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DEPARTAMENTO DE CIENCIAS DE LA

ENERGIA Y MECANICA

FLEXIBLE MANUFACTURING SYSTEM


CLASS NOTES

Summary by: Ing. Borys Culqui MSc.

Reference: Automation, Production Systems and


CIM - Groover (2001)

SANGOLQU- ECUADOR
2016
EMEC-32074 | SISTEMAS FLEXIBLES DE MANUFACTURA

I. SECTION 1...........................................................................................................................10
Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION TO PRODUCTION SYSTEMS ...........................................................11
1.1. HYSTORY OF MANUFACTURING .................................................................................11
1.2. SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT MOVEMENT ....................................................................15
1.3. PROCESS DEFINITION .................................................................................................16
1.3.1. Types of process .................................................................................................16
1.3.2. Manufacturing process .......................................................................................16
1.4. MANAGEMENT PROCESS ISO 9001 ............................................................................17
1.5. ECONOMIC REALITIES .................................................................................................17
1.6. APROACH TECHNOLOGIES ..........................................................................................17
1.7. LEAN MANUFACTURING .............................................................................................18
1.7.1. Lean production attributes .................................................................................18
1.7.2. Resources: ..........................................................................................................18
1.7.3. Manufacturing activities .....................................................................................18
1.7.4. Lean production programs .................................................................................18
1.8. EXERCISE.....................................................................................................................19
Chapter 2 PRODUCTION SYSTEMS ..........................................................................................20
2.1. DEFINITIONS ...............................................................................................................20
2.1.1. Manufacturing Process .......................................................................................20
2.1.2. Production System ..............................................................................................20
2.1.3. Manufacturing System........................................................................................20
2.2. LEVELS IN PRODUCTION SYSTEM................................................................................21
2.2.1. Facilities ..............................................................................................................21
2.2.2. Manufacturing Support Systems ........................................................................21
2.3. Automation in Production Systems ............................................................................23
2.3.1. Automated Manufacturing System.....................................................................23
2.3.2. Automation Principles and Strategies.................................................................25
2.4. EXERCISES ...................................................................................................................26
Chapter 3 MANUFACTURING METRICS ...................................................................................28
3.1. MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS ................................................................................28
3.1.1. Processing and assembly operations ..................................................................28
3.1.2. Material handling and storage ............................................................................28
3.1.3. Inspection and testing ........................................................................................29

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3.1.4. Coordination and Control ...................................................................................29


3.2. PRODUCTION OPERATIONS ........................................................................................29
3.2.1. Continuous Production .......................................................................................29
3.2.2. Batch Production ................................................................................................29
3.3. PLANT LAYOUT ...........................................................................................................29
3.3.1. Fixed position layout ..........................................................................................30
3.3.2. Process layout.....................................................................................................31
3.3.3. Cellular layout .....................................................................................................31
3.3.4. Product layout ....................................................................................................32
3.4. METRICS .....................................................................................................................32
3.4.1. Product Structure .................................................. Error! Marcador no definido.
3.5. EXERCISES: ..................................................................................................................39
Chapter 4 PRODUCTION PLANNING AND CONTROL ...............................................................41
4.1. PRODUCT BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE .........................................................................41
4.2. PRODUCTION PLANNING ............................................................................................41
4.2.1. Aggregate Production Planning ..........................................................................42
4.2.2. Master Production Schedule ..............................................................................42
4.2.3. Material Requirement Planning ..........................................................................43
4.2.4. Capacity Planning ...............................................................................................44
4.3. PRODUCTION CONTROL .............................................................................................45
4.3.1. Shop floor control ...............................................................................................45
4.4. EXERCISES ...................................................................................................................46
II. SECTION 2...........................................................................................................................51
Chapter 5 CNC MACHINES ......................................................................................................97
5.1. CNC History ................................................................................................................97
5.2. NUMERICAL CONTROL................................................................................................98
5.3. FUNDAMENTALS OF NC TECHNOLOGY .......................................................................97
5.3.1. Basic Components ..............................................................................................97
5.4. NC APPLICATIONS .......................................................................................................98
5.4.1. Machine Tool Applications .................................................................................98
5.4.2. Non-Machine Tool Applications .........................................................................98
5.4.3. Other CNC tools ..................................................................................................99
5.5. NC CHARACTERISTICS .................................................................................................99
5.6. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF NC ............................................................100

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5.6.1. Advantages .......................................................................................................100


5.6.2. Disadvantages...................................................................................................100
5.7. EXERCISES .................................................................................................................100
Chapter 6 CNC MACHINES ....................................................................................................102
6.1. PROCCESSING EQUIPMENT ......................................................................................102
6.1.1. Milling Machines ..............................................................................................102
6.1.2. Indexer..............................................................................................................103
6.1.3. Fixtures Vice ..................................................................................................104
6.1.4. Chip Conveyor ..................................................................................................104
6.1.5. Part Feeder .......................................................................................................104
6.1.6. Turning Machine (Lathe) ..................................................................................105
6.2. COORDINATES SYSTEM.............................................................................................105
6.2.1. Milling Coordinate System ................................................................................105
6.2.2. Turning Coordinate System ..............................................................................106
6.3. MOTION CONTROL SYSTEM .....................................................................................106
6.3.1. Point to Point ....................................................................................................106
6.3.2. Continuous Path Control ..................................................................................106
6.4. INTERPOLATION METHOD ........................................................................................107
6.4.1. Linear interpolation ..........................................................................................108
6.4.2. Circular interpolation ........................................................................................108
6.4.3. Helical interpolation .........................................................................................108
6.4.4. Parabolic and cubic interpolation .....................................................................108
6.5. MACHINE CONTROL UNIT .........................................................................................108
6.5.1. Functions of Computer Numerical Control .......................................................108
6.5.2. Machine Control Unit Systems .........................................................................108
Chapter 7 CNC PROGRAMMING............................................................................................110
7.1. PROGRAMMING METHOD........................................................................................110
7.1.1. Manual part programming ...............................................................................110
7.1.2. Computer Assisted Part Programming .............................................................110
7.1.3. Part programming using CAD-CAM software ...................................................110
7.1.4. Manual data input (MDI) ..................................................................................110
7.2. CONVERSATIONAL PROGRAMMING .........................................................................111
7.2.1. Manual Programming Procedure .......................... Error! Marcador no definido.
7.3. EXERCISES .................................................................................................................119

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Chapter 8 G CODES ...............................................................................................................121


8.1. PREPARATORY FUNCTION (G FUNCTION) .................................................................121
8.1.1. Oneshot G code ..............................................................................................121
8.1.2. Modal G code ...................................................................................................121
8.2. MISCELLANEOUS FUNCTION ....................................................................................121
8.2.1. List of function ..................................................................................................121
8.2.2. Positioning (G00) ..............................................................................................121
8.2.3. Linear Interpolation (G01) ................................................................................121
8.2.4. Circular Interpolation (G02, G03) .....................................................................122
8.2.5. Inch/Metric Conversion (G20, G21) ..................................................................123
8.2.6. Reference Position Return (G28) ......................................................................123
8.2.7. Cutter Compensation (G40, G41, G42) .............................................................123
8.2.8. Tool Length Offset (G43, G44, G49) ..................................................................123
8.2.9. Constant Surface Speed Control (G96, G97) .....................................................123
8.2.10. Subprogram (M98, M99) ..................................................................................124
8.2.11. Drilling Cycle, Spot Drilling G81 ........................................................................124
8.2.12. Drilling Cycle Counter Boring Cycle (G82) .........................................................125
8.2.13. Peck Drilling Cycle (G83) ...................................................................................125
8.2.14. Tapping Cycle (G84) ..........................................................................................126
8.3. EXERCISES .................................................................................................................127
III. SECCION 3 ....................................................................................................................129
Chapter 9 INTRODUCTION TO THE INDUSTRIAL ROBOTS......................................................130
9.1. ROBOTIC RULES ........................................................................................................130
9.2. QUALITIES OF INDUSTRIAL ROBOTS .........................................................................130
9.3. ANATOMY.................................................................................................................130
9.4. DEGREES OF FREEDOM.............................................................................................131
9.4.1. Types of Joints ..................................................................................................131
9.4.2. Configuration of a Robot ..................................................................................132
9.5. CLASSIFICATION OF INDUSTRIAL ROBOTS ................................................................132
9.6. ACTUATOR END ........................................................................................................133
9.6.1. Grippers ............................................................................................................134
9.6.2. Tools .................................................................................................................134
9.7. CLASSIFICATION OF CONTROL SYSTEM ....................................................................134
9.7.1. Limited Sequence Control ................................................................................134

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9.7.2. Playback Control Point to Point (PTP) ...............................................................134


9.7.3. Control Playback Continuous Path (CP) ............................................................135
9.7.4. Intelligent Control .............................................................................................135
9.8. EXERCISES .................................................................................................................135
Chapter 10 APLICATIONS OF INDUSTRIAL ROBOTS .............................................................136
10.1. CONDITIONS .........................................................................................................136
10.2. PROCESS CATEGORIES ..........................................................................................136
10.3. MATERIAL HANDLING APPLICATIONS ...................................................................136
10.3.1. Material Transfer ..............................................................................................136
10.3.2. Machine loading or unloading ..........................................................................137
10.4. PROCESSING OPERATION .....................................................................................137
10.5. ASSEMBLY AND INSPECTION ................................................................................137
10.6. PROGRAMMING ...................................................................................................138
10.7. PROGRAMMING METHOD ....................................................................................138
Chapter 11 IMPLEMENTATION OF INDUSTRIAL ROBOTS ....................................................139
11.1. DISPOSITION OF ROBOT IN THE CELL....................................................................139
11.1.1. In The Center ....................................................................................................139
11.1.2. In Line ...............................................................................................................139
11.1.3. Mobile ..............................................................................................................140
11.1.4. Overhead Robots ..............................................................................................140
11.2. CRITERIA FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION ..................................................................140
11.3. SAFETY IN MANUFACTURING CELLS .....................................................................141
11.3.1. Accident ............................................................................................................141
11.4. ROBOT SELECTION ................................................................................................141
11.5. CELL DESING .........................................................................................................141
11.6. WORKING AREA ....................................................................................................141
Chapter 12 MATERIAL HANDLING (LOGISTICS) ...................................................................142
12.1. DESING CONSIDERATION ......................................................................................142
12.1.1. Material characteristics ....................................................................................142
12.1.2. Flow, Routing and Scheduling ...........................................................................142
12.1.3. Plant Layout ......................................................................................................143
12.2. UNIT LOAD PRINCIPLES .........................................................................................144
12.3. MATERIAL HANDLING EQUIPMENT ......................................................................144
12.3.1. Material transport equipment ..........................................................................144

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12.3.2. Storage systems ................................................................................................144


12.3.3. Unitizing equipment .........................................................................................144
12.3.4. Identification and Tracking Systems .................................................................144
12.4. THE 10 PRINCIPLES OF MATERIAL HANDLING ......................................................145
12.5. MATERIAL TRANSPORT EQUIPMENT ....................................................................145
12.5.1. Industrial Trucks ...............................................................................................145
12.5.2. Automated Guided Vehicles Systems (AGVS) ...................................................145
12.5.3. Rail Guided Vehicles .........................................................................................146
12.5.4. Conveyors .........................................................................................................146
12.5.5. Hoists and Cranes .............................................................................................146
12.6. EXERCISES .............................................................................................................147
Chapter 13 MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS ...............................................................................51
13.1. COMPONENTS OF A MANUFACTURING SYSTEM ....................................................51
13.1.1. Components .......................................................................................................51
13.2. FACTORS FOR CLASIFICATION.................................................................................53
13.2.1. Types of Operation Performed ...........................................................................53
13.2.2. Number of Workstations ....................................................................................53
13.2.3. Level of Automation ...........................................................................................54
13.2.4. Part or Product Variety .......................................................................................55
13.3. CLASIFICATION........................................................................................................56
13.4. EXERCISES ...............................................................................................................58
Chapter 14 CELLS ..................................................................................................................61
14.1. SINGLE STATION MANNED CELLS ...........................................................................61
14.1.1. Characteristics ....................................................................................................62
14.2. SINGLE STATION AUTOMATED CELLS .....................................................................62
14.2.1. Applications ........................................................................................................63
14.2.2. Analysis ...............................................................................................................63
14.3. EXERCISES ...............................................................................................................65
Chapter 15 CELLULAR MANUFACTURING .............................................................................66
15.1. DEFINITIONS ...........................................................................................................66
15.2. OBJECTIVES .............................................................................................................67
15.3. ANALYSIS ................................................................................................................67
15.3.1. Grouping Parts and Machines.............................................................................67
15.3.2. Arranging Machines in a GT Cell .........................................................................70

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15.4. EXERCISES ...............................................................................................................72


Chapter 16 FLEXIBLE MANUFACTURING SYSTEM..................................................................76
16.1. DEFINITION .............................................................................................................76
16.2. BENEFICTS ..............................................................................................................76
16.2.1. Increased Machine Utilization ............................................................................76
16.2.2. Fewer Machines Required ..................................................................................77
16.2.3. Reduction in Factory Floor Space Required ........................................................77
16.2.4. Greater Responsiveness to Change ....................................................................77
16.2.5. Reduced Inventory Requirements ......................................................................77
16.2.6. Lower Manufacturing Lead Times ......................................................................77
16.2.7. Reduced direct labor requirements and higher labor productivity ....................77
16.2.8. Opportunity for Unattended Production ............................................................77
16.3. FLEXIBILITY..............................................................................................................77
16.4. CLASSIFICATION OF FMS.........................................................................................78
16.4.1. Classification by Number of Machine .................................................................83
16.4.2. Classification by Level of Flexibility .....................................................................84
16.5. COMPONENTS ........................................................................................................78
16.6. WORKSTATIONS .....................................................................................................78
16.6.1. Load/Unload Stations .........................................................................................78
16.6.2. Machining Stations .............................................................................................78
16.6.3. Other Processing Stations ...................................................................................78
16.6.4. Assembly Stations ...............................................................................................78
16.6.5. Other Stations and Equipment ...........................................................................78
16.7. Material Handling and Storage System ..................................................................79
16.7.1. Functions of the Handling System ......................................................................79
16.7.2. System ................................................................... Error! Marcador no definido.
16.7.3. FMS Layout Configurations .................................................................................85
16.8. COMPUTER CONTROL SYSTEM ...............................................................................80
16.8.1. Workstation control ...........................................................................................80
16.8.2. Distribution of control instructions to workstations ...........................................80
16.8.3. Production control ..............................................................................................80
16.8.4. Traffic control .....................................................................................................81
16.8.5. Shuttle control ....................................................................................................81
16.8.6. Workpiece monitoring ........................................................................................81

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16.8.7. Tool control ........................................................................................................81


16.8.8. Performance monitoring and reporting..............................................................81
16.8.9. Diagnostics .........................................................................................................82
16.9. PEOPLE ARE REQUIRED TO MANAGE AND OPERATE THE SYSTEM. ........................82
16.10. EXERCISES ...............................................................................................................87
Chapter 17 QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF FLEXIBLE MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS ................91
17.1. DETERMINISTIC MODELS ........................................................................................91
17.2. QUEUEING MODELS ...............................................................................................91
17.3. DISCRETE EVENT SIMULATION ...............................................................................92
17.4. BOTTLENECK MODEL ..............................................................................................92
17.5. EXERCISES ...............................................................................................................94
Chapter 18 MANUAL ASSEMBLY LINES .................................... Error! Marcador no definido.
18.1. CHARACTERISTICS .................................................................................................149
18.2. ANALYSIS ..............................................................................................................150
18.3. LINE BALANCING...................................................................................................150
18.4. PRECEDENCE CONSTRAINTS .................................................................................151
18.5. ALGORITHMS ........................................................................................................151
18.6. EXERCISES .............................................................................................................151

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I. SECTION 1

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Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION TO PRODUCTION SYSTEMS

1.1. HYSTORY OF MANUFACTURING


8000-3000 BC Wood working - Forming - Firing

Figure 1: Wood made tools.

3500-1500 BC Bronze Age - Metallurgy and Metalworking


Iron - Gold - Copper - Silver - Tin
Gold Sheet - Jewelry
Wiring

Figure 2: Metallurgy and Metalworking.

2000- 1000 BC Iron - Forging process

Figure 3: Forging process.

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1000 - 1 BC Iron Age


Iron melting - Heat Treatment as Quenching
Stamping - Coining

Figure 4: Stamping and Coining.

1 - 1000 AC Zinc - steel


Armors
Coining - Spades

Figure 5: Coining.

1000 1700 Blast Furnace


Cannonry
Wiring

Figure 6: Cannonry.

1760- 1830 Industrial Revolution

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Changes from economy based on agriculture and handicraft to


economy based on industry and manufacturing

I. Watts steam engine

Figure 7: Steam engine.

II. Machine tools - Wilkinson 1775 - Cutting lathe

Figure 8: Cutting lathe.

III. Spinning jenny and Power loom

Figure 9: Spinning jenny.

IV. Factory system

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Figure 10: Factory system.

1850 Second Industrial revolution


I. Mass production - 1900 US population was 76 millions

Figure 11: Mass production of airplanes.

II. Assembly lines - 1916 Henry Ford - Model T ( < 500 USD)

Figure 12: Assembly lines of Ford model.

III. Scientific Management Movement

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Figure 13: Scientific Management Movement.

IV. Electrification Factories

Figure 14: Electrification Factories.

1900 Fusion welding process

Figure 15: Fusion welding process.

1.2. SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT MOVEMENT


Frederick Winslow Taylor Frank Bunker Gilbreth
Time study.
Standards.
Piece rate system.
Data collection, record keeping, cost accounting.

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1.3. PROCESS DEFINITION


MANUFACTURING:
Manus = hand
Factus = make
Make by hands. This term appears around 1567.

Types of process
Services process
Manufacturing process - VA - NVA
Management process

Manufacturing process
Manufacturing can be defined as the application of physical and chemical processes to
alter the geometry, properties, and/or appearance of a given starting material to make
parts or products; manufacturing also includes the joining of multiple parts to make
assembled products.

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1.4. MANAGEMENT PROCESS ISO 9001

Figure 16: Model of a process-based quality management system.

1.5. ECONOMIC REALITIES


Globalization
International outsourcing
Local outsourcing
Contract manufacturing
Trend toward the service sector
Quality expectation
The need for operational efficiency

1.6. APPROACH TECHNOLOGIES

Modern manufacturers employ technologies, such as:


Automation
Material handling strategies
Manufacturing systems
Flexible manufacturing
Quality programs
Computer integrated manufacturing
Lean production JIT

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1.7. LEAN MANUFACTURING


Lean production means operate the factory with the minimum possible resources and
yet maximizing the amount of work that is accomplished with those resources. The
lean production is based on four principles:

Minimize waste.
Perfect first-time quality.
Flexible production lines.
Continuous improvement.

1.7.1. LEAN PRODUCTION ATTRIBUTES


Enhancement of mass production.
Flexible production for product variety.
Focus on factory operations.
Emphasis on supplier management.
Emphasis on efficient use of resources.
Relies on smooth production schedule.

1.7.2. RESOURCES:
a. Worker
b. Equipment
c. Time
d. Space
e. Materials

1.7.3. MANUFACTURING ACTIVITIES


Value-adding activities
Auxiliary activities
Wasteful activities

1.7.4. LEAN PRODUCTION PROGRAMS


Just in time (Kanban)
Work involvement (empowerment)
Continuous improvement (Quality circle, 5S)
a. Seiri Classify
b. Seiton Order
c. Seiso cleaning
d. Seiketsu Standardizer
e. Shitsuke Discipline

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Reduce setup time (SMED = Single-Minute Exchange of Die). This concept


introduces the idea that in general, any machine change or process initialization
shouldnt take more than 10 minutes.
Stopping the process when something is wrong (ANDON). Is a manufacturing
term referring to a system to notify management, maintenance, and other workers of
a quality or process problem.
Error prevention (Poka-Yoke = Prueba de errores). It is a quality technique that
is applied in order to avoid errors in operation of a system.
Total productive maintenance (TPM)

1.8. EXERCISE
1) One plant produces three product lines: A, B, and C. There are 6 models within
product line A, 4 models within B, and 8 within C. Average annual production
quantities of each A model is 500 units, 700 units for each B model, and 1100 units
for each C model. Determine:
a) The value P.
b) The value Qf.

Solution:
a) The parameter P is the total number of different product models produced.

= 6 + 4 + 8 = 18

b) Qf is the total production quantity of all products made in the factory.

= 6(500) + 4(700) + 8(1100) = 3000 + 2800 + 8800 = 14600

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Chapter 2 PRODUCTION SYSTEMS

2.1. DEFINITIONS

2.1.1. PRODUCTION SYSTEM


A production system is a collection of people, equipment and procedures organized to
perform the manufacturing operations of a company.

2.1.2. MANUFACTURING SYSTEM


A manufacturing system is a collection of integrated equipment designed for some
special mission, such as machining a defined part family or assembling certain product.
Include people.

2.1.3. MANUFACTURING PROCESS


Application of physical and chemical process to alter the geometry properties and/or
appearance of a given started material to make parts or a whole product. This
definition includes assembly process.

Task meaning???

2.1.4. WORK STATION

Scheme???

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2.2. LEVELS IN PRODUCTION SYSTEM

2.2.1. FACILITIES
Factory
Production machines
Tooling
Material handling equipment
Inspection equipment
Computer system
Plant layout

a. Production Quantity
Low production: Quantities in range of 1 to 100 units/year.
Medium production: Quantities in range of 100 to 10000 units/year.
High production: Production quantities are 10000 to millions of units.

2.2.2. MANUFACTURING SUPPORT SYSTEMS


Procedures or process needed to manage the production operations.
Involve a cycle of information processing.

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Figure 17: The information-processing cycle in a typical manufacturing firm.

2.2.3. BUSINESS FUNCTIONS


Communication with the customer.
Marketing
Forecasting
Order entry
Cost accounting
Customer billing

2.2.4. PRODUCT DESIGN


Research and development
Design engineering
Prototype shop

2.2.5. MANUFACTURING PLANNING


Process planning. Operation sequence
Master scheduling Planning. MPS. Listing of product to be make
Material Requirement planning. MRP. Raw material and purchasing parts.
Capacity resource planning. CRP

2.2.6. MANUFACTURING CONTROL


Shop floor control
Inventory control
Quality control

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2.2.7. MANUFACTURING SYSTEM CATEGORIES


In terms of human participation in the process:

Manual work system


Workers performing one or more tasks with the aid of hand tools.

Hand tools: Is a small tool that is manually operated by the strength and skill of the
human user.

Worker-machine system
A human worker operates powered equipment.

Automated system
The process is performed by a machine without the direct participation of a human
worker.

Requirement: Program of instructions and control system

2.3. AUTOMATION IN PRODUCTION SYSTEMS


The automated elements of the production system can be separated into two
categories:

a. automation of the manufacturing systems in the factory and


b. computerization of the manufacturing support systems.

2.3.1. AUTOMATED MANUFACTURING SYSTEM


The process is performed by a machine without the direct participation of a human
worker. There are three basic types:

a. Programmable automation
The equipment are designed with the capability to change the sequence of operation
to accommodate different product configuration.
Features:
High investment in general purpose equipment.
Batch production.
Low production rates.
Certain flexibility to change product configuration.

Example:
CNC machine tools with manual part charge lost time

b. Flexible automation

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Is an extension of programmable automation.


Features:
High investment in custom-engineered equipment.
Continuous production of variable mixture product.
Medium production rates.
Flexibility to deal with product design variation. Virtually no time lost for
changeover.

Example:
Machining operation with automated part charge.

c. Fixed automation
System in which the sequence of processing operation is fixed by the equipment
configuration.

Features:
High initial investment for custom-engineered equipment.
High production rates.
Relative inflexibility of the equipment to accommodate product variety.

Example:
Machining lines transfers.
Automated Assembly Machines Assembly Lines.

2.3.2. COMPUTERIZED MANUFACTURING SUPPORT SYSTEMS


Automation of the manufacturing support systems is aimed at reducing the amount of
manual and clerical effort in manufacturing.
The term computer integrated manufacturing (ClM) denotes the pervasive use of
computer systems to design the products, plan the production, control the operations,
and perform the various business related functions needed in a manufacturing firm.

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True CIM involves integrating all of these functions in one system that operates
throughout the enterprise.
Other terms are used to identify specific elements of the CIM system. For example,
computer-aided design (CAD) denotes the use of computer systems to support the
product design function.
Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) denotes the use of computer systems to
perform functions related to manufacturing engineering. Some computer systems
perform both CAD and CAM, and so the term CAD/CAM is used to indicate the
integration of the two into one system.
Computer-integrated manufacturing includes CAD/CAM, but it also includes the firm's
business functions that are related to manufacturing.

2.3.3. REASONS FOR AUTOMATING

a. To increase labor productivity,


b. To reduce labor cost,
c. Mitigate the effects of labor shortages.
d. To eliminate routine manual or clerical tasks.
e. To improve worker safety
f. To improve product quality.
g. To reduce manufacturing lead lime.
h. To accomplish processes that cannot be done manually;
i. To avoid the high cast of not automating

2.4. AUTOMATION PRINCIPLES AND STRATEGIES

2.4.1. USA PRINCIPLES


Understand the existing process
Simplify de process
Automated the process

2.4.2. STRATEGIES
Specialization de operation
Combined operations
Simultaneous operation
Integration of operation
Increase of flexibility
Improve material handling and storage
On line inspection
Process control and optimization

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Plant operation control


Computer integrated manufacturing (CIM)

2.4.3. MIGRATION
Manual production
Automated production
Automated integrated production

2.5. EXERCISES
1) If a production system has a utilization value of 80% and a performance value
of 75 %, what capacity is needed to produce a piece that requires 1000 hours per
year?

= = 80%
= = 75%
= 1000
=?

=

(1000 )
= = .
0.80 0.75

2) If each machine works 8hr per turn, where the turn is 1 day, but can only get a
performance of 60% and 70% of use, and assuming that each peace is made in 1 min,
how many machines are needed to produce 100000 units/year?

= = 70%
= = 60%
= 8
# = =?

=

=

8 20 12
=
1 1 1

= 1920

= =
= 1920 0.6 0.7

= 806.4

1 , 100000 100000
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1
= 100000 = 1666.67
60

=


1666.67

=

806.4

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Chapter 3 MANUFACTURING METRICS

There are certain basic activities that must be carried out in a factory to convert raw
materials into finished products.

3.1. MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS


The factory activities are:
Processing and Assembly Operations.
Material Handling.
Inspection and Test.
Coordination line Control.

3.1.1. PROCESSING AND ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS


Manufacturing processes can be divided into two basic types:
Processing operations.
Assembly operation.

a. Processing operations
A processing operation uses energy to alter a workpart shape, physical properties, or
appearance to add value to the material.
Shaping operations: This operation apply mechanical force or heat or other
forms and combinations of energy to effect a change in geometry of the work
material.
Property-enhancing operations: These operations are designed to improve
mechanical or physical properties of the work material.
Surface processing operations: These operations are design for cleaning,
mechanical working and coating on the exterior surface of the work part.

b. Assembly operation
In this operation two or more separate parts are joined to form a new entity.

3.1.2. MATERIAL HANDLING AND STORAGE


A means of moving and storing materials between processing and/or assembly
operations is usually required. Eugene Merchants studies show the following results:

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Figure 18: How time is spent by a typical part in a batch production machine shop.

3.1.3. INSPECTION AND TESTING


These are quality control activities. The purpose of inspection is to determine whether
the manufactured product meets the established design standards and specifications.

3.1.4. COORDINATION AND CONTROL


Coordination and control in manufacturing includes both the regulation of individual
processing and assembly operations as well as the management of plant level
activities.

3.2. CONTINUOUS AN BATCH PRODUCTION

Continuous Production
Continuous production occurs when the production equipment is used exclusively for
the given product, and the output of the product is uninterrupted.

Batch Production
Batch production occurs when the materials are processed in finite amounts or
quantities. The finite amount of quantity of material is called a batch.
FIFO= First In First Out

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Figure 19: Continuous and batch production in the process and discrete manufacturing industries: (a) continuous
production in the process industries. (b) Continuous production in the discrete manufacturing industries. (c) Batch
production in the process industries. (d) Batch production in the discrete manufacturing industries.

3.3. PLANT LAYOUT

3.3.1. FIXED POSITION LAYOUT

We can find an example in the development of a ship. As the image shows the ship is
fixed. Operators work in different activities such as welding, grinding, etc. In this type
of distribution, operators can rotate around the object that is being fabricated.

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3.3.2. PROCESS LAYOUT

In this type of distribution the plant is organized to perform a specific process in a


certain section. In the example, we have three different objects to be processed. The
object A and B pass to the lathe area, then to the milling area and finally they are
stored. While the C object first passes to the late area, then to the milling area and
finally the weld area before being stored. Depending on the type of work that you
want to perform on the object, a specific machine in each section is assigned. On
several occasions you can have a machine that have to perform the same work in two
different objects.

3.3.3. CELLULAR LAYOUT

Certain groups of machines are assigned to do continuous processes. In this type of


distribution the plant is organized in order to do different types of processes in the

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same section. For example, the painting process in a given section of a factory. First,
there are some containers where different products are stored, next the object passes
to the drying oven, then to the spray booth and finally the object is cleaned.

3.3.4. PRODUCT LAYOUT

The plant is organized depending on the product. For example in an assembly. The
object to be manufactured goes through three different processes previously to be
stored. First it passes to the welding process, next to the paint process, then to the
assembly line and finally it is stored.

3.4. METRICS

3.4.1. PRODUCT BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE

Parts (subassemblies or components) required to assembly a product are numbered from 1 to j

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3.4.2. PROCESS SCHEME

10 20 30
.... i
cutting stamping painting

Processes required to make a part are numbered from 1 to i

3.4.3. SETUP TIME


Time required preparing the machine for a specific operation, example: charge drill
tools, charge mill tools or charge molds.
Tsui = (min)

Example:
10 20 30 .
Task: Tool Charge Task: Tool Charge Task: Tool Charge Task:
Tool: Center Drill Tool: Drilling Tool: Taper Tool: .

3.4.4. CYCLE TIME

The operation cycle time Tc is defined as the time that one work unit spends being
processed or assembled.
= + + (min/pc)

Where:
= .
= .
= .
= .

CNC minimizes tool change time.

Example:

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M10 tapping in a plate

Task1 Task2 Task3 Task4 Task5


1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5
Tool
Tool Tool
Charge Change Operation Discharge
Operation Change Change Operation
Part Center Drilling Part
Drilling Taper
Drill

3.4.5. BATCH TIME


The batch time for process i is:

= + (min)

Where:
= ()

3.4.6. MANUFACTURING LEAD TIME


MLT is the total time required to process a given part or product through the plant.
Including:
Lost Time Due To Delays
Time Spent In Storage
Reliability Problems Categories Of Activities:
Operation: In Machine
Nonoperation: Material Handling, storage, inspection.

Considering the following process:

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If we write the batch time for each process, we have:

1 = 1 + 1
2 = 2 + 2

= +

Then, Manufacturing Lead time for part j is writed as:


= ()
=1
When we include non-operating time, then for part j

= ( + )
=1

3.4.7. PRODUCTION RATE


The production rate for an individual processing or assembly operation is usually
expressed as an hourly rate, that is, parts or products per hour.

a. Average Production Time



= [/]

b. Production Rate
60
= [/]

Examples:
If:
= 1000 []

= 1 []

= 30 []
Tb = 1030 [pc]

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1030
= = 1.03 [/]
1000
1 1
= = = 0.97 [ ] = 58.25 [ ]
1.03

c. Job shop and mass production


Sometimes we can find processes which need to be produced in series, otherwise we
might be wasting time. Then, let us compare job shop production (Qb=1) and mass
production (Qb= very large):

Job shop Q = 1
= 1 []
= 30 []
= 30 + 11 = 31 []

1 ()
= 60 ( ) = 1.94 ( )
31 (min)

Mass production Q2 = 1000


= 1 []
= 30 []
= 30 + 10001 = 1030 []

1000 (pc)
= 60 ( ) = 58.25 ( )
1030 (min)

3.4.8. PRODUCTION CAPACITY


Production capacity is defined as the maximum rate of output that a production facility
(a production line, a work center, or a group of work centers)is able to produce under
a given set of assumed operation conditions.

The production capacity is measured in periods such as: Week, Month and year, but
the number of pieces per week is a critical issue in defining plant, then:

=
Where
n : number of work center
S : number ok shift per period (shift/week)
H: number of hour per shift (8 hour/shift)

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3.4.9. CAPACITY INCREASE


Is defined as the maximum rate of output that a production facility (or production line,
work center, or group of work centers) is able to produce under a given set 01
assumed operating conditions.

Changes can be made to increase or decrease plant capacity, this may happens under:
Short terms
Increase S (Shifts per Week).
Increase H (Hours worked per Shift).

Longer terms
Increases n (number of work centers).
Increase Rp (production rate).
Reduce no (number of operation).

3.4.10. UTILIZATION AND AVAILABILITY

Utilization
Refers to the amount of output of a production facility relative to its capacity.

Where
U: Utilization of the facility
Q: Actual quantity produced by the facility during a given time period
PC: Production capacity for the same period (pc/wk)

Availability
Availability is a common measure to reliability for equipment.

Where
A: Availability (typically expressed as a percentage)
Mf: Mean time between failures (hr)
Mr: Mean time to repair (hr)

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3.4.11. WORK IN PROCESS


WIP is the quantity of parts or products currently located in the factory that either are
being processed or are between processing operations. WIP Is inventory that is being
transformed from raw material to finished product.
Work-in-process represents an investment by the firm, but one that cannot be turned
into revenue until all processing has been completed. Many manufacturing companies
sustain major costs because work remains in-process in the factory too long.

()()
=

Where WIP is expressed in [ ]

3.4.12. COSTS OF MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS

Decisions on automation and production systems are usually based on the relative
costs of alternatives.

a. Fixed and Variable Costs


A fixed cost is one that remains constant for any level of production output. It includes
the cost of the factory building and production equipment, insurance, and property
taxes and all of them can be expressed as annual amounts.
A variable cost is one that varies in proportion to the level of production output.
Examples include direct labor, raw materials, and electric power to operate the
production equipment.
When fixed cost and variable cost are added, we have the following total cost
equation:

= + .
Where
TC = total cost (USD/yr)
When comparing automated and manual production methods, we havbe the following
figure:

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J.T. Black [2] provides some typical percentages for the different types of manufacturing
and corporate expenses. These are presented in Figure 2.5.

3.5. EXERCISES

1) A certain part is routed through six machines in a batch production plant. The
setup and operation times for each machine are given in the table below. The batch size
is 100 and the average nonoperation time per machine is 12 hours.
Determine:
a) Manufacturing Lead Time
b) Production Rate for Operation 3

Machine Setup time (hr) Cycle time (min)


1 4 5.0
2 2 3.5
3 8 10.0
4 3 1.9
5 3 4.1
6 4 2.5

Qb = 100
Tno = 12 hours per machine

Solution:
a)
4+2+8+3+3+4 24
= ( ) = = 4
6 6
5 + 3.5 + 10 + 1.9 + 4.1 + 2.5
= ( ) = 27/6 = 4.5
6
= (1 + 1 1 + )

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4.5
= 6 (4 + 100 ( ) + 12) = 6(23.5)
60
=

b)
10
[8.0 + 100 ( )] 24.67
60 =
= = 0.2467
100 100
= . /

2) The average part produced in a certain batch manufacturing plant must be


processed sequentially through six machines on average. Twenty new batches of parts
are launched each week. Average operation time=6 min, average setup time=5 hours,
average batch size=25 parts, and average nonoperation time per batch=10
hr/machine. There are 18 machines in the plant working in parallel. Each of the
machines can be set up for any type of job processed in the plant. The plant operates
an average of 70 production hours per week. Scrap rate is negligible.
Determine:
a) Manufacturing Lead Time for an Average Part.
b) Plant Capacity.
c) Plant Utilization.

Solution:
a)
= 6(5 + 25(0.1) + 10)
=
b)
5 + 250.1
= ( ) = 0.30 /
25
= 3.333 /
70(18)(3.333)
= ( )
6

=

c)
= 2025 = 500 /
500
= = 0.7143
700
= . %

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Chapter 4 PRODUCTION PLANNING AND CONTROL

Production Planning and Control (PPC) is concerned with the logistics problems that
are encountered in manufacturing, that is, managing the details of what and how
many products to produce and when, and obtaining the raw materials, parts, and
resources to produce those products.

4.1. PRODUCT BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE

lndependent demand means that demand for a product is unrelated to demand for
other items. Final products and spare parts are examples of items whose demand is
independent. Independent demand patterns must usually be forecasted.

Dependent demand means that demand for the item is directly related to the demand
for some other item.

The bill of materials (BOM) is a file used to compute the raw material and component
requirements for each product listed in the master schedule. It provides information of
the product structure by listing the component parts and subassemblies that make up
each product.

4.2. PRODUCTION PLANNING


Production planning is concerned with:
a. Deciding which products to make, how many of each one and when they
should be completed
b. Scheduling the delivery and/or production of the parts and products.
c. Planning the manpower and equipment resources needed to accomplish the
production plan.

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4.2.1. AGGREGATE PRODUCTION PLANNING


Aggregate Production Planning is a high-level corporate planning activity. The
aggregate production plan indicates production output levels for the major product
lines of the company.

4.2.2. MASTER PRODUCTION SCHEDULE (MPS)

The Master Production Schedule (MPS), it is a list of the products to be manufactured,


when they should be completed and delivered, and in what quantities. The master
schedule must be based on an accurate estimate of demand and a realistic assessment
of the company's production capacity.

The production quantities of the major product lines listed in the aggregate plan are
converted into a very specific schedule of individual products

Products included in the MPS divide into three categories:


Firm customer orders.
Forecasted demand.
Spare parts.

Proportions in each category vary for different companies, and in some cases one or
more categories are omitted.

The MPS is generally considered to be a medium-range plan since it must take into
account the lead times to order raw materials and components, produce parts in the
factory, and then assemble the end products.

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4.2.3. MATERIAL REQUIREMENT PLANNING

Material requirements planning (MRP) is a computational technique that converts the


Master Production Schedule (MPS) for end products into a detailed schedule for the
raw materials and components and subassemblies used in the end products.

For products:

For components:

a. Inputs
To function the MRP program must operate on data contained in several files. These
files serve as inputs to the MRP processor.
MPS.
Bill of materials file and other engineering and manufacturing data.
Inventory record file.

MPS

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Lists what end product, and how many of each are to be produced and when they are
to be ready for shipment. Manufacturing firms generally work toward monthly delivery
schedules, this are called time periods. Whatever the duration is, these time periods
are called time buckets in MRP. Instead of treating time as a continuous variable,
MRP makes its computations of materials and parts requirements in terms of time
buckets.

Bill of materials file(BOM)


Is used to compute the raw material and component requirements for end products
listed in the master schedule. It provides information on the product structure by
listing the component parts and subassemblies that make up each product.

Inventory record file


Is referred to as the item master file in a computerized inventory system.

Item master data: This provides the item's identification (part number) and
other data about the part such as order quantity and lead times.
Inventory status: This gives a time-phased record of inventory status. In MRP, it
is important to know not only the current level of inventory, but also any future
changes that will occur against the inventory. Therefore, the inventory status segment
lists the gross requirements for the item, scheduled receipts, on-hand status, and
planned order releases.
Subsidiary data: The third file segment provides subsidiary data such as
purchase orders, scrap or rejects, and engineering changes.

4.2.4. CAPACITY PLANNING


Capacity planning is concerned with determining what labor and equipment resources
are required to meet the current MPS as well as long-term future production needs of
the firm.

Capacity adjustments can be divided into:

a. Short Term Adjustments


Employment levels: Employment in the plant can be increased or decreased in
response to changes in capacity requirements.
Temporary workers: Increases in employment level can also be made by using
workers from a temporary agency. When the busy period is passed, these
workers move to positions at other companies where their services are needed.
Number of work shifts: The number of shifts worked per production period can
be increased or decreased.

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Labor hours: The number of labor hours per shift can be increased or
decreased, through the use of overtime or reduced hours.
Inventory stockpiling: This tactic might be used to maintain steady employment
levels during slow demand periods.
Order backlogs: Deliveries of the product to the customer could be delayed
during busy periods when production resources are insufficient to keep up with
demand.
Subcontracting. This involves the letting of jobs to other shops during busy
periods or the taking in of extra work during slack periods.

b. Long-Term Adjustments
New equipment Investments: This involves investing in more machines or more
productive machines to meet increased future production requirements, or
investing in new types of machines to match future changes in product design.
New plant construction: Building a new factory represents a major investment
for the company. However. it also represents a significant increase in
production capacity for the firm.
Purchase of existing plants from other companies.
Acquisition of existing companies: This may be done to increase productive
capacity. However, there are usually more important reasons for talking over
an existing company, for example, to achieve economies of scale that result
from increasing market share and reducing staff.
Plant closings: This involves the closing of plants that will not be needed in the
future.

4.3. PRODUCTION CONTROL


Is concerned with determining whether the necessary resources 10 implement the
production plan have been provided, and if not, it attempts to take corrective action to
address the deficiencies.

Shop floor control.


Inventory control.

4.3.1. SHOP FLOOR CONTROL


Is concerned with the release of production orders to the factory, monitoring and
controlling the progress of the orders through the various work centers, and acquiring
current information on the status of the orders.
(1) order release
(2) order scheduling,
(3) order progress.

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Priorities for scheduling:


First-come-first serve: Jobs are processed in the order in which they arrive at the
machine. One might argue that this rule is the most fair.
Earliest due date: Orders with earlier due dates are given higher priorities.
Shortest processing time: Orders with shorter processing times are given higher
priorities.
Least slack time: Slack time is defined as the difference between the time remaining
until due date and the process time remaining. Orders with the least slack in their
schedule are given higher priorities.
Critical ratio: The critical ratio is defined as the ratio of the time remaining until due
date divided by the process time remaining. Orders with the lowest critical ratio are
given higher priorities.

4.4. EXERCISES

Figure 20: example of the format to resolve the exercises.

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1) Using the master schedule of Figure 1, and the product structures in Figures
26.4 and 26.5. Determine the time-phased requirements for component C6 and raw
material M6. The raw material used in component C6 is M6. Lead times are as follows:
for P1, assembly lead time is 1 week; for P2, assembly lead time is 1 week; for S2,
assembly lead time is 1 week; for S3, assembly lead time is 1 week; for C6,
manufacturing lead time is 2 weeks; and for M6, ordering lead time is 2 weeks. Assume
that the current inventory status for all of the above items is zero units on hand, and
zero units on order.

Solution:
Period 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Item: Product P1
Gross Requirements 50 100
Scheduled Receipts
On hand 0
Net Requirements 50 100

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Planned Order 50 100


Releases
Item: Product P2
Gross Requirements 70 80 25
Scheduled Receipts
On hand 0
Net Requirements 70 80 25
Planned Order 70 80 25
Releases
Item: Subassembly S2
Gross Requirements 100 200
Scheduled Receipts
On hand 0
Net Requirements 100 200
Planned Order 100 200
Releases
Item: Subassembly S3
Gross Requirements 70 80 25
Scheduled Receipts
On hand 0
Net Requirements 70 80 25
Planned Order 70 80 25
Releases
Item: Component C6
Gross Requirements 140 260 50 200
Scheduled Receipts
On hand 0
Net Requirements 140 260 50 200
Planned Order 140 260 50 200
Releases
Item: Raw material
M6
Gross Requirements 70 130 25 100
Scheduled Receipts
On hand 0 0 0
Net Requirements 70 130 25 100
Planned Order 70 130 25 100
Releases

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2) Solve previous Problem except that the current inventory on hand and on order
for S3, C6, and M6 is as follows: for S3, inventory on hand is 2 units and quantity on
order is zero; for C6, inventory on hand is 5 units and quantity on order is 10 for
delivery in week 2; and for M6, inventory on hand is 10 units and quantity on order is
50 for delivery in week 2.

Solution:
Period 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Item: Product P1
Gross Requirements 50 100
Scheduled Receipts
On hand 0
Net Requirements 50 100
Planned Order 50 100
Releases
Item: Product P2
Gross Requirements 70 80 25
Scheduled Receipts
On hand 0
Net Requirements 70 80 25
Planned Order 70 80 25
Releases
Item: Subassembly S2
Gross Requirements 100 200
Scheduled Receipts
On hand 0
Net Requirements 100 200
Planned Order 100 200
Releases
Item: Subassembly S3
Gross Requirements 70 80 25
Scheduled Receipts
On hand 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Net Requirements 68 80 25
Planned Order 68 80 25
Releases
Item: Component C6
Gross Requirements 136 260 50 200
Scheduled Receipts 10
On hand 5 5 15 15 15 15

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Net Requirements 121 260 50 200


Planned Order 121 260 50 200
Releases
Item: Raw material
M6
Gross Requirements 60.5 130 25 100
Scheduled Receipts 50
On hand 10 10 60 60
Net Requirements 0.5 130 25 100
Planned Order 0.5 130 25 100
Releases

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Chapter 5 MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS

5.1. COMPONENTS OF A MANUFACTURING SYSTEM


Manufacturing system is a collection of integrated equipment and human resources,
whose function is to perform one or more processing and/or assembly operations on a
starting raw material, part or set of parts.

Components
a. Production machines
b. Material handling system
c. Computer control system
d. Human worker

Work station:
It is a location in the factory where some well-defined task or operation is
accomplished by an automated machine, a worker and machine combination, or a
worker using hand tools or portable tools.

Picture ..

5.1.1. PRODUCTION MACHINES:


Include: machines, tools, fixtures, hardware.

Types:
a. Manually operated
Worker provides control
b. Semi-automated:
Machine performs a portion of the work cycle under some form of control
program

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Worker tends machine


c. Fully automated:
No human attention for periods longer than one work cycle
Worker load raw material

5.1.2. MATERIAL HANDLING SYSTEM

Functions:

a. Loading work unit


Move part since source in work station
b. Positioning work unit
Workholder is a device that accurately locates, orients, and clamps the part for
the operation, like: jigs, fixture, chuck.
c. Unloading work unit
Place in containers
d. Transporting work unit
Move parts between workstation, manual
Fixed route
Variable route: job shop, GT, FMS
e. Temporary storage

5.1.3. COMPUTER CONTROL SYSTEM


Computer systems is required to control the automated and semi automated
equipment and to participate in the overall coordination and management of the
manufacturing system.

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Functions:
a. Communicate instruction to worker
b. Download part programs
c. Control material handling system
d. Schedule production
e. Failure Diagnosis
f. Monitor safety
g. Maintain quality control
h. Manage operation

5.1.4. HUMAN WORKER


Human resource performs some of all the value added work that is accomplished on
the part. Human workers are direct labor.

5.2. FACTORS FOR CLASIFICATION


The factors are:
a. Types of operations performed.
b. Number of workstations and system layout.
c. Level of automation.
d. Part or product variety.

5.2.1. TYPES OF OPERATION PERFORMED


a. Processing operations
b. Assembly operations

5.2.2. NUMBER OF WORKSTATIONS


The individual stations in a manufacturing system can be identified by the subscripts,
where i:1,2, ... ,n.

TYPE I: Single station


This is the simplest case, consisting of one workstation (n =1), usually including a
production machine that can be manually operated, semi-automated, or fully
automated.

Type II Multiple stations with variable routing


This manufacturing system consists of two or more stations (n > 1) that are designed
and arranged to accommodate the processing or assembly of different part or product
styles.

Type III Multiple stations with fixed routing.


This system has two or more workstations (n > 1), which are laid out as a production
line.

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5.2.3. LEVEL OF AUTOMATION


There are three levels:
Manual (M)
Fully automated (A)
Hybrid (H)

Manning Level
The average manning level of a multi-station manufacturing system is a useful
indicator of the direct labor content of the system. Let us define it as follows:

Where M: average manning level for the system


wu = number of utility workers assigned to the system;
wi = number of workers assigned specifically to station i; for i = 1,2, ... ,n;
w = total number of workers assigned to the system.

Utility workers are workers who are not specifically assigned to individual processing
or assembly stations. instead they perform functions such as:
(1) relieving workers at stations for personal breaks,
(2) maintenance and repair of the system,
(3) tool changing, and
(4) loading and/or unloading work units to and from the system.

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5.2.4. PART OR PRODUCT VARIETY


a. Single model: parts identical
b. Batch model: changeover in physical setup
c. Mixed model: without changeover in setup

Hard product variety is when the products differ substantially

Flexibility
Is the attribute that allows a mixed model manufacturing system to cope with a certain
level of variation in part or product style without interruptions in production for
changeovers between models.

In order to be flexible, a manufacturing system must possess the following capabilities

Identification of the different work unit.

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Quick changeover of operating instructions.


Quick changeover or physical setup.

5.3. CLASIFICATION
a. Single station manufacturing cells (Single Stations).
Reasons for the popularity of the single model workstation include:
(1) It is the easiest and least expensive manufacturing method to implement, especially
the manned version
(2) it is the most adaptable, adjustable, and flexible manufacturing system;and
(3) a manned single workstation can be converted to an automated station if demand
tor the parts or products made in the station justifies this conversion.

b. Multi stations system with variable routing (Multi-Station Cells).


Production of a family of parts having similar processing operations.
Assembly of a family of products having similar assembly operations.
Production of the complete set of components used in the assembly of one unit
of final product. By producing all of the parts in one product rather than batch
production of the parts, work-in-process inventory is reduced.

c. Multi stations system with fixed routing (production lines).


The quantity of part, or products to be made is very high (UP to millions of
units).
The work units are identical QT very similar. (Thus they require the same or
similar operations to be performed in the same sequence.)
The total work can be divided into separate tasks of approximately equal
duration that can be assigned to individual workstations.

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5.4. EXERCISES
The Learning Curve
1) A certain mechanical assembly task required 3.15 min to complete when a
skilled worker did it for the first time. The task will be performed on all assembly line
used to produce 1UUUunits of a particular product. The line is currently operating no
a pilot basis, while workers are learning their respective tasks. The line will run on
this basis for 50 units, after which it will go into reg

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Nivel Manning
2) If Mi = 1 for the station i , means that a worker must be on the station
continuously . If a worker serving four machines proportionally, then the manning
level is Mi = 0.25 for each machine.Determine the n considering the following
conditions
Ts = 0.5 min (Service)
Tm = 1 min (Manufacturing)
Tr = 0.3 min ( Replacement)

+
=
+
1 + 0,5
=
0,3 + 0,5

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= 1,875 2

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Chapter 6 SINGLE STATION MANUFACTURING CELLS

A Single Station Manufacturing Cell operates independently of others work station in the
factory, although their activities are coordinated within the large production system.

They are applied at processing or assembly.

A Machine Cluster is defined as a collection of two or more machines producing parts


or products with identical cycle times and is serviced by one worker.

6.1. TYpeS
A I: Single station manned cells
A II: Single station automated cells

6.2. SINGLE STATION MANNED CELLS

One worker (w = 1) tending one machine (n = 1)


The most widely used production method today
Processes are manual (turn, hand tool) or semi-automated (CNC)

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6.2.1. CHARACTERISTICS

It requires the shortest amount of time to implement.


It requires the least capital investment of all manufacturing systems.
Technologically, it is the easiest system to install and operate.
For many situations, particularly for low quantities, it results in the lowest cost
per unit produced.
In general, it is the most flexible manufacturing system

Applications of single station manned workstation

CNC machining center


Plastics injection molding
Electronics assembly
Stamping press

6.3. SINGLE STATION AUTOMATED CELLS

Consist of a fully automated machine capable of unattended operation for a time


period longer than one machine cycle.
In this type of manufacturing system a worker load and unload part.
Advantages:
a. Labor cost is reduced compared to the single station manned cells
b. The single station automated cell is the easiest at least expensive system to
implement, between automated manufacturing systems
c. Production rates are higher than for a comparable manned machine.
d. First step toward implementing an integrated multi-station automated system

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Applications of Single station automated cells

CNC machining center with parts carrousel, automatic downloader


A cluster CNC machining center with a robotic arm
Plastics injection molding with mechanical arm
Robotic assembly cells
Stamping press with coil stock

Analysis
a. Number of workstation
b. Number of machines in a machine cluster.

6.3.1. NUMBER OF WORKSTATION (N)


Workload (WL): time required to produce a given amount parts
Available time (AT): time in one station in a period ( hr in one week)

WL
n=
AT
Single part
WL = Q.Tc [min]
o Q: pieces required [pc]
o Tc : cycle time [min/pc]

= .
Multiple parts
= .

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j= number of parts

CORRECTION FACTORS:

1. Setup time.

=

Then
= + .

2. Availability (A)
Availability: maintenance reliability
3. Utilization (U)
Utilization: scheduling problems,
4. Worker efficiency ()

Then
= . . .

5. Defect rate

=
(1 )

OVERTIME
=

6.3.2. NUMBER OF MACHINES IN A MACHINE CLUSTER.


Conditions
(1) the semi-automatic machine cycle is long relative to the service part portion of
the cycle that requires the worker's attention:
(2) The semi-automatic machine cycle time is the same for all machines
(3) The machines that the worker would service are located in close enough
proximity to allow time to walk between them; and
(4) The work rules of the plant permit a worker to service more than one machine.

+
=
+

Tm: machine semiautomatic cycle time, min


Ts: worker service time for machine, min
Tr: worker repositioning time between machines, min

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6.4. EXERCISES
Determining the Number of Work Stations
1) A total of 800 shafts must be produced in the lathe section of the machine
shop during a particular week. Each shaft is identical and requires a machine cycle
time T, = 11.5 min. All of the lathes in the department are equivalent in terms of their
capability to produce the shaft in the specified cycle time, how many lathes must be
devoted to shaft production during the given week, if there are 40 he of available
time on each lathe?

2) A machine shop contains muny CNC lathes that operate on a semi-automatic


machining cycle under part program control. A significant number of these machines
produce the same part, whose machining cycle time = 2.75 min. One worker is
required to perform unloading and loading of parts at the end of each machining
cycle. This takes 25 sec. Determine how many machines one worker can service if it
takes an average of 20 sec to walk between the machines and no machine idle time
is allowed.

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Chapter 7 CELLULAR MANUFACTURING

7.1. DEFINITIONS
Group technology is a manufacturing philosophy in which similar parts are identified
and grouped together to take advantage of their similarities in design and production.

The parts can be grouped into part families. So a part family is a collection of parts
that are similar either because of geometric shape and size or because similar
processing steps are required in their manufacture.

Cellular manufacturing is an application of group technology in which dissimilar


machines or processes have been aggregated into cells, each of which is dedicated to
the production of a part or product family or a limited group of families.

Figure Process type plant layout.

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7.2. OBJECTIVES
The objectives in cellular manufacturing are similar to those of group technology:

To shorten manufacturing lead times, by reducing setup, work part handling,


waiting times, and batch sizes.
To reduce work-in-process inventory. Smaller batch sizes and shorter lead
times reduce WIP.
To improve quality. This is accomplished by allowing each cell to specialize in
producing a smaller number of different parts. This reduces process variations.
To simplify production scheduling. The similarity among parts in the family
reduces the complexity of production scheduling. Instead of scheduling parts through a
sequence of machines in a process-type shop layout, the parts are simply scheduled
though the cell.
To reduce setup times. This is accomplished by using group tooling (cutting
tools, jigs, and fixtures) that have been designed to process the part family, rather than
part tooling, which is designed for an individual part. This reduces the number of
individual tools required as well as the time to change tooling between parts.

7.3. ANALYSIS

7.3.1. GROUPING PARTS AND MACHINES

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The rank order clustering technique, first proposed by King [is specifically applicable in
production flow analysis].

The problem addressed here is to determine how machines in an existing plant should
be grouped into machine cells.

Starting with the initial part-machine incidence matrix the algorithm consists, of the
following steps:

a. In each row of the matrix. Read the series of 1s and 0s (blank entries =0s)
from left to right as a binary number. Rank the rows in or der of decreasing value. In
case of a tie, rank the rows in the same order as they appear in the current matrix.

b. Numbering from top to bottom, is the current order of rows the same as the
rank order determined in the previous step? If yes, go to step 7, If no, go to the
following step.

c. Reorder the rows in the part-machine incidence matrix by listing them in


decreasing rank order, starting from the top.

d. In each column of the matrix. Read the series of I 's and O's (blank entries = (j's)
from top to bottom as a binary number. Rank the columns in order of decreasing
value, In case of a tie. Rank the columns in the same order as they appear in the
current matrix.

e. Numbering from left to right, is the current order of columns the same as the
rank order determined in the previous step? If yes. Go to step 7. If no. Go to the
following step.

f. Reorder the columns in the part-machine incidence matrix by listing them in


decreasing rank order, starting with the left column. Go to step I.

g. Stop.

Example

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DISADVANTAGES
The weakness of production flow analysis is that the data used in the technique are
derived from existing production route sheets. In all likelihood, these route sheets
have been prepared by different process planners, and the routings may contain
operations that are no optimal, illogical, or unnecessary. Consequently, the final
machine groupings obtained in the analysis may be suboptimal.

7.3.2. ARRANGING MACHINES IN A GT CELL


The next problem is to organize the machines into the most logical arrangement
(sequence of machines).

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There are two methods suggested by Hollier. They are intended to arrange the
machines in an order that maximizes the proportion of in-sequence moves within the
cell

Hollier Method 1

The first method uses the sums of flow "From" and "To" each machine in the cell. The
method can be outlined as follows:
a. Developed From-To chart from part routing data. The data contained in the
chart indicate numbers of part moves between the machines (or workstations) in the
cell.
b. Determine the "From" and "To" sums for each machine. This is accomplished by
summing all of the "From" trips and "To" trips for each machine (or operation). The
"From" sum for a machine is determined by adding the entries in the corresponding
row, and the "To" sum is found by adding the entries in the corresponding column.
c. Assign machines to the cell hosed on minimum "From" or "To" sums. The
machine having the smallest sum is selected. If the minimum value is a "To" sum, then
the machine is placed at the beginning of the sequence. If the minimum value is a
"From" sum, then the machine is placed at the end of the sequence. Tie breaker rules:
(a) If a tie occurs between minimum "To" sums or minimum "From" sums, then the
machine with the minimum "From/To" ratio is selected.
(b) If both "To" and "From" sums are equal for a selected machine it is passed over
and the machine with the next lowest sum is selected.
(c) If a minimum "To" sum is equal to a minimum "From" sum, then both machines
are selected and placed at the beginning and end of the sequence, respectively.
d. Reformat the From-To chart. After each machine has been selected, restructure
the From-To chart by eliminating the row and column corresponding to the selected
machine and recalculate the "From" and "To" sums. Repeat steps 3 and 4 until all
machines have been assigned.

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Hollier Method 2
a. Develop the From-To chart. This is the same step as in Hollier Method 1.
b. Determine the From/To ratio for each machine. This is accomplished by summing
up all of the "From" trips and "To" trips for each machine (or operation). The
"From" sum for a machine is determined by adding the entries in the
corresponding row, and the "To" sum is determined by adding the entries in the
corresponding column. For each machine, the From/To ratio is calculated by taking
the "From" sum for each machine and dividing by the respective "To" sum.
c. Arrange machines in order of decreasing From/To ratio. Machines with II high
From/To ratio distribute work to many machines in the cell but receive work from
few machines. Conversely, machines with a low From to ratio receive more work
than they distribute. Therefore, machines are arranged in order of descending
Prom/to ratio. That is, machines with high ratios are placed at the beginning of the
work flow, and machine, with low ratios are placed at the end of the work flow. in
case of a tie, the machine with the higher "From" value is placed ahead of the
machine with a lower value.

7.4. EXERCISES

Group Technology Machine Sequence using Hollier Method 1

1) Suppose that four machines. I, 2.3, and 4 have been identified as belonging in
a OT machine cell. An analysis of 50 parts processed on these machines has been
summarized in the From-To chart of Table 15.14. Additional information is that '50
parts enter the machine grouping at machine 3,20 parts leave after processing at
machine 1, and 30 parts leave after machine 4. Determine a logical machine
arrangement using Hollier Method 1.

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Solution:
Summing the From trips and To trips for each machine yields the "From" and "To"
sums in Table 15.15(a). The minimum sum value is the "To" sum for machine 3.
Machine 3 is therefore placed at the beginning of the sequence. Eliminating the row
and column corresponding to machine 3 yields the revised From-To chart in Table
15.15(b). The minimum sum in this chart is the "To" sum corresponding to machine 2.
Which is placed at the front at the sequence, immediately following machine 3.
Eliminating machine 2 produces the revised From-To chart in Table 15.15(c). The
minimum sum in this chart is the "To" sum for machine I. Machine I is placed after
machine 2 and finally machine 4 is placed at the end of the sequence. Thus, the
resulting machine sequence is 3--->2--->1--->4

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Solution: By the sum of the products of the boxes ordered in descending .

Grouping into two streams

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Solution: (a) Step 1:


1 2 3 4 From
1 10 0 40 50
2 0 0 0 0
3 50 0 20 70
4 0 50 0 50
To 50 60 0 60 170

Eliminamos la columna y fila menor en este caso N 3


1 2 4
1 10 40 50
2 0 0 0
4 0 50 50
0 60 40 100

Ordenamos de mayor a menor


Eliminamos la columna y fila menor en este caso N 3

2 4
2 10 40 50
4 50 50
60 40 100

b) Network diagram:

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Chapter 8 FLEXIBLE MANUFACTURING SYSTEM

8.1. HISTORY

8.2. DEFINITION

A flexible manufacturing system (FMS) is a highly automated GT machine cell,


consisting of a group of processing workstations (usually CNC machine tools),
interconnected by an automated material handling and storage system, and controlled
by a distributed computer system.

A FMS typically possesses multiple automated stations and is capable of variable


routings among stations (manufacturing system type II A). Other types are also
possible, such as type IA and type IIIA.

A more appropriate term for an FMS would be flexible automated manufacturing


system. On the other hand, tile word "flexible" would distinguish it from other
manufacturing systems that are highly automated but not flexible, such as a
conventional transfer line.

Mid-volume, mid-variety production range. The appropriate production volume range


is 5000-75,000 parts/yr.

8.3. BENEFICTS
A number of benefits can be expected in successful FMS applications. The principal
benefits are the following:

8.3.1. INCREASED MACHINE UTILIZATION


FMSs achieve a higher average utilization than machines in a conventional batch
production machine shop. Reasons for this include:

a. 24 hr/day operation.
b. Automatic tool changing at machine tools.
c. Automatic pallet changing at workstations.
d. Queues of parts at stations, and
e. Dynamic scheduling of production that takes into account irregularities from
normal operations.

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It should be possible to approach 80% - 90% asset utilization by implementing FMS


technology.

8.3.2. FEWER MACHINES REQUIRED


Because of higher machine utilization, fewer machines are required.

8.3.3. REDUCTION IN FACTORY FLOOR SPACE REQUIRED


Compared with a job shop of equivalent capacity, an FMS generally requires less floor
area. Reductions in floor space requirements are estimated to be 40 - 50%.

8.3.4. GREATER RESPONSIVENESS TO CHANGE


An FMS improves response capability to part design changes. Introduction of new
parts, changes in production schedule and product mix, machine breakdowns, and
cutting tool failures. Adjustments can be made in the production schedule from one
day to the next to respond to rush orders and special customer requests.

8.3.5. REDUCED INVENTORY REQUIREMENTS


Because different parts are processed together rather than separately in batches,
work-in-process (WIP) is less than in a batch production mode. The inventory of
starting and finished parts can be reduced as well. Inventory reductions of 60-80% are
estimated.

8.3.6. LOWER MANUFACTURING LEAD TIMES


Closely correlated with reduced WIP is the time spent in process by the parts. This
means faster customer deliveries.

8.3.7. REDUCED DIRECT LABOR REQUIREMENTS AND HIGHER LABOR PRODUCTIVITY


Higher production rates and lower reliance on direct labor translate to greater
productivity per labor hour with an FMS than with conventional production methods.
Labor savings of 30-50%.

8.3.8. OPPORTUNITY FOR UNATTENDED PRODUCTION


The high level of automation in an FMS allows it to operate for extended periods of
time without human attention. In the most optimistic scenario, parts and tools are
loaded into the system at the end of the day shift, and the FMS continues to operate
throughout the night so that the finished parts can be unloaded the next morning.

8.4. FLEXIBILITY
We identified three capabilities that a manufacturing system must possess to be
flexible:

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a. The ability to identify and distinguish among the different part or product styles
processed by the system.
b. Quick changeover of operating instructions
c. Quick changeover of physical setup.

Flexibility is an attribute that applies to both manual and automated systems. In


manual systems, the human workers are often the enablers of the systems flexibility.

8.5. COMPONENTS
Workstations.
Material handling and storage system.
Computer control system.
People are required to manage and operate the system.

8.5.1. WORKSTATIONS

a. Load/Unload Stations
The load/unload station is the physical interface between the FMS and the rest of the
factory.
Loading and unloading can be accomplished either manually or by automated handling
systems. Manual loading and unloading is prevalent in most FMS today.

c. Machining Stations
The principle types of processing station are CNC machine tools, these machining
centers include:
Automatic tool changing.
Tool storage.
Automatic palletized work parts.
Capacity for distributed numerical control (DNC).

d. Other Processing Stations


The processing workstations consist of press working operations, such as punching,
shearing, and certain bending and forming processes.

e. Assembly Stations
Some FMSs are designed to perform assembly operations.

f. Other Stations and Equipment


Inspection can be incorporated into an FMS, either by including, an inspection
operation at a processing workstation or by including a station specifically designed for
inspection.

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8.5.2. MATERIAL HANDLING AND STORAGE SYSTEM


The material handling system is the second major component of an FMS, it is used to
transfer parts between stations and include:
Conventional material transport equipment.
In-line transfer mechanisms.
Industrial robots.

FUNCTIONS OF THE HANDLING SYSTEM

The material handling and storage system in an FMS performs the following functions:

a. Random, independent movement of work parts between stations


This means that parts must be capable of moving from anyone machine in the system
to any other machine to provide various routing alternatives for the different parts and
to make machine substitutions when certain stations are busy.

b. Handle a variety of work parts configurations


For prismatic parts, this is usually accomplished by using modular pallet fixtures in the
handling system. The fixture is located on the top face of the pallet and is designed to
accommodate different part configurations by means of common components, quick-
change features, and other devices that permit a rapid build-up of the fixture for a
given part. The base of the pallet is designed for the material handling system. For
rotational parts, industrial robots are often used to load and unload the turning
machines and to move parts between stations.

c. Temporary storage
The number of parts in the FMS will typically exceed the number of parts actually
being processed at any moment. Thus, each station has a small queue of parts waiting
to be processed, which helps to increase machine utilization.

d. Convenient access or loading and unloading work part


The handling system must include locations for load/unload stations.

e. Compatible with computer control


The handling system must be capable of being controlled directly by the computer
system to direct it to the various workstations, load/unload stations, and storage areas

The material handling function in an FMS is often shared between two systems: a
primary handling system and a secondary handling system.

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The primary handling system establishes the basic layout of the FMS and is
responsible for moving workparts between stations in the system. The types of
material handling equipment typically utilized for FMS layouts are summarized in Table
16.5. The primary handling system is sometimes supported by an automated storage
system.

The secondary handling system consists of transfer devices, automatic pallet changers
and similar mechanisms located at the workstations in the FMS. The function of the
secondary handling system is to transfer work from the primary system to the machine
tool or other processing station and to position the parts with sufficient accuracy and
repeatability to perform the processing or assembly operation.

8.5.3. COMPUTER CONTROL SYSTEM


The FMS includes a distributed computer system that is interfaced to the workstations,
material handling system, and other hardware components.

A typical FMS computer system consists of a central computer and microcomputers


controlling the individual machines and other components.

FUNCTIONS

Functions performed by the FMS computer control system can be grouped into the
following categories:

a. Workstation control
In a fully automated FMS, the individual processing or assembly stations generally
operate under some form of computer control. For a machining system, CNC is used to
control the individual machine tools.

g. Distribution of control instructions to workstations


Some form of central intelligence is also required to coordinate the processing at
individual stations. In a machining FMS, part programs must be downloaded to
machines, and DNC is used for this purpose, The DNC system stores the programs,
allows submission of new programs and editing of existing programs as needed, and
performs other DNC functions.

h. Production control
The part mix and rate at which the various parts are launched into the system must be
managed. Input data required for production control includes desired daily production
rates per part. Numbers of raw work parts available, and number of applicable pallets.
The production control function is accomplished by routing an applicable pallet to the

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load/unload area and providing instructions to the operator for loading the desired
work part.

i. Traffic control
This refers to the management of the primary material handling system that moves
work parts between stations. Traffic control is accomplished by actuating switches at
branches and merging points, stopping parts at machine tool transfer locations, and
moving pallets to load/unload stations.

j. Shuttle control
This control function is concerned with the operation and control of the secondary
handling system at each workstation. Each shuttle must be coordinated with the
primary handling system and synchronized with the operation of the machine tool
serves.

k. Workpiece monitoring
The computer must monitor the status of each cart and/or pallet in the primary and
secondary handling systems as well as the status of each of the various workpiece
types.

l. Tool control
In a machining system, cutting tools are required. Tool control is concerned with
managing two aspects of the cutting tools:

Tool location. This involves keeping track of the cutting tools at each
workstation, If one or mere tools required to process a particular workpiece is not
present at the station that is specified in the part's routing, the tool control subsystem
takes one or both of the following actions:
Determines whether an alternative workstation that has the required tool is
available and/or
Notifies the operator responsible for tooling in the system that the tool storage
unit at the station must be loaded with the required cutter(s).

Tool life monitoring. In this aspect of tool control, a tool life is specified to the
computer for each cutting tool in the FMS. A record of the machining time usage is
maintained for each of the tools, and when the cumulative machining time reaches the
specified life of the tool, the operator is notified that a tool replacement is needed.

m. Performance monitoring and reporting


The computer control system programmed to collect data on the operation and
performance of the FMS. This data is periodically summarized, and reports are

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prepared for management on system performance. Some of the important reports


that indicate FMS performance are listed in Table 16.6.
Availability
Utilization
Production performance
Tooling
Status

n. Diagnostics
This function is available to a greater or lesser degree on many manufacturing systems
to indicate the probable source of the problem when a malfunction occurs. It can also
be used to plan preventive maintenance in the system and to identify Impending
failures. The purpose of the diagnostics function is to reduce breakdowns and
downtime and increase availability of the system. The modular structure of the FMS
application software for system

8.5.4. PEOPLE ARE REQUIRED TO MANAGE AND OPERATE THE SYSTEM.

One additional component in the FMS is human labor. Humans are needed to manage
the operations of the FMS. Functions typically performed by humans include:
a. Loading raw work parts into the system.
b. Unloading finished parts (or assemblies) from the system.
c. Changing and setting tools.
d. Equipment maintenance and repair.
e. NC part programming in a machining system.

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f. Programming and operating the computer system.


g. Overall management of the system.

8.6. CLASSIFICATION OF FMS

Ways to classify FMSs are by:


Number of machines
Level of flexibility

8.6.1. CLASSIFICATION BY NUMBER OF MACHINE


Principally, FMS are classified by number of machines, like:

a. Single machine cell (SMC) (type I A)


Consists of one workstation

o. Flexible manufacturing cell (usually type II A, sometimes type III A)


Consists of two or three processing workstations (typically CNC machining centers or
turning centers).

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p. Flexible Manufacturing System (Usually Type II A, Sometimes Type III A)

FMS has four or more processing workstations.


There are three important distinctions between an FMS and an FMC:
a. An FMC has two or three machines, while an FMS has four or more.
b. The FMS generally includes no processing workstations that support production
but do not directly participate in it. These other stations include part/pallet washing
stations, coordinate measuring machines, and so on.
c. The computer control system of an FMS is generally larger and more
sophisticated, often including functions not always found in a cell, such as diagnostics
and tool monitoring.

8.6.2. CLASSIFICATION BY LEVEL OF FLEXIBILITY


Another classification of FMS is according to the level of flexibility designed into the
system.

This method of classification can be applied to systems with any number of


workstations, but its application seems most common with FMCs and FMSs. Two
categories are distinguished here:

a. Dedicated FMS
Dedicated FMS is designed to produce a limited variety of part styles, and the
complete universe of parts to be made on the system is known in advance.

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q. Order FMS
A random-order EMS is more appropriate when the part family is large, there are
substantial variations in part configurations, there will be new part designs introduced
into the system and engineering changes in parts currently produced, and the
production schedule is subject to change from day-to-day.

8.7. FMS LAYOUT CONFIGURATIONS


The material handling system establishes the FMS layout. Most layout configurations
found in today's FMSs can he divided into five categories:
a. In-line layout
b. Loop layout
c. Ladder layout
d. Open Field layout
e. Robot-Centered Cell

8.7.1. IN-LINE LAYOUT

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8.7.2. LOOP LAYOUT

8.7.3. LADDER LAYOUT

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8.7.4. OPEN FIELD LAYOUT

8.7.5. ROBOT-CENTERED CELL

8.8. EXERCISES
Bottleneck model on a simple problem
1) A flexible machining system consists of two machining workstations and a
load/unload station. Station 1 is the load/unload station. Station 2 performs milling
operations and consists of two servers (two identical CNC milling machines). Station
3 has one server that performs drilling (one CNC drill press). The stations are
connected by a part handling system that has four work carriers. The mean transport
time is 3.0 min. The FMS produces two parts, A and B. The part mix fractions and
process routings for the two parts are presented in the table below. The operation
frequency f'ik = 1.0 for all operations. Determine:
a. Maximum production rate of the FMS,

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b. Corresponding production rates of each product,


c. Utilization of each station, and
d. Number of busy servers at each station.

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Sizing the FMS


2) Suppose the part mix, process routings, and processing times for the family of
parts to be machined on a proposed FMS are those given in Example 16.8. Determine
how many servers at each station i will be required to achieve an annual production
rate of 60,000 parts/yr. The FMS will operate 24 hr/day, 5 day/wk. 50 wk/yr.
Anticipated availability of the system is 95%.

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Chapter 9 QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF FLEXIBLE MANUFACTURING


SYSTEMS

Figure 21: Un sistema flexible de manufactura de cinco estaciones. (Foto- Cincinnati Milacron-Libro Mikell Groover
3ra Ed.)

FMS analysis techniques can be classified as follows:


Deterministic models.
Queueing models.
Discrete event simulation.
Other approaches, including heuristics.

Deterministic Models

A deterministic modeling approach is useful in the beginning stages of FMS design to


provide rough estimates of system parameters such as production rate, capacity, and
utilization. Deterministic models do not permit evaluation of operating characteristics
such as the build-up of queues and other dynamics that can impair performance of the
production system. Consequently, deterministic models tend to overestimate FMS
performance.

Queueing Models

These models can be used to describe some of the dynamics not accounted for in
deterministic approaches. These models are based on the mathematical theory of
queues. They permit the inclusion of queues, but only in a general way and for
relatively simple system configurations. The performance measures that are calculated
are usually average values for steady-state operation of the system.

Examples of queueing models to study FMS, include [4], [33] and [36]. Probably the
most well-known of the FMS queueing models is CAN -O [31], [32].

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Discrete Event Simulation

These simulations are applied in the later stages of design, probably offers the most
accurate method for modeling the specific aspects of a given FMS [28], [45].

The computer model can be constructed to closely resemble the details of a complex
FMS operation.

Characteristics such as layout configuration, number of pallets in the system and


production scheduling rules can be incorporated into the FMS simulation model.

Indeed, the simulation can be helpful in determining optimum values for these
parameters.

Other techniques that have been applied to analyze FMS design and operational
problems include mathematical programming [34] and various heuristic approaches
(1), [17]. Several literature reviews on operations research techniques directed at FMS
problems are included among the references, specifically [2], [6], [20], and [37].

9.1. BOTTLENECK MODEL

It is a deterministic model; it was developed by Solberg [33].


It can be used to provide starting estimates of FMS design parameters such as
production rate and number of workstations.

The term bottleneck refers to the fact that the output of the production system has an
upper limit, given that the product mix flowing through the system is fixed.

Part mix
The mix of the various part or product styles produced by the FMS during the time
period of interest.
P

pj = 1.0
j=1

pj = the fraction of the total system output that is of style j


P= the total number of different part made in the FMS

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Operation frequency. The operation frequency is defined as the expected number of


times a given operation in the process routing is performed for each work unit.

Workload
It is an average parameter

WLt = tijk . fijk . pj


j k

The subscript I refers to the station, j refers to the part or product, and k refers to the
sequence of operations in the process routing.
where WL = average workload for station i (min),
tijk = processing time for operation k
in process pian i at station i (min),f'lk = operation frequency for operation k in part j at
station I. and PI = part mix fraction for part j.
si = the number of servers at workstation i,

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9.2. EXERCISES
1)

2)

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Bottleneck

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II. SECTION 2

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Chapter 10 CNC MACHINES FUNDAMENTALS

10.1. FUNDAMENTALS OF NC TECHNOLOGY

10.1.1. HISTORY
The development of NC owes much to the United States Air Force and the early
aerospace industry. The first development in the area of NC is attributed to John
Parsons and his associate Frank Stulen at Parsons Corporation in Traverse City,
Michigan. Parson had experimented with the concept of using coordinate position
data contained on punched cards to define and machine the surface contours of
airfoil shapes, he name this system as Cardmatic Milling Machine.

The development of NC has relied heavily on advances in digital computer


technology. As computers evolved and their performance improved, producers of
NC machines were quick to adopt the latest generation of computer technology.

10.1.2. BASIC COMPONENTS


There are three basics components:
A part program of instructions
A machine control units
Processing equipment

Figure 22: Basic components of instructions.

a. A part program of instructions


It is the set of detailed step-by-step commands that direct the action of the processing
equipment. In machine tool applications, the program of instructions is called a part
program, and the person who prepares the program is called a part programmer.

r. A machine control units (MCU)


Consists of a microcomputer and related control hardware that stores the program of
instruction and executes it by converting each command into mechanical actions of
the processing equipment, one command at a time.

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s. Processing equipment
It performs usual work. It accomplishes the processing steps to transform the starting
workpiece into a completed part.
The operations are directed by the MCU, which in turn is driven by instructions
contained in the part program.

10.2. NC APPLICATIONS
The operating principle of NC has many applications. There are many industrial
operations in which the position of a work head must be controlled relative to a part or
product being processed.

10.2.1. MACHINE TOOL APPLICATIONS

a. Machining Process
Mills
Lathes
Drills
Surface grinders
Cylindrical grinders
Wood routers

t. Cutting Process
Plasma cutters
Water jet cutters
Laser cutting

10.2.2. NON-MACHINE TOOL APPLICATIONS

a. Sheet Metal Work


Turret Punch
Bending
Wire and Tube Bending
Presses

b. Electric Discharge Machining


EDM
Wire EDM

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c. Additive Process
3D Printing

d. Measuring and Inspection


CMM

10.2.3. OTHER CNC TOOLS


Hot-Wire Foam Cutters.
Submerged Welding.
Knife Cutting.
Glass Cutting.
Drafting Machines.

10.1. NUMERICAL CONTROL


Numerical control is a form of programmable automation in which the mechanical
actions of a machine tool or other equipment are controlled by a program containing
coded alphanumerical data.

10.2. NC CHARACTERISTICS
NC technology is appropriate for:

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Low to Medium Production


Medium to High Variety Of Product
Batch Production: Small and Medium Lot Sizes
Repeat Orders
Complex Part Geometry
High Material Is Removed
Separated Operations
Part Is Expensive

10.3. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF NC

Advantages
Non-productive time is reduced
Greater accuracy and repeatability
Lower scrap rates
Inspection requirements are reduced
Most complex parts geometry are possible.
Engineering change can be accommodated more gracefully.
Simpler fixtures are needed.
Shorter manufacturing lead times (MLT).
Reduced part inventory.
Less floor space required.
Operator skill level requirements are reduced.

Disadvantages
High investment cost
High maintenance efforts
Part programming
High utilization of NC equipment

10.4. EXERCISES
1) A machinable grade of aluminum is to be milled on an NC machine with a 20
mm diameter four-tooth end milling cutter. Cutting speed = 120 m/min and feed =
0.008 mm/tooth. Convert these values to rev/min and mm/rev, respectively.

= 20 mm
Cutting speed = Cs = 120 m/min
feed = 0.008 mm/tooth

Solution:

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=
en m/rev

120
= = . /
20103
Feed in / = (4 /)(0.08 /) = . /

2) A cast iron workpiece is to be face milled on an NC machine using cemented


carbide inserts. The cutter has 16 teeth and is 120 mm in diameter. Cutting speed = 200
m/min and feed = 0.005 mm/tooth. Convert these values to rev/min and mm/rev,
respectively.

Solution:

200
= = . /
120103
Feed in / = (16 /)(0.05 /) = . /

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Chapter 11 CNC MACHINES

11.1. PROCCESSING EQUIPMENT

Milling Machines

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MCU(Microcontroller)

Indexer

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Fixtures Vice

Chip Conveyor

Part Feeder

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Turning Machine (Lathe)

11.2. COORDINATES SYSTEM

Milling Coordinate System


Flat and prismatic workpiece
a. Cartesian coordinates system (X-Y-Z) right hand rule.
b. Rotational axis (a,b,c), right hand rule.
a. Orient the workpiece to preset different surface for machining
b. Orientation of tool or workhead at some angle relative to the part.

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Turning Coordinate System


Rotation workpiece

11.3. MOTION CONTROL SYSTEM


Point to Point
Continuous Path Control

Point to Point
Positioning system, move the worktable to a programmed location without regards for
the path taken to get that location.

Once move has been completed, some processing action is accomplished by the
workhead.

Example: Drilling.

Continuous Path Control


It is a motion system capable of continuous simultaneous control of two or more axis.

In this case the tool perform the process while the worktable is moving.
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Example: Milling, Turning.

11.4. INTERPOLATION METHOD


Linear interpolation
Circular interpolation
Helical interpolation
Parabolic and cubic interpolation

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Linear interpolation
It is the most basic method.

Circular interpolation
The method permits programming a circular arc by specifying the following parameter:
Coordinate of starting point
Coordinate of end point
Center or radius
Direction of path

Helical interpolation
This method combines circular interpolation scheme for two axis with linear
interpolation of a third axis.

Parabolic and cubic interpolation


This method provides approximation of free form curves using higher order equation.

It is not common method.

11.5. MACHINE CONTROL UNIT

Functions of Computer Numerical Control


1. Storage of more than one part program
2. Various form of program input
3. Program editing at the machine tool
4. Fixed cycles and programming subroutines
5. Interpolation
6. Positioning features to setup
7. Cutter length and size compensation
8. Acceleration and deceleration calculation
9. Communication interface
10. Diagnostics

Machine Control Unit Systems

11.5.1. CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT


a. Control section
b. Arithmetic logic unit
c. Immediate access memory

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11.5.2. MEMORY
a. Main memory
i. ROM: operating system and machine interface program.
ii. RAM: numerical control program.
b. Secondary memory (hard disk)
i. Part programs.
ii. Macros.

11.5.3. I/O INTERFACE


Communication between various components of CNC system.
a. Operator panel
b. Tape reader
c. Display.

11.5.4. CONTROL FOR MACHINE TOOL AXES AND SPINDLE SPEED


a. Position control
b. Spindle speed control

11.5.5. SEQUENCE CONTROL


For others machine tool function.
a. Coolant
b. Fixtures clamping
c. Tool charger (ATC)

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Chapter 12 CNC PROGRAMMING

12.1. PROGRAMMING METHOD


Manual part programming.
Computer assisted part programming.
Part programming using CAD-CAM software.
Manual data input (MDI).

Manual part programming


The programmer prepares the NC code using a low level machine language, such as:
APT
G code

Computer Assisted Part Programming


The programmer writes the instructions.

The computer translates the instructions, perform arithmetical tasks and post process
the program.

Part programming using CAD-CAM software


The program can be simulated offline.
Time and cost of machining can be determined.
The most appropriate tooling can be automatically selected.
System can automatically insert the optimum values of process parameters.

Manual data input (MDI)


The operator manually enters the part geometry data and motion command directly
into MCU prior to running the job.

12.2. MACHINE SETUP


Machine Control Unit
Reference points
Workpiece zero (G54)
Working area
Tool Setting

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12.2.1. MACHINE CONTROL UNIT

Control Keys

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12.2.2. REFERENCE POINTS OF THE MACHINE

a. Machine zero point M


The machine zero point M lies on the surface of the milling table on the left front edge.

The machine zero point M is the origin of the coordinate system.

b. Reference point R
The reference point is a fixed point on the machine. It serves for the calibration of the
measuring system.

The reference point must be approached after each switch-on of the machine to
communicate the exact distance between the points M and N (T) to the control.

c. Tool-holding fixture reference point N (T)


The tool-holding fixture reference point N (T) lies exactly in the rotary axis at the front
of milling spindle nose.

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The tool lengths are described from this point.

Workpiece zero point W

The workpiece zero point W can be freely programmed by the user.

By programming a workpiece zero point the origin of the coordinate system is


displaced from the machine zero point M into the workpiece zero point W.

12.2.3. WORKING AREA

12.2.4. TOOL SETTING

Code: D10-30-2-R1

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Tool Compensation

12.3. PROGRAMMING PROCEDURE

Flow Process
1. Geometry
Part geometry
Workpiece
2. Operations
Define operations
Select tool
Define tool path: Coordinates table
Cutting parameters
3. Write the program
Header
Reference point
Operations
4. Simulation
Dry Run
5. Run
Cycle start

Geometry
a. Part Geometry
Part drawing
Intersection points

b. Workpiece
Stock
blank

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Operations and Sequence

Operation
Tool Path Strategies
Cutting parameters

12.3.1. OPERATIONS
Process

Face Milling Profile

Pocket

Rough-finish

rough finish

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sandvick

12.3.2. TOOL PATH STRATEGIES


Zig
Zig-zag
Profile
Spiral
Helical
Radial

12.3.3. CUTTING PARAMETERS

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Example
Face milling zig-zag
= 100 /
= 0.1 /
= 40
=4
1000
=

100 1000
=
40
= 795.77
Programming
a. Block

Number
Sequential number
One function
One movement

b. Program Structure
1. Name
00001;
2. Header
Basic instructions
Coordinates system
Units system
Cancel compensation
Cancel cycles
Reference
3. Operations
a. Operation 1
Reference point
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Select tool
Cutting parameters
Tool path
b. Operation 2
Reference point
Select tool
Cutting parameters
Tool path
c. Operation n
Reference point
Select tool
Cutting parameters
Tool path

Simulation
Dry Run

Run
Cycle start

12.4. EXERCISES
1) The two axes of an x-y positioning table are each driven by a stepping motor
connected to a leadscrew with a 4:1 gear reduction. The number of step angles on each
stepping motor is 200. Each leadscrew has a pitch = 5.0 mm and provides an axis range
= 400.0 mm. There are 16 bits in each binary register used by the controller to store
position data for the two axes. (a) What is the control resolution of each axis? (b) What
are the required the rotational speeds and corresponding pulse train frequencies of
each stepping motor in order to drive the table at 600 mm/min in a straight line from
point (25,25) to point (300,150)? Ignore acceleration.

Solution:
a) 1 = / = 5.0/(4200) = 0.00625
2 = /(2 1) = 400/(216 1) = 400/65,535 = 0.00610
= {0.00625,0.00610} = .

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b) = 600 / (25, 25) (300, 150)


= 300 25 = 275 , = 150 25 = 125
= 1(125/275) = 24.44
= 600 24.44 = 546.22 /
= / = 4(546.22)/5.0 = . /
= /60 = 436.98(200)/60 = . .
= 600 24.44 = 248.28 /
= / = 4(248.28)/5.0 = . /
= /60 = 198.63(200)/60 = .

2) A NC machine tool table is powered by a servomotor, lead screw, and optical


encoder. The lead screw has a pitch = 5.0 mm and is connected to the motor shaft with
a gear ratio of 16:1 (16 turns of the motor for each turn of the lead screw). The optical
encoder is connected directly to the lead screw and generates 200 pulses/rev of the
lead screw. The table must move a distance = 100 mm at a feed rate = 500 mm/min.
Determine (a) the pulse count received by the control system to verify that the table
has moved exactly 100 mm; and (b) the pulse rate and (c) motor speed that correspond
to the feed rate of 500 mm/min.

Solution:
a) = / , = / = 100(200)/5 =
.
b) = /60 = 500(200)/60(5) = .
c) = / = 16 500/5 = /

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Chapter 13 G CODES

Preparatory function.
Miscellaneous function.

13.1. PREPARATORY FUNCTION (G FUNCTION)


G codes are divided into the following two types:

Oneshot G code
The G code is effective only in the block in which it is.

Modal G code
The G code is effective until another G code of the same group is specified.

13.2. MISCELLANEOUS FUNCTION

List of function
Group 01 G00 G01 G02 G03 G33
Group 02 G17 G18 G19
Group 03 G90 G91
Group 05 G94 G95
Group 06 G20 G21
Group 07 G40 G41 G42
Group 08 G43 G44 G49
Group 09 G73 G74 G76 G80G89
Group 10 G98 G99
Group 11 G50 G51
Group 12 G65 G66 G67
Group 13 G96 G97
Group 14 G54G59
Group 15 G61G64
Group 16 G68 G69

Positioning (G00)
The G00 command moves a tool to the position in the workpiece system specified with
an absolute or an incremental command at a rapid traverse rate.
FORMAT: G00 Xe Ye Ze;

Linear Interpolation (G01)


A tools move along a line to the specified position at the feed rate specified in F.

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FORMAT: G01 Xe Ye Ze F;

Circular Interpolation (G02, G03)


The command will move a tool along a circular arc.
G02 for Clockwise
G03 for counter clockwise

02
FORMAT: Arc in the XpYp plane 17
03
02
Arc in the ZpXp plane 18
03
03
Arc in the YpZp plane 19
04

The numerical value following I, J, or K, is a vector component in which the arc center
is seen from the start point.

EXAMPLES:
Direction of the Circular Interpolation (G17, G18, G19)

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Inch/Metric Conversion (G20, G21)


G20; Inch input
G2 ; mm input

Reference Position Return (G28)


Positioning to the intermediate or reference positions are performed at the rapid
traverse rate of each axis.

EXAMPLE: G28 G91 X0 Y0 Z0; Return to the reference position return

Cutter Compensation (G40, G41, G42)


G41 offsets the tool towards the left of the workpiece as you see when you face in the
same direction as the movement of the cutting tool.

Tool Length Offset (G43, G44, G49)


This function can be used by setting the difference between the tool length assumed
during programming and the actual tool length of the tool used into the offset
memory. It is possible to compensate the difference without changing the program.

Specify the direction of offset with G43 or G44.


G43; Positive offset
G44; Negative offset
G49; Tool length offset cancel

Examples: G43 H01; Compensation with length value from tool 01

Constant Surface Speed Control (G96, G97)


Specify the surface speed (relative speed between the tool and workpiece) following S.
The spindle is rotated so that the surface speed is constant regardless of the position
of the tool.

G96 S_; Surface speed (m/min or feet/min)


G97 S_; Spindle speed (min-1)

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Subprogram (M98, M99)


If a program contains a fixed sequence or frequently repeated pattern, such a
sequence or pattern can be stored as a subprogram in memory to simplify the
program.

A subprogram can be called from the main program.

A called subprogram can also call another subprogram.

M98 P 111 OOOO;

111: Number of times the subprogram is called repeatedly


OOOO: Subprogram number

When no repetition data is specified, the subprogram is called just once.

Drilling Cycle, Spot Drilling G81


This cycle is used for normal drilling. Cutting feed is performed to the bottom of the
hole. The tool is then retracted from the bottom of the hole in rapid traverse.

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G81 X_ Y_ Z_ R_ F_ K_;
X_ Y_: Hole position data
Z_: The distance from point R to the bottom of the hole
R_: The distance from the initial level to point R level
F_: Cutting feedrate
K_: Number of repeats (if required)
Examples:
Drill 6 holes in a rectangular pattern

M3 S2000; Cause the spindle to start rotating


G90 G99 G81 X30 Y25 Z50 Position, drill hole 1, then return to
R10 F120; point R
Position, drill hole 2, then return to
Y55;
point R
Position, drill hole 3, then return to
Y85;
point R
Position, drill hole 4, then return to
X100;
point R
Position, drill hole 5, then return to
Y55;
point R
Position, drill hole 6, then return to
G98 Y85;
the initial level
Return to the reference position
G80 G28 G91 X0 Y0 Z0;
return
M5; Cause the spindle to stop rotating

Drilling Cycle Counter Boring Cycle (G82)

G82 X_ Y_ Z_ R_ P_ F_ K_;
X_ Y_: Hole position data
Z_: The distance from point R to the bottom of the hole
R_: The distance from the initial level to point R level
P_: Dwell time at the bottom of a hole
F_: Cutting feed rate
K_: Number of repeats (if required)

Peck Drilling Cycle (G83)


This cycle performs peck drilling.
It performs intermittent cutting feed to the bottom of a hole while removing shavings
from the hole.

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G83 X_ Y_ Z_ R_ Q_ F_ K_;
X_ Y_: Hole position data
Z_: The distance from point R to the bottom of the hole
R_: The distance from the initial level to point R level
Q_: Depth of cut for each cutting feed
F_: Cutting feed rate
K_: Number of repeats (if required)

Tapping Cycle (G84)


This cycle performs tapping.

In this tapping cycle, when the bottom of the hole has been reached, the spindle is
rotated in the reverse direction.

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13.3. CANNED CYCLES

TO DEVELOP

13.4. EXERCISES
1) Write 2 programs in which the milling tool follow the path shown in Figure
1. The first program must be done in relative coordinates and the second program in
absolute coordinates.

Figure 23: Milling path.

First Program:
N10 G21 G17 G54 G40 G49
N20 G70 G80 G90
N30 G91 G28 Z0
N40 M06 T01
N50 G43 H01

N60 G00 X0 Y0 Z5
N70 M03 S1500;
N80 G00 X25 Y25 F500;
N90 G01 Z-5
N100 G01 X0 Y75
N110 G01 X75 Y0
N120 G01 X0 Y-75
N130 G01 X-75 Y0
N140 G01 Z5

Second Program:

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N10 G21 G17 G54 G40 G49


N20 G70 G80 G90
N30 G91 G28 Z0
N40 G90
N50 M06 T01
N60 G43 H01

N60 G00 X0 Y0 Z5
N70 M03 S1500;
N80 G00 X25 Y25 F500;
N90 G01 Z-5
N100 G01 X25 Y100
N110 G01 X100 Y100
N120 G01 X100 Y25
N130 G01 X25 Y100
N140 G01 Z5

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III. SECCION 3

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Chapter 14 INTRODUCTION TO THE INDUSTRIAL ROBOTS

Figure 24: Titan Robot Related Keywords

An industrial robot is a general purpose programmable machine, which possesses


certain anthropomorphic characteristics. Involves control of multiple axes.

Duty: Historical development groups.

14.1. ROBOTIC RULES


a. A robot may not harm a human being.
b. A robot must follow the instructions of human being.
c. A robot must care for their integrity.

14.2. QUALITIES OF INDUSTRIAL ROBOTS


a. Replaces men in dangerous or comfortable, tasks such as: Welding, nitrogen
processes, casting.
b. Improving the duty cycle, consistency and repeatability.
c. They can be reprogrammed.
d. They are controlled by a computer, may form an integrated system

14.3. ANATOMY

It consists of a series of links and joints.


Links.
Joints: providing relative movement between the body parts.

Each joint provides a degree of freedom robot.

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14.4. DEGREES OF FREEDOM


Each link represents a degree of freedom.
Kinematic pair: the connection between two or more links that allow some movement

Types of Joints
You must define the link in the link of input and output

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Linear (L)
Orthogonal (O)
Rotational (R)
Twisting (T)
Revolving (V)

Configuration of a Robot
A robot manipulator has two sections:
a. Assemble body and arm:
Positioning the end effector (tool)
Three degrees of freedom

b. Assembly wrist:
Orient the end effector (tool)
2-3 degrees of freedom

14.5. CLASSIFICATION OF INDUSTRIAL ROBOTS


BASIC CONFIGURATION BODY ASSEMBLY
1. Polar TRL
2. Cylindrical TLO (LVL)
3. Cartesian coordinate LOO (OOO)

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4. Jointed arm TRR (VVR)

VRO (Selectived Compliant Asembly Robot


5. SCARA
Arm) very rigid vertical arm

14.6. ACTUATOR END


The robot also controls the process performed by the tool

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Grippers
Tweezers are used to: grasp and manipulate objects during the work cycle

14.6.1. TYPES OF GRIPPERS


Mechanical: two fingers
Vacuum: Suction
Magnetic: for ferrous parts
Adhesives: for flexible materials
simple mechanical (hooks and spoons)
Double Gripper
interchangeable Fingers
With feedback: via sensors
Multiple fingers
Standard

Tools
Spot welding

Arc welding

Boring

Waterjet cutting and laser

14.7. CLASSIFICATION OF CONTROL SYSTEM


Robots execute a stored program instruction defining the sequence of movements and
positions in the cycle.

Limited Sequence Control


Cycles of simple movements (take, place).
It does not require a microprocessor.
Limit switches and sequencer.
Tires are generally.

Playback Control Point to Point (PTP)


As in CNC.
The program is a series of positions points and the sequence in are reached.
They are stored in memory.
The path is not controlled.

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Control Playback Continuous Path (CP)


Paths in memory is stored, no points
PTP interpolation to execute movements

Intelligent Control
Ability to respond to sophisticated sensors: vision, calculations, decision making.

14.8. EXERCISES
1) For a robot of 3 degrees of freedom can have different configurations?

With a theft of 5 types of joints can have many combinations.


5x5x5= 125 combinations

2) A gear motor functions as the drive unit for a linear joint of an industrial
robot. The oint should be accurate to 0.25 mm. The motor is connected to a lead
screw through a reduction gear 2: 1 (two turns of the motor for rotating the lead
screw). The passage of the lead screw is 5.0 mm. The mechanical system errors (due
to clearances lead screw and gear reducer) are represented by a normal distribution
with a standard deviation of 0.05 mm. Specify the amount of pitch angles must be
the engine to meet the requirements of accuracy.

Solution:
Repeatability = 3 = 3(0.05) = 0.15 mm
Accuracy = 0.25 mm = 0.5 CR + 3 = 0.5 CR + 0.15
0.5 CR = 0.25 - 0.15 = 0.10
CR = 0.20 mm
Assume CR = CR1 = p/rgns
ns = p/(rg CR) = 5.0/(2 x 0.20) = 12.5 ns= 13 step angles

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Chapter 15 APLICATIONS OF INDUSTRIAL ROBOTS

15.1. CONDITIONS
For application of an industrial robot
1. 1. Dangerous tasks for operators
a. Foundry
b. Welding
2. Repetitive work cycles
3. Management of difficult material for the operator
4. Work stationary
5. Operation multiple exchange
6. Long production lines without relief

15.2. PROCESS CATEGORIES


a. Material handling applications
b. Processing operation
c. Assembly and inspection

15.3. MATERIAL HANDLING APPLICATIONS

Material Transfer
The primary purpose of the robot is to pick up part at location and place them at a new
location.
Reorientation
Conveyor
Limited sequence control

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Process
Palletizing
Depalletizing

Machine loading or unloading


The robots transfer parts into and/or from machine.
Machine loading
Machine unloading

Process
Die casting: unloading part
Plastic molding: unloading part
Metal machining operations: dual gripper
Forging: hammer action is a problem
Press working: human security
Heat treatment

15.4. PROCESSING OPERATION


The robot perform some processing operation with a tool.

Process
Spot welding
Is a common application.
Tool is heavy, pour location.
Arc welding
Spray coating
Drilling
Grinding
Waterjet cutting
Laser cutting

15.5. ASSEMBLY AND INSPECTION


These operation involve handling of materials a tool operation

Assembly
Combination of two or more parts to for a new entity, called a subassembly or an
assembly.

Use: welding, bolts, screw, rivets.


Automatic methods: pens, cigarettes.

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Inspection
The robot perform loading and unloading task.
The robot manipulates an inspection device.

15.6. PROGRAMMING
A robot program can be defined as a path in space to be followed by the manipulator,
combined with peripheral actions to support the work cycle.
Peripheral actions.
Open and closing the gripper.
Performing logical decision.
Communicating with other piece in the cell.

15.7. PROGRAMMING METHOD


Lead through programming.
Computer like robot programming languages.
Off line programming.

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Chapter 16 IMPLEMENTATION OF INDUSTRIAL ROBOTS

16.1. DISPOSITION OF ROBOT IN THE CELL

In The Center
Polar, cylindrical, SCARA.
Loading or perform tasks between one or more machines in the cell.

In Line
One or more robots
Assembly line

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Mobile
Lineal movement.
Follow the parts movement.
Relative position between robot and part is cero.
Robot return to beginning position.
Large action area (cars painting).

Overhead Robots
Optimizes space

16.2. CRITERIA FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION

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a. Disposition of Robot In The Cell.


b. Work volume.
c. Grades of liberty (1-3 -> 6).
d. Accuracy (precision), repeatability (3sigma. 0.1 to 0.05 mm) and Control
resolution (minimum division).
e. Speed (1-4 m/s).
f. Load capacity (5 to 100 kg).
g. Control system (CP, PTP ).

16.3. SAFETY IN MANUFACTURING CELLS

Accident
Collision
Flattening
Parts projection

16.4. ROBOT SELECTION


Control system
Emergency stop
Maximum speeds
Safety button
Overstress sensor
Access Password
Mechanicals stop
Self-diagnosis

16.5. CELL DESING


Wall Access
Part change tools
Conditioned movements
Preparation zones
Protections: electrical systems, neumatic systems.

16.6. WORKING AREA


Prohibited access
Visual information
Progressive starting
Continuous training

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Chapter 17 MATERIAL HANDLING (LOGISTICS)

It is concerned with the acquisition, movement, storage and distribution of the


material and products as well as the planning and control of this operation in order to
satisfy customer demand.
External: outside facility
Internal: inside facility

17.1. DESING CONSIDERATION


Material characteristics
Flow, routing and scheduling
Plant layout
Unit load principles

Material characteristics
Physical characteristics:
State
Size
Weight
Shape
Condition (hot, cold)
Risk of damage
Safety risk

Flow, Routing and Scheduling


Flow rate: amount of material moved per unit time

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Large quantities: dedicated


Small: shared

Routing: is the path to be follow by the material


Distance
Floor surface
Traffic congestion
Path is outdoors
Path with straight lines or turns
Elevation
People along the path

Scheduling: timing of each individual part is delivery


Rush job increase cost
Buffer stocks of material (FIFO)

Plant Layout
Is the arrangement of areas and equipment in the factory.

17.1.1. TYPES OF PLANT LAYOUT


a. Process layout
Various different products are manufactured in small or medium batch sizes.
Work in process area.
Handling system must be flexible.
Hand trucks
Forklift trucks
Automated guide vehicles

b. Product layout
Production of standard or identical types of part in relatively high quantities: cars, etc.
Fixed route.
Handling systems moves the part along route: conveyors.
Components are delivered in work station: trucks, automated guides vehicles.

c. Fixed position
The product is large and heavy.
Single location during most of its fabrication.
Cranes, hoists, industrial trucks.

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17.2. UNIT LOAD PRINCIPLES


Unit load is the mass to be moved or handled at one time.

Unit load should be designed to be as large as is practical for the material handling
system.

Considerations:
a. Multiples items can be handled simultaneously.
b. Reduce number of trip.
c. Loading and unloading times are reduced.
d. Product damage is decreased.

17.3. MATERIAL HANDLING EQUIPMENT


Categories:
a. Material transport equipment.
b. Storage system.
c. Unitizing equipment.
d. Identification and tracking system.

Material transport equipment


Move material inside a factory

Storage systems
Raw material.
Work in process.

Categories:
Conventional storage methods.
Automated storage systems.
Unitizing equipment
Containers used to hold individual items during handling
Pallets, boxes, baskets, barrels, pails, and drums.
Equipment used to load and package the containers.
Automatically load cartons onto pallet.
Wrapping and packing.

Identification and Tracking Systems


It refers to keep tracking
Label and bars code
RFID: radio frequency identification

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17.4. THE 10 PRINCIPLES OF MATERIAL HANDLING


a. Planning Principle
b. Standardization Principle
c. Work Principle
d. Ergonomic Principle
e. Unit Load Principle
f. Space Utilization Principle
g. System Principle
h. Automation Principle
i. Environmental Principle
j. Life Cycle Cost Principle

17.5. MATERIAL TRANSPORT EQUIPMENT


a. Industrial trucks
b. Automated guided vehicles systems(AGVS)
c. Rail guided vehicles
d. Conveyors
e. Hoists and cranes

Industrial Trucks
Characteristics:
Low And Medium Cost
Manual Or Powered
Low Production: Low Rate Of Delivery Per Hour

Types:
Walkie Trucks
Forklift Trucks
Towing Tractor

Uses:
Light Load
Palletizing Containers

Automated Guided Vehicles Systems (AGVS)


Characteristics:
High cost
Independently operated
Low and medium production
Battery powered vehicles
Flexible routing

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No obstructive pathways

Types:
Driverless trains
Pallet trucks
Unit load carriers

Uses:
Moving different material from various load points to various unload points

Rail Guided Vehicles


High cost
Flexible routing:
On de floor or overhead

Uses:
Lines assemblies

Conveyors
Large quantities
Fixed path
In floor, on the floor, overhead

Types:
Roller conveyors
Skate-wheel conveyors
Belt conveyors
Chain conveyor
In floor towline conveyors
Overhead trolley conveyors
Power and free overhead trolley conveyors
Cart on track conveyor
Other types

Uses:
Lines assemblies

Hoists and Cranes


More than 100 tons

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17.6. EXERCISES
1. Go to plan requirements amounts of C2 P1 component in the product. P1
required deliveries are given in Table. The time to complete the order, manufacturing
and assembly are to P1 and C2 delivery time is one week; and S1 and M2, the
delivery time is two weeks. Product structure given in Figure 43.4. Determine the
time phases requirements for M2, C2 and S1 in order to meet the master program P1.
Assume no commonly used items and that all stock records and scheduled receptions
are zero. Use a similar format Figure. Disregard demand beyond the period P1 10.

2. They go to plan requirements C5 component in the product P1. Deliveries


required for P1 are provided in Table. The time to complete the order, manufacturing
and assembly are to P1 and S2, the delivery time is a week, C5, delivery time is three
weeks, and M5, delivery time is two weeks. Product structure given in Figure,
determine requirements phase time to M5, C5 and S2 meet the master program P1.
Assume no commonly used items. Inventories in stock are 200 units to M5, 100 units
for C5 and zero for S2. Use a similar format Figure. Disregard demand beyond the
period P1 10.

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A manual assembly line is a production line that consists of a sequence of workstations


where assembly tasks are performed by human workers. At each station, a portion of
the total work is performed on each unit.

17.7. CHARACTERISTICS
Demand for the product is high or medium.
The products made on the line are identical or similar.
The total work required to assemble the product can be divided into small work
elements.
It is technologically impossible or economically infeasible to automate the
assembly operations.

A mechanized transports system is used to move the base part along the line as they
are gradually transformed into final product.
Manning level

=

With utility workers
+
=

Transport system: manual or mechanized system.

Types of manual assembly lines

a. Single model line: one product in large quantities


b. Batch model line: two or more products in batches
c. Mixed model line: product are not produced in batches

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17.8. ANALYSIS
Production Rate

= [ ]

= . . []
Da: annual demand [pc/yr]
AT: available time []
S: [shift/wk]
H: [hr/shift]

Cycle Time
1
=

60
= []

E: line efficiency (0.90 to 0.98)
LABOR

=

17.9. LINE BALANCING


Work Element Time (Te)
It is a small amount of work that has a specific limited objective that cannot be
subdivided.

Task Time (Service Time)


Time composed of the work element times that have been assigned to one work
station
=

Assumptions
Element times are constant values
Te values are additive

Work Content Time


the total time of all work elements that must be performed on the line to make one
unit of the product.
=

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17.10. PRECEDENCE CONSTRAINTS


It refers to the order which work element can be performed.

17.11. ALGORITHMS
The objective is to distribute the total work load on the assembly line as evenly as
possible among the workers.

Mathematically
Minimize (wTs Twc)
Minimize ( )
Subject to:

1.
2. All precedence requirements are obeyed

17.12. LARGEST CANDIDATE RULE


TO BE DEVELOPED

17.13. EXERCISES
Parallel Work Stations for Better Line Balance

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1) Can a perfect line balance he achieved in our Example 17.1using parallel


stations?

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Parallel Stations When One Service Time Ts Too Long

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