You are on page 1of 40

THE NEW REQUIREMENTS OF ASCE 7-16 FOR

SITE-SPECIFIC GROUND MOTIONS


(Interim Solution to an Identified Short-Coming
in the Seismic Design Procedures of ASCE 7-10)

EERI
2015 COSMOS Annual Seminar
Meeting on Next
Current Generation
Ground Attenuation
Motion Design Models
Values Maps Issues and Solutions

Charlie Kircher, Ph.D., P.E.


Kircher & Associates
Palo Alto, California
cakircher@aol.com
MSRA = MRSA MSRP
(i.e., modal response spectrum analysis, not manufacturers suggested retail price)

Kircher Presentation The New Requirements of ASCE 7-16 for Site-Specific Ground Motions
11/13/2015 2015 COSMOS Annual Meetig 2
Topics

Summary of New Requirements


Section 11.4.7 Site Specific Ground Motion Procedures
Section 21.4 Design Acceleration Parameters
Impact on Design
Design Examples Spreadsheet
The Problem
The Solution
Investigations and Findings
FEMA-funded BSSC study
Conclusion
Long-Term Solution

Kircher Presentation The New Requirements of ASCE 7-16 for Site-Specific Ground Motions
11/13/2015 2015 COSMOS Annual Meetig 3
Acknowledgments

FEMA (NEHRP) funded BSSC study:


Investigation of an Identified Short-coming in the Seismic Design Procedures of
ASCE 7-10 and Development of Recommended Improvements For ASCE 7-16
https://www.nibs.org/resource/resmgr/BSSC2/Seismic_Factor_Study.pdf
Study Advisors and Contributors:
Nico Luco (USGS)
Sanaz Rezaeian (USGS)
C. B. Crouse (URS)
Jonathan Stewart (UCLA)
Kevin Milner (SCEC)
David Bonnevile (Degenkolb) BSSC PUC Chair
John Hooper (MKA) ASCE 7-16 SSC Chair
PEER Center - Next Generation Attenuation Relations
Linda Al Atik (PEER NGA West1 GMPEs spreadsheet)
Emil Seyhan (PEER NGA West2 GMPEs spreadsheet)
Kircher Presentation The New Requirements of ASCE 7-16 for Site-Specific Ground Motions
11/13/2015 2015 COSMOS Annual Meetig 4
Design Response Spectrum
(Figure 11.4-1, ASCE 7-16 with annotation)

SDS = 2/3 x SMS = 2/3 x Fa x Ss

SD1 = 2/3 x SM1 = 2/3 x Fv x S1

Cs = SDS/(R/Ie) Cs = SD1/T(R/Ie)
T Ts Ts < T TL

Acceleration Velocity Displacement


Domain Domain Domain
TS = SD1/SDS

Kircher Presentation The New Requirements of ASCE 7-16 for Site-Specific Ground Motions
11/13/2015 2015 COSMOS Annual Meetig 5
Changes to the Site-Specific Procedures of Section 21.4

Derivation of Design Acceleration Parameters SDS and


SD1 from a site-specific design spectrum:
Base SDS on 90 percent of the peak acceleration of the
site-specific design spectrum (periods of 0.2s to 1s)
Consistently define domain of constant acceleration in terms of
90 percent of peak acceleration response regardless of the period
of peak response (within the range 0.2s to 1s).
Base SD1 on 100 percent of T x site-specific design
spectrum at the period of peak velocity response
(periods 1s to 5s)
Extend period range from 2s to 5s for Site Class D and E sites to
avoid underestimating response in the domain of constant
velocity

Kircher Presentation The New Requirements of ASCE 7-16 for Site-Specific Ground Motions
11/13/2015 2015 COSMOS Annual Meetig 6
Illustration of the New Criteria of Section 21.4
Site Class DE, M8 at R = 8.5 km (PEER NGA-West1 Relations)

2.0
MCEr - BC (Vs,30 = 2,500 fps)
ELF Design Spectrum
1.8 MCEr - DE (Vs,30 = 600 fps)
Cs x (R/Ie) = min[SDS, SD1/T]
Design DE (Vs,30 = 600 fps)
1.6
ELF DE (Vs,30 = 600 fps)

1.4
Spectral Acceleration (g)

1.2

1.0
SD1 = max(T x Sa[1s l T 5s])
0.8

0.6
SDS = Max(0.9 x Sa[T 0.2s])
0.4

0.2

0.0
0.1 1.0 10.0
Period (seconds)

Kircher Presentation The New Requirements of ASCE 7-16 for Site-Specific Ground Motions
11/13/2015 2015 COSMOS Annual Meetig 7
New Requirements for Site-Specific Analysis - Section 11.4.7

Require site-specific ground motion procedures for:


structures on Site Class E sites with SS greater than or equal to 1.0.
structures on Site Class D and E sites with S1 greater than or equal to
0.2.
Permit ELF (and MRSA) design using conservative values of
seismic coefficients:
Structures on Site Class E sites with SS greater than or equal to 1.0,
provided the site coefficient Fa is taken as equal to that of Site Class C.
Structures on Site Class D sites with S1 greater than or equal to 0.2,
provided the value of the seismic response coefficient Cs is increased
by up to 50 percent at periods greater than Ts
Structures on Site Class E sites with S1 greater than or equal to 0.2,
provided that T is less than or equal to Ts and the equivalent static
force procedure is used for design.
Kircher Presentation The New Requirements of ASCE 7-16 for Site-Specific Ground Motions
11/13/2015 2015 COSMOS Annual Meetig 8
Design Example - 4-Story Steel Special Moment Frame Building
Site Class C

0.160
ASCE 7-10
0.140 Design Value at T
ASCE 7-16 w/NSC
Design Value at T
Design Coefficient, Cs (g)

0.120
ASCE 7-16 w/008
0.100 Design Value at T
ASCE 7-16 w/SSAF
0.080 Design Value at T

0.060 Material Steel Site Class C


System MF Ss 1.50
0.040 Detailing Special S1 0.60
Floors 4 T L (s) 12
0.020 Height (ft) 45 SDC D
T a (s) 0.59 R 8
0.000
0.1 1 10
Period (seconds)

Kircher Presentation The New Requirements of ASCE 7-16 for Site-Specific Ground Motions
11/13/2015 2015 COSMOS Annual Meetig 9
Design Example 4-Story Steel Special Moment Frame Building
Site Class D

0.140
ASCE 7-10
Design Value at T
0.120
ASCE 7-16 w/NSC
Design Value at T
Design Coefficient, Cs (g)

0.100 ASCE 7-16 w/008


Design Value at T
0.080 ASCE 7-16 w/SSAF
Design Value at T
0.060
Material Steel Site Class D
System MF Ss 1.50
0.040
Detailing Special S1 0.60
Floors 4 T L (s) 12
0.020
Height (ft) 45 SDC D
T a (s) 0.59 R 8
0.000
0.1 1 10
Period (seconds)

Kircher Presentation The New Requirements of ASCE 7-16 for Site-Specific Ground Motions
11/13/2015 2015 COSMOS Annual Meetig 10
Design Example 4-Story Steel Special Moment Frame Building
Site Class E

0.160
ASCE 7-10
0.140 Design Value at T
ASCE 7-16 w/NSC
Design Value at T
Design Coefficient, Cs (g)

0.120
ASCE 7-16 w/008
0.100 Design Value at T
ASCE 7-16 w/SSAF
0.080 Design Value at T

0.060 Material Steel Site Class E


System MF Ss 1.50
0.040 Detailing Special S1 0.60
Floors 4 T L (s) 12
0.020 Height (ft) 45 SDC D
T a (s) 0.59 R 8
0.000
0.1 1 10
Period (seconds)

Kircher Presentation The New Requirements of ASCE 7-16 for Site-Specific Ground Motions
11/13/2015 2015 COSMOS Annual Meetig 11
Design Example 20-Story Steel Special Moment Frame Building
Site Class C

0.160
ASCE 7-10
0.140 Design Value at T
ASCE 7-16 w/NSC
Design Value at T
Design Coefficient, Cs (g)

0.120
ASCE 7-16 w/008
0.100 Design Value at T
ASCE 7-16 w/SSAF
0.080 Design Value at T

0.060 Material Steel Site Class C


System MF Ss 1.50
0.040 Detailing Special S1 0.60
Floors 20 T L (s) 12
0.020 Height (ft) 212 SDC D
T a (s) 2.03 R 8
0.000
0.1 1 10
Period (seconds)

Kircher Presentation The New Requirements of ASCE 7-16 for Site-Specific Ground Motions
11/13/2015 2015 COSMOS Annual Meetig 12
Design Example 20-Story Steel Special Moment Frame Building
Site Class D

0.140
ASCE 7-10
Design Value at T
0.120
ASCE 7-16 w/NSC
Design Value at T
Design Coefficient, Cs (g)

0.100 ASCE 7-16 w/008


Design Value at T
0.080 ASCE 7-16 w/SSAF
Design Value at T
0.060
Material Steel Site Class D
System MF Ss 1.50
0.040
Detailing Special S1 0.60
Floors 20 T L (s) 12
0.020
Height (ft) 212 SDC D
T a (s) 2.03 R 8
0.000
0.1 1 10
Period (seconds)

Kircher Presentation The New Requirements of ASCE 7-16 for Site-Specific Ground Motions
11/13/2015 2015 COSMOS Annual Meetig 13
Design Example 20-Story Steel Special Moment Frame Building
Ss = 1.5, S1 = 0.6, Site Class E, TL = 12s SDC D

0.160
Site-Specific Analysis ASCE 7-10
0.140 Required (Ta > Ts) Design Value at T
ASCE 7-16 w/NSC
Design Value at T
Design Coefficient, Cs (g)

0.120
ASCE 7-16 w/008
0.100 Design Value at T
ASCE 7-16 w/SSAF
0.080 Design Value at T

0.060 Material Steel Site Class E


System MF Ss 1.50
0.040 Detailing Special S1 0.60
Floors 20 T L (s) 12
0.020 Height (ft) 212 SDC D
T a (s) 2.03 R 8
0.000
0.1 1 10
Period (seconds)

Kircher Presentation The New Requirements of ASCE 7-16 for Site-Specific Ground Motions
11/13/2015 2015 COSMOS Annual Meetig 14
Root Cause of the Problem

Section 11.4 of ASCE 7-10 (ASCE 7-16) - Use of only two


response periods (0.2s and 1.0s) to define ELF (and MRSA)
design forces is not sufficient, in general, to accurately
represent response spectral acceleration for all design periods
Reasonably Accurate (or Conservative) When peak MCER
response spectral acceleration occurs at or near 0.2s and
peak MCER response spectral velocity occurs at or near
1.0s for the site of interest
Potentially Non-conservative When peak MCER response
spectral velocity occurs at periods greater than 1.0s for the
site of interest (e.g., soil sites whose seismic hazard is
dominated by large magnitude events)

Kircher Presentation The New Requirements of ASCE 7-16 for Site-Specific Ground Motions
11/13/2015 2015 COSMOS Annual Meetig 15
Example ELF Design Spectrum based on ASCE 7-16 Seismic Criteria
M7.0 earthquake ground motions at RX = 6.5 km, Site Class C

2.6
MCEr Multi-Period Response Spectrum - Site Class BC
2.4
MCEr Multi-Period Response Spectrum - Site Class C
2.2 Design Multi-Period Response Spectrum - Site Class C
ELF Design Spectrum (Cs x R/Ie) - Current ASCE 7-16 Criteria
Response Spectral Accelertation (g)

2.0

1.8

1.6

1.4

1.2

1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0
0.1 1.0 10.0
Period (seconds)

Kircher Presentation The New Requirements of ASCE 7-16 for Site-Specific Ground Motions
11/13/2015 2015 COSMOS Annual Meetig 16
Example ELF Design Spectrum based on ASCE 7-16 Seismic Criteria
M7.0 earthquake ground motions at RX = 6.5 km, Site Class D

2.6
MCEr Multi-Period Response Spectrum - Site Class BC
2.4
MCEr Multi-Period Response Spectrum - Site Class D
2.2 Design Multi-Period Response Spectrum - Site Class D
ELF Design Spectrum (Cs x R/Ie) - Current ASCE 7-16 Criteria
Response Spectral Accelertation (g)

2.0

1.8

1.6

1.4

1.2

1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0
0.1 1.0 10.0
Period (seconds)

Kircher Presentation The New Requirements of ASCE 7-16 for Site-Specific Ground Motions
11/13/2015 2015 COSMOS Annual Meetig 17
Example ELF Design Spectrum based on ASCE 7-16 Seismic Criteria
M7.0 earthquake ground motions at RX = 6.5 km, Site Class E

2.6
MCEr Multi-Period Response Spectrum - Site Class BC
2.4
MCEr Multi-Period Response Spectrum - Site Class E
2.2 Design Multi-Period Response Spectrum - Site Class E
ELF Design Spectrum (Cs x R/Ie) - Current ASCE 7-16 Criteria
Response Spectral Accelertation (g)

2.0

1.8

1.6

1.4

1.2

1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0
0.1 1.0 10.0
Period (seconds)

Kircher Presentation The New Requirements of ASCE 7-16 for Site-Specific Ground Motions
11/13/2015 2015 COSMOS Annual Meetig 18
Long-Term Solution (ASCE 7-22 ?)

Develop and adopt multi-period design spectrum approach


Not feasible in current code cycle (ASCE 7-16)
Multi-period spectrum approach will require:
Major reworking of seismic design requirements and
criteria now based on two response periods (e.g.,
Tables 11.6-1/2, Seismic Design Categories, etc.)
Development of new ground motion design values maps
(by the USGS) for each new response period of interest
Development of new site factor tables for each new
response period of interest (or site effects embedded
directly in ground motion design values maps)
Kircher Presentation The New Requirements of ASCE 7-16 for Site-Specific Ground Motions
11/13/2015 2015 COSMOS Annual Meetig 19
Short-Term Solution (ASCE 7-16)

Two Options:
Re-formulate seismic parameters to eliminate potential non-
conservatism in ELF (and MRSA) seismic forces
Require site-specific analysis when ELF (and MRSA) seismic
forces could be potentially non-conservative
Perform a study to develop the technical approach and basis for
proposing changes to current seismic criteria
Develop new values of re-formulated parameters (Option 1)
Develop criteria for requiring site-specific analysis (Option 2)
Develop conservative values of current seismic
parameters for design using ELF (and MRSA) methods in
lieu of site-specific analysis

Kircher Presentation The New Requirements of ASCE 7-16 for Site-Specific Ground Motions
11/13/2015 2015 COSMOS Annual Meetig 20
Tentative Re-Formulation of Seismic Parameters
Add two new spectrum shape adjustment factors, Ca and Cv, to
Eqs. 11.4-1 and 11.4-2 of Section 11.4.3 which would define values
of SMS and SM1, as follows:
SMS = CaFaSS (11.4-1)
SM1 = CvFvS1 (11.4-2)
Use the new values of seismic coefficients Fa and Fv
Calculate values of spectrum shape adjustment factors Ca and Cv:
Ca = CFa /F0.2 (e.g., F0.2 = Fa)
Cv = CFv /F1.0 (e.g., F1.0 = Fv)
Derive values of the parameters CFa and CFv from representative
target MCER spectra using the new criteria of Section 21.4:
CFa = 0.9 max{SaM[T 0.2s]}/Ss
CFv = 1.0 max{T x SaM[5s T 1s]}/S1
Kircher Presentation The New Requirements of ASCE 7-16 for Site-Specific Ground Motions
11/13/2015 2015 COSMOS Annual Meetig 21
Example Derivation of Parameters, CFa and CFv using the New Criteria of Section
21.4 - Site Class DE, M8 at R = 8.5 km (NGA-West1 Relations)

2.0
MCEr - BC (Vs,30 = 2,500 fps)
ELF Design Spectrum
1.8 MCEr - DE (Vs,30 = 600 fps)
Cs x (R/Ie) = min[SDS, SD1/T]
Design DE (Vs,30 = 600 fps)
1.6
ELF DE (Vs,30 = 600 fps)

1.4 Derived
Spectral Acceleration (g)

CFa = 0.78
1.2 CFv = 3.81
Ts = 2.25s
1.0
SD1 = max(T x Sa[1s l T 5s])
0.8

0.6
SDS = Max(0.9 x Sa[T 0.2s])
0.4
Derivation of Parameters CFa and CFv
0.2 CFa = SDS/(2/3 x Ss) = 0.9 x 0.87g)/(2/3 x 1.56g)
CFv = SD1/(2/3 x S1) = 4s x 0.47g/s/(2/3 x 0.69g)
0.0
0.1 1.0 10.0
Period (seconds)

Kircher Presentation The New Requirements of ASCE 7-16 for Site-Specific Ground Motions
11/13/2015 2015 COSMOS Annual Meetig 22
Example Plots of Parameters CFa and CFv Derived from Deterministic
M6.0 and M8.0 MCER Response Spectra
2.0 2.0
Site Class A (vs,30 = 5,315 fps) Site Class A (vs,30 = 5,315 fps)
1.9 1.9
1.8 CFa - M6.0 Site Class AB (vs,30 = 5,000 fps)
Site Class B (vs,30 = 3,000 fps) 1.8 CFa M8.0 Site Class AB (vs,30 = 5,000 fps)
Site Class B (vs,30 = 3,000 fps)
1.7 Site Class BC (vs,30 = 2,500 fps) 1.7 Site Class BC (vs,30 = 2,500 fps)
Site Class C (vs,30 = 1,600 fps) Site Class C (vs,30 = 1,600 fps)
1.6 Site Class CD (vs,30 = 1,200 fps) 1.6 Site Class CD (vs,30 = 1,200 fps)
1.5 Site Class D (vs,30 = 870 fps) 1.5 Site Class D (vs,30 = 870 fps)
Site Class DE (vs,30 = 600 fps) Site Class DE (vs,30 = 600 fps)
1.4 Site Class E (vs,30 = 510 fps)
1.4 Site Class E (vs,30 = 510 fps)
Derived Factor, CFa

Derived Factor, CFa


1.3 1.3
1.2 1.2
1.1 1.1
1.0 1.0
0.9 0.9
0.8 0.8
0.7 0.7
0.6 0.6
0.5 0.5
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2 2.25 2.5 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2 2.25 2.5
Short-Period (0.2s) Spectral Acceleration Parameter, Ss (g) Short-Period (0.2s) Spectral Acceleration Parameter, Ss (g)

6.0 6.0
Site Class A (vs,30 = 5,310 fps) Site Class A (vs,30 = 5,310 fps)
5.5
CFv M6.0 Site Class AB (vs,30 = 5,0000 fps)
Site Class B (vs,30 = 3,000 fps)
5.5
CFv M8.0 Site Class AB (vs,30 = 5,0000 fps)
Site Class B (vs,30 = 3,000 fps)
5.0 Site Class BC (vs,30 = 2,500 fps) 5.0 Site Class BC (vs,30 = 2,500 fps)
Site Class C (vs,30 = 1,600 fps) Site Class C (vs,30 = 1,600 fps)
4.5 4.5
Site Class CD (vs,30 = 1,200 fps) Site Class CD (vs,30 = 1,200 fps)
Site Class D (vs,30 = 870 fps) Site Class D (vs,30 = 870 fps)
4.0 4.0
Site Class DE (vs,30 = 600 fps) Site Class DE (vs,30 = 600 fps)
3.5 Site Class E (vs,30 = 155 fps) 3.5 Site Class E (vs,30 = 155 fps)
Derived Factor, CFv

Derived Factor, CFv

3.0 3.0

2.5 2.5

2.0 2.0

1.5 1.5

1.0 1.0

0.5 0.5

0.0
Kircher Presentation The New Requirements of0.0ASCE 7-16 for Site-Specific Ground Motions
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2
11/13/2015
1-Second Spectral Acceleration Parameter, S1 (g) 2015 COSMOS Annual Meetig1-Second Spectral Acceleration Parameter, S1 (g) 23
Site-Specific Values Earthquake Magnitude - Map of TL Regions
(Figure 22-12, ASCE 7-10 based on Figure 1 and Table 1, Crouse et al., 2006)

Kircher Presentation The New Requirements of ASCE 7-16 for Site-Specific Ground Motions
11/13/2015 2015 COSMOS Annual Meetig 24
Example Values of Short-Period Spectrum Shape Adjustment Factor Ca
(from Table 11.4-3 of Proposal BSSC PUC IT11-006)

Table 11.4-3 Short-Period Spectrum Shape Adjustment Factor, Ca

Mapped Risk-Targeted Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCER) Spectral Response


Acceleration Parameter at Short Period

Site Class SS 0.25 SS = 0.5 SS = 0.75 SS = 1.0 SS = 1.25 SS 1.5

A 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9


B 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9
C 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9
D 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
E 0.95 1.0 1.1 1.15 1.2 1.25
F See Section 11.4.7
Selected Values of F a - Table 11.4-2, ASCE 7-16
Site Class S s = 1.0 S s = 1.25 S s = 1.5
C 1.2 1.2 1.2
D 1.1 1.0 1.0
E 1.1 1.0 0.8

Kircher Presentation The New Requirements of ASCE 7-16 for Site-Specific Ground Motions
11/13/2015 2015 COSMOS Annual Meetig 25
Example Values of Short-Period Spectrum Shape Adjustment Factor Cv
(from Table 11.4-4 of Proposal BSSC PUC IT11-006)

Table 11.4-4 Long-Period Spectrum Shape Adjustment Factor, Cv, for sites with
TL greater than or equal to 12 s

Mapped Risk-Targeted Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCER) Spectral Response


Acceleration Parameter at 1-s Period

Site Class S1 0.1 S1 = 0.2 S1 = 0.3 S1 = 0.4 S1 = 0.5 S1 0.6

A 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0


B 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
C 1.0 1.05 1.05 1.05 1.0 1.1
D 1.0 1.2 1.3 1.35 1.45 1.5
E 1.0 1.3 1.5 1.75 1.9 2.0
F See Section 11.4.7

Kircher Presentation The New Requirements of ASCE 7-16 for Site-Specific Ground Motions
11/13/2015 2015 COSMOS Annual Meetig 26
Conclusion

Temporary Solution. The new site-specific design


requirements of Section 11.4.7 provide a short-term
solution that can and should be replaced by a more
appropriate long-term solution in the next Code cycle
Multi-Period Design Spectra. A long-term solution would
necessarily include seismic criteria described by multi-
period MCER response spectra
Design Spectrum Shape. Ideally, multi-period design
spectra would directly incorporate site, basin and other
effects that influence the shape (i.e., frequency content)
of the design spectrum

Kircher Presentation The New Requirements of ASCE 7-16 for Site-Specific Ground Motions
11/13/2015 2015 COSMOS Annual Meetig 27
Example Calculation of Site Amplification Curve Site Class D
SaM(vs,30 = 870 fps) SaM(vs,30 = 1,200 fps)

4.0
Site Class BC (M7.75, Rx = 9.05 km)

Response Spectral Acceleration (g) or Site Amplification 3.5 Site Class D (M7.75, Rx = 9.05 km)
Site Class D Amplification - Ss = 1.5g, S1 = 0.6g

3.0

2.5

2.0
F1.0 = 2.4

1.5
MCER Spectrum
Site Class D
1.0

0.5 F0.2 = 1.05


MCER Spectrum
Site Class BC
0.0
0.1 1.0
Response Period (seconds)

Kircher Presentation The New Requirements of ASCE 7-16 for Site-Specific Ground Motions
11/13/2015 2015 COSMOS Annual Meetig 28
Comparison of Site Amplification Curves Derived from PEER NGA-West 1 GMPEs and
ASCE 7-16 Site Coefficients Site Class D (Default Values of Basin Depth Parameters)

3.0

2.5
Site Factor - Site Class D

2.0

1.5
Ss = 0.25g, S1 = 0.1g
Ss = 0.5g, S1 = 0.2g
1.0 Ss = 0.75g, S1 = 0.3g
Ss = 1.0g. S1 = 0.4g
Ss = 1.25g, S1 = 0.5g
0.5 Ss = 1.5g, S1 - 0.6g
Fa - ASCE 7-16
Fv - ASCE 7-16
0.0
0.1 1
Response Period (seconds)

Kircher Presentation The New Requirements of ASCE 7-16 for Site-Specific Ground Motions
11/13/2015 2015 COSMOS Annual Meetig 29
Comparison of Site Amplification Curves Derived from PEER NGA-West 2 GMPEs and
ASCE 7-16 Site Coefficients Site Class D (Default Values of Basin Depth Parameters)

3.0

2.5
Site Factor - Site Class D

2.0

1.5
Ss = 0.25g/S1 = 0.1g
Ss = 0.5g/S1 = 0.2g
Ss = 0.75g/S1 = 0.3g
1.0
Ss = 1.0g/S1 = 0.4g
Ss = 1.25g/S1 = 0.5g

0.5 Ss = 1.5g/S1 = 0.6g


Fa - ASCE 7-16
Fv - ASCE 7-16
0.0
0.1 1
Response Period (seconds)

Kircher Presentation The New Requirements of ASCE 7-16 for Site-Specific Ground Motions
11/13/2015 2015 COSMOS Annual Meetig 30
Example Basin Depth Effects
(curves of the ratio of site amplification with and without default basin depth)

2.5
Inferred Basin Effects - Site Class B
Ratio of Site Amplification w and w/o Basin Effects Inferred Basin Effects - Site Class C
Inferred Basin Effects - Site Class D
2.0
Inferred Basin Effects - Site Class E

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0
0.1 1 10
Response Period (seconds)

Kircher Presentation The New Requirements of ASCE 7-16 for Site-Specific Ground Motions
11/13/2015 2015 COSMOS Annual Meetig 31
Example Comparison of Deterministic MCER Ground Motions
NGA West1 and NGA West2 GMPEs (M7.0 at Rx = 6 km, Site Class boundaries)

2.4
West2 is 27% greater West1 - vs,30 = 5,000 fps
2.2 than West1 at 0.3s West2 is 45% greater West1 - vs,30 = 2,500 fps
(vs,30 = 1,200 fps) than West1 at 0.5s West1 - vs,30 = 1,200 fps
2.0
(vs,30 = 600 fps) West1 - vs,30 = 600 fps
1.8 West2 - vs,30 = 5,000 fps
West2 - vs,30 = 2,500 fps
1.6
West2 - vs,30 = 1,200 fps
Spectral Acceleration (g)

1.4 West2 - vs,30 = 600 fps

1.2
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0
0.1 1.0 10.0
Period (seconds)

PEER NGA GMPE spreadsheet calculations: West1 based on Al Atik, 2009, West2 based on Seyhan, 2014)
Kircher Presentation The New Requirements of ASCE 7-16 for Site-Specific Ground Motions
11/13/2015 2015 COSMOS Annual Meetig 32
Sacramento Bee Article June 24, 2007
New data shake quake strategy Analysis of foreign
disasters may allow state to ease strict building codes
Deierlein, deputy director of the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Center
at UC Berkeley, is among dozens of consultants, professors and
government scientists who toiled to understand implications of data from
Taiwan, Turkey and other recent deadly quakes.
The result was a set of five attenuation equations that can be used to
predict how much a given quake, in a given spot, will make different types
of ground shudder miles away.
For much of California, that means 10 percent to 35 percent less shaking,
said Youssef Bozorgnia, associate director of the quake research center
at Berkeley.
We are so proud of these equations, Bozorgnia said, because they could
reduce construction costs by hundreds of millions of dollars in much of
coastal California, where new or retrofitted buildings would not need to be
as robust.
Kircher Presentation The New Requirements of ASCE 7-16 for Site-Specific Ground Motions
11/13/2015 2015 COSMOS Annual Meetig 33
PEER NGA Earthquake Databases and GMPEs
(Bozorgnia et al., Earthquake Spectra, Vol. 30, Bo. 3, August 2014. EERI)
NGA-West1 Database 3,550 Records NGA-West2 Database 21,332 Records
(West1 GMPEs used for ASCE 7-10 maps) (West2 GMPEs used for ASCE 7-16 maps)

Kircher Presentation The New Requirements of ASCE 7-16 for Site-Specific Ground Motions
11/13/2015 2015 COSMOS Annual Meetig 34
Example Comparison of Ground Motion Variability
NGA West1 and NGA West2 GMPEs (M7.0, Rx = 6 km, Site Class D)

1.0

0.9

0.8
Log Standard Deviation

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2
West2 GMPEs (Average of ASK14, BSSA14, CB14, CY14)
0.1
West1 GMPEs (Average of BA08, CB08, CY08)
0.0
0.1 1.0 10.0
Period (seconds)

PEER NGA GMPE spreadsheet calculations: West1 based on Al Atik, 2009, West2 based on Seyhan, 2014)

Kircher Presentation The New Requirements of ASCE 7-16 for Site-Specific Ground Motions
11/13/2015 2015 COSMOS Annual Meetig 35
Comparison of Deterministic and Probabilistic CFs

Issue Do spectrum shape adjustment factors based on deterministic


MCER Spectra apply to sites governed by probabilistic MCER spectra?
Approach Compare values of the parameters CFa and CFv derived from
deterministic MCER spectra with those derived from probabilistic MCER
spectra for site of common site class, MCER shaking intensity (S1 and Ss)
and common earthquake magnitude (TL region)
Sites Considered - 9,050 sites in the more densely populated areas of
California, Oregon and Washington (90% of population; 6% of land area):
Probabilistic MCER spectra based on 2% in 50-year site-specific UHS
available from the USGS web-based tool: Hazard Application Data
Site Class and shear wave velocity (vs,30) data for each site obtained
from the OpenSHA web site
Values of various ASCE 7-10 seismic design parameters (e.g., Ss, S1,
CRS, CR1 and TL) were obtained for each site from the USGS web-
based tool, U.S. Seismic Design Maps
Kircher Presentation The New Requirements of ASCE 7-16 for Site-Specific Ground Motions
11/13/2015 2015 COSMOS Annual Meetig 36
Distribution of Sites by Site Class and MCER Spectral Acceleration (S1)
for TL = 8s (M7.0 M7.5) and TL = 12s (M7.5 M8.0) Regions
Count of Census Tracts by S 1 and Site Class for Region TL = 8
Site vs,30 1-Second Period Spectral Acceleration Parameter
Class (fps) S1 0.1 S1 = 0.2 S1 = 0.3 S1 = 0.4 S1 = 0.5 S1 = 0.6 S1 0.8
A 5,315
AB 5,000
B 3,000
BC 2,500 7 17 8 58
C 1,600 45 125 43 182 263
CD 1,200 77 212 159 625 1,296
D 870 5 8 88 173 810 730
DE 600 1 2 30 3
E 510
Count of Census Tracts by S 1 and Site Class for Region TL = 12
Site vs,30 1-Second Period Spectral Acceleration Parameter
Class (fps) S1 0.1 S1 = 0.2 S1 = 0.3 S1 = 0.4 S1 = 0.5 S1 = 0.6 S1 0.8
A 5,315
AB 5,000
B 3,000
BC 2,500 5 19 42
C 1,600 49 2 1 75 90
CD 1,200 31 101 26 23 298 232
D 870 80 593 69 9 281 40
DE 600 12 16
E 510

Kircher Presentation The New Requirements of ASCE 7-16 for Site-Specific Ground Motions
11/13/2015 2015 COSMOS Annual Meetig 37
Average Values of the Parameter CFv Derived from Probabilistic MCER Spectra by Site
Class and MCER Spectral Acceleration (S1) - TL = 8s and TL = 12s Regions

Probabilistic CF v Values by S 1 and Site Class for Region TL = 8


Site vs,30 1-Second Period Spectral Acceleration Parameter
Class (fps) S1 0.1 S1 = 0.2 S1 = 0.3 S1 = 0.4 S1 = 0.5 S1 = 0.6 S1 0.8
A 5,315
AB 5,000
B 3,000
BC 2,500 1.13 1.13 1.12 1.03
C 1,600 1.49 1.49 1.37 1.37 1.30
CD 1,200 2.00 1.89 1.82 1.83 1.71
D 870 3.04 2.51 2.39 2.37 2.24 2.10
DE 600 2.89 2.94 2.90 3.02
E 510
Probabilistic CF v Values by S 1 and Site Class for Region TL = 12
Site vs,30 1-Second Period Spectral Acceleration Parameter
Class (fps) S1 0.1 S1 = 0.2 S1 = 0.3 S1 = 0.4 S1 = 0.5 S1 = 0.6 S1 0.8
A 5,315
AB 5,000
B 3,000
BC 2,500 1.18 1.20 1.26
C 1,600 1.54 1.50 1.60 1.56 1.63
CD 1,200 2.11 2.07 2.10 2.12 2.12 2.25
D 870 2.97 2.67 2.75 2.70 2.63 2.77
DE 600 3.63 3.74
E 510

Kircher Presentation The New Requirements of ASCE 7-16 for Site-Specific Ground Motions
11/13/2015 2015 COSMOS Annual Meetig 38
Values of the Parameter CFv Derived from Deterministic MCER Spectra by Site
Class and MCER Spectral Acceleration (S1) - TL = 8s and TL = 12s Regions

Deterministic CF a Values by S s and Site Class for Region TL = 8


Site vs,30 1-Second Period Spectral Acceleration Parameter
Class (fps) S1 0.1 S1 = 0.2 S1 = 0.3 S1 = 0.4 S1 = 0.5 S1 = 0.6 S1 0.8
A 5,315 0.70 0.69 0.69 0.69 0.69 0.69 0.69
AB 5,000 0.71 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.70
B 3,000 0.89 0.88 0.88 0.88 0.88 0.88 0.88
BC 2,500 1.05 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.03
C 1,600 1.53 1.50 1.49 1.49 1.49 1.49 1.49
CD 1,200 1.97 1.92 1.91 1.92 1.92 1.92 1.92
D 870 2.57 2.45 2.41 2.40 2.39 2.38 2.37
DE 600 3.57 3.22 3.09 3.03 3.00 2.96 2.89
E 510 4.24 3.82 3.68 3.61 3.56 3.52 3.44
Deterministic CF a Values by S s and Site Class for Region TL = 12
Site vs,30 1-Second Period Spectral Acceleration Parameter
Class (fps) S1 0.1 S1 = 0.2 S1 = 0.3 S1 = 0.4 S1 = 0.5 S1 = 0.6 S1 0.8
A 5,315 0.75 0.74 0.73 0.73 0.73 0.73 0.73
AB 5,000 0.76 0.75 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.75
B 3,000 0.97 0.94 0.94 0.94 0.94 0.94 0.94
BC 2,500 1.14 1.12 1.11 1.11 1.11 1.11 1.11
C 1,600 1.67 1.63 1.61 1.61 1.61 1.61 1.61
CD 1,200 2.27 2.21 2.20 2.21 2.22 2.23 2.25
D 870 2.99 2.87 2.83 2.83 2.83 2.83 2.85
DE 600 4.19 3.86 3.69 3.62 3.58 3.56 3.54
E 510 5.01 4.60 4.39 4.31 4.26 4.24 4.21

Kircher Presentation The New Requirements of ASCE 7-16 for Site-Specific Ground Motions
11/13/2015 2015 COSMOS Annual Meetig 39
Plots of the average value of the probabilistic CF parameter as a function of the value of
the deterministic CF parameter of the same site class and MCER ground motion intensity

4.0
CFa (TL = 12s, M7.5-M8.0) - COR = 96.6%
3.5 CFv (TL = 8s, M7.0-M7.5) - COR = 98.7%
CFv (TL = 12s, M7.5-M8.0) - COR = 99.0%
Deterministic Value of CFa or CFv

3.0

2.5

2.0
Outlier (?)
Five sites in Blythe CA
1.5 S1 = 0.2g, Site Class D
TL = 8s (TL = 12s?)
1.0 Site hazard governed
by M7.5 M8.0 events
on Southern Mojave
0.5 segments of the SAF

0.0
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0
Probabilistic Value of CFa or CFv

Kircher Presentation The New Requirements of ASCE 7-16 for Site-Specific Ground Motions
11/13/2015 2015 COSMOS Annual Meetig 40