Tvy.Thefourkindsoffearlessness,orcourage,ofwhichtherearetwogroups:Buddhafearlessnessarisesfrom:(1)nhtthittrvsy,hisomniscience
(2)lutnvsy,perfectionofcharacter(3)thuytchngovsy,overcomingopposition(4)thuyttnkhovsy,andendingofsuffering.
Bodhisattvafearlessnessarisesfrom:(1)tngtrbtvong,thuytphpvy,powersofmemory(2)tntriphpdccptrichngsinhcndc,tnhtm,thuyt
phpvy,ofmoraldiagnosisandapplicationoftheremedy(3)thinnngvnp,thuytphpvy,ofratiocination(4)nngonvtnghi,thuytphpvy,
andofsolvingdoubts.
Ty.Thefournecessariesorthingsonwhichthereligiousrely.Thefourofasceticpractitioners:ragclothingbeggingforfoodsittingundertreespurgativesand
diureticsasmoralandspiritualmeans.

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Typhp.ThefourdharmasonwhichtheBuddhistsrely:(1)Yphpbtynhn,thetruthwhichiseternal,ratherthanman(2)Ynghabtyng,themeaning,or
spirit,nottheletter(3)Ytrbtythc,wisdom,i.e.Buddhawisdomratherthanmereknowledge.(4)Yliunghakinh,btybtliunghakinh,thestrasofperfect
meaning.
Tyuphm.ThefourmostimportantchaptersoftheLotusstra:Phngtinphm,Anlchnhphm,Thlngphm,andPhmnphm.ThisisThin
Thai'sselection.
T.Maitr(S).Mother,lovingkindness.Affection(asthatofamother),tenderness.
Ti.Tolovetenderlycompassion.
Tn.Compassionandgrace,mecifulfavour.NameofatempleinLcDng,underthengdynasty,whichgaveitsnametoKhuyC,founderofthePhp
TngTng,knownalsoasTntngandDuyThctng.HewasadiscipleofandcollaboratorwithHuynTrang.
Tbi.Lovingkindnessandcompassion.Compassionandpity,merciful,compassionate.
T,Bi,H,X.Lovingkindness,Compassion,Joy,Equanimity.
Tbiqun.Thecompassioncontemplation,inwhichpitydestroysresentment.
Tbivnhnh.Tendercompassioninallthings,orwithcompassionallthingssucceed.
Tbiy.Compassionategarment,themonk'srobe.
Thng.Thebarkofmercy.Tocrosstheseaofsorrows.
Tknh.Lovingreverence.
Tlc.Maitribala(S).Mecifulvirtue,orpower.
Tlcvng.Maitribalarja(S).Kingofmercifulpower,aformerincarnationoftheBuddha.
Tmu.Affectionate,lovingmother.
TMinh.AnotedmonkoftheTng(Sung)dynasty.
Tmn.Thegateofmercy,Buddhism.
Tnghim.Compassionandstrictness,thematernalcumpaternalspirit.
Tnhn.Thecompassionateeye(ofBuddha).
Tnhn.Compassionandpatience,compassionatetolerance.
Tph.Affectionate,fondfather.
Tquang.Mecifullight,thatoftheBuddhas.
Ttm.Acompassionateheart,lovingkindheart.
Ttmbtst.Lokecvra(S).Notkillingbecauseofthecompassionateheart.
Ttmtammui.Contemplationonthecompassionatemind,meditationtodevelopthecompassionateheart.
Tth.Thecompassionateone,Maitreya.
Ttn.Thecompassionatehonouredone,Maitreya.
TthBtt.MaitreyaBodhisattva.
Tthin.Charity.
Tthy.Mercyaswaterfertilizingthelife.
Tt.Sonsofcompassion,i.e.thedisciplesofMaitreya.

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Tvn.Theoverspreading,fructifyingcloudofcompassion,theBuddha'sheart.Also,thenameofanotedTngmonk.
Ty.Themindorspiritofcompassionandkindness.
T.Marana,mrta(S).Todie,deathdead.
Thi.Theoceanofmortality.
Tha.Deathisafiredisaster.
Tkh.Themisery,orpain,ofdeath.
Tma.Deathmra.
Tmn.Thegateorborderofdeath.
Tphong.Thedestroyingwindinthefinaldestructionoftheworld.
Tsinh.Deathandlife,mortality,transmigration.
Ttc.Therobberdeath.
Ttng.Theappearanceofdeath.
Ttng.Deathcontemplation.
Ty.Thefearofdeath.
Tvong.Deadandgone(orlost).
Tvng.Yama,asLordofdeathandhell.
Tkimquangtkhuni.
T.Vihra,Sanghrma(S).Anofficialhall,atemple,adoptedbyBuddhistsforamonastery.Tvin.Monasterygroundsandbuildings,amonastery.
T.Aksara(S).Aletter,character.Ttngtngha,wordformwordmeaning,differentiatedbytheesotericsectforitsownends.
T.Preface.Alsota,bita,tphn.
T.Sva,svayam(S).Theself,one'sown,personalofitself,naturally,ofcoursealsofrom(i.e.fromtheselfascentral).TisusedastheoppositeofThaanother,
other's,etc.
Ti.Selflove,causeofallpursuitorseeking,whichinturncausesallsuffering.
Tchng.Thewitnesswithin,innerassurance.
Tchngthnhtr.Pratytmryajnna(S).PersonalapprehensionofBuddhatruth.
Tchngthn.AtittleofVairocana,hisdharmakyaofselfassurance,orrealization,fromwhichissueshisretenueofproclaimersofthetruth.
Tiuttnht.Thesrvakamethodofsalvationbypersonaldiscipline,or"works":tiu,selfprogressbykeepingthecommandmentsttnh,self
purificationbyemptyingthemindt,selfreleasebytheattainmentofgnosis,orwisdom.
Tgicngtm.Amindindependentofexternals,purethought,capableofenlightenmentfromwithin.
Tgicthnhtr.TheuncausedomniscienceofVairocana.Alsocalledphpgiithtnhtr,kimcngtr.
Thnhhatha.Todiscipline,orperform,oneselfand(orinorderto)convertortransformothers.Xemtlilitha.
Tli.Atmahitam(S).Selfprofitbeneficialtooneself.
Tlilitha."Selfprofitprofitsothers",i.e.theessentialnatureandworkofabodhisattva,tobenefithimselfandbenefitothers,orhimselfpressforwardinthe
Buddhistlifeinordertocarryothersforward.
Tlc.One'sownstrength,ascontrastedwiththalcthestrengthofanother.

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Tnhin.Svayambh(S).Alsotnh,phpnh.Selfexisting,theselfexistentSelfso,soofitself,natural,ofcourse,spontaneous.Uncausedexistence.
Tnhinhvthn.ABuddha'sspiritualorabsolutebody,hisdharmakyaalsothosewhoareborninParadise,i.e.whoarespontaneouslyandindependently
producedthere.
Tnhinngoio.SectofhereticsdenyingBuddhistcauseandeffectandholdingthatthingshappenspontaneously.
Tnhinngo.Enlightenmentbytheinnerlight,independentofexternalteachingtobecomeBuddhabyone'sownpower,e.g.SkyamuniwhoiscalledT
nhinThchCa.
TnhinthnhPhto.Svayambhuvah(S).IndependentattainmenttoBuddhahood.
Tnhintr.TheintuitiveorinbornwisdomofaBuddha,untaughttohimandoutsidethecausalnexus.
Tnhint.Intuitivemercypossessedbyabodhisattva,untaughtandwithoutcausalnexus.
Ttctth.Asonedoesonereceives,everymanreceivestherewardofhisdeeds,creatinghisownkarma.
Tti.Isvara(S).Can,king,mastersovereign,independent,royalintp.asfreefromresistancealsothemindfreefromdelusion.
Ttiphpvng.Buddha.
Ttithin.Isvaradeva(S).AtitleofSiva,kingofthedevas,alsoknownasittithin.Mahesvara(S).
Ttivng.AtitleofVairocana.
TtivngPht.LokisvaraBuddha(S).AlsoThttivngPht.
Ttm.Svacitta(S).Selfmind,one'sownmind.
Tthdng.ThethirdofthefourBuddhaksetraorBuddhadomains,thatinwhichthereiscompleteresponsetohisteachingandpowers.
Tthdngthn.Oneofthetwokindsofsambhogakya,forhisownenjoyment.
Tthphplc.ThedharmadelightsaBuddhaenjoysintheabovestate.
Ttnh.Ownnatureof(its)ownnature.Asanintp.ofPradhna(andresemblingchntnh).Assvabhva,itistheselfsubstance,selfnature,orunchanging
characterofanything.
Ttnhgii.Thetennaturalmorallaws,i.e.whicharenaturaltoman,apartfromtheBuddha'spreceptsalsottnhthin.
Ttnhtambo.TheTriratna,eachwithitsowncharacteristic,BuddhabeingwisdomgictheLawcorrectnesschnhandtheOrderpuritytnh.
Tththgii.Tomakethevowsandundertakethecommandmentsoneself(beforetheimageofaBuddha),i.e.selfordinationwhenunabletoobtainordination
fromtheordained.
Tthuytkinh.Udana(S).
Tt.Pravrana(S).Tofollowone'sownbent,themoderntermbeingtyitmeanstheendofrestraint,i.e.followingaperiodofretreat.
Ttnht.Thelastdayoftheannualretreat.
Ttng,Svalaksana(S).Individuality,particular,personalascontrastedwithcngtnggenaralorcommon.
Tc.Todrawupto,ornearapproachforthwithtobeif,evenifunitedtogetherbtnhnottwobtlinotseparate,inseparable.
Tcc.Immediatelytoobtain,e.g.rebirthinthePureLand,orthenewbirthhereandnow.
Tchutckhng.Allthings,orphenomena,areidenticalwiththevoid,orthenoumenon.
Tckhngtcgitctrung.Allthingsarevoid,ornoumenal,arephenomenal,aremedial,thethreemeditationstamqunofThinThaitng.
Tcli.Identityanddifference,agreementanddisagreement.
Tcphi.Identityanddifference.

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Tcsnhichn.Phenomenaareidenticalwithreality,e.g.waterandwave.
Tcstcl.Theidentityofphenomenawiththeirunderlyingprinciple,e.g.bodyandspiritareaunity.
Tctm.Ofthemind,mental,i.e.allthingsaremental,andarenotapartfrommind.
TctmnimPht.Toremember,orcallupon,AmtbhaBuddhawithintheheart,whichishisPureLand.
TctmthPht.TheidentityofmindandBuddha,mindisBuddha,thehighestdoctrineofMahynathenegativeformisphitmphiPhtnomimdnoBuddha,or
apartfrommindthereisnoBuddha.
Tcthn.ThedoctrineofChnNgntngthatthebodyisalsoBuddhainotherwordsBuddhaisnotonlytctmmind,butbodyhencetcthnthnhPht.Tc
thnb,thebodyistobecome(consciously)BuddhabyYogapractice.
Tcthi.Immediately,forthwith.
Tctrung.Theviamediaisthatwhichliesbetweenorembracesboththekhngandthegi,i.e.thevoidornoumenal,andthephenomenal.
Tctngtctm.Bothformandmindareidentical,e.g.thePureLandasaplaceisidenticalwiththePureLandinthemindorheartadoctrineofthePureLand
orJodosect,Tnh.
Tngi.Thedoctrineofmutualdependenceorrelativityofallthingsfortheirexistence,e.g.thetriangledependsonitsthreelines,theeyeonthingshavingcolour
andform,longorshort.
Tngi.Opposite,opposedincomparison.
Tngnhp.Mutualentrytheblendingofthings,eg.thecommonlightfrommanylamps.
Tngtc.Santati(S).Continuity,especiallyofcauseandeffect.
Tngtcgi.Illusoryideascontinuouslysucceedoneanotherproducingotherillusoryideas,oneofthethreehypothesesofThnhthtlun.
Tngtctm.Continuityofmemory,orsensation,inregardtoagreeablesordisagreeables,remainingthroughothersucceedingsensations.
Tngtcthng.Nodalorsuccessivecontinuityincontrastwithbtonthnguninterruptedcontinuity.
Tngtc.Phenomenalidentity,e.g.thewaveiswaterandwaterthewave.
Tngt.Alike,like,similar,identical.TngtPht,approximationoridentityoftheindividualandBuddha,adoctrineofThinThaithestageofthptn.Tng
ttc(Pht),oneofthesixofsuchidentities,similiarityinform.Tngtgic,theapproximateenlightenmentwhichinthestageofthptr,thphnh,andthp
hihngapproximatestoperfectenlightenmentbythesubjectionofallillusionthesecondofthefourdegreesofbodhiintheAwakeningofFaithKhitnlun.
TngngAhm.Samyuktgamas(S).MiscellaneousAgamas.
Tngng.Response,correspond,tally,agreement,yukta,oryogaintp.askhhpunionofthetallies,oneagreeingorunitingwiththeothers.
Tngngnhn.Corresponding,ormutualcausation,e.g.mind,ormentalconditionscausingmentation,andviceversa.
Tngngphp.Thecorrespondenceofmindwithmentaldatadependentonfivecorrespondencescommontoboth,i.e.thesenses,reasoning,process,timeand
object.
Tngngtng.Yoga,thesectofmutualresponsebetweenthemanandhisobjectofworshipresultingincorrespondenceinbody,mouth,andmind.Itisaterm
forChnNgntng.
Tng.Laksana(S).Externalappearancetheappearanceofthingsformaphenomenonhuviphpinthesenseofappearance,mutualtoregard.Thefourforms
takenbyeveryphenomenonaresinhrise,trstay,dchamge,ditcease,i.e.sinhbirth,looldage,bnhsickness,tdeath.
Tngi.Thegreatnessofthepotentialities,orattributesoftheTathgata.
Tngho.Laksanavyanjana(S).ThethirtytwotngormarksandtheeightyhoorsignsonthephysicalbodyofBuddha.

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Tngkhng.Theunrealityofformthedoctrinethatphenomenahavenorealityinthemselves.
Tnglun.Thesignorformofwheels,alsoluntng,i.e.theninewheelsorcirclesatthetopofapagoda.
Tngphn.Thepartoflaksanaorobjectiveappearance.
Tngs.Physiognomist.
Tngtng.XemPhptngtng.
Tngtr.Knowledgederivedfromphenomena.
Tngvtnh.Unrealinphenomena,e.g.lngraturtlehairandsngthrabbit'shornstheunrealityofphenomena,oneofthetamvtnh.
Tng.Pratirpa,pratirpaka(S).Like,similar,resemblancesemblanceimageportraitform,formal.
Tngha.Thereligionoftheimageorsymbol,Buddhism.
Tngphp.ThesecondorformalperiodoftheteachingofBuddhismbysymbol.Thethreeperiodsarechnhphpthoseofthereal,tngphptheformal,
andmtphpthefinal.
Tng.Gaja,hastin,alsonga(S).Anelephant.
Tngusn.Gaysiras(S).Elephantheadmountain,nameoftwomountains,onenearGay,theothersaidtobeneartheriverNairanjan.
Tngvng.Gajapati(S).LordofElephants,atermforSkyamunialsothefabulousrulerofthesoutherndivisionoftheJambudvipacontinent.
Tng.Tothink,meditate,reflect,expectafunctionofmind.
Tngi.Thoughtofanddesirefor,thoughtleadingtodesire.
Tngino.Invertedthoughtsorperceptions,i.e.theillusionofregardingtheseemingasreal.
Tngun.Sanjn(S).Oneofthefiveskandhas,perception.
Tnggii.Thesphereofthought.

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