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Over The World

www.molympiad.blogspot.com

petition over the world. For the solution to each problem, we refer to a topic

on AoPS. This product is created for educational purpose. Please dont use it

for any commecial purpose unless you got the right of the author. Please visit

www.molympiad.blogspot.com for more details and for more problem-solving

mathematical contests.

MOLYMPIAD

Collection of Mathematical Competitions from Around the World

Website: http://www.molympiad.blogspot.com

E-mail: ngdinh.ti@gmail.com

2 www.molympiad.blogspot.com

Let a, b, c, d be positive a + b + c + d = 3. Prove that

1 1 1 1 1

+ 2+ 2+ 2 2 2 2 2

a2 b c d a b c d

Proof https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1236063p6282109

Let a, b, c, d be positive real numbers such that a + b + c + d = 3. Prove

that

1 1 1 1 1

3

+ 3+ 3+ 3 3 3 3 3

a b c d a b c d

Proof https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1236063p6282109

Let a, b, c be non-negative real numbers. Prove that

3 a2 + b2 + c2 (a + b + c)

ab + bc + ca +

2 2 2

+ (a b) + (b c) + (c a)

2

(a + b + c)

Proof https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1323474p7131589

Let x, y, z be real numbers. Prove that

r r r

1 1 1

x + 2 + y + 2 + z2 + 2 3 2

2 2

y z x

Proof https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1195521p5852654

Let n is a positive integers, a1 , a2 , , an {0, 1, , n}. For the inte-

ger j (1 j n), define bj is the number of elements in the set {i|i

{1, , n}, ai j}. For example, when n = 3, if a1 = 1, a2 = 2, a3 = 1, then

b1 = 3, b2 = 1, b3 = 0.

a) Prove that

Xn Xn

(i + ai )2 (i + bi )2 .

i=1 i=1

b) Prove that

n

X n

X

(i + ai )k (i + bi )k ,

i=1 i=1

for the integer k 3.

Inequalities From 2016 Mathematical Competition Over The World 3

Proof https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1288394p6805932

Let a1 , a2 , , a31 ; b1 , b2 , , b31 be positive integers such that a1 <

a2 < < a31 2015, b1 < b2 < < b31 2015 and a1 + a2 + + a31 =

b1 + b2 + + b31 . Find the maximum value of

Proof https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1174692p5660033

Let a1 , a2 , . . . , a2016 be reals such that 9ai > 11a2i+1 (i = 1, 2, . . . , 2015),

find the maximum value of

Proof https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1365571p7500146

Find the smallest positive number , such that for any complex numbers

z1 , z2 , z3 {z C |z| < 1}, if z1 + z2 + z3 = 0, then

2 2

|z1 z2 + z2 z3 + z3 z1 | + |z1 z2 z3 | < .

Proof https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1212046p6011767

Let n > 1 be an integer, 0 < < 2, a1 , a2 , a3 , , an ; c1 , c2 , c3 , , cn be

positive real numbers, for y > 0,

21 ! 1

X X

f (y) = ci a2i + ci a

i

ai y ai >y

Prove that if x be positive real number such that x f (y), for one positive

1

real number y, then f (x) 8 x.

Proof https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1217114p6068847

4 www.molympiad.blogspot.com

k

P

Let a1 , a2 , . . . , an be non-negative real numbers, Sk = ai with 1 k

i=1

n. Prove that

n

X n

X n

X 2

ai Si a2j (ai Si )

i=1 j=i i=1

Proof https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1290752p6827152

Let n 1 and x1 , . . . , xn 0. Prove that

x2 xn (n + 1)2 2

x1 + + ... + (x1 + 2x2 + . . . + nxn ) (x1 + x2 + . . . + xn )

2 n 4n

https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1234376p6260511

Problem 12 (EGMO)

Let n be an odd positive integer, and let x1 , x2 , , xn be non-negative

real numbers. Show that

min x2i + x2i+1 max (2xj xj+1 )

i=1,...,n j=1,...,n

where xn+1 = x1 .

Proof https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1226674p6171538

Prove that

x4 y + y 4 z + z 4 x + xyz x3 + y 3 + z 3 (x + y + z) (3xyz 1)

Proof https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1248639p6419840

Let

f (x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 , x5 , x6 , x7 ) =x1 x2 x4 + x2 x3 x5 + x3 x4 x6 +

+ x4 x5 x7 + x5 x6 x1 + x6 x7 x2 + x7 x1 x3

be defined for non-negative real numbers x1 , x2 , . . . , x7 with sum 1. Prove that

f (x1 , x2 , . . . , x7 ) has a maximum value and find that value.

Inequalities From 2016 Mathematical Competition Over The World 5

Proof https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1259588p6531595

If x, y, z satisfies x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 1, find the maximum possible value of

x2 yz y 2 zx z 2 xy

Proof https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1214642p6037409

Let a, b, c be positive real numbers satisfying abc = 1. Determine the small-

est possible value of

a3 + 8 b3 + 8 c3 + 8

+ 3 + 3

a3 (b

+ c) b (a + c) c (b + a)

Proof https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1155589p5481554

Problem 17 (IMC)

Let n be a positive integer. Also let a1 , a2 , . . . , an , b1 , b2 , . . . , bn be real

numbers such that ai + bi > 0 for i = 1, 2, . . . , n. Prove that

n n n

!2

X X X

n

ai bi bi

X a i bi b2 i i=1 i=1 i=1

n

i=1

ai + bi X

(ai + bi )

i=1

Proof https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c7h1279182p6722142

Problem 18 (IMC)

X xn

Let (x1 , x2 , . . .) be a sequence of positive real numbers satisfying = 1.

n=1

2n 1

Prove that

Xk

X xn

2.

n=1

k2

k=1

Proof https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c7h1279761p6727191

6 www.molympiad.blogspot.com

Camp)

Let a, b, c, d be real numbers satisfying |a|, |b|, |c|, |d| > 1 and abc + abd +

acd + bcd + a + b + c + d = 0. Prove that

1 1 1 1

+ + + >0

a1 b1 c1 d1

Proof https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1092902p4873866

Camp)

Suppose that a sequence a1 , a2 , . . . of positive real numbers satisfies

kak

ak+1

a2k + (k 1)

for every positive integer k. Prove that a1 + a2 + . . . + an n for every n 2.

Proof https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1268809p6621766

Let a, b, c be positive real numbers such that a + b + c = 3. Determine, with

certainty, the largest possible value of the expression

a b c

+ 3 + 3

a3 + b + c b + c + a c + a2 + b

2 2

Let a, b, c be positive real numbers such that

a b c

+ + = 1.

1+a 1+b 1+c

Prove that abc 18 .

Proof https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1317749p7087195

Let x, y, z be non-negative real numbers such that xyz = 1. Prove that

Proof https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1317762p7087228

Inequalities From 2016 Mathematical Competition Over The World 7

Let a, b, c be three distinct positive real numbers such that abc = 1. Prove

that

a3 b3 c3

+ + 3

(a b)(a c) (b c)(b a) (c a)(c b)

Proof https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1320099p7110375

Let a, b, c R+ and abc = 1. Prove that

a+b b+c c+a 2

+ +

(a + b + 1)2 (b + c + 1)2 (c + a + 1)2 a+b+c

Let a1 , a2 , ..., a100 are permutation of 1, 2, ..., 100.

Proof https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1185316p5756328

1 1 1 1

+ + + = 2.

a+1 b+1 c+1 d+1

Prove that

r r r r

a2 + 1 b2 + 1 c2 + 1 d2 + 1

+ + +

2

2

2 2

3 a+ b+ c+ d 8

Proof https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1272961p6661060

numbers satisfies

kak

ak+1 2

ak + (k 1)

for every positive integer k. Prove that a1 + a2 + . . . + an n for every n 2.

Proof https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1268809p6621766

8 www.molympiad.blogspot.com

that

a+b b+c c+a 2

2

+ 2

+ 2

(a + b + 1) (b + c + 1) (c + a + 1) a+b+c

Proof https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1299715p6917170

satisfying ab + bc + ca + 2abc = 1. Prove that 4a + b + c 2.

Proof https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1313735p7047187

be real numbers satisfying the system of equation

Proof https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1195505p5852511

Proof https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1246265p6393959

Prove that

8 8 8

+ + + a2 + b2 + c2

(a + b)2 + 4abc (b + c)2 + 4abc (a + c)2 + 4abc

8 8 8

+ +

a+3 b+3 c+3

Proof https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1263180p6565536

prove that

2a 2b 2c p

+ + 3(a + b + c)

3a + b 3b + c 3c + a

Inequalities From 2016 Mathematical Competition Over The World 9

Proof https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1245779p6388664

a, b, c > 0 and abc 1. Prove that

1 1 1 1

+ +

a3 + 2b3 + 6 b3 + 2c3 + 6 c3 + 2a3 + 6 3

Proof https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1257383p6509502

Let a, b, c be real numbers such that a b 1 c 0 and a + b + c = 3.

a) Prove that 2 ab + bc + ca 3

b) Prove that

24 25

+ 14

a3 + b3 + c3 ab + bc + ca

Proof https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1319224p7102074

Let m, n are positive intergers and x, y, z positive real numbers such that

0 x, y, z 1. Let m + n = p. Prove that:

0 xp + y p + z p xm y n y m z n z m xn 1

Proof https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1233243p6247077

Let x, y, z 0 be real numbers such that

Proof https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1189501p5795909

PnLet ai , bi (1 i n, n 2) be positive real numbers such that i=1 ai =

i=1 bi . Prove that

n

X (ai+1 + bi+1 )2 1

Pn

i=1

n(ai bi )2 + 4(n 1) j=1 aj bj n1

10 www.molympiad.blogspot.com

Proof https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1189503p5795912

If a, b, c are sides of right triangle with c hypothenuse then show that for

every positive integer n > 2 we have cn > an + bn .

Proof https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1366039p7504772

If is an acute angle and a, b 0 then show that:

b a

a+ b+ a2 + b2 + 3ab

sin cos

Proof https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1366048p7504796

Assume that real numbers x, y and z satisfy x + y + z = 3. Prove that

xy + xz + yz 3.

Proof https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1276654p6698742

Let n 3 and a1 , a2 , ..., an R+ , such that

1 1 1

+ + ... + = 1.

1 + a41 1 + a42 1 + a4n

n

Prove that a1 a2 ...an (n 1) 4

Proof https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1225111p6154409

Let a, b, c be positive real numbers with a + b + c = 3. Prove that

r r r r

b c a 34 1

+ +

a2 + 3 b2 + 3 c2 + 3 2 abc

Proof https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1252005p6455069

Inequalities From 2016 Mathematical Competition Over The World 11

Let n 2 be an integer, and let x1 , x2 , . . . , xn be reals for which

(a) xj > 1 for j = 1, 2, . . . , n and

(b) x1 + x2 + . . . + xn = n.

Prove that

n n

X 1 X xj

j=1

1 + xj j=1

1 + x2j

Proof https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1295276p6869616

Let x, y, z be positive real numbers such that xyz = 1. Prove that

1 1 1 1

+ +

(x + 1)2 2 2 2 2 2

+ y + 1 (y + 1) + z + 1 (z + 1) + x + 1 2

Proof https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1235293p6271434

Let n be any positive integer. Prove that

n

X 1 2

>2

i=1

(i2 + i)3/4 n+1

Proof https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1371354p7556839

Let x and y be positive real numbers such that: x + y 2016 1. Prove that

1

x2016 + y > 1 .

100

Proof https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1204702p5942450

Let u, v, w be positive real numbers such that u vw + v wu + w uv 1.

Find the smallest value of u + v + w.

Proof https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h247578p1358629

12 www.molympiad.blogspot.com

Let a, b, c > 0 such that a + b + c = 3, prove that

a2 b2 c2 3

2

+ 2

+ 2

a+b b+c c+a 2

Proof https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1200061p5895510

Let be positive real numbers x, y, z. Prove that

x2 y2 z2 (x + y + z)3

+ +

xy + z yz + x xz + y 3(x2 (y + 1) + y 2 (z + 1) + z 2 (x + 1)

Proof https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1202171p5914965

Let n be positive integer, x1 , x2 , , xn be positive real numbers such that

x1 x2 xn = 1 . Prove that

n

n + 1

X q

xi x21 + x22 + x2i n

i=1

2

Proof https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1280874p6737599

Let n 2 an integer. Find the least value of such that for any positive

real numbers x1 , x2 , . . ., xn with x1 + x2 + ... + xn = 1 and y1 + y2 + ... + yn = 1

with 0 y1 , y2 , ..., yn 12 the following inequality holds

Proof https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1222243p6118293

Let a, b, c be nonnegative real numbers such that (a + b)(b + c)(c + a) 6= 0.

Find the minimum of

1 1 1

(a + b + c)2016 + +

a2016 + b2016 b2016 + c2016 c2016 + a2016

Proof https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1269064p6624314

Inequalities From 2016 Mathematical Competition Over The World 13

Let x, y > 0 such that x + y = 1. Prove that

x y x y

+ 3 2 + 2

x2 + y 3 x + y2 x + y2 x +y

Proof https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1274240p6673240

Suppose that a sequence a1 , a2 , . . . of positive real numbers satisfies

kak

ak+1

a2k + (k 1)

for every positive integer k. Prove that a1 + a2 + . . . + an n for every n 2.

Proof https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1268809p6621766

Let x, y, z > 0 such that x + y + z = 1. Find the smallest k such that

x2 y 2 y2 z2 z 2 x2

+ + k 3xyz

1z 1x 1y

Proof https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1276974p6701808

For all x, y, z > 0. Prove that

x4 y + y 4 z + z 4 x + xyz x3 + y 3 + z 3 (x + y + z)(3xyz 1)

Proof https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1248639p6419840

Let a, b, c 0 such that a2 + b2 + c2 3. Prove that

(a + b + c)(a + b + c abc) 2 a2 b + b2 c + c2 a

Proof https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1222296p6119503

If a, b, c are triangle sides. Prove that

r r r

a b c

+ + 3

a + b + c b + c + a c + a + b

14 www.molympiad.blogspot.com

Proof https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1201857p5911968

Problem 61 (VJIMC)

Let a, b, c be positive real numbers such that a + b + c = 1. Show that

1 1 1 1 1 1

+ + + 1728

a bc b ca c ab

Proof https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c7h1225703p6160187

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