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NG THNH NAM
(Gim c trung tm nghin cu, t vn v pht trin
sn phm gio dc Newstudy.vn)
NHNG IU CN BIT LUYN THI QUC GIA
THEO CU TRC THI MI NHT CA B GD & T
K THUT GII NHANH
H PHNG TRNH
2 2 2
3 x 2 x 5 + 2 x x + 1 = 2 ( y 1)+ y 2+y 2+
2 2
x + 2 y = 2 x 4 y + 3
- Dnh cho hc sinh lp 10,11,12
- n thi quc gia v bi dng hc sinh gii
- Dnh cho gio vin ging dy v luyn thi Quc gia
NH XUT BN I HC QUC GIA H NI
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Muc Luc
Li noi au
Chng 1: Kien thc bo sung khi giai he phng trnh . .................................. 3
Chu e 1: Phng trnh, bat phng trnh bac nhat va bac hai . ...................... 3
Chu e 2: Phng trnh bac ba . ....................................................................... 4
Chu e 3: Phng trnh bac bon ...................................................................... 7
Chu e 4: Phng trnh phan thc hu ty....................................................... 12
Chu e 5: He hng trnh hai an co cha phng trnh bac nhat .................. 13
Chu e 6: He hng trnh bac hai hai an dang tong quat. ............................. 14
Chng 2: Cac ky thuat va phng phap giai he phng trnh . ....................25
Chu e 1. Ky thuat s dung he phng trnh bac nhat hai an.. ...................... 25
Chu e 2. He phng trnh oi xng loai I. .................................................... 46
Chu e 3. He phng trnh oi xng loai II. . ................................................. 99
Chu e 4. He phng trnh co yeu to ang cap . .......................................... 132
Chu e 5. Ky thuat s dung phep the. .......................................................... 159
Chu e 6. Ky thuat phan tch thanh nhan t. . .............................................. 188
Chu e 7. Ky thuat cong, tr va nhan theo ve hai phng trnh cua he. ...... 222
Chu e 8. Ky thuat at an phu dang ai so. . ............................................... 254
Chu e 9. Ky thuat at an phu dang tong - hieu. ......................................... 336
Chu e 10. Ky thuat s dung tnh n ieu cua ham so. . ............................ 361
Chu e 11. Ky thuat s dung ieu kien co nghiem cua he phng trnh. ..... 427
Chu e 12. Ky thuat anh gia. ..................................................................... 438
Chu e 13. He phng trnh co cha can thc. . .......................................... 491
Chu e 14. Ky thuat lng giac hoa. ............................................................ 576
Chu e 15. Ky thuat he so bat nh. ............................................................. 600
Chu e 16. Ky thuat phc hoa. ..................................................................... 640
Chu e 17. Ky thuat s dung tnh chat hnh hoc giai tch. . .......................... 665
Chu e 18. Ky thuat nhan lien hp oi vi he phng trnh co cha can thc
...................................................................................................................... 677
Chu e 19. Mot so bai toan chon loc va ren luyen nang cao. ....................... 704
Chng 3: Bai toan co cha tham so...............................................................783
Chu e 1: He oi xng loai I . ........................................................................783
Chu e 2: He oi xng loai II .......................................................................827
Chu e 3: He ang cap . ................................................................................836
Chu e 4: Ky thuat s dung tnh n ieu cua ham so X ly bai toan he
phng trnh co cha tham so ......................................................................846
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CHNG 1: KIEN THC BO SUNG
KHI GIAI HE PHNG TRNH
- No i dung chng na y e ca p e n ca c noi dung
- Phng trnh, ba t phng trnh ba c nha t va ba c hai.
- Ca c phng trnh ba c ba, ba c bon da ng a c bie t.
- Ca c phng trnh dang pha n th c a c bie t.
- Phng pha p gia i phng trnh ba c ba, ba c bon to ng qua t.
- He phng trnh c ba n go m he ba c nha t hai a n, he ba c nha t ba a n, he
go m mo t phng trnh ba c nha t hai a n va mo t phng trnh ba c hai hai a n.
- He phng trnh ba c hai hai a n dang to ng qua t.
a y la nh ng kie n th c c ba n va ca n thie t tr c khi tie p ca n vi he phng
trnh nen hy vong se cung ca p u nhng ky na ng ve gia i phng trnh va he
phng trnh trc khi chung ta en vi cac he phng trnh dang nang cao hn.
Chu e 1: PHNG TRNH, BAT PHNG TRNH
BAC NHAT VA BAC HAI
1. Phng trnh bac nhat ax + b = 0, (a 0)
+ Ne u a = 0, b 0 phng trnh vo nghiem.
+ Ne u a = 0, b = 0, phng trnh vo so nghiem.
b
+ Ne u a 0 x = la nghie m cu a phng trnh.
a
Ba t phng trnh ba c nha t ax + b > 0.
b b
+ Neu a > 0 x > S = ; +

a a
b b
+ Neu a < 0 x < S =
;
a a
2. Phng trnh va bat phng trnh bac hai
a) Phng trnh ba c hai ax2 + bx2 + c = 0, (a 0). nh th c = b2 4ac.
+ Ne u = b2 4ac < 0, phng trnh vo nghie m.
b
+ Ne u = b2 4ac, phng trnh co nghiem duy nha t x 0 = .
2a
+ Neu = b2 4ac > 0, phng trnh co hai nghiem pha n bie t:
3
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b
x1,2 = va khi o ax2 + bx + c = a(x x 1 )(x x 2 ).
2a
b) Ba t phng trnh ba c hai f(x) = ax 2 bx >
+ c+ 0,(a .
0)
+ Ne u = b2 4ac
0khi o a.f(x) 0, x R .
+ Ne u = b2 4ac
0>khi o f(x) = 0 co hai nghie m phan bie t x 1 < x 2 .
x > x2
f(x) > 0 a(x x1 )(x x 2 ) > 0
- Ne u a > 0 x < x1

f(x) < 0 a(x x1 )(x x2 ) > 0 x1 < x < x 2
f(x) > 0 a(x x1 )(x x2 ) > 0 x1 < x < x 2

- Ne u a < 0 x > x2
f(x) < 0 a(x x1 )(x x2 ) > 0 x < x
1
Chu e 2: PHNG TRNH BAC BA
1. Phng trnh dang 4x3 + 3x = m .
Ha m so f(x) = 4x3 3x +
co f '(x) = 12x 2 3 +0, >x R ne n phng trnh
4x3 + 3x = m co kho ng qua mo t nghiem.
Ta ch ng minh phng trnh co nghie m duy nha t.
1 1 3
a t m = a3
a =m m2 1 . +
2 a3
3
1 1 1 1 1 1
Khi o 4 a + 3 a = a3 =m .
2 a 2 a 2 a3
1 1
Do o x = a nghiem cu a phng trnh hay phng trnh co nghiem
la
2 a
1 1
duy nha t x = a .
2 a
V du 1. Gia i phng trnh 4x3 + 3x = 2 .
Li giai
Ha m so f(x) = 4x3 +3x 2 co f '(x) = 12x 2 ne n phng trnh
3 +0, >x
co to i a mo t nghiem.
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1 1
a t 2 = a3 a =3 2 5 .
2 a3
1
Cho n a = 3 +2
5 = 3 2 5
a
3
1 1 1 1 1 1
Khi o : 4 a + 3 a = a3 .
2 a 2 a 2 a3
Va y: phng trnh co nghie m duy nha t:
1 1 1 3
x = a = 3 2 +5 +2 5 .
2 a 2
2. Phng trnh dang 4x3 3x = m .

TH1: Ne u m 1 a t m = cos khi
o do cos = 4 cos3 3cos ne n
3 3
+ 2 2
phng trnh co ba nghie m x1 = cos ,x2 cos= ,x3 = cos .
3 3 3
1 1 3
TH2: Ne u m > 1 a t m = a3 +
a =m m2 1 .
2 a3
3
1 3 1 1 1 1 1
Khi o a + 3 = 4 a + 3 a + .
2 a 2 a 2 a
1 1
V vay x 0 = a + mo t nghiem cu a phng trnh.
la
2 a
Ta ch ng minh x 0 la nghiem duy nha t cu a phng trnh.
2
Tha t va y ta co : 4x3 3x = 4x30 3x
0
(x x 0 4x x
) ( 4x + 0 +
4x20 3
) =
0.
< x0 > 1 .
Phng trnh 4x2 + 4x 0 x + 4x20 3 = 0 co ' = 12 1 x 20 0 do ( )
Va y phng trnh co nghiem duy nha t:
3 3
1 1 m + m2 1 + m m2 1
x = a + = .
2 a 2
3. Phng trnh dang x3 + px = q .
TH1: Ne u p = 0 x3 = q x = 3 q.
p
TH2: Ne u p > 0 a t x = 2 t a ve phng trnh da ng: 4t 3 + 3t = m .
3
5
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p
TH3: Ne u p < 0 a t x = 2 t a ve phng trnh da ng: 4x3 3x = m .
3
4. Phng trnh bc ba dng tng quat ax3 + bx2 + cx + d = 0, (a 0).
Phng phap phan tch nhan t.
Ne u phng trnh co nghiem x 0 th ta co the pha n tch:
ax3 + bx2 + cx + d = ( x x 0 ) ax2 +( b +ax 0 ) x +c +bx 0 +ax20 .
( )
T o e gia i phng trnh ba c ba tre n ta i gia i phng trnh ba c hai:
ax2 + ( b + ax 0 ) x + c + bx 0 + ax20 = 0 .
Phng phap Cardano. Chia hai v phng trnh cho a
a phng trnh v
dng: x3 + ax2 + bx + c = 0 .
a
Ba ng ca ch a t y = x luo n a phng trnh ve dang chnh ta c:
3
a2 PP
y3 + py + q = 0 (1) trong o p = q , q = c + G x, x 2 a2 = 0
.
3
Ta ch can xet p, q 0 v neu p = 0 hoa c q = 0 phng trnh n gian, tie p tu c
a t y = u + v thay va o (1), ta c:
3
u v p u v q 0 u 3 v 3 3uv p u v q 0 .
Ta cho n u, v sao cho 3uv + p = 0 khi o u3 + v3 + q = 0.
3 3 p3
3uv + p = 0 u v =
Va y : ta co he phng trnh 3 3
27 .
u + v + q = 0 3 3
u + v = q
p3
Theo nh ly Vie t u, v la hai nghiem cua phng trnh X3 + qX = 0 (3)
27
q 2 p3
a t = +
4 27
q q
+ Ne u > 0 khi o (3) co hai nghiem u3 = + , v3 = va
2 2
q q
phng trnh (2) co nghiem duy nha t y = 3 + + 3 ne n
2 2
a q q
phng trnh (1) co nghiem th c duy nha t x = +3 + +3 .
3 2 2
6
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q
+ Ne u = 0 khi o (3) co nghiem ke p u = v = 3 va phng trnh (2) co
2
q 3
q
hai nghiem th c trong o co mo t nghie m ke p y1 =
2 3 ; y2 =
y3 =
2 2
Do o: (1) co hai nghie m th c, trong o co mo t nghie m ke p:
a q a q
x1 = + 2 3 ;x 2 =x3 = + 3
3 2 3 2
+ Ne u < 0 khi o (3) co nghiem ph c, gia s la u 0 , v 0 khi o (1) co ba
nghiem phc:
a
y= x1 = + u0 + v0
1 u0 + v0 3

1 3 a 1 3
y2 =
( u0 + v0 ) + i
2 2 0
( u v0 ) x2 = ( u + v0 ) + i
3 2 0 2 0
( u v0 )

1 3 a 1 3
y = ( u0 + v0 ) i ( u v 0 ) x3 = ( u 0 + v 0 ) i ( u v0 )
3 2 2 0 3 2 2 0
Ngoai hai ca ch tre n co the gia i phng trnh ba c ba ba ng phng phap l ng
gia c ho a hoa c bien oi a ve a ng th c a3 = b3.
Chu e 3: PHNG TRNH BAC BON
1. Phng trnh dang trung phng ax 4 + bx2 + =
c 0, ( a 0 ) .
a=
t t x 2 , ( t 0 ) phng trnh tr thanh: at 2 + bt + c =0 . a y la phng
trnh ba c hai a bie t ca ch gia i.
4 4
c.
2. Phng trnh dang ( x a ) + ( x b ) =
4 4
a+b ba ab
a t t= x phng trnh tr tha nh: t + +t + c a ve
=
2 2 2
phng trnh da ng tru ng phng.
4 4
82 .
V du 1. Gia i phng trnh ( x 2 ) + ( x 6 ) =
Li giai
4 4
82 .
a t t= x 4 phng trnh tr thanh: ( t + 2 ) + ( t 2 ) =
7
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t =1 x 4 =1 x =3
t 4 + 24t 2 25 =0 t 2 1 t 2 + 25 =0
( )( )
= t 1 =x4 1 = x 5
Va y phng trnh co hai nghiem la=
x 3,x
= 5.
m vi a + d = b + c .
3. Phng trnh dang ( x + a )( x + b )( x + c )( x + d ) =
at t =
( x + a )( x + d ) hoac t =
( x + b )( x + c) a ve phng trnh bac hai vi an
t.
24 .
V du 2. Gia i phng trnh x ( x 1)( x 2 )( x 3) =
Li giai
at t = x ( x 3) = x2 3x ( x 1)( x 2 ) = x2 3x + 2 = t + 2 phng trnh tr thanh:
t =6 x2 3x =
6 x =
1
t ( t + 2 ) =24 t 2 + 2t 24 =0 .
= 2
t 4= 4
x 3x = x 4
Va y: phng trnh co hai nghiem la x =
1, x =
4.
ex 2 vi ad
4. Phng trnh dang ( x + a )( x + b )( x + c )( x + d ) = = bc
= m.
ex 2 .
Vie t la i phng trnh d i da ng: ( x + a )( x + d ) . ( x + b )( x + c ) =
( )( ex2 .
x2 + ( a + d ) x + ad x2 + ( b + c ) x + bc = )
Xe t tr ng h p x = 0 xem thoa ma n phng trnh hay khong.
V i x 0 chia hai ve cu a phng trnh cho x2 , ta c:
ad bc
x + + a + d x + + b + c =e.
x x
ad bc
a t t =x + =x + a ve phng trnh ba c hai v i a n t .
x x
30x 2 .
V du 3. Gia i phng trnh ( x + 2 )( x + 3)( x + 4 )( x + 6 ) =
Li giai
Phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
2 2 2 2
( )(
( x + 2 )( x + 6 ) . ( x + 3)( x + 4 ) = 30x x + 8x + 12 x + 7x + 12 = 30x )
Nha n thay x = 0 kho ng thoa man phng trnh.
Xe t x 0 chia hai ve cu a phng trnh cho x2 , ta c:
8
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12 12
30 .
x + + 8 x + + 7 =
x x
12
a t t =
x + , t 4 3 phng trnh tr thanh:
( )
x
t = 2
( t + 8)( t + 7) =30 t 2 + 15t + 26 =0 t = 13 .

12
o i chie u v i ieu kie n ch nhan nghiem t =13 x + =13 .
x
x = 1
x2 + 13x + 12 =0 .
x = 12
Va y phng trnh co hai nghiem la x =
12,x =
1 .
2
e d
5. Phng trnh dang ax 4 + bx3 + cx2 + dx + e =0 vi = .
a b
TH1: Ne u e = 0 a ve phng trnh:
ax 4 + bx3 + cx2 + dx
= x ax3 + bx2 + cx + d= 0 , phng trnh tch co ch a
( )
phng trnh ba c ba da ng to ng qua t a biet ca ch giai.
TH2: Ne u e 0 x =0 kho ng la nghiem cu a phng trnh.
Xe t x 0 chia hai ve phng trnh cho x2 ta c:
e d e d
ax2 + + bx + + c = 0 a x 2 + + b x + + c= 0.
x2 x ax2 bx
d d2 d e d
a t t = x + t 2 = x2 + + 2 = x2 + + 2 a ve phng trnh
bx b2 x 2 b ax 2 b
ba c hai vi an t .
V du 4. Gia i phng trnh x 4 + 3x3 6x2 + 6x + 4 =0.
Li giai
Nha n thay x = 0 kho ng thoa man phng trnh.
Xe t x 0 chia hai ve phng trnh cho x2 , ta c:
2
6 4 2 2
x2 + 3x 6 + + = 0 x + + 3 x + 10 = 0 .
x x2 x x
2 t = 2
a t t =
x + , t 2 2 phng trnh tr thanh: t 2 + 3t 10 =0
x t = 5
9
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o i chie u v i ieu kie n ch nhan nghiem:
2 5 17
t =5 x + =5 x2 + 5x + 2 =0 x = .
x 2
5 17
Va y phng trnh co hai nghiem la x = .
2
6. Phng trnh dang x 4 = ax 2 + bx + c .
TH1: Ne u = b2 4ac= 0 bie n o i a phng trnh ve dang:
2
b
=
x4 a x + .
2a
TH2: Ne u = b2 4ac 0 ta cho n so th c m sao cho:
2 2
x 4 = x2 m + m = x2 m
( ) ( ) + 2m x 2 m + m 2 = ax 2 + bx + c .
( )

2
x2 m
( ) = ( a 2m ) x2 + bx + c + m 2 .
0.
Ta cho n m sao cho: b2 4 ( a 2m ) c + m 2 = ( )
3
V du 5. Gia i phng trnh x 4 = 7x2 3x .
4
Li giai
Phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
2 1 3 3
2 x + 1 = 3x x=
2 1
2 2 2
( x + 1) = 3x .
2 2 1 3 7
x + 1 =3x + x =
2 2
3 3 3 7
=
Va y phng trnh co bo n nghie m la x = ,x .
2 2
7. Phng trnh bac bon tong quat ax 4 + bx3 + cx2 + dx + e =0.
b
Cach 1: a t x =
+ t a ve phng trnh da ng: t 4 = t 2 + t + .
4a
Cach 2: Vie t la i phng trnh d i da ng:
4a2 x 4 + 4bax3 + 4cax 2 + 4dax + 4ae =
0
2
2
2ax2 + bx
( ) =( b 4ac x2 4adx 4ae .
)
10
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The m va o hai ve cu a phng trnh a i lng 2y 2ax2 + bx + y2 (v i y la ( )
ha ng so tm sau).
2
2
Khi o : 2ax2 + bx + y
( ) = (b 4ac + 4ay x 2 + 2 ( by 2ad ) x 4ae + y2 .
)
2
Ta cho n y sao cho: 'x = ( by 2ad ) b2 4ac + 4ay y2 4ae = 0 .
( )( )
V du 6. Gia i phng trnh x 4 16x3 + 57x 2 52x 35 =
0.
Li giai
Phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
2
x 4 16x3 + 64x 2 = 7x2 + 52x + 35 x 2 8x ( ) = 7x 2 + 52x + 35 .
Ta them va ha ng so y thoa ma n:
2
2 2
( x 8x ) + 2y ( x 8x + y2 = 7x2 + 52x + 35 + 2y x2 8x + y2 .
) ( )
2
x2 8x + y
( )= ( 2y + 7) x2 + x ( 52 16y ) + 35 + y2 .
2
Ta cho n y sao cho 'x = ( 26 8y ) ( 2y + 7) ( 35 + y2 )= 0.
( y 1) 2y2 55y + 431 = 0 y = 1 .
( )
Va y phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
11 141
2 2
x2 8x + 1= 3 ( x + 2 ) x =
2 2
(x 8x + 1 ) = 9 ( x + 2) .
2 11 + 141
x 8x + 1 =3 ( x + 2 ) x =
2
11 141 11 + 141
=
Va y phng trnh co hai nghie m la x = ,x .
2 2
11
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Chu e 4: PHNG TRNH PHAN THC HU TY
a2 x 2
1. Phng trnh dang x2 + =
b.
2
( x + a)
Phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
2 2
ax 2ax2 x2 x2
x + =
b + 2a. =
b.
x+a x+a x+a
x+a
x2
a t t = b.
a ve phng trnh ba c hai v i a n t : t 2 + 2at =
x+a
2
x
V du 1. Gia i phng trnh x2 + 1.
=
x +1
Li giai
ie u kien: x 1 .
Phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
2 2
x 2x2 x2 x2
x + =
1 + 2. =
1.
x +1 x +1 x +1
x +1
x2 1 + 2 2 2 1
2 =1 + 2 x =
x2 x2 2
+ 2. =
1 x +1 .
x +1 x2
x +1 =1 2 1 + 2 + 2 2 1
x =
x +1 2
Va y phng trnh co hai nghiem la :
1 + 2 2 2 1 1 + 2 + 2 2 1
=x = ;x .
2 2
x2 + mx + a x2 + px + a
2. Phng trnh dang + =
b.
x2 + nx + a x 2 + qx + a
Xe t xem x = 0 co la nghiem cua phng trnh hay kho ng.
a a
x+ +m x+ +p
Tr ng hp x 0 vie t la i phng trnh d i da ng: x + x =
b.
a a
x+
+n x+ +q
x x
a
a t t= x + a ve phng trnh ba c hai v i a n t .
x
12
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x2 + 5x + 3 x 2 + 4x + 3 184
V du 2. Gia i phng trnh + =
.
x2 7x + 3 x2 + 5x + 3 119
Li giai
ie u kien: x2 + 5x + 3 0,x2 7x + 3 0 .
Nha n thay x = 0 kho ng thoa man phng trnh.
3 3
x+ +5 x+ +4
x x 184
Xe t x 0 vie t la i phng trnh di da ng: + = .
3 3 119
x+ 7 x+ +5
x x
3
a t t =x + , t 2 3 phng trnh tr thanh:
( )
x

7 x = 2
3 7
= t = x +
t+5 t+4 184 x 2 3
+ = 2 x = .
t7 t+5 119 971 3 971 2
y = x + =
211 x 211 971 408589
x=
422
Chu e 5: HE PHNG TRNH HAI AN CO CHA
PHNG TRNH BAC NHAT
a x + b1y = c1
1. He phng trnh bac nhat hai an: 1 , a2 + b12 > 0,a22 + b22 > 0 .
( )
a2 x + b2 y =c2 1
a y la he phng trnh c ba n e gia i chu ng ta co the th c hie n phe p the , s
du ng may tnh bo tui hoac s du ng nh th c Crame(hay c du ng trong
bie n luan).
a1 b1 c1 b1 a1 c1
=D = ,D = ,D .
a2 b2 x c2 b2 y a2 c2
Ca c tr ng hp Ke t qua
D0 He phng trnh co nghiem duy nha t:
D D
( x;y ) = x ; y .

D D
=
D D=
x D=
y 0 He phng trnh co vo so nghiem.
D = 0 nhng Dx 0 hoac Dy 0 He phng trnh vo nghiem.
13
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a x + b y + c z =
1 1 1 d1
2 2 2
2. He phng trnh bac nhat ba an: a2 x + b2 y + c=2 z d 2 , a i + b i + ci > 0 .
( )
d3
a3 x + b3 y + c3z =
He na y du ng phe p the a ve he ba c nha t hai an hoac du ng ma y tnh bo tui.
3. He phng trnh hai an gom mot phng trnh bac nhat va mot phng
mx + ny = a
trnh bac hai: 2 2
.
ax + bxy + cy =d
Ru t x theo y hoa c ru t y theo x t phng trnh a u cu a he the va o phng
trnh th hai cu a he a ve gia i phng trnh ba c hai.
Chu e 6: HE PHNG TRNH BAC HAI HAI AN
DANG TONG QUAT
A. NOI DUNG PHNG PHAP
He phng trnh ba c hai hai a n la he co da ng:
2 2
a1x + b1y + c1xy + d1x + e1y + f1 = 0 (1)
2 2
a2 x + b2 y + c2 xy + d 2 x + e2 y + f2 = 0 (2)
a) Ne u mo t trong hai phng trnh la ba c nha t th de da ng gia i he bang phng
pha p the.
a1 b1
b) Ne u = ba ng ca ch loa i bo x2 + y2 a ve he phng trnh bac hai co
a2 b2
mo t phng trnh bac nha t va gia i he ba ng phng pha p the .
c) Ne u mo t trong hai phng trnh la thua n nha t ba c hai(cha ng han
2 2
d=
1 e= 0 phng trnh
1 f1 )khi o phng trnh au la a1x + b1y + c1xy =
x
na y cho phe p ta tnh c t = .
y
d) He a ng ca p ba c hai ne u d=
1 e=
1 d=
2 e=
2 0 he tr tha nh he a ng ca p ba c
hai. Ba ng ca ch kh i he so t do ta a ve mo t phng trnh thua n nhat ba c
x
hai cho phep ta tnh c t = .
y
14
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Cty TNHH MTV DVVH Khang Viet
e) a ve he ba c nha t ba ng ca ch at y = tx va a t z = x2 gia i he v i hai a n la
( x;z ) luc sau giai phng trnh z = x2 .
f) Trong nhie u tr ng h p ta co the a p du ng phng pha p tnh tie n nghiem.
x= u + a
Ba ng ca ch a t (v i u,v la ca c a n va a,b la hai nghie m cu a he
y= v + b
phng trnh). e tm a,b co hai ca ch th c hie n ta cho ca c hang t ba c nhat
sau khi khai trien trie t tie u t o ta co he a ng ca p ba c hai vi hai an
u,v ca ch giai tng t tr ng h p c) hoa c ao ham mo t phng trnh la n l t
theo bien x ,theo bie n y giai he phng trnh thu c ta c nghiem
( x0 ;y0 ) khi o=a x=
0 ,b y 0 .
g) Du ng he so ba t nh(xem the m chu e he so bat nh).
Cach 1: La y (1) + k.(2) a ve mo t phng trnh ba c hai v i a n
t = ax + by + c ta tm k h p ly sao cho phng trnh ba c hai co Delta la so
chnh phng.
Cach 2: Tm hai ca p nghie m cu a he phng trnh. Vie t phng trnh ng
tha ng i qua hai iem o . La y mo t ie m kha c hai ie m tre n thay va o hai ve
ca c phng trnh cu a he t o suy ra he so ba t nh ca n tm.
h) a o ham la n l t theo bien x hoa c theo y o i v i mo t trong hai phng trnh
u= x a
cu a he tm ra nghiem = x a,y= b khi o a t an phu a ve he
v= y b
phng trnh a ng ca p.
B. BAI TAP MAU
Bai 1. Gia i he phng trnh .
Li giai
Cach 1: S dung phng pha p the. Tr theo ve hai phng trnh cua he ta c:
5x 4y xy = 15 . He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
5x 15
5x 4y xy =15 y =
2 2
x+4 ( x 4 )
3 2
x + y 4x + 2y = 2
3
x + y 4x + 2y =
15
Tm ti liu Ton ? Chuyn nh - www.toanmath.com
5x 15
y =
x+4
2
+
2 5x 15 4x + 2. 5x 15 + 3 =
x 0
x+4 x+4

5x 15
y =
x+4
4 3 2
0
x + 4x + 22x 180x + 153 =
5x 15
y = x = 1,y = 2
x+4 .
=
x 3,y= 0
( 0
( x 1)( x 3) x2 + 8x + 51 = )

Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la=
( x;y ) ( 3;0 ); (1; 2 ) .
Cach 2: a ve he ba c nha t
Nha n thay x = 0 kho ng thoa man he phng trnh.
Xe t x 0 a t y = tx he phng trnh tr tha nh:
2 2
(1 + t ) x + 2 ( t 2 ) x =
3

.
t 2 t + 1 x2 + (1 2t ) x =
( ) 12

2
1
( + t )z + 2 ( t 2 ) x =
3

a t z = x2 khi o he tr tha nh: .
t 2 t + 1 z + (1 2t ) x =
( ) 12

Ta co ca c nh th c:
1 + t2 2t 4
D= =4t 3 + 7t 2 8t + 5
t 2 t + 1 1 2t
.
3 2t 4 1 + t2 3
Dz = =18t + 45;D x = =
15t 2 3t + 15
12 1 2t t 2 t + 1 12
Ne u D =0 4t 3 + 7t 2 8t + 5 =0 ( t 1) 4t 2 3t + 5 =0
( )
t = 1 Dz = 27 0 ne n he vo nghie m.
16
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D
x= x
D z = x2 D .D = D2 .
Xe t t 1 D 0 khi o z x
z = D z
D
2
2
( 18t + 45) ( 4t3 + 7t 2 8t + 5=) (15t 3t + 15 )
153t 4 + 216t 3 + 360t = 0.
0 9t ( t + 2 ) 17t 2 10t + 20 =( )
t = 0

t = 2
Dx
TH1 : Ne u t = 0 D = 5,Dx =15 x = =3 y = 0 .
D
D
TH2 : Ne u t =2 D =81,Dx =81 x = x =
1 y=2 .
D
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la=
( x;y ) ( 3;0 ); (1; 2 ) .
Cach 3 : a t a n phu a ve he ang ca p
x= u + 1
a t he phng trnh tr tha nh:
y= v 2
2 2
( u + 1) + ( v 2 ) 4 ( u + 1) + 2 ( v 2 ) = 3
.
2 2
12
( u + 1) + ( v 2 ) ( u + 1)( v 2 ) + u + 1 2 ( v 2 ) =
2 2
u + v 2u 2v = 0
.
2 2
0
u uv + v + 5u 7v =
Cach 4: He so bat nh(2 h ng x ly).
2 2
x + y 4x + 2y = 3 (1)
Vie t la i he phng trnh d i da ng:
2 2
x + y xy + x 2y =12 (2)
La y (1) + k.(2) theo ve ta c:
0.
( k + 1) x2 ( ky + k + 4 ) x + k ( y2 2y 12 ) + y2 + 2y + 3 =
2
Ta co : x = ( ky + k + 4 ) 4 ( k + 1) k y 2 2y 12 + y 2 + 2y + 3
(( ) )
= 3k 2 8k 4 y2 + 10k 2 + 8k 8 y + 49k 2 + 44k + 4 =0 .
( ) ( )
17
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0.
Ta cho n k sao cho x la so chnh phng muon vay cho 'y =
2
2
5k 2 + 4k 4
( ) ( 3k 8k 4 49k 2 + 44k + 4 =0
)( ) .
43k 4 + 141k 3 + 134k 2 + 44k + 8 =0 k =1
T c la tr theo ve hai phng trnh cu a he nh li gia i 1 tre n.
2 2
x + 3y + 4xy 18x 22y + 31 = 0
Bai 2. Gia i he phng trnh .
2 2
2x + 4y + 2xy + 6x 46y + 175 = 0
Li giai
x= u + a
Cach 1: a t khi o he phng trnh tr tha nh:
y= v + b
2 2
( u + a ) + 3 ( v + b ) + 4 ( u + a )( v + b ) 18 ( u + a ) 22 ( v + b ) + 31 = 0
.
2 2
0
2 ( u + a ) + 4 ( v + b ) + 2 ( u + a )( v + b ) + 6 ( u + a ) 46 ( v + b ) + 175 =
u2 + 3v2 + 4uv + ( 2a + 4b 18) u + ( 6b + 4a 22 ) v

+ a2 + 3b2 + 4ab 18a 22b + 31 =0

2 2
2u + 4v + 2uv + ( 4a + 2b + 6 ) u + ( 8b + 2a 46 ) v

+ 2a2 + 4b2 + 2ab + 6a 46b + 175 = 0
Ta se chon ca c he so ( a; b ) sao cho he tre n tr thanh he ang ca p ba c hai.
2a + 4b 18 =0

6b + 4a 22 =0 a =
5
.
=
4a + 2b +6 0 = b 7
0
8b + 2a 46 =
Thay vao he tre n ta c:
2 2 2 2
u + 3v += 4uv 1 2uv
u + v = 0 u = v
2 2 .
2
2u + 4v + = 2uv 1 8u = 1
2uv 1 2u2 + 4v2 + =
18
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1
x = 5
2 2
1 1
u = v = y = +7
2 2 2 2
.
1 1
u= v= = x 5
2 2 2 2

1
=
y +7
2 2

Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la :
1 1 1 1
( x;y ) = 5; + 7 ; 5; + 7 .
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Nhan xet: Vie c a t a n phu th c hie n ba ng thu thua t nhanh nh sau :
a o ham theo bien x va a o ham theo bie n y mo t trong hai phng trnh cu a
he (ta l a cho n phng trnh a u cu a he)ta c:
2x + 4y 18 = 0 x = 5 u =+ x 5
.
6y + 4x 22 =0 y =7 v =y 7
Cach 2: La y (2) + k.(1) ta c:
( k + 2 ) x2 + 2 ( y + 3 + 2ky 9k ) x + 4y2 + 3ky2 46y + 175 22ky + 31k =0 .
Coi ay la phng trnh bac hai v i an la x.
Ta co :
2
= (
'x ( 2k + 1) y + 3 9k ( k + 2 ) 4y 2 + 3ky 2 46y + 175 22ky + 31k )
2
= (k 6k 7 y 2 14 k 2 6k 7 y + 50k 2 291k 341
) ( )

0 suy ra x =
Cho n k = 1 th 'x =
( 2k + 1) y + 3 9k =
y 12 .
k+2
Li giai
0.
La y (2) (1) theo ve ta c: x2 + 2 (12 y ) x + y2 24y + 144 =
2
( x + 12 y ) = 0 x = y 12 .
Thay vao phng trnh au cu a he ta c:
2
( y 12 ) 0.
+ 3y 2 + 4y ( y 12 ) 18 ( y 12 ) 22y + 31 =
19
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1 1 1
y = 7 x= 5,y = +7
2 2 2 2 2 2
8y 2 112y + 391 =
0 .
1 1 1
y = 7 + x = 5,y = +7
2 2 2 2 2 2
C. BAI TAP REN LUYEN
2 2
2x + xy y 5x + y + 2 =0
Bai 1. Gia i he phng trnh .
2 2
x + y + x + y 4 =0
Li giai
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
y= 2 x
( x + y 2 )( 2x y 1) =0
= y 2x 1 .
2 2
x + y + x + y 4 = 0 2 2
x + y + x + y 4 =0
y= 2 x
2 2 =x 1,y
= 1
x + y + x + y 4 = 0
4 13 .
=y 2x 1 x =
,y =
5 5
2 2
x + y + x + y 4 =0

=
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la ( x;y ) (1;1) ; 45 ; 135 .

2 2
x y 2x + 2y + 3 = 0
Bai 2. Gia i he phng trnh .
2
y 2xy + 2x + 4 =0
Li giai
Nha n thay y = 1 kho ng thoa man he phng trnh.
y2 + 4
Xe t y 1 ru t x = t phng trnh th hai thay va o phng trnh th
2y 2
nha t cu a he ta c:
2
y2 + 4 y2 + 4
y 2 2. + 2y + 3 =0.
2y 2
2y 2
3y 4 12y3 4y2 + 32y 44 =0 y2 2y + 2 3y2 6y 22 =0 .
( )( )
20
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5 4 5
1
y = x=
1 ,y =
1
3 3 3
3y2 6y 22 =0 .
5 4 5
1+
y = 1+
x = ,y =
1+
3 3 3
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la :
4 5 4 5
1
( x;y ) = ;1 ; 1 + ;1 + .
3 3 3 3
2
x 2xy + 2y + 15 = 0
Bai 3. Gia i he phng trnh .
2
2x 2xy + y + 5 =0
Li giai
Nha n thay x = 1 kho ng thoa man he phng trnh.
x2 + 15
V i x 1 ru t y = thay va o phng trnh th hai cu a he ta c:
2x 2
2
x2 + 15 x 2 + 15
2x 2x. + +5=0.
2x 2 2x 2
3x 4 12x3 + 26x 2 28x 245 =0 x 2 2x 7 3x2 6x + 35 =0 .
( )( )
x =1 2 2 x =1 2 2,y =
1 3 2
x2 2x 7 = 0 .
x = 1 + 2 2,y =
1 + 2 2 x = 1+ 3 2
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la :
( x;y ) =
(1 2 2;1 3 2 ; 1 + 2 2;1 + 3 2 .
)( )
2 2
x + y + x 2y = 2
Bai 4. Gia i he phng trnh 2 2
.
x + y + 2 ( x + y ) =11
Li giai
Cach 1 : Tr theo ve hai phng trnh cu a he ta c x + 4y =
9.
Khi o he phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
2
x2 + y2 + x 2y =2 9 4y ) + y2 + 9 4y 2y =2
( .
x + 4y =9 x= 9 4y
21
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17y2 78y + 88 = =x 1,y
= 2
0
23 44 .
x= 9 4y x= ,y =
17 17

23 44
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la =
( x;y ) (1;2 ); 17 ; .
17

Cach 2 : Nha n tha y x = 0 kho ng tho a ma n he phng trnh.
Xe t x 0 a t y = tx khi o he phng trnh tr thanh:
2 2
(1 + t x
) + (1 2t ) x =
2

.
( ) 11
1 + t 2 x 2 + 2 (1 + t ) x =

1 + t 2 z + (1 2t ) x =
( ) 2

a t z = x2 he phng trnh tr tha nh:
( ) 11
1 + t 2 z + 2 (1 + t ) x =

Tnh c D =( 4t + 1) t 2 + 1 ,Dx =9 t 2 + 1 ,Dz =26t 7 .
( ) ( )
1 27
Ne u D =0 t = Dz = 0 he phng trnh vo nghiem.
4 2
Dx
x=
1 D z= x2 D .D= D2 .
Ne u D 0 t z x
4 D
z= z
D
2
t = 2
81 t 2 + 1
( ) =( 26t 7 )( 4t + 1) t 2 + 1 23t 2 2t 88 = 0
( ) 44 .
t=
23
Dx
TH1 : Ne u t =2 D =45,Dx =45 x = =1 y =2 .
D
44 23 44
TH2 : Ne u t = x= ,y = .
23 17 17

23 44
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la =
( x;y ) (1;2 ); 17 ; .
17

2 2
x + 4y 4x + 12y + 11 = 0
Bai 5. Gia i he phng trnh
2 2
x + 4y 2xy x + 4y 12 =0
22
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Li giai
Tr theo ve hai phng trnh cu a he ta c:
( 2x + 8) y + 23 3x = 0 y = 3x2x+238 (do x = 4 khong thoa man he phng trnh).
3x 23
Thay y = va o phng trnh au cu a he ta c :
2x + 8
2
3x 23 3x 23
x2 + 4 4x + 12. + 11 =
0.
2x + 8 2x + 8
x 4 + 4x3 + 22x 2 180x + 153 =
0.
x = 1,y = 2
x = 1
( x 1)( x 3) x2 + 8x + 51 =0
( ) 12 .
x = 3 x = 3,y =
7

Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la ( x;y ) =
(1; 2 ); 3; 127 .

2 2
x + 2y + xy + x 10y =12
Bai 6. Gia i he phng trnh .
2 2
8
3x y xy + 15x + 4y =
Li giai
a t u =+
x 2,v =
y 3 he phng trnh tr tha nh:
2 2
( u 2 ) + 2 ( v + 3) + ( u 2 )( v + 3) + u 2 10 ( v + 3) =12
.
2 2
8
3 ( u 2 ) ( v + 3) ( u 2 )( v + 3) + 15 ( u 2 ) + 4 ( v + 3) =
2 2 2
4
u2 + uv + 2v2 = u2 + uv + 2v=
4 3u uv v( )
.
2 2 2 2
3u uv v = 1 3u uv v = 1
u = v

0
11u2 5uv 6v2 = 6v
u =
2 2 11
3u uv v = 1
3u2 uv v2 =
1

23
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u = 1,v = 1 x = 3,y = 2
u = v
2 2 u=1,v = 1 x=1,y = 4
3u uv v = 1
6 11 6 11
u = ,v = x = 2,y = + 3 .
u = 6 v 53 53 53 53
11
2 2
6 11 6 11
1 u = ,v = x = 2,y = +3
3u uv v = 53 53 53 53

Va y he phng trnh co bon nghie m la :

( x;y ) =
( 3;2 ); ( 1;4 ); 6 2; 11 + 3 ; 6 2; 11 + 3 .
53 53 53 53
Nhan xet: Ca ch a t a n phu nh tre n xua t phat t thu thua t. a o ham mo t
trong hai phng trnh cu a he theo bie n x va theo bie n y ta c( a y ta l a
cho n phng trnh a u cu a he ).
2x + y + 1 =0 x =2 u =x + 2
.
4y + x 10 = 0 y = 3 v = y 3
2 2
x + y = 1 (1)
Bai 7. Gia i he phng trnh
48 x 2 y 2 + 28xy + 21x + 3y =
( ) 69 (2)

Li giai
La y 50.(1) + (2) theo ve ta c:
98x2 + 28xy + 21x + 2y 2 + 3y 119 =
0.
y= 7 7x
( 7x + y 7 )(14x + 2y + 17 ) = 0
14x + 17 .
y=
2
24 7
He phng trnh co hai nghiem la: ( x;y ) = (1;0 ) ; ; .
25 25
2 2
x + y + x = 3
Bai 8. Gia i he phng trnh .
2 2
x 2y xy + y + 1 =0
Li giai
La y 2.(1) + (2) theo ve ta c:
3x2 + 2x 5 xy + y = 0 ( x 1)( 3x + 5 y ) = 0 .
Xe t tr ng h p tm c ca c nghiem cua he phng trnh la:
11 17
(=
x;y ) (1;1) ; (1; 1) ; ( 2; 1) ; ; .
10 10

24
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CHNG 2. CAC KY THUAT VA PHNG PHAP
GIAI HE PHNG TRNH
Chng na y la no i dung chnh cu a cuo n sa ch. To i trnh bay theo ca c da ng
toa n ie n hnh pha n theo ca c chu e . Mo i chu e cung ca p ca c phng phap
cu ng nh ky thua t gia i nhanh o ng th i la mo t so lu y o i vi ba n o c trong
qua trnh x ly t ng bai toa n cu the.
Chu e 1. KY THUAT S DUNG
HE PHNG TRNH BAC NHAT HAI AN
A. NOI DUNG PHNG PHAP
a x + b1y = c1
Ta a bie t mo t he phng trnh ba c nha t hai a n 1 luo n gia i
a2 x + b2 y =c2
D x
Dy
=
c ba ng phe p the hoa c tho ng qua co ng th c nh th c x = ,y v i
D D
a1 b1 c1 b1 a1 c1
=
D 0 , trong o : D = ,D = ,D .
a2 b2 x c2 b2 y a2 c2
Ne u tinh y quan sa t he phng trnh ta co the a 1 he phng trnh ph c ta p
ve he ba c nha t hai an nh tre n va ta s du ng co ng th c nghiem e gia i.
Dau hien nhan biet phng phap:
+ Ca c phng trnh cua he ch la phng trnh ba c nha t hoa c ba c 2 cu a mo t
a n x va y.
+ Co 1 nha n t lap la i ca 2 phng trnh cu a he va ca c thanh phan co n lai
ch co da ng ba c nhat cu a x va y(1 ca n th c; 1 bieu th c cu a x va y).
+ Co 2 nha n t lap la i ca 2 phng trnh cu a he(co 2 ca n th c; 2 bie u th c
cu a x va y).
e ro hn ban o c theo do i ca c v du trnh ba y di a y cha c cha n se hnh
tha nh ky nang nha n dien he phng trnh c gia i ba ng ky thua t nay.
Chu y. Trong chng 1 cac ba i toa n ve he phng trnh ba c hai hai a n dang
to ng quat toi a trnh ba y ky thua t na y.
Ca n nha n ma nh them ra ng phng pha p nay giu p ta gia i quye t c ba i toa n
khi nha n bie t c he ba c nha t hai a n. Tuy nhie n co 1 th c te ra ng oi v i 1
so he phng trnh se ye u ca u ba n o c tnh toan kha na ng. Do va y mu c ch
cu a ba i vie t la cung ca p the m cho ba n o c 1 ky thua t e gia i he. Nhn he
phng trnh di con ma t linh hoa t hn va t duy suy ngh ta se co them ca c
ca ch gia i hay kha c nhau.
25
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B. BAI TAP MAU
2 2
x + y 4x + 2y = 3
Bai 1. Gia i he phng trnh .
2 2
x + y xy + x 2y =12
Li giai
Phan tch tm li giai:
Ca hai phng trnh cua he co dang phng trnh bac 2 cu a x hoa c cua y. V
va y ta co the a ve he phng trnh ba c nha t 2 a n. Ta co the coi x la tham
so hoa c y la tham so . L i gia i d i ay ta coi x la tham so .
2
a=
t a y= ,b y he phng trnh tr tha nh:
a + 2b = x 2 + 4x 3
2
.
a ( x + 2 ) b =x x + 12
Coi ay la phng trnh bac nha t hai a n a va b khi o
He na y he so cu a a va b kha n gia n ne n ta du ng phng phap the :
Tr theo ve hai phng trnh cu a he suy ra: ( x + 4 ) b = 5 ( x 3)
5 ( x 3)
b= (v x = 4 khong thoa man he phng trnh).
x+4
x3 + 3x + 18 5 ( x 3)
=a = ;b .
x+4 x+4
2
x3 + 3x + 18 x3
Ma t kha c a =
b2 =
25 .
x+4 x+4
x = 1 x = 1,y = 2
( x 1)( x 3) x2 + 8x + 51 =0
( ) .
=
x 3 = x 3,y= 0
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la ( x;y=
) (1; 2 ); ( 3;0 ) .
Co n nhie u gia i kha c cho 1 he phng trnh ba c hai hai a n dang to ng quat a
trnh ba y trong chng tr c.
4 2 2
x + 4x + y 4y = 2
Bai 2. Gia i he phng trnh .
2 2
23
x y + 2x + 6y =
Li giai
Nhan xet. Coi x la tham so va y la a n th ro ra ng ca 2 phng trnh cu a he co
da ng ba c 2 va ba c 1 cu a y.
26
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4 2
t 4y =2 x 4x
a t t = y 2 he phng trnh tr tha nh: 2 .
( x + 6 y =23 2x 2
)

Ta coi he phng trnh trnh tre n la he phng trnh ba c nha t hai a n t va y ta
c: D =
x2 + 6;Dt = 23 2x 2 .
x6 10x 4 30x 2 + 104;Dy =
2
D D y 2
Suy ra: t = y2 t = x2 + 6 x6 10x 4 30x2 + 104 = 23 2x 2
( )( ) ( )
D
D
x =1 y =3
(1 x)(1 + x)(1 + x 2 )(x 4 + 16x 2 + 95) = 0 .
x =1 y =3
Va y he phng trnh a cho co hai nghiem la ( x;y ) = ( 1;3); (1;3) .
Nhan xet. Ta hoa n toan du ng phe p the cho he phng trnh tre n ba ng ca ch
23 2x 2
ru t y = t phng trnh th hai cu a he va the va o phng trnh a u
x2 + 6
cu a he ta co ke t qua tng t .
Bai 3. (TSH Khoi A 2008) Giai he phng trnh:
2 5
x + y + x3 y + xy2 + xy =
4.

5

x 4 + y 2 + xy (1 + 2x ) =
4
Li giai
Nhan xet. L i giai tham kha o va a p an chnh th c s du ng a n phu kha n
gia n. Nhn nha n ca 2 phng trnh cu a he la phng trnh ba c 2 cu a y. V va y
theo da u hie u a biet ta hoa n toan a c he ve he phng trnh ba c nha t
hai an.
5
xy2 + x3 + x + 1 y = x2
( )
4.
Vie t la i he phng trnh d i da ng
y2 + 2x2 + x y = 5
( x 4
)
4
5
xa + x3 + x + 1 b =x 2
( )
2
a=
t a y= ,b y he phng trnh tr tha nh: 4.
a + 2x 2 + x b = 5
( x 4 )
4
27
Tm ti liu Ton ? Chuyn nh - www.toanmath.com
2
Ta co D = x 2x2 + x x3 + x + 1 = x3 + x 2 x 1 =
( ) ( ) ( x 1)( x + 1) .
3
+ Neu x =1 y= .
2
+ Neu x = 1 thay va o he ban au ta tha y vo nghie m.
Tnh tiep Dx ,Dy ta tm c:
4x6 + 4x 5 + 8x 4 + 4x3 + 5x 2 5x 5 4x 4 + 4x3 + 4x 2 + 5
a= ;b =
2 2
4 ( x + 1) 4 ( x + 1)
v i ( x 1)( x + 1) 0 .
Ma t kha c:
2

4x 6 + 4x 5 + 8x 4 + 4x3 + 5x 2 5x 5 4x 4 + 4x3 + 4x 2 + 5
a=
b2 =
2 2
4 ( x + 1) 4 ( x + 1)

2 25
3 3 3
2x2 + 2x + 3
( ) ( 4x 5) =0 x = 45 y = .
16
3 5 25
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la : ( x;y ) = 1; ; 3 ; 3 .
2 4 16
Xem them l i gia i a t a n phu trong chu e ky thuat a n phu a i so.
( x + y )( 2 y ) =(1 2y )(1 + xy )
Bai 4. Gia i he phng trnh , ( x,y ) .
( x y )( 3 x ) =(1 3x )(1 xy )
Nhan xet. Sau khi khai trie n ta a ve mo t he phng trnh ba c hai hai a n
da ng to ng qua t. Va y a p dung ky thua a ve he ba c nha t hai a n ta c:
Vie t la i he phng trnh d i da ng:
2x y2 y + 1 = y 2 4y + 1
( )

2x ( y + 3) = ( 3y + 1) x2 + 1
( )

y 2 4y + 1
x =
2 y2 y + 1
( )
2

2 2
y 4y + 1 + 1 =
2. ( y + 3) ( 3y + 1) y 4y + 1 0 (1)
2 y2 y + 1
( ) 2 y2 y + 1
(
)

28
Tm ti liu Ton ? Chuyn nh - www.toanmath.com
Ta co (1) 11y 5 35y 4 + 110y3 70y 2 + 55y 7 =0.
v 1
e giai phng trnh a th c tre n ta a t y = va sau khi ru t go n a
v +1
5
9
1
5
9 2
phng trnh ve da ng: 2v5 9 = 0 v = y= .
2 9
5 +1
2
5
12 1
Thay ng c la i ta tm c x = .
5
12 + 1
9
5 5 1
12 1 2 .
Va y he phng trnh co nghiem duy nha t ( x;y ) = ;
5 12 + 1 9
5 +1
2
Nhan xet. Ca u ho i a t ra la tai sao ngh en vie c gia i phng trnh a thc
v 1
ba c 5 nh tren ba ng phep a t y = . e lam ro ie u nay tr c he t ta xe t
v +1
ca ch kha c cho ba i toan nh sau:
x + y 1 2y
=
1 + xy 2 y
Vi x2 y2 1 ( x 3)( y 2 ) 0 viet lai he phng trnh di dang:
( ) x y = 1 3x
1 xy 3 x
u 1 v 1
=
a t x = ,y he phng trnh tr tha nh: .
u +1 v +1 uv 2u
= (1)
u+v u+2
uv 1 3 v
= (2)
uv + 1 3 + v
T (1) ke t h p v i tnh cha t cu a ty le th c ta co :
uv 2u 2v 2 + v 2u
= = =
u + v u + 2 2 + v + 2u 2v .
(2 v)2 = (2 + v)2 4u2 u2 = 2v
uv 1 3 v 3u uv 3u 1 3u + 1 2uv
Tng t t (2) ta co : = = = =
uv + 1 3 + v 3u + uv 3u + 1 + 2uv 3u 1
(3u 1)2 = (3u + 1)2 4u2 v2 u2 v2 = 3u .
29
Tm ti liu Ton ? Chuyn nh - www.toanmath.com
2
u = 2v
Va y ta co he phng trnh: .
2 2
u v = 3u
Xe t u = 0 v = 0 x = y = 1 xy = 1 (loa i do 1 xy 0 ).
5
9
5 1
u4 9 12 1 2
Va y u. = 3 u = 5 12 v = 5 x = ,y = .
4 2 5
12 + 1 5
9
+1
2
a y la mo t he c xa y d ng mo t ca ch kha a c bie t. Nguye n do au ta co
phe p a t tre n va c s nao xay d ng da ng he tre n xin nhng cho ba n o c.
e a p du ng ba n o c ren luye n qua ba i toa n tng t sau:
x + y 1 3y
=
1 + xy 3 y
V du. Gia i he phng trnh .
x y = 1 5x
1 xy 5 x

( x + y ) 2xy + 5= 4xy 3y + 1
Bai 5.Gia i he phng trnh: , ( x,y ) .
( x + 2y ) 2xy + 5= 6xy + x 7y 6
Li giai
Phan tch tm li giai:
Chu y ca n th c 2xy + 5 va ca hai phng trnh cu a he co ch a the m a i
l ng 4xy,6xy hoa n toa n bieu dien c theo ca n th c tren va ca c tha nh
=
pha n co n la i e u da ng bac nha t cu a x va y. V va y ne u coi u 2xy + 5 la
tham so ta a c he phng trnh ve he ba c nha t 2 a n x va y.
Cach 1: ieu kie n 2xy + 5 0 .
a t u = 2xy + 5, ( u 0 ) 2xy = u2 5 .
He phng trnh tr tha nh:
2
x + y ) =
u 2 u ( 5 3y + 1) 2u2 ( x + y ) u 3y 9 =0
(
.
2
( x + 2y )= u 3 u2 5 + x 7y 6
( ) 3u ( x + 2y ) u + x 7y 21 =0

ux ( u + 3) y = 2u2 + 9

.
2
(1 u ) x ( 7 + 2u ) y = 21 3u
30
Tm ti liu Ton ? Chuyn nh - www.toanmath.com
Coi ay la he phng trnh ba c nha t hai a n cua x va y; u la tham so ta c:
u ( u + 3)
D= = u2 + 5u + 3 .
1 u ( 7 + 2u )
Tng t ta co : Dx= u u2 + 5u + 3 , Dy = ( u 3) u2 + 5u + 3 .
( ) ( )
V i D = 0 he phng trnh vo nghiem.
Dx Dy
V i D 0 x= = u,y= = u 3 xy= u ( u 3) .
D D
u2 5 u = 1
= u ( u 3) u2 6u + 5 = 0 .
2 u = 5
Thay ng c la i cong th c nghiem ta co ca c nghiem la:
( x;y=) (1; 2 ); ( 5;2 ) thoa man ieu kien.
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la ( x;y=
) (1; 2 ); ( 5;2 ) .
Cach 2:Vie t la i he phng trnh d i da ng:
( x + y ) 2xy + 5= 4xy 3y + 1 (1)

.
( x + 2y ) 2xy + 5= 6xy + x 7y 6 (2)
La y 2.(1) (2) va 3.(1) 2.(2) theo ve ta c:
x 2xy + 5 =2xy x + 4y + 7

( x y ) 2xy + 5 =2x + 5y + 15

x y 3= 2xy + 5 x 2xy + 5


( x y 3) 2xy + 5 + 5 = 3 x 2xy + 5
( ) ( )

x y 3= 2xy + 5 x 2xy + 5
.
2xy + 5 x 2xy + 5
( 2xy + 5 + 5 = 3 x 2xy + 5
)( ) ( )


x y 3= 2xy + 5 x 2xy + 5
.
x 2xy + 5 2xy + 5 + 5 2xy + 5 + 3 =
( )( 0 )

x y 3= 2xy + 5 x 2xy + 5 x y 3 = x2 x2
.
= x 2xy + 5 = x 2xy + 5
31
Tm ti liu Ton ? Chuyn nh - www.toanmath.com
y= x 3
y= x 3 =
x 5,y
= 2
x 0 .
x =2x ( x 3) + 5 2 2 x =1,y =2

x = 2x 6x + 5
Nhan xet. Qua bai toan tren 1 lan na khang nh ky thuat nay to ra rat hieu qua.
Bai 6. Gia i he phng trnh:
3
( x + y ) y + 3 + y 2x2 1 = xy + 2y2
y3
, ( x,y ) .
y3 + 3
2x + ( x + y ) 2x2 1= 3xy x2
y3
Li giai
Phan tch tm li giai:
y3 + 3
Vie c la p la i 2 ca n th c , 2x2 1 hai phng trnh cu a he lu c nay
y3
coi hai an la 2 can va x,y la tham so . Hy vo ng a ve he phng trnh ba c
nha t 2 a n co the tm c 2 ca n th c theo x va y.
y3 + 3
ie u kien: 2x 2 1 0, 0,y 0 .
y3
y3 + 3
a t u = ,v = 2x 2 1, ( u,v 0 )
y3
2
( x + y ) u + yv = xy + 2y
He phng trnh tr tha nh : .
2
2xu + ( x + y ) v = 3xy x
Coi ay la he phng trnh ba c nha t v i hai a n la u va v ta c:
D=
x2 + y2 ,D u = (x x2 + y2 .
2y x2 + y2 ,Dv = ) ( )
Du y3 + 3
= u = 2y = 2y
D 3 x = 1
V vay y .
v = Dv y = 1
= x
D 2x2 1 =x
Va y he phng trnh co nghiem duy nha t ( x;y ) = ( 1;1) .
32
Tm ti liu Ton ? Chuyn nh - www.toanmath.com
3x + y
3x y + =8
x2 y2
Bai 7. Gia i he phng trnh: , ( x,y ) .
3x y
3x + y + =7
x2 y2

Li giai
Phan tch tm li giai:
1
Nhn nha n ca 2 phng trnh cu a he co chung va ne u coi a i l ng
x2 y2
na y la tham so th he tr tha nh he ba c nha t 2 an v i x va y.
ie u kien: x2 y2 0 .
1 1
3x 1 + y 1 =8
2 2
x2 y2 x y
Vie t la i he phng trnh d i da ng: .
1 1
3x 1 + 2 + y 1 2 =7
2 x y2
x y
1 3 (1 + m ) x (1 m ) y =8
a t m = he phng trnh tr tha nh: .
x2 y2 7
3 (1 + m ) x + (1 m ) y =
Coi ay la he phng trnh ba c nha t v i hai a n x,y va m la tham so .
Ta co : D =
6 ( m + 1)(1 m ) ,Dx = 3 ( m + 1) .
15 (1 m ) ,Dy =
m =1 Dx = 0
Vi D =0 ( m + 1)(1 m ) =0 he phng trnh vo nghiem.
m =1 Dy =0

Dx 5
=
x =
D 2 ( m + 1)
V i D 0 .
Dy 1
=
y =
D 2 ( m 1)

3 5
2 2 m =

1 5 1 1
Ma t kha c: x2 y2 = = 2 .
m m 3+ 5
2 ( m + 1) 2 ( m 1) m =
2
33
Tm ti liu Ton ? Chuyn nh - www.toanmath.com
5+ 5 1+ 5
x = ,y =
Thay ng c la i cong th c nghiem tre n ta co 4 4 .
5 5 1 + 5
= x = ,y
4 4
Cach 2:Co ng theo ve va tr theo ve hai phng trnh cu a he ta c:
6x
6x + = 15
x2 y2
.
2y + 2y = 1
x2 y2

Nha n thay x = 0 hoa c y = 0 kho ng thoa ma n he phng trnh.
Xe t xy 0 vie t la i he phng trnh di dang:
2 5 5 1
2 + = = 4
x2 y2 x x y 25 1 16
= =
x2 5y2 (1) .
2 1 5 + 1 = 4 x2 y2 x2 y2
2 + = 2 2
x2 y2 y x y x y

Thay x2 = 5y2 va o phng trnh th hai ta c:
1+ 5 5+ 5 1+ 5
y = x =
,y =
2 1 4 4
2 + = 8y2 + 4y 2 = 0 4 .
4y 2 y 1 + 5 5 5 1 + 5
= y = x = ,y
4 4 4
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la :

=
( x;y ) 5 +4 5 ; 1 +4 5 ; 5 4 5 ; 1 +4 5 .

Ghi chu. (1) xem them ky thua t co ng, tr la y tch hai phng trnh cu a he .
Ngoai ra ta co the gia i he phng trnh tre n bang so ph c.
5x2 y + 1 + y= y 2 x + 6x + 1
( )

Bai 8. Gia i he phng trnh 1 .
y2 + y (1 10x ) =25x 2 + + 1
x
Li giai
Phan tch tm li giai: Ro ra ng ca hai phng trnh cu a he la phng trnh
2
ba c hai cua y. Do va y ne u a=
t a y= ,b y he tr tha nh mo t he phng trnh
ba c nha t 2 a n.
34
Tm ti liu Ton ? Chuyn nh - www.toanmath.com
ie u kien: x 0 .
2
a=
t a y= ,b y khi o he phng trnh tr tha nh:
2 2 3 2
x.a 5x
( + 1
) b 5x + 6x + 1 =0 25x + 15x x + 1
a =
x , x 5x2 x 1 0
(( ) )
x.a + x 10x2 b + 25x3 x 1 =0 =
( )
b 5x + 2
25x3 + 15x2 x + 1 2
Ta co a =
b2 =
( 5x + 2 ) .
x
5+3 5 5+3 5 3 5 +1

x =
x =
,y =
5x2 + 5x 1 = 0 10 10 2 .
5 3 5 5 3 5 3 5 1

x =
x = ,y =
10 10 2

x= 0 VN

1 21 1 21
Ne u x 5x2 x 1 = 0 x =
( ) y= .
10 2

1 + 21 21 1
= x =
y
10 2
Va y he phng trnh co 5 nghiem la:
5 + 3 5 3 5 +1 5 3 5 3 5 1
( x;y ) = ; ; ; ;
10 10
2 2
.
1 21 1 21 1 + 21 21 1
; ; ;
10 2 10
2
Cach 2: Vie t la i he phng trnh d i da ng:
2 2 2
y x 5x
( + 1) y 5x + 6x + 1 =0

.
xy2 + x 10x2 y + 25x3 x 1 =
( ) 0

Tr theo ve hai phng trnh cu a he ta c:
1 21 1 21
= x =
y
10 2
1 + 21 21 1
5x2 x 1 ( 5x y + 2 ) = 0 x =
( ) y= .
10 2
= y 5x + 2


35
Tm ti liu Ton ? Chuyn nh - www.toanmath.com
+ Vi =
y 5x + 2 thay va o phng trnh au cua he ta c:
2
( 5x + 2 ) x 5x2 + 1 ( 5x + 2 ) 5x2 + 6x + 1 =
( ) 0.
5+3 5 5+3 5 3 5 +1

x =
x =
,y =
5x2 + 5x 1 = 0 10 10 2 .
53 5 53 5 3 5 1

x =
x = ,y =
10 10 2
Va y he phng trnh co 5 nghiem la
5 + 3 5 3 5 +1 5 3 5 3 5 1

( x;y ) = ; ; ; ;
10 10
2 2
.
1 21 1 21 1 + 21 21 1
; ; ;
10 2 10
2
3 2
x + y =(x y)(xy 1)
Bai 9. Gia i he phng trnh , ( x,y ) .
3 2
1 xy(x y + 1)
x x + y +=
Nhan xet. Cu ng tng t ba i toa n tre n coi x la tham so va y la bie n th ca 2
phng trnh cu a he neu vie t la i eu la phng trnh ba c 2 cua y. Do va y
hoa n toan s du ng c phng phap tre n.
3 2 2 2
x + y = x y xy + y x
Vie t la i he phng trnh d i da ng: .
3 2 2 2
x x + y + 1= x y xy + xy
2 2 3
x + 1) y x + 1(y + x +
) x =0 (1)
(
.
xy 2 x 2 + x 1 y + x3 x 2 + 1 =
( ) 0 (2)

Nha n tha y t he tre n ta hoa n toa n gia i ba ng phng pha p the ba ng ca ch l c
bo i nhan t y2 t hai phng trnh cu a he.
Do vay ta la y x.(1) (x + 1).(2) theo ve ta c:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( 0.
x x2 + 1 y + x x3 + x + ( x + 1) x 2 + x 1 y ( x + 1) x3 x 2 + 1 = )
1
x =
2
2x + 1 x 1 y + 1 = 0 x =1 .
( )( )( )
y = 1


36
Tm ti liu Ton ? Chuyn nh - www.toanmath.com
1
+ TH1: Ne u x = thay vao phng trnh a u cu a he ta c:
2
1 5 5 53 5
y2 y = 0 4y2 10y 5 = 0 y = .
2 4 8 4
+ TH2: Ne u x = 1 thay vao phng trnh a u cu a he ta c:
2
1 3
2y2 2y + 2 = 0 2 y + = 0 vo nghiem.
2 2
+ TH3: Ne u y = 1 thay vao he ta c:
3 2
x + x + 2x + 2 =0
3 (he vo nghie m).
0
x + 2x =
1 5 + 3 5 1 5 3 5
Va y he a cho co hai nghie m la (x;y) = ; , ; .

2 4 2 4
Cach 2: Du ng he hai phng trnh ba c nha t
Chu y neu a t a = y2 ,b = y a = b2 va he phng trnh tr tha nh:
2 3
x + 1) a x
( + 1 b)+ x + x =0
(
.
xa x 2 + x 1 b + x3 x 2 + 1 =
( ) 0

Th ro rang a y la he phng trnh hai an ba c nha t va ta coi x la tham so .
Lu c na y ch ca n tm a va b theo x roi gia i phng trnh a = b2 ta c 1
phng trnh cua x va ta co ngay ke t qua cua ba i toan.
Tha t va y ta co : D = ( x + 1) x2 + x 1 + x x2 + 1 =2x2 + x + 1 .
( ) ( )
2 2
Da= ( x + 1)( 2x x 1 ,D b= 2x2 x 1 .
)
1
x=
+ Neu D= 0 2 thay lai va o he ta tm c nghiem nh ca ch 1.

x = 1
D
+ Neu D 0 a = a =x2 1 < 0 vo ly.
D
1 53 5 1 5+3 5
;
Va y he co hai nghie m la ( x;y ) = ; ; .

2 4 2 4
37
Tm ti liu Ton ? Chuyn nh - www.toanmath.com
Cach 3: He so bat nh.
La y 1.(1) + 2.(2) ta c: (x 1)(x2 + y2 x 3y xy 2) =0 .
x = 1
2 2
x + y x 3y xy 2 =0
3 2
x + x + 2x + 2 =0
V i x = 1 thay va o he ta ta c: (he vo nghie m).
3
0
x + 2x =
V i x2 + y2 x 3y xy 2 =0(3) .
La y 2.(1) (3) ta c: (2x + 1)(x2 + y2 x + y xy + 2) =0
1
x=

2 .
2 2
x + y x + y xy + 2 =0
1 53 5
V i x = y= .
2 4
V i x2 + y2 x + y xy + 2 =0(4) .
La y (4) (3) ta c: y = 1 thay vao (3) tha y vo nghiem.
1 5 + 3 5 1 5 3 5
Va y he a cho co hai nghie m la (x;y) = ; , ; .

2 4 2 4
2 2
3x + x 7 y + 24 = 3
Bai 10. Gia i he phng trnh: , ( x,y ) .
2 2
4 x 7 y + 24 = 3y
Li giai
Phan tch tm li giai: Khi ba t ga p he xua t hie n hai ca n th c la p la i trong
hai phng trnh cu a he tre n y t ng a u tie n la ru t t ng can th c theo x va
y. Ro rang khi bie u die n c mo i ca n th c theo x va y ro i ch ca n th c hien
phe p bnh phng ta a ve he phng trnh ba c 2 hai an da ng to ng qua t. Va
theo ky thua t he phng trnh ba c nha t hai an ta hoan toa n gia i c he m i
sinh ra.
ie u kien: x 7 .
He phung trnh tuwong ng v i:
2 2 x2 7 = x + y 1
x 7 y + 24 = 3 3x
.
2 2
4 x 7 y + 24 = 3y y2 + 24 = 4x + y 4
38
Tm ti liu Ton ? Chuyn nh - www.toanmath.com
x + y 1 0,4x + y 4 0 x + y 1 0,4x + y 4 0

2 2
x2 7 = ( x + y 1) x2 7 = ( x + y 1) (1) .
2 2
2 2
y + 24= ( 4x + y 4 ) y + 24= ( 4x + y 4 )
2 2 2

x 7 = ( x + y 1) y + 2y ( x 1) 2x + 8 = 0
Ta co : .
2
2 2x 2 + 4x + 1
( x 1) y =
y + 24= ( 4x + y 4 )
Do x 7 he tre n kha n gia n ta s dung phe p the t phng trnh th hai
cu a he ta c:
2x 2 + 4x + 1
y= . Thay va o phng trnh th nha t cu a he ta c:
x 1
2
2x2 + 4x + 1 2x 2 + 4x + 1
+ 2. . ( x 1) 2x + 8 =0.
x 1 x 1

2x3 6x2 + 6x 11 =
0.
3 9
2 ( x 1) =9 x =1 + 3 y = 3 6 3 36 .
2
9
1 + 3 ; 3 6 3 36 .
Va y he phng trnh co nghiem duy nha t ( x;y ) =
2



x + y 1 0,4x + y 4 0 x + y 1 0,4x + y 4 0
7
Cach 2: Ta co : (1) ( y 1)( 2x + y 1) + 7 =0 y 1 = (1)
2x + y 1
( x 1)( 2x + y 2 ) 3 =0 3
x 1 = (2)
2x + y 2
6 7
La y (1) + 2.(2) theo ve ta c: 2x=
+ y3 .
2x + y 2 2x + y 1
a t t = 2x + y 2 phng trnh tr thanh:
6 7
t 1 = t = 3 6 2x + y 2 = 3 6 .
t t +1
Thay vao (1), (2) tm c nghie m cu a he phng trnh la :
9
1 + 3 ; 3 6 3 36 .
( x;y ) =
2

39
Tm ti liu Ton ? Chuyn nh - www.toanmath.com
Nhan xet. a y la mo t ba i toa n hay va kho ca 2 li gia i cho bai toa n he t s c
e p ma t. V i l i gia i 1 t nhie n va de ngh e n hn tuy nhie n l i gia i 2 cho
ta 1 lo i t duy gia i he a ve a n phu gi a 2 a n ra t hay.
C. BAI TAP REN LUYEN
Bai 1. Ch ng minh rang v i moi m he phng trnh sau co nghiem x2 + y2
2x my =m

kho ng oi: 3m 2 + 4
mx + y = 2
m +4
Li giai
4m 4 m2
De tnh=
c x = ,y .
m2 + 4 m2 + 4
2
16m 2 + 4 m 2( )
=
Khi o x2 + y2 = 1.
2
2
+4
(m )
4 2 2
x y 8x 6y = 2
Bai 2. Gia i he phng trnh .
2 2
x y + y + y = 1
Li giai
2
a 8b = y + 6y 2
a t =
a x 4 ,b = x2 .
2
by = y y 1
y3 2y2 10y 8 y2 + y + 1
De tnh c a = ,b = .
y y
2
y3 2y2 10y 8 y 2 + y + 1
Ma t kha c a =
b2 = .
y y


x =1,y = 1
y = 1
3 + 65 9 + 65
( y + 1) 4y2 + 9y + 1 =
( )
0
9 65 x = ,y =
y= 4 8
8
3 65 9 + 65

x=
,y =
4 8
Va y he phng trnh co 5 nghiem la
65 3 65 9 + 65
; ; .
( x;y ) =( 1; 1); 3 + 4 65 ; 9 +8 4 8

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( y + x ) 2xy + 8= 4xy 3y + 7
Bai 3. Gia i he phng trnh , ( x,y ) .
( x + 2y ) 2xy + 8 = x 7y + 6xy + 3
Li giai
u2 8
a t =
u =
2xy + 8, ( u 0 ) xy .
2
He phng trnh tr tha nh:
ux ( u + 3) y = 2u2 + 9

.
2
(1 u ) x ( 7 + 2u ) y = 21 3u
Coi ay la he phng trnh ba c nha t hai a n cua x va y; u la tham so ta c:
u ( u + 3)
D= = u2 + 5u + 3
1 u ( 7 + 2u )
Tng t ta co : Dx= u u2 + 5u + 3 , Dy = ( u 3) u2 + 5u + 3 .
( ) ( )
V i D = 0 he phng trnh vo nghiem.
Dx Dy
V i D 0 x= = u,y= = u 3 xy= u ( u 3) .
D D
u2 8 u = 2
Ta co phng trnh: = u ( u 3) u2 6u + 8 = 0 .
2 u = 4
Thay ng c la i cong th c nghiem ta co ca c nghiem la :
( x;y=) ( 2; 1); ( 4;1) thoa man ieu kien.
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la ( x;y=
) ( 2; 1); ( 4;1) .
2 2 2
( x + y ) x + 7 + y 2y + 1 = xy + 2y
Bai 4. Gia i he phng trnh .
2 2 2
2x x + 7 + ( x + y ) 2y + 1= 3xy x
Li giai
a t a = x2 + 7,b = 2y 2 + 1, ( a,b > 0 ) he phng trnh tr tha nh:
2
( x + y ) a + yb = xy + 2y
.
2
2xa + ( x + y ) b = 3xy x
Ta co D =
x2 + y2 ,Da = ( x x2 + y2 .
2y x2 + y2 ,D b = ) ( )
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+ Neu x2 + y2 = 0 x = y = 0 thoa man.
Da
= = 2y 2
a
D x +7 = 2y x = 3
+ Neu x2 + y2 > 0 ta co .
Db 2 y = 2
b = = x 2y + 1 =x
D
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la =
( x;y ) ( 0;0 ); ( 3;2 ) .
2
( x + y ) x + y + y x y = xy + 2y
Bai 5. Gia i he phng trnh .
2
2x x + y + ( x + y ) x y= 3xy x
Li giai
a t a = x + y,b = x y, ( a,b 0 ) he phng trnh tr tha nh:
2
( x + y ) a + yb = xy + 2y
.
2
2xa + ( x + y ) b = 3xy x
Ta co D =
x2 + y2 ,Da = ( x x2 + y2 .
2y x2 + y2 ,D b = ) ( )
+ Neu x2 + y2 = 0 x = y = 0 thoa man.
Da
= a = 2y 2y
D x + y =
+ Neu x2 + y2 > 0 ta co (he vo nghiem).
b = Db
x y =x
= x
D
Va y he phng trnh co nghiem duy nha t ( x;y ) = ( 0;0 ) .
2 2
x + x 7 y + 24 = 2
Bai 6. Gia i he phng trnh , ( x,y ) .
2 2
4 x 7 y + 24 =7y
Li giai
ie u kien: x 7 .
2 2
x 7 y + 24 = 2 x
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i: .
2 2
4 x 7 y + 24 =7y
2
3 x 7 = 7y + x 2
.
2
3 y + 24 = 4x + 7y 8
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7y + x 2 0
ie u kien tr c tie n: .
4x + 7y 8 0
Bnh phng hai ve cua he phng trnh ba c hai to ng qua t:
2 2
8x + ( 4 14y ) x 49y + 28y 67 =0
2 .
2
2x + ( 7y 8) x + 5y 14y 19 =0
a t=
a x2=
,b x,a
= b2 he phng trnh tr tha nh:
2
8a + ( 4 14y ) b 49y + 28y 67 =0
.
2
2a + ( 7y 8) b + 5y 14y 19 =0
91y3 124y 2 + 301y 204 23y 2 + 28y + 3
=
Tng t ta tnh c a = ,b .
4 ( 7y 6 ) 2 ( 7y 6 )
2
23y2 + 28y + 3
Ma t kha c do b2 = x2 7 7 (1) .

2 ( 7y 6 )
2
91y3 124y 2 + 301y 204 23y 2 + 28y + 3
Ma t kha c a =
b2 = .
4 ( 7y 6 )
2 ( 7y 6 )
12y 4 14y3 + 245y 2 378y + 135 =
0.
(1)
=
( y 1) 12y3 2y 2 + 243y 135= 0
( ) y 1 =
x 4.
Va y he phng trnh co nghiem duy nha t ( x;y ) = ( 4;1) .
2 2 2 2
u =x + x 7 u 2ux + x = x 7
Cach 2: a t ,( v > 0) .
2 2 2
y + y2 + 24
v = v 2vy + y = y + 24
u2 + 7 v2 24
=x = ;y
2u 2v
.
u2 7 v2 + 24
=x2 7 ; =y2 + 24
2u 2v
(Do u = 0 kho ng tho a ma n he phng trnh).
v2 + 24
u = 2
2v
Khi o , he phng trnh tr tha nh: .
2 2 2
u 7 v + 24 v 24
4. =
7.
2u 2v 2v
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v2 + 4v + 24
u =
v2 + 4v + 24 2v
u = 2
2v v2 + 4v + 24
7 .
2 2
u 7 4v 72 2v 4v2 72
2. = 2. =
u v v2 + 4v + 24 v

2v
v2 + 4v + 24
u = v2 + 4v + 24
2v u =
2 2v
2 2
v + 4v + 24 28v
( ) 0
v 6 ) 3v3 + 26v2 + 144v + 384 =
= 4v2 72 ( ( )
v2 + 4v + 24
2
= v>0 u 7=x + x 7 = 7 x 4
.
= v 6= 2
y + y + 24 =1 y 1
Va y: he phng trnh co nghiem duy nha t: ( x;y ) = ( 4;1) .
Nhan xet. V i phe p a t an phu nh tre n ta x ly toa n bo nh ng he phng
2 2 2 2
a x + b1 a x + b + c1y + d1 c y + d = e
trnh co da ng: 1 .
2 2 2 2
a2 x + b2 a x + b + c2 y + d 2 c y + d = f
ax + a2 x 2 + b
u =
Phep at a n phu la phep a t a n phu kh ca n th c da ng
cy + c2 y2 + d
v =
Euler (xem the m chu e he phng trnh ch ca n thc).
2 2
2 x + 3 2 y + 5 = y
Bai 7. Gia i he phng trnh , ( x,y ) .
2 2
3 x + 3 y + 5 =3x
Li giai

2
6x + y > 0,6x + 3y > 0
4 x + 3 = 6x + y
Tm c 16 x2 + 3= 36x 2 + 12xy + y 2 .
( )
2
4 y + 5 = 6x + 3y
16 y2 + 5= 36x 2 + 36xy + 9y 2
( )

44
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2 2
20x + 12xy + y 48 =0 (1)
a ve gia i he phng trnh: .
2 2
0 (2)
7y 36xy 36x + 80 =
La y (2) 7.(1) theo ve ta c:
416 176x 2
120xy + 176x 2 426 = 0 y = .
120x
Thay vao phng trnh (1) ta c:
2
416 176x 2 416 176x 2
20x2 + 12x. + 0.
48 =
120x 120x

x =
1 x =1,y = 2
DK
x2 1 64x 2 169
( )( = 0 )13 13 1.

x = x= ,y =
8 8 4

Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m=
la ( x;y ) (1;2 ); 138 ; 14 .

Nhan xet. e sa ng ta o ra ca c he phng trnh da ng nh tre n ta xua t pha t t
2
x + a = c1x + d1y + e1
ca c ang th c .
2
y + b = c2 x + d 2 y + e2
Ta ch viec lay tong bat ky k1 x2 + a + k 2 y2 + b c 1 phng trnh cua he.
2 0
x y + xy 2 y + 1 =
Bai 8. Gia i he phng trnh 2 , ( x,y ) .
x 4 2y2 + y2 9 =
( ) 0

Li giai
ie u kien: y 0 .
a t a = x2 ,b = x a = b2 he phng trnh tr tha nh:
y2 9
a = 2
0 2y 4
ya + yb 2 y + 1 =
y2 9
a 4 2y 2 + y 2 9 =
( ) 0 2 y 1 y.
2y 2 4 2 y 1 y 2 9
b = =
y y 2y 2 4

(do y = 2 kho ng thoa ma n he phng trnh) .
45
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2
y2 9 2 y 1 y2 9
Ma t kha c a =
b2 = .
2y 2 4
y 2y 2 4
y11 + 10y 5 + 16y 4 + 24 y 7
y 2 =0
( ) 3 5 2 3
40y + 28 y 8y 45 y + 54y 28 y + 8 .
1
y =2 y =4 x =
2
1
Va y he phng trnh co nghiem duy nha t x ; y ; 4 .
2
Chu e 2. HE PHNG TRNH OI XNG LOAI I
No i dung chu e na y toi e ca p en phng phap chung giai he phng trnh
o i x ng loa i I va mo t so he a c ve he o i x ng loa i I thong qua ca c
phe p a t a n phu c ba n. Ngoai ra e ca p ng du ng cu a he o i x ng loa i I
trong giai phng trnh vo ty va chng minh ba t ang th c.
A. NOI DUNG PHNG PHAP
a th c oi xng: Xe t a th c hai bie n x , y la P x ; y .
Neu P x ; y P y; x vi moi x , y th ta noi P x ; y la a thc oi xng.
He phng trnh oi xng loai I la he phng trnh co dang:

F (x , y ) 0

.
G (x , y ) 0


trong o: F (x , y );G (x , y ) la ca c a th c o i x ng v i x , y .
- He o i x ng loa i I la he ma vai tro cu a x , y trong moi phng trnh cu a he
la nh nhau.
- Ne u x 0 , y 0 la nghiem cu a he th y 0 , x 0 cu ng la nghiem cu a he .
x 2 y 2 xy x y
V du 1. He phng trnh .
xy x y 1

V i he na y o i vay tro cua x , y th he kho ng thay oi.
46
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Phng phap chung:
S= x + y
a t v i ie u kie n S2 4P tm c S,P .
P = xy
Khi o theo nh ly Vi-e t x, y la hai nghie m cu a phng trnh:
t 2 St + P =
0.
Lu y: Mo t so trng h p ta pha i a t S =
x y,P =xy va lu c na y ta pha i co
S2 4P th c cha t la he c suy ra t he o i x ng loa i 1 khi thay y b i
y . Mo t so ba i toa n n gia n ma khi bie n o i S,P ch co da ng ba c nha t
hoa c da ng ba c hai ta co the kho ng can a t an phu va c the tie n ha nh bie n
o i tng ng. Khi tm c S,P vie c tm x,y kho ng ca n chi tie t ma ch ra
ch ra nghie m ( x;y ) bang bao nhie u.
Mo t so ha ng a ng th c hay c s du ng:
2
x2 + y2 = ( x + y ) 2xy = S2 2P
2
x2 xy + y2 = ( x + y ) 3xy = S2 3P
2 .
x2 + xy + y 2 = ( x + y ) xy = S2 P
2
x3 + y3 = ( x + y ) ( x + y ) 3xy = S S2 3P

( )
2 2
2 2 2 2 2
x 4 + y 4 = ( x + y ) 2xy 2x y = ( S 2P ) 2P

2
2 2 2 2
x 4 + y 4 + x2 y2 = (x + y2 xy )( x + y + xy ) = ( S 2P ) P2
.
1 1 x+y S
+= =
x y xy P
1 1 x2 + y2 S2 2P
+= =
x2 y2 x2 y2 P2
a c ie m cu a da ng toa n na y la o i khi so nghie m cu a he th ch co nghiem
duy nha t hoa c co so nhiem cha n va o i khi ra t nhie u nghie m co khi en 8
hoa c 16 nghiem.
B. BAI TAP MAU
2 2
x + y + x + y = 4
Bai 1. Gia i he phng trnh .
x ( x + y + 1) + y ( y + 1) =2
47
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Li giai
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
2 2
x + y + x + y = 4 x 2 + y 2 + x + y =4
2
2
x + y + x + y + xy =2 xy = 2
2 2
x + y ) 2xy + x + y =4 x + y ) + x + y =0
(
(
xy = 2 xy = 2
x + y =0 x + y =1
.
xy = 2 xy = 2
x = 2 x =
2 x = 1 x = 2
.
y = 2 y = 2 y = 2 y = 1
Va y he phng trnh co bon nghie m la:
( x;y ) = ( 2; 2 ; 2; 2 ; (1; 2 ) ; ( 2;1) .
)( )
x + y + 2xy =2
Bai 2. Gia i he phng trnh 3 3
x + y = 8
Li giai
S= x + y 2
a t , S 4P . Khi o he phng trnh tr tha nh:
( )
P = xy
2S
2 P = 2S3 + 3S2 6S 16 =
0
S + 2P = 2
2S .
S S2 3P =
( 8 ) 6 3S
S S2 =8 P = 2
2
( 0
S 2 ) 2S2 + 7S + 8 =
)
( =
S 2 =
x + y 2 =
x 2 =
x 0

2S =P 0 =xy 0 = y 0=y 2
P =
2
Va y: he phng trnh co hai nghiem la ( x,y ) = ( 2,0 ) ; ( 0,2 ) .
3 3
x + y = 19
Bai 3. Gia i he phng trnh .
2
( x + y )( 8 + xy ) =
Li giai
48
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S= x + y 2
a t , S 4P . Khi o he phng trnh tr tha nh:
( )
P = xy
2 S3 + 24S 25 =
0
S S 3P =
( ) 19
SP= 2 8S
3 2 8S .
2 19
S 3 ( 2 8S) = P =
S ( 8 + P ) = S
S 1) S2 + S + 25 =
( 0 )
( =S 1 =x+y 1

2 8S 6
P = xy =6
P =
S
x = 3 x = 2
.
y = 2 y = 3
Va y: he phng trnh co hai nghiem la ( x,y ) =( 3, 2 ) ; ( 2,3) .

=
2 ( x + y ) 3 3 x2 y + 3 xy2
Bai 4. Gia i he phng trnh .
3 3 6
x+ y=
Li giai
3
a t= x a,=
3y b khi o he phng trnh tr tha nh tr thanh:
3 3 2 2
2 a + b = 3 a b + b a
( ) ( )
.
a + b =6
S= x + y 2
a t , S 4P . Khi o he phng trnh tr tha nh:
( )
P = xy
2
3SP =
2S S 3P =
( S 6
) a=
+b 6
.
= P 8=ab 8
S = 6
=a 4= a 2 =x 64=x 8
.
= b 2=b 4 =y 8 =y 64
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la ( x,y ) = ( 64,8) ; ( 8,64 ) .
2 2
8 2
x + y + 2xy =
Bai 5. Gia i he phng trnh .
x + y =4
Li giai
49
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Ytng: Bnh phng hai ve phng trnh hai cu a he va ru t x + y theo xy the
va o phng trnh a u cu a he .
ie u kien x 0,y 0 .
Khi o he phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
2
2
x + y 2 xy 2xy + 2xy =
( ) 8 2


x + y = 4
2
16 2 xy 2xy + 2xy =
( 8 2 )
.
4
x+ y=
8 2 8 xy
2xy 64 xy + 256 + 2xy = xy 32 xy + 128 =

= x + y 4 = x + y 4
xy 32 xy + 128 =64 16 xy + xy
xy = 16

xy 8 x=y=4.
x + y =8
x+ y= 4

Va y he co nghiem duy nha t ( x;y ) = ( 4;4 ) .
Cach 2: T hai phng trnh cu a he ta co
2
2 x2 + y2 + 2 xy = x + y
( ) ( ) 2 x2 + y2 =+
( x y.
)
2
2 x2 + y2 = x2 + 2xy + y2 ( x y ) = 0 x = y .
( )
Thay y = x va o phng trnh th nha t cu a he ta co ke t qua tng t .
4 4 2 2
x + y + 6x y = 41
Bai 6. Gia i he phng trnh 2 2
.
xy x + y = ( 10 )
Li giai
T phng trnh th hai cua he suy ra xy > 0 .
Khi o he phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
2 xy x2 + y2 = 10 2
2 2
+ 4x2 y2 = ( ) 10
x +y
( 41
) xy ( x + y ) 2xy =
100
xy x2 + y2 = 10 + 4x2 y2 = 41 4 4 2 2
( ) 4x y 41x y + 100 = 0
x2 y2
50
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5
xy =2 xy = x + y =3
2 x + y =3
5
xy ( x + y )2 2xy = 10 xy = 2 xy =
2

= x 1;y = 2

x + y =3 x= 2;y = 1
Vi .
xy = 2 x = 1;y = 2

x = 2;y = 1
x + y =3
2
Vi 5 trng hp nay khong thoa man ( x + y ) 4xy nen vo nghiem.
xy =
2
Va y: he co bo n nghiem= la ( x;y ) (1;2 ) ; ( 2;1) ; ( 1; 2 ) ; ( 2; 1) .
Cach 2: Nhan tha y hai phng trnh cu a he ve tra i e u cung ba c 4.
Ta a ve phng trnh:
2 2 41 8
x 4 + y 4 + 6x=y y2 0 .
xy x2 + y2 ( 2x y )( x 2y ) x2 xy +=
( )
10 5
8
Do xy 0 x2 xy + y2 > 0 .
5
Do o hoa c y = 2x hoa c x = 2y .
Ch vie c the vao mo t trong hai phng trnh cua he ta tm c ( x;y ) .
1
x2 + y2 1 +
( ) =49

Bai 7. Gia i he phng trnh x2 y2
1
( x + y ) 1 + xy = 5

Li giai
ie u kien xy 0 .
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
2 1 1 2 2
2
x + y + + =49 x + 1 + y + 1 = 53
x2 y2
x y .

1 1 1 1
x + y + x + y = 5 x + y + x + y = 5

2 1 1
x + 1 + y + 1 2 x + 1 y + 1 =
53 x+ y+ =14
x y x y x y
.
1 1 x + y + 1 + 1 =5
5
x + y + x + y =

x y
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1 1
x+ = 7 x+ =2 x = 1 73 5
x x x =
73 5 2 .
1 1 y =
y + = 2 y+ =7 2 y = 1
y y
73 5 73 5
1;
Va y he phng trnh co bon nghie m la ( x;y ) = ; ; 1 .
2 2

18xy
x + y )(1 + xy ) =
(
Bai 8. Gia i he phng trnh 2 .
x + y2 1 + x2 y2 =
( )( 208x2 y2
)

Li giai
Nhan xet: He phng trnh na y tng t bai toa n tre n khi kh i xy va
x2 y2 be n ve pha i cu a phng trnh cu a he .
Nha n thay ( x;y ) = ( 0;0 ) la nghiem cua he phng trnh.
Xe t v i xy 0 khi o he phng trnh tng ng vi:
1 1 1
( x + y ) 1 + = 18 x + y + + = 18
xy x y
.
2 2
1 2 2 1 1
(x + y ) 1 + =208 x + y + + =208
x2 y2
x2 y2
1 1 1 1
=x + y + + 18 =
x + y + + 18
x y x y
2 2 2
1 1 1 1 1 1
x + x + y += 212 x + x + y + y 2 x + x y= + 212
y y
1 1 1 1
x + y + + = 18 +
x= 14 x=+ 4
x y x x
.
1 1
x + 1 y + 1 =
56
y =+ 4 y = + 14
x y y y
x = 7 4 3 x = 2 3
.
y =2 3 y = y 3
Va y: he phng trnh co nghiem la:
( x;y=) ( 0;0 ) ; ( 7 4 3;2 3 ; 2 3;7 4 3 .
)( )
x + y xy = 3
Bai 9. Gia i he phng trnh (TSH Khoi A 2006) .
x + 1 + y + 1 =4
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Li giai
xy 0
ie u kien : .
x,y 1
S= x + y
a t , S2 4P . Khi o he phng trnh tr tha nh:
( )
P = xy
3 3 2
2 3 3 4 4 = ( x 1) x + 2 + 1 1 y = 4xy
=
A 2 B= ,A =
B ,A B ,... y 2 4 3
2 4x + y 4xy =1
y = x + x + 1
4 x2 + 1 x2 + y3 3y 2 0
2
S P = 3 ( S 3) ,S 3
P =

16
S + 2 + 2 S + P + 1 = 2 S + ( S 3)2 + 1 = 14 S

2 2
P =
( S 3) ,S 3 (
P = S 3 ) ,S 3
.
2 4 S2 5S + 10 = S2 28S + 196
2 S 5S + 10 = 14 S ( )
2 0 =
S 6 x=
+y 6 =
x 3
3S + 8S 156 =
2
.
( S 3) ,S 3=
P = P 9= xy 9 =y 3
Va y he phng trnh co nghiem duy nha t ( x;y ) = ( 3;3) .
x2 1 + y2 =
1 xy + 2

Bai 10. Gia i he phng trnh 1 1 .
2+ 2 = 1
x y
Li giai
ie u kien: x 1, y 1,xy + 2 0 .
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
2 2 2 2
x 1 + 2 x 1 y 1 + y 1= xy + 2
( )( )
.
2 2
x + y = x2 y2
0
x2 + y2 xy 4 + 2 x2 y2 x2 y2 + 1 =
.
2 2
x + y = x2 y2
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a t u= x2 + y2 ,v= xy, ( u 2,v 2 ) he phng trnh tr tha nh:
u v 4 + 2 v2 u + 1 =0 u = 1,v = 1
.
2 =
u 4,v= 2
u = v
u = 4 x2 + y2 =
4 x = 2,y =
2
o i chie u v i ieu kie n suy ra .
v = 2 xy = 2 = x =2,y 2
Va y: he phng trnh co hai nghiem la ( x;y ) = 2; 2 ;
( )( 2; 2 .)
Bai 11. Gia i he phng trnh (TSH Khoi A,A1 2012):
3 2 3 2
x 3x 9x + 22 = y + 3y 9y

1 .
2 2
x + y x + y =
2
Li giai
2 1
( x y ) + 2xy ( x y ) =
He phng trnh tng ng vi: 2
( ) ( ) 0
x3 y3 3 x2 + y2 9 ( x y ) + 22 =

2 1

( x y ) + 2xy ( x y ) = 2
.
0
( x y ) ( x y )2 + 3xy 3 ( x y )2 + 2xy 9 ( x y ) + 22 =

a= x y
Khi o ta a t he phng trnh tr thanh:
b = xy
2 1
a + 2b a =
2 .
a a2 + 3b 3 a2 + 2b 9a + 22 =
( ) ( ) 0

1 a a2
b = +
4 2 2
.
2 3 3a 3a2 2 1 2
a a + + 3 0
a + + a a 9a + 22 =
4 2 2 2

1 a a2
1 a a2 a = 2
b = + b = 4 + 2 2
4 2 2 3
3 2 0 b =
0 4
a 2 ) 2a2 + 2a 41 =
2a + 6a 45a + 82 = ( ( )
54
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Do phng trnh: 2a2 + 2a 41 =
0 co ' =81 < 0 ne n vo nghiem.
a = 2 x y = 2 x = y + 2

V i 3 3 3
b = xy =
y ( y + 2 ) =
4 4 4
3 1
x= y + 2 x = ;y =
2 2.
2 1
( y + 1) = x = 1 3
4 ;y =
2 2
3 1 1 3
; ; ; .
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la ( x;y ) =
2 2 2 2
3 3
(
( x 1) 12 ( x 1) = y + 1) 12 ( y + 1)
Cach 2: Vie t la i he d i da ng .
1
x2 + y2 x + y =
2
e n a y a t u =x 1;v =y + 1 va a ve he phng trnh
2 2
u3 12u =v3 12v (1) u v ) u +
( uv + v 12 = 0 )
(
2 2 1 .
1
( u + 1) + ( v 1) ( u + 1) + ( v 1) = u2 + v2 + 2u 2v = 0 (2)
2 2
Cach 3: Vie t la i he phng trnh d i da ng:
x 1 3 12 x 1 =y + 1 3 12 y + 1 (1)
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

2 2 .

x 1 + y + 1 = 1 (2)
2 2
1 1 3 3 1
x 1 x x 1
2 2 2 2
T (2) ta co : 2
y + 1 1 3 y 1 1 y + 1 3
2 2 2 2 2

3 3
x 1,y + 1 ; .
2 2
3 3
Xe t ha m so f(t)= t 3 12t tre n ; ta co:
2 2
3 3 3 3
f '(t)
= 3 t 2 4 < 0, t ; t c f(t) la ham nghch bie n tren
( ) ; .
2 2 2 2
55
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Do o (1) f(x 1) = f(y + 1) x 1 = y + 1 x = y + 2 .
Thay vao phng trnh th hai cua he ta c:
1 3 1
y = x =
,y =
2 1 3 2 2 2
( y + 2) + y2 y 2 + y = 2y2 + 4y + = 0 .
2 2 3 1 3

y= x=
,y =
2 2 2
Bai 12. (VMO 2005) Cho x,y la hai so th c tho a man x 3 x + 1= 3 y + 2 y .
Tm gia tr ln nha t, gia tr nho nha t cu a bieu th c P= x + y .
Li giai
ie u kien : x 1,y 2 .
Ta ca n tm ta p gia tr cua P , xe t he phng trnh :
x 3 x + 1= 3 y + 2 y
.
x + y =P
Nh ng gia tr cu a P e he tre n co nghiem chnh la ta p gia tr cua P .
y 3 x +1 + y + 2
x += ( )
Vie t la i he d i dang : .
x + y =P
=u x +1
a t , ( u,v 0 ) khi o he phng trnh tr tha nh:
v
= y+2
2 2 P
u + v 3= 3 ( u + v ) 3 ( u + v ) =

2 2
2 2
u + v 3 = P u + v =P + 3
P
u + v =
3
2
( u + v ) u2 + v2
( 1 ) 2
P
=uv = P 3
2 2 9

P 1 P2
Khi o u,v la hai nghie m cu a phng trnh: t 2 t + P 3 =0 (1) .
3 2 9

He phng trnh co nghiem (1) co hai nghiem kho ng a m.
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2 2
P P
= 2 P 3 0
9
9

P 9 + 3 21
0 P 9 + 3 15 .
3 2
1 P2
P 3 0
2 9

9 + 3 21
Vay gia tr ln nhat cua P bang 9 + 3 15 , gia tr nho nhat cua P bang .
2
Bai 13. (TSH Khoi A 2006) Cho x,y la hai so th c x, y 0 tho a man
1 1
A
xy ( x + y ) = x2 xy + y2 . Tm gia tr l n nha t cu a bie u th c = + .
x3 y3
Li giai
Theo gia thie t ta co :
xy ( x + y ) x2 xy + y2 1 1 1 1 1
= + = + .
x2 y2 x2 y2 x y x2 xy y2
1 1
a=
t u = ,v , ( u,v 0 ) khi o u + v = u2 uv + v2 ;
x y
2
Va A = u3 + v3 = ( u + v ) u2 uv + v2 = ( u + v ) .
( )
2 2
u + v = u uv + v
Xe t he phng trnh: 2
.
( u + v ) = A
Khi o gia tr l n nha t cua A e he tre n co nghie m chnh la gia tr l n nhat
cu a A .
Tr c tie n ta pha i co A 0 va e y :
2
v 3v2
u + v = u2 uv + v2 = u + > 0, u,v 0
2 4
Vie t la i he phng trnh d i da ng:
2
2 u+v u+v A A
u + v = ( u + v ) 3uv ( ) ( ) uv =
uv = 3 3 .
2
A
( u + v ) = u + v =A u + v =A
Khi o u,v la hai nghie m cu a he phng trnh :
57
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A A
t 2 At + = 0 (1) .
3
He co nghiem tho a ma n ye u cau tre n (1) co nghiem u,v 0 .
A A
= A 4. 0
3 0 < A 16
.
A A A 1
= P 0
3
1
Khi A = 16 x = y = . Va y gia tr l n nha t cu a A ba ng 16 .
2
Bai 14. (TSH Khoi B 2009) Cho ca c so th c x,y thay o i tho a man:
3
(x + y) + 4xy 2 .
Tm gia tr nho nha t cu a bie u th c P= 3 x 4 + y 4 + x 2 y 2 2 x 2 + y 2 + 1 .
( ) ( )
Li giai
2
Ta co x + y 4xy ke t h p v i gia thie t suy ra :
( )
3 2 3
( x + y ) + ( x + y ) ( x + y ) + 4xy 2
2
( x + y 1) ( x + y ) + 2 ( x + y ) + 2 0 x + y 1 .

Ta co :
4 2 2 2 2
P= 3( x + y4 + x y ) 2(x + y ) + 1
3 2 2 3
= ( x + y2 + x 4 + y 4 2 x2 + y2 + 1
) ( ) ( )
2 2
3 2 3 2 9 2 2
x2 + y2 + x2 + y2 2 x2 + y2 + 1 =
( ) ( ) ( ) x + y2 2 x2 + y2 + 1
( ) ( )
2 4 4
1 2 1 9
a t t = x2 + y2 ( x + y ) = khi o P t 2 2t + 1 .
2 2 4
9 1
Xe t ha m so f(t)= t 2 2t + 1 tre n ; + , ta co :
4 2
9 1 1 9
f '(t)=t 2 > 0, t min f(t)= f = .
2 2 1 2 16
t ;+
2
9 1
Va y P a t gia tr nho nhat ba ng khi x= y= .
16 2
DANG 3: ng du ng he oi x ng loa i I giai phng trnh vo ty
58
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Mo t so phng trnh vo ty ne u khe o le o a t a n phu da ng hai an ta a c
ve he o i x ng loa i I de da ng tm c nghie m cu a phng trnh.
3 3
30 .
Bai 1. Gia i phng trnh sau: x 35 x3 x + 35 x3 =

Li giai
3
a t y = 35 x3 x3 + y3 = 35 .
30
Va phng trnh ban a u tr tha nh: xy ( x + y ) =
T o ta co he phng trnh:
3
x3 + y3 = 35 x + y 3xy x + y =
( ) ( ) 35 x + y= 5 x= 2,y= 3 .

xy ( x + y ) =30 30
xy ( x + y ) = = 6
xy = = 2
x 3,y
Va y phng trnh a cho co hai nghie m la=
x 2,x
= 3.
4 4
Bai 2. Gia i phng trnh x + 4 x 1 = 1+ x .
Li giai
ie u kien: 0 x 1
Nha n thay x = 0 kho ng la nghiem cu a phng trnh
Xe t v i 0 < x 1 .
4
Khi o chia ca hai ve cu a phng trnh cho x ta c:
1 1 1 1
1+ 4 1 = 4 1+ 4 1 + 4 1 = 1.
x x x x
1 1
a t u =4 1 + ;v =4 1 khi o ta co he phng trnh:
x x
1 u v =
1
u v =
2 .
4 4
2
u + v = 2 u + v2 2u2 v2 =
( 2 )

u v = 1
1
u v =
2 .
2 2 2 2 2
( u v ) + 2uv 2u v =2 2u v + 4uv 1 =0

59
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6
4 3 +1
2
u= v + 1 u=
2 1
6 x = .
4
uv =1 + >0 6
2 4 3 1 4 6
2 3 +1
v = 2
2 1
2


2
Bai 3. Gia i phng trnh 33 2x x 2 = 2 x + 1 .
( )
Li giai
ie u kien: 1 x 1 + 34 .
2 2
Phng trnh a cho tng ng v i: 34 ( x + 1) = 2 x + 1 ( ) .

=u x +1
a t ,( u 0) u + v =2.
v =2 x + 1
2
4 2 2
Khi o ta co v4 = 2 x + 1
( ) = 34 ( x + 1) = 34 ( x + 1) = 34 u4 .

Ta co he phng trnh:
u + v = 2 u,v 0
u= 1 + 2
4 4
x + 1= 1 + 2 x= 2 + 2 2 .
u + v = 34 v= 1 2
C. BAI TAP REN LUYEN
x2 + y2 = 8
Bai 1. Gia i he phng trnh .
xy + x + y =0
Li giai
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
2 2
( x + y ) 2xy
= 8 ( x + y ) + 2 ( x += y) 8
.
xy + x + y 0
= xy + x + y 0
=
60
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x = 2
x + y =4 y = 2
x + y =4
xy = 4 x = 1 3
x+y=
2 .
x + y =2 y = 1+ 3
xy + x + y = 0
xy = 2
x= 1+ 3

y = 1 3
Vy h phng trnh co ba nghim la :
( x;y ) =( 2; 2 ); (1 3;1 + 3 ; 1 + 3;1 3 .
)( )
x2 + xy + y 2 =3
Bai 2. Gia i he phng trnh .
x + xy + y =3
Li giai
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
2 2
( x + y ) =xy 3 ( x + y ) =xy 3

xy =3 ( x + y ) xy =3 ( x + y )
x + y = 2
2
( x + y ) + x + y 6 =0 xy = 1 x =1
.
x + y =3 y = 1
xy =3 ( x + y )
xy = 6
Va y he phng trnh co nghiem duy nha t ( x;y ) = (1;1) .
2 2
x + y + x + y = 4
Bai 3. Gia i he phng trnh (D B Khoi A 2005)
x ( x + y + 1) + y ( y + 1) =2
Li giai
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
2 2
x + y + x + y = 4 x 2 + y 2 + x + y = 4
2
2
x + y + x + y + xy = 2 xy = 2
2 2
x + y ) 2xy + x + y = 4 x + y ) + x + y =0
( (
xy = 2 xy = 2
61
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x + y = 0 x = 2,y = 2

xy = 2 2,y = 2.
x=
x + y = 1 x = 2,y = 1

xy = 2 x = 1,y = 2
Va y he phng trnh co bon nghie m la:
( x;y ) = ( 2; 2 ; 2; 2 ; (1; 2 ) ; ( 2;1) .
)( )
x2 y + xy 2 = 2
Bai 4. Gia i he phng trnh .
x + y + xy = 3
Li giai
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
xy ( x + y ) = 2 ( 3 x y )( x + y ) = 2
.
x + y + xy = 3 xy =3 ( x + y )
x + y = 2
2
( x + y ) 3 ( x + y ) + 2 = 0 xy = 1 x = 1
.
x + y = 1 y = 1
xy =3 ( x + y )
xy = 2
Va y he phng trnh co nghiem duy nha t ( x;y ) = (1;1) .
a p so: ( x;y ) = (1;1) .
x2 xy + y2 =x + y

Bai 5. Gia i he phng trnh 1 .
3 3 2 2
x + y = x y xy
4
Li giai
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
2 2 2 2
x xy + y =x + y x xy + y = x + y
2 2
2 2 1 2 2
2 1 .
( x + y ) x xy + y = xy
( ) x xy + y
( = xy
)
2 2
x2 xy + y2 =x + y
1
2 2 1 x 2 xy + y2 =x + y x + y + xy =
2.
x xy + y = xy 2 1
2 2 1
x + y = x2 + y2 =
1 2
x2 xy + y2 =
xy + 2
2
62
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1 1
x + y + xy = xy = ( x + y )
2 2
.
2 1 2 1 1
( x + y ) 2xy = ( x + y ) 2 ( x + y ) =
2 2 2
5
x + y =1
2
3 5
1
xy = ( x + y ) xy= +
2 2 2
.
( x + y )2 + 2 ( x + y ) 3 = 0 x + y =1 + 5
2 2

3 5
xy= 2 2

Bai 6. Gia i ca c he phng trnh sau:
x + y + xy =5
1. Gia i he phng trnh 2 2
.
6
x y + y x =
Li giai
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
x + y += xy 5 x + y += xy 5 x + y + xy = 5
2 .
+ y) 6
xy ( x = + y) 6
( 5 x y )( x = ( x + y ) 5 ( x + y ) + 6 =0
x + y =2

xy = 3 = x 2,y
= 1
.
x + y =3 =x 1,y
= 2

xy = 2
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la ( x;y ) = (1;2 ) ; ( 2;1) .
xy ( x y ) =2
2. Gia i he phng trnh .
3 3
x y = 2
Li giai
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
xy ( x y ) = 2 2
xy ( x y ) = x=y 2 = x 1
2 3
.
2
( x y ) ( x y ) + 3xy = ( x y ) 6 = 2 xy = 1 1
y =

Va y he phng trnh co nghiem duy nha t ( x;y=) (1; 1) .
63
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3 3
x + y = 2
3. Gia i he phng trnh .
xy ( x + y ) =2
Li giai
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
2 3
2 8
( x + y ) ( x + y ) 3xy = ( x + y ) = x=
+y 2 = x 1
.
=
2 xy 1= y 1
xy ( x + y ) = 2 xy ( x + y ) =
Va y he phng trnh co nghiem duy nha t ( x;y ) = (1;1) .
2 2
x + y = 8 x y
4. Gia i he phng trnh .
12
xy ( x + y + xy + 1) =
Li giai
2
( x + y ) + x + y 2xy = 8
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i: .
xy ( x + y + xy + 1) =12
S= x + y 2
a t ( , S 4P he phng trnh tr tha nh:
)
P = xy
S2 + S 8
2 P =
S + S 2P = 8 2
.
12
P ( S + P + 1) = S2 + S 8 S2 + S 8
. S + + 1 =12
2 2

S2 + S 8
P = 2
S + S 8
2 P =
2 2
2 .
8
S + S 8 . S + S + S = + 1 12 S ( S 3)( S + 2 )(=
S + 5) 0
2 2

x + y = 0 x = 2,y = 2

xy = 4 x= 2,y = 2
S =0,P =4 x + y = 3 x = 2,y = 1

= S 3,P
= 2 xy = 2 = x 1,y
= 2
.
S =2,P =3 x + y =2 x= 3,y = 1

S =5,P =6 xy = 3 x= 1,y = 3

x = 2,y = 3
x + y =5
3,y = 2
xy = 6 x =
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Va y he phng trnh co tam nghiem la
=
( x;y ) (1;2 ); ( 2;1); (1; 3); ( 3;1); ( 2;2 ); ( 2; 2 ); ( 2; 3); ( 3; 2 ) .
4 3
( x + y ) + 2 ( x + y ) = 3 ( x + y )
5. Gia i he phng trnh .
5 x 2 + y 2 8xy =
( ) 18

Li giai
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
2 x + y = 0
0
( x + y )( x + y 1) ( x + y ) + 3 ( x + y ) + 3 = 1
x + y = .
5 x2 + y2 8xy =
( ) 18 5 x 2 + y2 8xy =
18
( )
x = 1,y = 1
x + y = 0
x + y = 0 x = 1,y = 1
xy = 1
x + y = 1 3 35 3 + 35 .
x + y ==1 x = ,y
2 6 6
18
5 ( x + y ) 18xy = 13
xy = = x 3= + 35 3 35
18 ,y
6 6
Va y he phng trnh co bon nghie m la :

( x;y ) =
( 1;1); (1; 1); 3 6 35 ; 3 + 6 35 ; 3 + 6 35 ; 3 6 35 .

Bai 7. Gia i ca c he phng trnh sau:
1 1 1
+ =
1. Gia i he phng trnh x y 2.
2 2
x + y = 5
Li giai
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
2 ( x + y ) 2 ( x + y )
xy = xy =
2
2
( x + y ) 2xy 5 0
= 5 ( x + y ) + 4 ( x + y ) =
x + y = 1

xy = 2 x = 2,y = 1
.
x + y =5 x = 1,y = 2

xy = 10
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la ( x;y ) =
( 1;2 ); ( 2; 1) .
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x + y =1 2xy
2. Gia i he phng trnh 2 2
.
x + y = 1
Li giai
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
x + y =1 2xy x + y =1 2xy x + y =1 2xy
2 2 .
( x + y ) 2xy
= 1 (1 2xy ) 2xy 0
= 1 4x 2 y 2 6xy =
x + y = 1

xy = 0 =x 1,y
= 0
x + y = 2 .
= = 1
x 0,y
3
xy = 2

Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la ( x;y ) = ( 0;1) ; (1;0 ) .
1 1
x + y + + = 5
x y
3. Gia i he phng trnh .
2 2 1 1
x + y + + =
9
x2 y2
Li giai
ie u kien: xy 0 .
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
1 1 1 1
x=+y+ + 5 x=+y+ + 5
x y x y
2 2 2 .
1 1 1 1 1 1
13 x + + y + 2 x + y +=
x + x + y + y= 13
x y x y
3+ 5
=x =
1,y
2
1 1 1 1 3 5
x + y + + = 5 x + = 2,y + = 3 = x =
1,y
x y x y 2
.
x + 1 y + 1 = 1 1 3 5
6 x + = 3,y + = 2
= x = ,y 1
x y x y 2
3+ 5
= x = ,y 1
2
66
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Va y he phng trnh co bon nghie m la:
5 3 + 5 3 5 3 + 5
; 1; ; ;1 ; ;1 .

( x;y ) = 1; 3 2
2 2 2
2 2
x + y = 13
4. Gia i he phng trnh .
3 ( x + y ) + 2xy + 9 =0
Li giai
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
2
2 ( x + y ) 13
( x + y ) 2xy = 13 xy =
2 .
3 ( x + y ) + 2xy + 9 =0 2
0
3 ( x + y ) + ( x + y ) 13 + 9 =
x + y = 1
x = 3,y = 2
xy = 6
x + y =4 x = 2,y =3 .

3 x = 4 10 ,y = 4 10
xy = 2
2 2
Va y he phng trnh co bon nghie m la:
10 4 10
( x;y ) = ; .
( 2;3); ( 3; 2 ); 4 2 2

x2 + y2 x + y =2
5. Gia i he phng trnh .
xy + x y =1
Li giai
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
2
2 xy = 2 ( x y ) + ( x y )
2
( x y ) + 2xy ( x y ) = 2
.
2
1
xy + ( x y ) = 2 (x y) + (x y)
1
+ (x y) =
2
2 x y =1
2 (x y) + (x y)
xy = xy = 0 x = 1,y = 0
2 .
2 x y =4 =
x 0,y = 1
0
( x y ) 3 ( x y ) 4 = xy = 5
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la ( x;y ) = ( 1;0 ) ; ( 0;1) .
67
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x + y + xy = 5
6. Gia i he phng trnh 2 2
.
x + y x y xy =3
Li giai
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
5
x + y + xy = xy =5 ( x + y )
.
3
x + y xy ( x + y ) =3 x + y ( x + y ) 5 ( x + y ) =
x + y = 1

xy =5 ( x + y ) xy = 4 =x 1,y = 2
2
.
0 x + y = 3 = x 2,y = 1
( x + y ) 4 ( x + y ) + 3 =
xy = 2
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la ( x;y ) = (1;2 ) ; ( 2;1) .
x3 + y3 = 8
7. Gia i he phng trnh .
x + y + 2xy = 2
Li giai
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
2 3 2xy
( x + y ) ( x + y ) 3xy = 8 ( x + y ) 3. ( x + y) 8 =0
2 .
2 2
x + y + 2xy = x + y + 2xy =
2
( x + y 2 ) 2 ( x + y ) + 7 ( x + y ) + 8 = 0 x + y= 2 x= 0,y= 2
.
= 0
xy =
x 2,y= 0
x + y + 2xy = 2
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la ( x;y ) = ( 2;0 ) ; ( 0;2 ) .
x y + y x = 6
8. Gia i he phng trnh .
2 2
20
x y + y x =
Li giai
ie u kien: x 0,y 0 .
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
x+ y 6 2 xy 36 36
xy = ( xy x + y +=
) ( 20 + 2xy xy =
)
.
= = 20
xy ( x + y ) =
xy ( x + y ) 20 xy ( x + y ) 20
xy = 4 x + y = 5 x = 1,y = 4
.
20
xy ( x + y ) = =xy 4 =
x 4,y= 1
68
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Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la ( x;y ) = (1;4 ) ; ( 4;1) .
x + y + xy = 11
9. Gia i he phng trnh 2 2
.
x + y + 3 ( x + y ) = 28
Li giai
S= x + y 2
a t ( , S 4P he phng trnh tr tha nh:
)
P = xy
S + P = 11 P= 11 S
2 2 .
S 2P + 3S = 28 S 2 (11 S) + 3S = 28
P= 11 S P = 11 S S = 5 S =10
2 .
S + 5S 50 = 0 S = 5 S =10 P = 6 P =21
a p= so. ( x;y ) ( 2;3) ; ( 3;2 ) ; ( 3; 7 ) ; ( 7; 3 ) .
x + y = 2
10. Gia i he phng trnh 4 4
.
x + y = 34
Li giai
S= x + y 2
a t , S 4P khi o he phng trnh tr tha nh
( )
P = xy
S = 2
S = 2 S = 2
2 2 2 .
(S 2P 2P 2 =
) 34 2P 16P 18 = 0 P =9 P= 1

1
a p so. ( x;y ) = 2;1 + 2 ; 1 + 2;1 2 .
( )( )
4
x + y =
11. Gia i he phng trnh 4
x + y 4 x3 + y3 =
( 280
)( )

Li giai
S= x + y 2
a t , S 4P khi o he phng trnh tr tha nh:
( )
P = xy
S = 4
2
2 2 2 280
( ) (
S 2P 2P . S S 3P =

)
S = 4
.
2P 2 64P + 256 . 4 (16 3P ) =
280
69
Tm ti liu Ton ? Chuyn nh - www.toanmath.com
a p so. ( x;y ) = (1;3) ; ( 3;1) .
x2 + y2 = 1

12. Gia i he phng trnh 1.
10 10
x + y =
8
Li giai
Ta co : x10 + y10 = x 2 + y 2 x8 x 6 y 2 + x 4 y 4 x 2 y 6 + y8
( )( )
= x8 + y8 x 2 y 2 x 4 + y 4 + x 4 y 4
( )
2 2
= x 4 + y 4 2x 4 y 4 x 2 y 2 x 2 + y 2
( ) ( ) 2x 2 y 2 + x 4 y 4

2 .
2
= x2 + y2
( ) 2x2 y2 x 4 y 4 x 2 y2 1 2x 2 y2
( )

2
=
1 2x 2 y2
( ) x 4 y 4 x 2 y2 1 2x 2 y2 =
( 5x 4 y 4 5x 2 y 2 + 1
)
Va y he phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
2
x2 + y2 =
1 1
( x + y ) 2xy =
4 4 2 2 1 7
5x y 5x y + 1 = 5x 4 y 4 5x2 y2 + = 0
8 8

x + y = 1 2 6 1 6
,xy = 2
5 2 5

6 1 6
x + y = 1 2 ,xy = 2
5 2 5

6 1 6
x + y = 1 + 2 ,xy = 2 .
5 2 5

6 1 6
x + y = 1 + 2 ,xy = 2
5 2 5

x + y = 1 + 2 + 6 1 6
,xy = 2 +
5 2 5

2 2
x + y + xy = 7
13. Gia i he phng trnh .
4 4 2 2
x + y + x y = 21
70
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Li giai
S= x + y 2
a t , S 4P khi o he phng trnh tr tha nh:
( )
P = xy
S2 P =7 2 7 S = 3
S P =
2 2 .
2 2
S 2P ) 2P = + P 2 21 ( 7 P ) =
P 2 21 P = 2
(
a p =
so. ( x;y )
(1;2 ); ( 2;1); ( 1; 2 ); ( 2; 1) .
2 2
x + y + xy = 13
14. Gia i he phng trnh .
4 4 2 2
x + y + x y = 91
Li giai
S= x + y 2
a t , S 4P khi o he phng trnh tr tha nh
( )
P = xy
S2 P =
13
S = 4
2 2 .
2 2
S 2P 2P + P =
( ) 91 P = 3

=
a p so . ( x;y ) (1;3); ( 3;1); ( 1; 3); ( 3; 1) .
2 2
x + y = 5
15. Gia i he phng trnh 5 5
.
x + y = 11( x + y )
Li giai
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
2 2
x + y = 5
.

( x + y ) x4 x3y + x2 y2 xy3 + y4 = 11( x + y )
( )
2 2
x + y = 5
.
( 0
( x + y ) x4 x3y + x2 y2 xy3 + y4 11 = )

x2 + y2 = 5
(1)
x + y = 0

2 2
x + y = 5
4 (2)
3 2 2 3 4
0
x x y + x y xy + y 11 =
71
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5
x =
2

y = 5
= x2 + y2 5 y = x 2
Gia i he phng trnh (1): 2 .
= x + y 0 = 2x 5 5
x=
2

5
y = 2

2 2
x + y = 5
Gia i he phng trnh (2): .
4 3 2 2 3 4
0
x x y + x y xy + y 11 =
2 2
x + y = 5

2 .
2 2
x +y
( 2x2 y2 xy x2 + y2 + x2 y2 11 =
) ( ) 0

x2 + y2 = 5 x = 2,y = 1

2 2
x + y = 5 xy = 7 x= 1,y = 2
.
2 2 2 2 2 2 =x 1,y= 2
x y + 5x y 14 = 0 x + y = 5
xy = 2 = x 2,y= 1

Va y he phng trnh co sau nghie m:
5 5 5 5

( x;y=) ; ; ; ; ( 1; 2 ) ; ( 2; 1) ; (1;2 ) ; ( 2;1) .

2 2 2 2
1
( x + y ) 1 + =5
xy
16. Gia i he phng trnh .
1
xy + = 4
xy
Li giai
S= x + y 2
a t , S 4P khi o he phng trnh tr tha nh:
( )
P = xy
1
S 1 + =5 1 5 5
P =
S 1 + =5 S = S
P 3+ 3 3 3 .
1 2
P + P = 4 P 4P + 1 = 0 P =
2 3 P =2+ 3
72
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1
( x + y ) 1 + =4
xy
17. Gia i he phng trnh .
1 x2 + y2
xy + xy + xy = 4

Li giai
ie u kien: xy 0 .
He phng trnh tng ng vi:
1 1 1 1
x + y + x + y =4 4
x + + y + =
x y
.
1 x y 1 11
xy + + + =4 x y + 4
+ + y =
xy y x y xy

1 1 1
x + + y + = 4 x + =
2
x y x =
x 2 2x +1 0 =x 1
.
1 1 2
y + 1 = 2 y 2y + 1 =0 y = 1
x + y + =4
x y y

Va y he phng trnh co nghiem duy nha t ( x;y ) = (1;1) .
1
( x + y ) 1 + = 6
xy
18. Gia i he phng trnh 2
.
2 2 1
( )
x + y 1 + xy = 18

Li giai
ie u kien: xy 0 .
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
1 1 1 1
x + y + + = 6 x + y + + = 6
x y x y
2 2 .
2 2 x y 1 1 1 1
x + y + 2 + + 2 + 2 = 18 18
y x x y x + y + y + x =

1 1 1 1
x + y + + = 6 x+y+ + = 6
x y x y
2 .
1 1 1 1 1 1
18 x + y + = 9
x + y + y + x 2 x + y y + x = y x

73
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1 3 5 3 5
x+ = 3 = x = ,y
y xy + 1 = 3y x = y 2 2 .
2
1 xy + 1 = 3x x 3x + 1 =0 3+ 5 3+ 5
y + =
3 = x = ,y
x 2 2
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la :
5 3 5 3+ 5 3+ 5
( x;y ) = 3 2 ; ; ; .
2 2 2
2
1
x2 + y2( ) 1 + 8
=
xy
19. Gia i he phng trnh .
3
3 3
x +y ( ) 1 + xy1 =
16

Li giai
ie u kien: xy 0 .
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
2 1
x2 + y2 1 +
( ) + = 8
2 2
xy x y

3 3
3 3 1
( )
x + y 1 + 2 2 + xy + 3 3 = 16
x y x y
2 2
2 2 1 1 2x 2y
x + y + + + + = 8 x + 1 + y + 1 = 8
x2 y2 y x y x
2 2

3 3
x3 + y3 + 3x + 3y + 3x + 3y + 1 + 1 = 16 1 1
y x x + + y + = 16
y2 x2 x3 y3 y x
1
u= x +
y
a t he phng trnh tr tha nh:
v= y + 1
x
2 2 u2 + v2 = 2
u + v = 8 8 ( u + v ) 2uv = 8
3 2 2
.
3 16
u + v = 16 (
( u + v ) u + v uv = ) 16
( u + v )( 8 uv ) =
74
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2
uv = ( u + v ) 8 2
2 ( u + v) 8
uv =
2 2 .
( u + v ) 8 3
( u + v ) 8 =
16 0
2 ( u + v ) 24 ( u + v ) + 32 =

1 1
x + + y + = 4
y x
1 1
x + y + = 4
u + v = 4 y x
uv = 4
x + 1 + y + 1 =2 2 3
u + v =2 2 3
y x

uv= 4 + 4 3
1 1
x + y + =4 + 4 3
y x
u + v =2 + 2 3
1 1
uv= 8 4 3
x + y + y + x =2 + 2 3

1 1
x + y + =4 4 3
y x
= x 1,y= 1

( x + y ) . xy + 1 =2 + 2 3
xy .

1
xy + = 24 3
xy

Ba n o c t gia i tie p he phng trnh co na m nghiem.
x2 + y2 + x + y =4xy

20. Gia i he phng trnh 1 1 y x .
+ + 2+ 2 = 4
x y x y
Li giai
ie u kien: xy 0 .
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
=x2 + y2 + x + y 4xy =x 2 + y 2 + x + y 4xy
.
y ) + x3 + y3 4x 2 y2
xy ( x += xy ( x +=y ) + x3 + y3 4x 2 y2
75
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2 2
x + y + x + y = 4xy x 2 + y2 =2xy

( x + y ) x2 + y2 =
( 4x2 y2 x + y =
) 2xy

x = y =
x 0,y
= 0
2
.
2x = 2x =x 1,y
= 1
o i chie u v i ieu kie n suy ra ( x;y ) = (1;1) .
Va y he phng trnh co nghiem duy nha t ( x;y ) = (1;1) .
x y
+ ( x + y ) = 4
y x
21. Gia i he phng trnh 2
.
x y2 2
+ 4
x + y2 =( )
2 x 2
y
Li giai
ie u kien: xy 0 .
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
x y
+ ( x + y ) = 4
y x

2
x y 2
+ 2 . ( x + y ) 2xy = 4
y x

x y
+ ( x + y ) = 4
y x
2 2
2x y 2 x y
( x + y ) y + x 2 ( x + y ) + 4xy 2xy y + x = 4

x y x2 + y2
+ ( x + y ) = 4 .( x + y ) =4
y x xy

2 2 .
x2 + y2
( ) x2 + y2 ( )
x2 + y2 +
( ) =
6 x2 + y2 +
( ) =
6
xy xy
S= x + y 2
a t , S 4P h phng trnh tr tha nh:
( )
P = xy
76
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S3
S2 2P P =
2S + 4
.S = 4 2
P
S3
2 S2 2.
S2 2P 2 S3
( ) + 2S + 4
=
6
S2 2P + =
6 S 2.
P 2S + 4 S3
2S + 4
S3
P = S3
2S + 4 P =

2
2S + 4
4S 16S 2
+ =
6 S + S 6 =0
2S + 4 2S + 4
S = 3

P = 27 x=
+y 2 =
x 1
2 .
= xy 1= y 1
S = 2
P = 1

Va y he phng trnh co nghiem duy nha t ( x;y ) = (1;1) .
2 1 1
x + + y2 + =
2 7
x2 y2
22. Gia i he phng trnh .
1 6
+ =1
xy x + y
Li giai
ie u kien: xy ( x + y ) 0 .
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
2 2
2 1 1
x + + y2 + =
2 7 x 1 + 2 + y 1 + 2 =
2 7
x2 y2 x y
.
x+y 1 1
6 + xy = x+y x + y = 6
x y
1
u= x
x
a t he phng trnh tr tha nh:
v= y 1
y
77
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2 2
6 u + v + 2uv =
36
u + v =
2 2 2 2 2 2
.
2 2 28
2 7
u + 2 + v + 2 = u + v + 4 + 2 u v + 2 u + v + 4 = ( )

2 2 u + v = 6
u + v + 2uv = 36
uv 6 (he phng trnh vo nghiem).
u2 v2 + 2 ( 36 2uv ) + 4 = uv 6 uv = 5

Cach 2:
2 2
1 1 1 1
Ta co : x2 + + y2 + = x + 2 + y + 2
x2 y2 x y
2
1 1 2
x + y + ( 2 + 2 = 2 11 > 2 7 .
)
x y
Va y he phng trnh a cho vo nghie m.
2 1 1
x + + y2 + =
2 2
y2 x2
23. Gia i he phng trnh .
1 1
x + y = x + y

Li giai
ie u kien: xy 0 .
2 2
1 1 1 1
Ta co : x2 + + y2 + 2 2.
x + + y + 22 + 22 =
y2 x2 x y
1
x+ = 2
x x = 1
Da u ba ng xay ra khi va ch khi .
y + 1 =
2 y = 1
y
Thay vao phng trnh th hai tha y tho a ma n.
Va y he phng trnh co nghiem duy nha t ( x;y ) = (1;1) .
3
x 1 + y 1 =
24. Gia i he phng trnh .
x + y = 5 + ( x 1)( y 1)

Li giai
ie u kien: x 1,y 1 .
78
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=u x 1
Khi o at he phng trnh tr tha nh:
v
= y 1
= u + v 3 = u + v 3 u + v =3
2 2
2 2
2
u + v + 2 =5 + uv 3
u + v uv =3 ( u + v ) 3uv =
x 1 =2

u + v = 3 =
u 2,v
= 1 y 1 =
1 =
x 5,y
= 2
.
uv = 2 =u 1,v
= 2 x 1 =
1 =x 2,y
= 5

y 1 =2
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m ( x;y ) = ( 2;5) ; ( 5;2 ) .
2 2
4 3
x + y + xy + 3xy =
25. Gia i he phng trnh .
x + y =2 2
Li giai
ie u kien: x 0,y 0 .
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
2 2
+ 3xy 4 3
( x + y ) xy= 8 2 xy xy= + 3xy 4 3
( )
.
8 x + y = 8 2 xy
x + y + 2 xy =
4 3 4 3 3xy
3xy 32 xy + 64 + 3xy = 3xy 32 xy + 64 =
.
x + y = 8 2 xy x + y = 8 2 xy
xy 4
x=
+y 4 =
x 2

3xy 32 xy + 64 = 3xy 24 xy + 48 .
= xy 4= y 2
x + y = 8 2 xy
Va y he phng trnh co nghiem duy nha t ( x;y ) = ( 2;2 ) .
2 2
x + y + x + y = 18
26. Gia i he phng trnh .
x ( x + 1) y ( y + 1) =72
Li giai
Cach 1: He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
79
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2
( x + y ) + x + y 2xy = 18

xy ( xy + x + y + 1) =72
2
xy = ( x + y ) + ( x + y ) 18
2

2 2
( x + y ) + ( x + y ) 18 ( x + y ) + ( x + y ) 18
. + x + y + 1 =72
2 2

2
( x + y ) + ( x + y ) 18
xy =
2
4 3 2
0
( x + y ) + 4 ( x + y ) 31( x + y ) 70 ( x + y ) =
x + y =0 x = 3,y = 3

xy = 9 x= 3,y = 3
x + y =5 = x 2,y= 3

xy = 6 = x 3,y= 2
.
x + y =7 = x 4,y= 3

= xy 12 =
x 3,y = 4
x =
x + y = 2 4,y = 2

xy = 8 x = 2,y = 4
Va y he phng trnh co tam nghiem la:
( x;y ) = ( 3; 3); ( 3;3); ( 4;2 ); ( 2; 4 ); ( 3;4 ); ( 4;3); ( 3; 4 ); ( 4; 3) .
Cach 2: Vie t la i he phng trnh d i da ng:
x2 + x =12
2

2 18 6
x + x + y + y = y2 + y =
2 .
( x + x y2 + y =
)( 72 ) x2 + x =6
2
y + y =12
1
( x + y ) 1 + = 5
xy
27. Gia i he phng trnh
x2 + y2 1 + 1 =
( ) 9
2 2
x y
Li giai
80
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ie u kien: xy 0 .
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
1 1 1 1
x + y + + = 5 x + y + + = 5
x y x y
2 2 .
x2 + y2 + 1 + 1 =
9 1 1
13
x2 y2 x + x + y + y =

1
x + =
3
x
1 1 1 3 5
x + y + x + y = 5 y + y =
2 =
=
x 1,y
2 .

x + 1 y + 1 = 1 3 5
6 x + =
2
= x = ,y 1
x y x 2

1
y+ y =
3

3 5 3 5
Va y he phng trnh co bon nghie m la ( x;y ) = 1; ; ;1 .

2 2
y x 7
+ = +1
28. Gia i he phng trnh x y xy .

x xy + y xy = 78
Li giai
ie u kien: xy > 0 .
T phng trnh th hai suy ra x + y > 0 do o x > 0,y > 0 .
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
x + y 7 + xy
=
x + y = 7 + xy x + y = 7 + xy
xy xy .
78 xy 7 + xy =
xy ( x + y ) = 78 ( )
78
xy ( x + y ) =
x + y =13

x + y = 7 + xy x + y= 13 x= 9,y= 4
xy = 6
2 .
xy + 7 xy 78 =
( ) 0 x + y =6 =xy 36 = = 9
x 4,y

xy = 13
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la ( x;y ) = ( 4;9 ) ; ( 9;4 ) .
81
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2 2
x + xy + y ( ) x2 + y2 =
185
29. Gia i he phng trnh .
x2 xy + y2 ( ) x2 + y2 =
65

Li giai
He phng trnh a cho tng ng vi:
2 2 2 2
( )x + y =
250 2 2
2 x + y x +y = 5 x 2 + y 2 =
25
.
x 2 xy + y 2 x2 + y2 =
( ) 65 ( 25 xy ) .5 =65 xy = 12

x + y = 7 =
x 3,y
= 4
2
25 xy = 12
x + y ) 2xy = = x 4,y
= 3
( .
x + y =7 x = 3,y =
4
xy = 12
xy = 12 4,y =
x = 3
Va y he phng trnh co bon nghie m=
la ( x;y ) ( 3;4 ); ( 4;3); ( 3; 4 ); ( 4; 3) .
Cach 2: Nhan che o hai phng trnh cu a he ta c:
2 4
65 x 2 + xy + y 2 =
( 185 x 2 xy + y 2 ( 4x 3y ) =
) ( ) 0 y =x .
3
4
Thay y = x va o phng trnh th nha t cu a he ta c ke t qua tng t .
3
5 5
x + y = 1
30. Gia i he phng trnh .
9 9 4 4
x + y = x + y
Li giai
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
x5 + y5 = 1 1
x5 + y5 = =
x 0,y
= 1
9 4 4 .
x + y9 = x 4 + y 4 x5 + y5
( )( ) 0
x y ( x + y ) = =x 1,y
= 0

Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la ( x;y ) = ( 0;1) ; (1;0 ) .
x3 + x3 y3 + y3 =
17
31. Gia i he phng trnh .
x + xy + y =5
Li giai
3 3 3
( x + y ) 3xy ( x + y ) + x y =17
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i: .
5
( x + y ) + xy =
82
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S= x + y 2
a t , S 4P khi o he phng trnh tr tha nh:
( )
P = xy
3
S3 3SP + P3 =
17 S3 3S ( 5 S) + ( 5 S) =17
.
S + P = 5 S + P = 5
3
S3 3S ( 5 S) + ( 5 S) = 0
17 18S2 90S + 108 =
.
S + P =5 5
S + P =
S = 2

P = 3 x + y = 3 x = 1,y = 2
.
S = 3 = 2
xy =
x 2,y= 1

P = 2
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la ( x;y ) = (1;2 ) ; ( 2;1) .
2 2
x + xy + y = 3
32. Gia i he phng trnh 5 5
.
32
x + y + 15xy ( x + y ) =
Li giai
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
2 2 2 2
x + xy + y = 3 x + xy + y = 3
5 5 2 2
5
.
(
x + y + 5xy ( x + y ) x + xy + y =32 )
( x + y ) =32
x + y = 2 x=
+y 2 =
x 1
2 .
=
3 xy 1= y 1
( x + y ) xy =
Va y he phng trnh co nghiem duy nha t ( x;y ) = (1;1) .
x y 1 1 1
+ = + 1
2
y x xy x y2
33. Gia i he phng trnh .
x y x2 xy + y2
+ =
x +1 y +1 xy
Li giai
ie u kien: xy ( x + 1)( y + 1) 0 .
83
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Khi o he phng trnh tng ng v i:
x2 + y2 1 x2 + y2 x2 y2
= ( xy 1) x2 + xy + y 2 =
( 0)
xy x2 y2
.
x y x2 xy + y2
x y x2 xy + y2 + =
+ = x + 1 y + 1 xy
x +1 y +1 xy
Do xy 0 ne n x2 + xy + y2 > 0 do o he tng ng v i:
= xy 1= xy 1

x y x2 xy + y2 2xy + x + y x2 xy + y 2 .
= + =
x +1 y +1 xy xy + x + y + 1 xy
xy = 1 x =1,y =
1
2 2
.
x + y = 2 =x 1,y
= 1
o i chie u v i ieu kie n ch nhan nghiem ( x;y ) = (1;1) .
Va y he phng trnh co nghiem duy nha t ( x;y ) = (1;1) .
x2 + y2 =+ 1 xy
2 2
34. Gia i he phng trnh x y .
+ = 1
y + 1 x + 1
Li giai
ie u kien: x,y 1 .
Vie t la i he phng trnh d i da ng:
2 2
x + y =+
1 xy
2
x y 2xy
+ =
1
y + 1 x + 1 ( x + 1)( y + 1)

x2 + y2 =+ 1 xy

x2 + y2 + x + y 2 2xy
=
1

xy + x + y + 1 ( x + 1)( y + 1)
x2 + y2 =+ 1 xy x2 + y2 =+ 1 xy

1 + xy + x + y 2 2xy 2xy .
=
1 =0

xy + x + y + 1 ( x + 1)( y + 1) ( x + 1)( y + 1)
84
Tm ti liu Ton ? Chuyn nh - www.toanmath.com
x = 1,y = 0

x2 + y2 =
1 = x 1,y= 0
.
x = 0,y = 1
xy = 0
=
x 0,y= 1
Va y he phng trnh co bon nghie m la ( x;y ) =
( 1;0 ); (1;0 ); ( 0; 1); ( 0;1) .
x2 y2 1
+ =
35. Gia i he phng trnh ( y + 1)2 ( x + 1)2 2 .

x + y + 1 =3xy
Li giai
ie u kien: x 1,y 1 .
Cach 1:
x2 y2 2xy 2xy 1
Ta co + = = .
2 2 xy + x + y + 1 2
( y + 1) ( x + 1) ( x + 1)( y + 1)
x + y + 1 = 3xy =x 1,y
= 1

a ng th c xay ra khi va ch khi x y 1 1.
x=
,y =
y +1 = x +1
3 3
1 1
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la ( x;y ) = ; ; (1;1) .
3 3
Cach 2: Vie t la i he phng trnh d i da ng:
2
x y 2xy 1
+ =
y + 1 x + 1 ( x + 1)( y + 1) 2

x + y + 1 =3xy
2 2
x y 2xy 1 x y
+ = =
0
y + 1 x + 1 xy + x + y + 1 2 y + 1 x + 1

x + y + 1 =3xy x + y + 1 =3xy
x y =x 1,y
= 1
=
y +1 x +1 1 1.
x=
,y =
x + y + 1 = 3xy
3 3
85
Tm ti liu Ton ? Chuyn nh - www.toanmath.com
xy + 3 2 + x + y 2 =

( ) ( ) 8
36. Gia i he phng trnh x y 1 .
2 + =
2 4
x + 1 y + 1
Li giai
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
x2 y2 + x2 + y2 + 8xy + 9 = x2 + 1 y2 + 1 =8xy
8 ( )( )

x y 1 x y 1
+ = + =

2 2 4 2 2
x +1 y +1 x + 1 y + 1 4
x 1
2 =
x + 1 4
x y 1 y 1 x= 2 3
2 . =
2 =
2 8 2 1
x +1 y +1 y + 1 y =
.
x + y = 1 x = 1
x = 1
2 2 4 x2 + 1 2
x +1 y +1 y= 2 3

y = 1
2
y + 1 4
Va y he phng trnh co bon nghie m la ( x;y ) =1;2 3 ; 2 3; 1 .
( )( )
1 1 2
+ =
2 1 + 2xy
37. (VMO 2009) Gia i he phng trnh 1 + 2x 1 + 2y 2 .
2
x (1 2x ) + y (1 2y ) =
9
Li giai
1
ie u kien: 0 x,y .
2
Xua t phat t phng trnh a u cu a he ta c:
2

1 1 4
+ =
2 1 + 2xy
1 + 2x 1 + 2y 2
1 1 2 4
+ + =
1 + 2x 2 1 + 2y 2 2 2 1 + 2xy
(1 + 2x )(1 + 2y )
86
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1 1 2 2 2
+ + =
0.
1 + 2x2 1 + 2y 2 1 + 2xy 2 2 1 + 2xy
(1 + 2x )(1 + 2y )
2
2 x y 2xy 1
( ) ( )

2
(1 + 2xy ) 1 + 2x2 1 + 2y2
( )( )
2
.
4 ( x y )
+ 0 (1)
( )(
(1 + 2xy ) 1 + 2xy + 1 + 2x2 1 + 2y2 )
1
Do x,y 0; ne n ve tra i cu a (1) luon nho hn hoa c bang 0 do o da u bang
2
xa y ra khi va ch khi x = y .
Thay vao phng trnh th hai cua he ta c:
1 1 9 73
x (1 2x ) = 2x 2 x + =0x=
9 81 36
9 73 9 73
x;y =
( ) ; (tho a ma n ieu kie n).

36 36
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la :

( x;y ) = 9 +3673 ; 9 +3673 ; 9 3673 ; 9 3673 .

1 1 2
+ =
1+ y 1 + xy
38. Gia i he phng trnh 1 + x .
2 2
1 + 1 x . 1 + 1 y =x + y 1
Li giai
ie u kien: xy 0, x 1, y 1 .
Bie n o i phng trnh a u tie n cu a he tng t ba i tre n suy ra x = y .
Thay vao phng trnh th hai cua he ta c:
1 + 1 x 2 = 2x 1 1 x 2 = 2x 2 x = 1 ( x;y ) = (1;1) .
Va y he phng trnh co nghiem duy nha t: ( x;y ) = (1;1) .
2 2 2
x + xy + y = 19 ( x y )
39. Gia i he phng trnh .
2 2
x xy + y = 7 ( x y )
87
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Li giai
Vie t la i he phng trnh d i da ng:
2 2 2
( x y ) + 3xy = 19 ( x y ) xy = 6 ( x y )
.
2 2

( x y ) + xy = 7 ( x y ) 7 ( x y ) = 7 ( x y )
x y = 0
= x 0,y
= 0
xy = 0
x = 3,y = 2 .

x y =
1 x =
2,y = 3
xy = 6
Va y he phng trnh co ba nghie m=
la ( x;y ) ( 0;0 ); ( 3;2 ); ( 2; 3) .
1 1
+ =3 xy
x y
40. Gia i he phng trnh 2 2
.
1 + 1 =7 3x y + 2
2 y2
x xy
Li giai
ie u kien: xy 0 .
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
1 1 1 1
+ =3 xy + =3 xy
x y x y
2 .
1 1 2 3x 2 y2 + 2 2 2 3x2 y2 + 2
( 3 xy ) =7
+ xy =7
x y xy xy xy
x + y = 2
1 1
+ =3 xy xy = 1 x = 1
x y .
2 2 x + y =2 y = 1
x y 3xy + 2 = 0
xy = 2
Va y he phng trnh co nghiem duy nha t ( x;y ) = (1;1) .
2 2
4x + 3y 4y + 3x + 25xy =
( )( 12
)
41. Gia i he phng trnh .
3 2 2
3
x + y + 2xy ( x + y ) = x + xy + y
Li giai
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
88
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4x2 + 3y 4y 2 + 3x + 25xy = 12
( )( )

( x + y ) x 2 xy + y 2 + 2xy ( x + y ) = x 2 + xy + y 2
( )

2 2
(4x + 3y 4y
)( + 3x + 25xy
) =12

.
( x + y 1) x 2 + xy + y 2 =
( 0)

2 2 3 3
4x y + 9xy + 12 x + y + 25xy =
( ( )) 12
.
x + y = 1
2 2 2
4x y + 9xy + 12 ( x + y ) ( x + y ) 3xy + 25xy = 12


1
x + y =
2 2 12
4x y + 9xy + 12 (1 3xy ) + 25xy =
( ) 4x2 y2 2xy + 12 =
12
.
1
x + y = 1
x + y =
xy = 0

4x2 y2 2xy + 12 =
12 1 =
x 0,y
= 1
xy = .
1
x + y = 2 =x 1,y
= 0
x + y = 1
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la ( x;y ) = ( 0;1) ; (1;0 ) .
14
( 3x + y )( x + 3y ) xy =
42. Gia i he phng trnh .
2 2
( x + y ) x + 14xy + y =
( 36)

Li giai
ie u kien: xy 0 .
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
2
2 2 14
(3x + 10xy + 3y xy
) =
14
3 ( x + y ) + 4xy xy =
.
( 36
( x + y ) x 2 + 14xy + y 2 = )( x + y ) ( x + y )2 + 12xy = 36

2 2
3S +(4P P =
14)
S= x + y
a t khi o he phng trnh tr tha nh: .
P = xy S S2 + 12P 2 =
( 36 )

a y la he a ng ca p nhan che o theo ve ta c:
89
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18 3S2 + 4P 2 P = 7S S2 + 12P 2 ( S 6P ) 7S2 12SP + 12P 2 = 0 .
( ) ( ) ( )
2 S = 0
6 48
( S 6P ) 7 S P + P 2 =0 P = 0 .
7 7
S = 6P

Ch co nghie m S = 6P tho a ma n.
= S 6P = S 6P S = 3

Khi o 1.
S S2=
+ 12P 2 36
( 6P 36P 2=
+ 12P 2 36
) P = ( )
2
3 3
x=+ y 3 x= + y 3 x = 2,y =+ 2
2 2
1 1 .
= xy = xy x = 3 3
2 4 + 2,y = 2
2 2
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la :
3 3 3 3

( x;y ) = 2; + 2 ; + 2; 2 .
2 2 2 2
35 2
( 3x + y )( x + 3y ) xy =
43. Gia i he phng trnh .
2 2
( x y ) x + 14xy + y =
( 33 )

Li giai
ie u kien: xy 0 .
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
2
2 2 35 2
( 3x + 3y + 10xy xy
) =
35 2
3 ( x y ) + 16xy xy =
.
( 33
( x y ) x2 + 14xy + y 2 = ) ( x y ) ( x y )2 + 16xy =33

1 + xy + 1 + x + y =2
44. Gia i he phng trnh .
2 2 2 2
x y xy = x + y + x + y
Li giai
ie u kien: xy 1,x + y 1 .
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
2 2
1 + xy + 1 + x + y = 1 + xy + 1 + x + y =
2
.
2 2 0
x y xy = ( x + y ) 2xy + x + y ( x + y xy )( x + y + xy + 1) =
90
Tm ti liu Ton ? Chuyn nh - www.toanmath.com
1 + xy + 1 +=x+y 2 x + y + 1 + 1 += x+y 2

= x + y xy 0 = x + y xy 0
x=+y 0 = x 0
.
= xy 0= y 0
Va y he phng trnh co nghiem duy nha t ( x;y ) = ( 0;0 ) .
x y 2 xy
+ =
y +1 x +1 xy + 1
45. Gia i he phng trnh .
1 1
+ =2
x 1 y 1
Li giai
ie u kien: x > 1,y > 1 .
Xua t phat t phng trnh a u tie n cu a he suy ra x = y .
Thay vao phng trnh th hai cua he ta c:
2
= 2 x = 2 ( x;y ) = ( 2;2 ) .
1 x
Vy h phng trnh c nghim duy nht ( x;y ) = ( 2;2 ) .
x y 2+ 2
+ =
2 1 x2 1 y2
1 x (1 y )
46. Gia i he phng trnh:
( ) (1 y ) 1 x2
( ) ( )( )
x y 1
+ =
2
1 x 1 y2 1 x2 1 y2
( )( )

Li giai
ie u kien: 1 < x < 1, 1 < y < 1 .
Phng trnh th hai cua he tng ng v i: x 1 y 2 + y 1 x 2 =
1.
S du ng bat ang th c Bunhiacopski va Co si ta co :
x2 + y2 + 2 x2 y2
x 1 y2 + y 1 x2 x2 + y2 2 x2 y2
( )( ) =
1.
2
x y
= 2

Da u ba ng xay ra khi va ch khi 1 y2 1 x2 x = y= .
2 2
2
x + y = 1
2
Th lai va o phng trnh th nha t ch co nghie m x= y= thoa ma n.
2
91
Tm ti liu Ton ? Chuyn nh - www.toanmath.com
2 2
Va y he phng trnh co nghiem duy nha t ( x;y ) = ; .

2 2
x4 + y4 xy 3
=
x + y )4 x + y 8
47. Gia i he phng trnh ( .
1 1
+ 3= 2 ( x + y )
x y
Li giai
ie u kien: x > 0,y > 0 .
2
2
(x + y)
2
2 2
x4 + y4 (x + y2 ) 1
Ta c: = .
4 4 4 8
(x + y) 2(x + y) 2(x + y)
xy 3 x+y 3 1
Ma t kha c: =.
x + y 8 2(x + y) 8 8
Da u ba ng xay ra khi va ch khi x = y .
Thay vao phng trnh th hai cua he ta c:
2
3 = 4x 2 3 x = 4x x x ( 4x + 3) = 2 .
x
2 1 1
x ( 4x + 3) = 4 ( 4x 1) 4x2 + 7x + 4 = 0 x = y = .
( )
4 4
1 1
Va y he phng trnh co nghiem duy nha t ( x;y ) = ; .
4 4
x + y 2
2 xy x + y + x2 y2 + =
0 ( )
48. Gia i he phng trnh xy xy .

x + y= 3 xy 2
Li giai
ie u kien: x > 0,y > 0 .
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
2
1 1
1 + 1 xy =
0 + xy =
0 xy xy
x + y =
x y x y .
xy 3 xy 2
xy=
x + y= 3 xy 2 x + y= 3 xy 2
92
Tm ti liu Ton ? Chuyn nh - www.toanmath.com
x+ y= xy xy
x + y =1
2
xy 1
( xy + 2 =
)( 0 xy = 1
)

(He vo nghie m do x + y 2 xy =2 > 1 ).
Va y he phng trnh a cho vo nghie m.
2 2 2
( x y ) x 2xy + y + 3 + 1 = 3
49. Gia i he phng trnh .
2 2
x + xy + y = 2
Li giai
2 2
( x y ) ( x y ) + 3 + 1 = 3
He phng trnh tng ng vi:
2 2
x + xy + y = 2
1
2 2 2 xy =
1
x 2xy + y = 1


( x y ) =
3 .
2 2 x2 + xy + y 2 = 2 2 2 5
x + xy + y = 2 x + y =
3
3 + 21 3 + 21
= x = ,y
6 6
1 1 3 + 21 3 + 21
xy = 3 = x = ,y
xy = 3 6 6
.
5 7 3 + 21 3 21
( x + y )2 2xy = x + y = x = ,y =
3 3 6 6
3 21 3 + 21
x = ,y =
6 6
Va y he phng trnh co bon nghie m la :

( x;y ) = 3 +6 21 ; 3 + 6 21 ; 3 + 6 21 ; 3 +6 21 ;

3 + 21 3 21 3 21 3 + 21
; ; ;
6
6 6 6
2
1 c suy ra t tnh
Nhan xet: Phng trnh a u tng ng v i ( x y ) =
o ng bie n cu a ham so f(x)
= x ( x + 3 + 1 tre n (xem them ky thuat s
)
93
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du ng ha m so trong giai he phng trnh). e tao ra ca c he phng trnh kho
hn ta ta thay phng trnh th hai va o phng trnh a u cu a he ta c:
2 2 2 2 2
( x y ) x 2xy + y + 3 + m x + xy + y 2m + 1 =
( 3 )
.
2 2
x + xy + y = 2
Cho n m = 2 ta co ba i toan.
x 1 + y=
1 2 xy 1


( )
50. Gia i he phng trnh 1 1 .
x+ y ( ) + =2
x + 3y y + 3x
Li giai
ie u kien : x 1,y 1 .
x 1 x x+y y 11 2y
Ta co : + ; +
x + 3y 2 x + y x + 3y x + 3y 2 2 x + 3y
x + y 1 x x + 3y 1 1 x 3
+ += + .
x + 3y2 x + y x + 3y 2 2 x + y 2
x + y 1 y 3
Tng t ta co : + .
y + 3x
2 x+y 2
Co ng theo ve hai ba t a ng th c tren suy ra :
1 1 1 x+y
( x+ y ) + 2.
+ 3 =

x + 3y y + 3x 2 x + y
Da u ba ng xay ra khi va ch khi x = y .
Thay vao phng trnh au cu a he ta c:
2
2 x 1 = 2 x 2 1 x 1 = ( x 1) ( x 1)( x 2 ) = 0

=x 1 =x 1,y
= 1
.
=
x 2 = = 2
x 2,y
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la ( x;y ) = (1;1) ; ( 2;2 ) .
94
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1 1
+ = 9
x y
51. Gia i he phng trnh .
1 1 1
1 + + 1 + 1 =18
3
3y 3x

x 3 y
Li giai
ie u kien : xy 0 .
1 1
=
Tr c tie n kh ca n cho n gian ta a t u = ,v .
3 3
x y
Khi o he phng trnh tr tha nh:
u3 + v3 = 9 u + v 3 3uv u + v =
( ) ( ) 9 .

( u + v )( u + 1)( v + 1) = 18
18 ( u + v )( uv + u + v + 1) =

3
uv = ( u + v ) 9 3
3 u+v
( ) ( u + v) 9
uv =
3
3( u + v)
u + v 9
( ) 3 2
( u + v ) + u + v + 1 = 0
18 ( u + v ) + 3 ( u + v ) + 3 ( u + v ) 63 =
3 ( u + v )

3
uv = ( u + v ) 9
3( u + v) u + v =3
.
2 0 uv = 2
( u + v 3) ( u + v ) + 6 ( u + v ) + 21 =

1
3 =1
x x = 1
1
= 2 y = 1
=u 1,v
= 2 3 y 8
.
=
u 2,v
= 1 1
=2 x = 1
3 x 8

1 y = 1
3 =1
y
1 1
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la ( x;y ) = 1; ; ;1 .
8 8
95
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) y 8 2xy ( x + y )
( x + 7y ) x + ( y + 7x=
52. Gia i he phng trnh .
2 2
x + y + 2xy = 8
Li giai
ie u kien : x 0,y 0 .
Phng trnh a u cu a he vie t la i d i da ng:
x x + y y + 7 xy ( x + = y ) 8 2xy ( x + y ) .
( x + y )( x xy + y ) + 7 xy ( x += y ) 8 2xy ( x + y ) .
2
( x+ y)( x= y ) 8 xy ( 2 ( x + y ) x y ) .
2
2 ( x y )
( x+ y )( x y ) =
8 xy. .
2(x + y) + x + y
2
( x y ) ( x + y ) ( 2 ( x + y ) + x + y ) 8 xy =0 (1) .

Ta c: ( x+ y ) ( 2 ( x + y ) + x + y ) 8 xy
( x+ y )( x + y+ x+ y)8 xy
2 2
.
=2 ( x+ y ) 8 xy = 2 ( x y ) 0
Da u ba ng xay ra khi va chi khi x = y do o (1) x =y.
Thay vao phng trnh th hai cua he ta c :
2x2 + 2x 2 = 8 2 2x = 8 x = 2 2 y = 2 2 .
Va y he phng trnh co nghiem duy nha t ( x;y ) = 2 2;2 2 . ( )
2 2
3 x + y ( 2 ( x + y +)xy ) =
15

53. Gia i he phng trnh .
25
x3 + y3 =
4
Li giai
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i :
2
15
3 ( x + y ) 2xy 2 ( x + y + xy ) =

.
( x + y )3 3xy ( x + y ) = 25
4
96
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S= x + y 2
a t , S 4P khi o he phng trnh tr tha nh:
( )
P = xy
3 S2 2P 2 S + P = 3S2 2S 15
( ) ( ) 15 P =
8
.
25 3S2 2S 15 25
S3 3SP = 3
4 =
S 3S. 8 4
7
S = 1,P =
4
3S2 2S 15
P = 265
8 S= 10,P= .
8
0
( S 1)( S 10 )( S + 5) = 35
S= 5,P =
4
7
o i chie u v i ieu kie n ch nhan nghiem S = 1,P = .
4
1+ 2 2 1 2 2
=S 1 =
x + y = 1 x = ,y
2 2
7 7 .
P = xy = 1 2 2 1+ 2 2
4 = 4 x = ,y
2 2
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la :
2 1 2 2 1 2 2 1+ 2 2
( x;y ) = 1 + 22 ; ; ; .
2 2 2
2 2
x +y x2 + xy + y2
+ = x + y
2 3
54. Gia i he phng trnh .
3( x + y )
2xy = 5
2
Li giai
e he phng trnh co nghie m ta pha i co x + y 0 .
2 2
x +y x+y
2 2
Ta co : .
x2 + xy + y 2 x + y

3 2
Da u ba ng xay ra x = y . Thay vao phng trnh th hai cu a he ta c :
97
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x = 1 x = y= 1
2x2 3x =5 .
x= 5 x= y= 5
2 2
o i chie u v i ieu kie n suy ra he phng trnh co nghiem duy nha t :

( x;y ) = 25 ; 25 .

2 2
( x + 1) ( y + 1) =9xy
55. Gia i he phng trnh .
x2 + 1 y2 + 1 =
( )( 10xy )

Li giai
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i :
x2 + 1 y 2 + 1
2 2 + 2 9
+ 2 =
(x + 1 + 2x y )(+ 1 + 2y =9xy
)
xy 0 x y
.
x2 + 1 y2 + 1 =
( )( 10xy
) x2 + 1 y2 + 1
. = 10
x y

x + y= xy + xy
56. Gia i he phng trnh .
2 2
1 + 3x + 1 + 3y = 4xy
Li giai
ie u kien xy 0 x + y 0 x 0;y 0 .
Nha n thay xy = 0 kho ng la nghiem cu a he nen x > 0;y > 0 .
T phng trnh th nha t cu a he ta co
x+y 1 1
x + y = xy + xy xy + x + y 2xy + 2
2 x y
T phng trnh th hai cua he :
2
1 1
16x2 y2 = 1 + 3x2 + 1 + 3y2 + y 1 + 3x2 + x 1 + 3y2
(( ) ( )) .
y x
1 1
= + ( x + y )(1 + 3xy ) 2.2xy (1 + 3xy ) = 4xy + 12x 2 y 2 xy 1 .
y x
La i co 2xy x + y 2 xy xy 1 .
Nh vay ta t ca ca c bat ang th c tre n pha i xa y ra da u bang, ie u na y tng
ng v i x= y= 1 .
Va y he phng trnh co nghiem duy nha t ( x;y ) = (1;1) .
98
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Chu e 3. HE PHNG TRNH OI XNG LOAI II
No i dung chu e na y to i e ca p e n phng pha p chung e giai mo t bai toa n
he phng trnh o i x ng loa i II va mot so he phng trnh co ca ch gia i
tng t . Mot so he a c ve he o i xng loa i II ba ng phng phap a t
a n phu va ng dung he phng trnh oi xng loa i II trong ba i toa n gia i
phng trnh vo ty .
A. NOI DUNG PHNG PHAP
F(x,y) = 0
He oi xng loai II la he co dang: .
F(y,x) = 0
Trong o F(x,y) la mo t a th c kho ng o i xng.
Hay ca ch kha c he o i xng loa i II la he ma khi ta o i vai tro x,y cho nhau
th phng trnh nay chuyen thanh phng trnh kia.
3
3x= 2y + 1
V du: He phng trnh .
3
3y= 2x + 1
3
Khi thay y b i x th phng trnh th hai tr tha nh 3x= 2y + 1 a y
chnh la phng trnh th nha t cu a he .
Phng phap chung.
Tr theo ve hai phng trnh trong he ta c mot nha n t chung ( x y )
nhom lai a ve phng trnh tch va sau o xe t hai trng h p
x = y
F(x,y) F(y,x) = 0
( x y ) f ( x,y ) = .
f ( x,y ) = 0
Vie c tr theo ve th ng s du ng ca c ha ng a ng th c hoa c nha n lie n h p
(neu cha da u can).
a2 b2 =( a b )( a + b )
a3 b3 =( a b ) a2 ab + b2
( )
ab .
a b=
a+ b
3 ab
a3b=
3 3
a2 3 ab + b2
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TH1: Ne u y = x thay va o mot trong hai phng trnh cu a he tm c
nghiem.
TH2: Ne u f(x,y) = 0 ta co ca c hng x ly nh sau:
- Ne u f(x,y) co da ng ba c nhat hoa c ru t c y theo x hay x ru t c theo
y th c hie n phep the va o mo t phng trnh cu a he tm ra nghie m.
- Ne u f(x,y) co da ng ba c cao chu y f(x,y) va F(x,y) + F(y,x) la ca c a
f(x,y) = 0
th c oi x ng ta a ve gia i he phng trnh: a y la he
0
F(x,y) + F(y,x) =
o i x ng loai I a bie t ca ch gia i.
Chu y:Ne u he phng trnh bao gom ca c ha m da ng a th c, ca n th c, ha m
mu va Logarit, l ng gia c sau khi tr theo ve hai ve mo t phng trnh
da ng g(x) = g(y) , trong o g(t) la mo t ha m n ie u th chu ng ta s du ng
tnh cha t cua ha m so e ch ra ra ng x = y .
2x= y2 + 1
V du:He phng trnh .
= x2 + 1
2y
Tr theo ve ta c 2 ( x y ) = y2 x2 x2 + 2x = y2 + 2y g(x) = g(y) .
Trong o g(t)= t 2 + 2t la ha m o ng bien tre n 0; + ) . T o suy ra x = y .
A. BAI TAP MAU
DANG 1: GIAI HE PHNG TRNH
2
x 4x =3y
Bai 1.Gia i he phng trnh .
2
3x
y 4y =
Li giai
Tr theo ve hai phng trnh cu a he ta c:
x2 y2 4x + 4y = 3y 3x ( x y )( x + y ) ( x y ) = 0 .
x = y
( x y )( x + y 1) = 0 .
y= 1 x
TH1: Ne u y = x thay va o phng trnh a u cua he ta c:
x = 0

x = 0 y = 0
x 2 4x =3x x 2 7x =0 .
x = 7 x = 7

y = 7
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TH2: Ne u y = 1 x thay va o phng trnh a u cua he ta c:
1 13
x =
2
1 13 1 + 13
x = y =
2 2
x 2 4x = 3 (1 x ) x 2 x 3 = 0 .
1 + 13

1 + 13
x = x =
2 2

y = 1 13
2
Va y: he phng trnh co bo n nghiem la:

( x;y ) = ( 0;0 ); ( 7;7); 1 2 13 ; 1 + 2 13 ; 1 + 2 13 ; 1 2 13 .

3 2 2
3x= x + 2y
Bai 2. Gia i he phng trnh .
3 2 2
3y= y + 2x
Li giai
T hai phng trnh cu a he suy ra he co nghie m khi x,y 0 .
Tr theo ve hai phng trnh cu a he , ta c:
3 x3 y3 = x 2 y 2 ( x y ) 3 x 2 + y 2 + xy + x + y =0 .
( ) ( ) (( ) )
x = y
2 2 .
3 x + y + xy + x + y =
( 0 )

x = y x= y= 0
Ne u x = y , khi o ta c he 3 2 2
.
3x= x + 2y x= y= 1
3 x 2 + y 2 + xy + x + y =0
2 ( )
Ne u 3 ( x + y2 + xy ) + x + y =0 , khi o ta co he .
3 2 2
3x= x + 2y
T x 0 suy ra e he co nghiem th phng trnh th nha t pha i co nghie m,
suy ra y 0 . Do o x= y= 0 , th la i tha y tho a ma n.
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la ( x,y ) = ( 0,0 ) ; (1,1) .
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y2 + 2
3y =
x2
Bai 3. Gia i he phng trnh (TSH Khoi B 2003) .
x2 + 2
3x =
y2

Li giai
He co nghiem khi x > 0,y > 0 khi o he phng trnh tng ng vi
2 2 0 x = y
3x =y y + 2 ( x y )( 3xy + x + y ) =
2 2 2
.
2 2
3y = x x2 + 2 3xy= x + 2 3xy= x + 2
x = y 0
( x 1) 3x 2 + 2x + 2 =
( )
3 2
x = y = 1.
3x x 2 =0 x = y
Va y: he co nghiem duy nha t ( x;y ) = (1;1) .
Nhan xet: o i v i he co da ng pha n th c tr c tie n ta bie n o i a ve da ng
a th c va ie u kie n co nghiem cu a he phng trnh giu p ta x ly ba i toa n
nhanh go n hn.
2
x + y = x3
Bai 4. Gia i he phng trnh .
2
y + x =y3
Li giai
Tr theo ve hai phng trnh cu a he ta c:
x y + y2 x 2 = x3 y3 x y ( x y )( x + y ) = ( x y ) ( x2 + xy + y2 ) .
x = y
( x y ) x2 + xy + y2 + x + y 1 = 0 2
( ) 2
.
x + xy + y + x + y 1 =0
TH1: Ne u y = x thay va o phng trnh th nha t cu a he ta c:

= x 0 = x 0,y
= 0

1 5 1 5 1 5
( )
x + x2 = x3 x x 2 x 1 = 0 x = x = ,y = .
2 2 2

1+ 5 1+ 5 1+ 5
= x = x = ,y
2 2 2
TH2: Ne u x2 + xy + y2 + x + y 1 =0.
Co ng theo ve hai phng trnh cu a he ta c: x + y + x2 + y2 = x3 + y3 .
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2 2 3 3
x + y + x + y = x + y
Ta co he phng trnh: .
2 2
x + y + xy + x + y 1 = 0
3 2
( x + y ) 3xy ( x + y ) = ( x + y ) 2xy + x + y
.
2
0
( x + y ) xy + x + y 1 =
S= x + y 2
a t , S 4P khi o he phng trnh tr tha nh:
( )
P = xy
3 2 2
S 3SP = S 2P + S P = S + S 1
3 .
2 S 3S S2 + S 1 = S2 2 S2 + S 1 + S
S P + S 1 =0 ( ) ( )
2
P = S + S 1
.
3 2
2S + 2S 4S + 2 =0 (1)
2
Ma t kha c: S2 4P S2 4 S2 + S 1 3S2 + 4S 4 0 2 S
( ) .
3
Khi o : 2S3 + 2S2 4S + 2 > 0, S 2 (1) vo nghiem.
Va y he phng trnh co ba nghie m la :

( x;y ) = ( 0;0 ); 1 5 ; 1 5 ; 1 + 5 ; 1 + 5 .

2 2 2 2
3
2x + y =
x2
Bai 5. Gia i he phng trnh .
3
2y + x =
y2
Li giai
ie u kien x,y 0 .
1 1
Co ng theo ve hai phng trnh cu a he ta c x + y = + > 0.
x2 y2
Khi o tr theo ve hai phng trnh cu a he ta c
3 3 3( x + y )
2(x y) = (x y) 2 + =0 x=y.
x2 y2
x 2 y 2
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x = y

V vay ta co he phng trnh 3 x = y =1.
2x + y =2
y
Va y he phng trnh co nghiem duy nha t ( x;y ) = (1;1) .
2 2
x 1) y +
( 6= y x) (+ 1 )
(
Bai 6. Gia i he phng trnh .
( y 1) x2 + 6= x y2 + 1
( ) ( )

Li giai
2 2 2
xy + 6x y 6= yx + y
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i .
2 2 2
yx + 6y x 6= xy + x
Tr theo ve hai phng trnh cu a he ta c
x = y
( x y )( x + y 2xy + 7) = 0 x + y 2xy + 7 =0 .

TH1 : Ne u x = y khi o ta co he phng trnh :
= x y= x y x= y= 2
2 2 2
2 .
xy + 6x y 6= yx + y x 5x + 6= 0 x= y= 3
TH2: Ne u x + y 2xy + 7 =0 , khi o co ng theo ve hai phng trnh cua he ta
0.
c: x2 + y2 5 ( x + y ) + 12 =
2 2 2
x + y 5 ( x + y ) + 12 = 0
0 x + y ) 5 ( x + y ) 2xy + 12 =
T o ta co he : (
x + y 2xy + 7 = 0 x + y 2xy + 7 = 0
S= x + y 2
a t , S 4P .
( )
P = xy
Khi o he phng trnh tren tr tha nh:
2
S 6S + 5 =0
S2 5S 2P + 12 =
0 =S 1,P
= 4
S+ 7 .
S 2P + 7 =0 P = = = 6
S 5,P
2
S= 5 x + y= 5 x= 2;y= 3
o i chie u ieu kie n ch nha n nghiem .
=P 6 = 6
xy = = 2
x 3;y
Va y he phng trnh co bon nghie m la ( 2,2 ) ; ( 3,3) ; ( 3,2 ) ; ( 2,3) .
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Nhan xet: Vie c la y to ng hai phng trnh cua he a ve mo t a th c o i
x ng ra t co y ngha khi ta th c hie n tr theo ve hai phng trnh cu a he ma
phng trnh lu c sau kho x ly. ay la mo t kinh nghiem quy ba u khi gia i he
o i xng loa i II. Pha n bai tap re n luye n to i co a ra mo t so ba i ta p cu ng
da ng nay cho ba n o c re n luye n.
2 3 y2 7x
x y + =
2 x2 2y
Bai 7. Gia i he phng trnh .
2 3 x2 7y
y x + =
2 y2 2x

Li giai
ie u kien: xy 0 .
2 y2 7x 7y
x + 2y + = +
x2 2y 2
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i: .
2 x2 7y 7x
y + 2x + = +
y2 2x 2

2

x + y = 7 y + x
x 2 y
.
2
x 7 y
y + = x +
y 2 x
y x
a t u =+
x ,v =+
y he phng trnh tr tha nh:
x y
y
x + =
0 x =1,y =1
x
x x 5= 5
2 7
=
0 = ,y
u = v = u 0,v
= 0 y + y 2 2
2
7 3 .
v2 = 7 u =
u 7=,v y 7 = =
x 3,y
2 2 x + = 2
2 x 2
3
x 7 =x = ,y 3
y+ y = 2
2
5 5 3 3
Va y: he phng trnh co bo n nghiem la : ( x;y ) = ( 1; 1) ; ; ; 3; ; ;3 .
2 2 2 2
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Nhan xet:V i da ng he oi x ng loa i II bie u th c phng trnh co dang ph c
ta p hoa c ba c cao ca n chu y bie n o i phng trnh a ve he n gia n hn.
x + 5 + y 2 = 7
Bai 8. Gia i he phng trnh .
y + 5 + x 2 =7
Li giai
ie u kien x 2,y 2 .
Nha n thay x = 2 kho ng thoa man he phng trnh.
Xe t x > 2 khi o tr theo ve hai phng trnh cua he ta c
x+5 y+5 + y2 x2 =0.
1 1
(x y) =0 x =y,

x+5+ y+5 x 2 + y 2
1 1
do <0.
x+5+ y+5 x2 + y2
V vay ta co he phng trnh tng ng v i:
x = y x = y

x + 5 + y 2 = 7 x + 5 + x 2 = 7 (1)
x = y
x = y
x 23 x = y = 11 .
2
x + 3x 10 = 23 x 2 2
x + 3x 10 = 529 46x + x
Va y: he phng trnh co nghiem duy nha t ( x;y ) = (11;11) .
Nhan xet: Phng trnh (1) co the ch ra nghiem duy nha t ba ng phng phap
ha m so (xem cuo n phng trnh, ba t phng trnh vo ty cu ng ta c gia ) va mo t
he n gia n nh na y ta co the tie p ca n v i 10 li gia i kha c nhau. a ra cho
ca c ban tm toi.
2 2 2
x x y
(1 x )(1 y ) =

Bai 9. Gia i he phng trnh .
y 2 2 2
y x
(1 x )(1 y ) =

Li giai
ie u kien: 1 x2 1 y 2 0 .
( )( )
Tr theo ve hai phng trnh cu a he ta c:
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2 2 2
(x y) (1 x )(1 y ) = x y + x y2 .
y = x
2 2
(x y) (1 x )(1 y ) 1 x y = 0 .
1 x 2 1 y 2 =1 + x + y
( )( )

TH1: Ne u y = x thay va o phng trnh a u cua he ta c:
2
2
x (1 x ) = x x2 x 1 x2 1 + x = 0 .
( )
x = 0 =
x 0 = x 0,y
= 0
2 .
1 x 1 + x =0 =x 1 =x 1,y
= 1

2 2
TH2: Ne u (1 x )(1 y ) =1 + x + y thay vao phng trnh th nhat cua he
ta c:
x (1 + x + y ) = x y 2 x 2 + xy + y 2 = 0 .
2 y
y 3 x + = 0 x = 0
x + + y2 =0 2 .
2 4 y = 0
y = 0
Va y: he phng trnh co hai nghiem la ( x;y ) = ( 0;0 ) ; (1;1) .
2 2
x 1 + y + y 1 + x = 2
Bai 10. Gia i he phng trnh .
2 2
x 1 + x + y 1 + y =2
Li giai
Tr theo ve hai phng trnh cu a he ta c:
x 1 + y2 x 1 + x2 + y 1 + x2 y 1 + y2 =
0.
x = y y = x
( x y ) 1 + y2 1 + x2 =0
.
1 + x 2 = 1 + y 2 y = x
TH1: Ne u y = x thay va o phng trnh a u cua he ta c:
x 1 + x2 x 1 + x2 =
2 (vo nghie m).
TH2: Ne u y = x thay va o phng trnh a u cua he ta c:
5 1
x 1 + x2 + x 1 + x2 =2 x 1 + x 2 =
1 x=
2
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5 1

( x;y ) = ;
5 1
.
2 2

5 1 5 1
Va y: he phng trnh co nghiem duy nha t ( x;y ) = ; .
2 2

1 1 2
4 1 + + + 5y = ( y + 2 y +1 )
x2 ( x + 1)2

Bai 11.Gia i he phng trnh .
1 1 2
4 1 + 2 + + 5x = ( x + 2 x +1 )
2
y ( y + 1)

Li giai
ie u kien: x,y > 0 .
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
2
4 1 + 1 1 + 2
+ 5y = y + 4 ( y + 1) + 4 y ( y + 1)
x x +1 x ( x + 1)
.
2
1 1 2
4 1 + + + 5x = x + 4 ( x + 1) + 4 x ( x + 1)
y y +1 y ( y + 1)
2
1 1
4 1 + = 4 y ( y + 1) + 4 4 1 + = 4 y ( y + 1) + 4

x ( x + 1) x ( x + 1)
.
2
1
1 = 4 x ( x + 1) + 4
4 1 + = 4 x ( x + 1) + 4 4 1 +
y ( y + 1)
y ( y + 1)
1 1
= y ( y + 1) = y ( y + 1)
x ( x + 1) x ( x + 1)
.
1 1
= x ( x + 1) = x ( x + 1) y ( y + 1)

y ( y + 1) y ( y + 1) x ( x + 1)
1
= y ( y + 1) 1
x ( x + 1) =
x ( x + 1) .
y y + 1) = 1
1 (
x ( x + 1) y ( y + 1) =
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1 + 5
x2 + x 1 = x=
0 x,y > 0 2
.
2
y + y 1 =0 1 + 5
y=
2
1 + 5 1 + 5
Va y: he phng trnh co nghiem duy nha t la ( x;y ) = ; .
2 2

2
x + 3 + 2 x =3+ y
Bai 12. Gia i he phng trnh .
2
y + 3 + 2 y = 3 + x
Li giai
ie u kie n x 0,y 0 . Nha n thay ( x;y ) = ( 0;0 ) kho ng la nghiem cu a he vay
xe t v i x > 0,y > 0 .
Tr theo ve hai phng trnh cu a he ta c:
x2 + 3 y2 + 3 + 3 ( x y =0.
)

x+y 3
(x y) + =0 x =y.
2 2 x+ y
x +3 + y +3
V vay ta co he phng trnh:
x = y x = y
2 .
2
x + 3 + 2 x = 3 + y x + 3 2 + x 1 =0
x = y

x +1 1 x = y =1.
( x 1) 2 + =0
x + 3 + 2 x + 1
Va y: he phng trnh co nghiem duy nha t ( x;y ) = (1;1) .
Bai 13. Gia i he phng trnh:
3 2
x + 3x + x + 2= 2y + 11 + 2y2 y + 4 (1)
3 , ( x 0,y 0 ) .
2
y + 3y + y + 2= 2x + 11 + 2x2 x + 4 (2)
Li giai
ie u kien: x,y 0 .
La y (1) (2) theo ve ta c:
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x3 y3 + 3 x 2 y 2 + x y=
( ) 2y + 11 2x + 11 + 2y 2 y + 4 2x 2 x + 4
2 x2 + xy + y2 + 4 ( x + y )
( x y ) x2 + xy + y2 + 3 ( x + y ) + 1 + + 2. =0
2x + 11 + 2y + 11
x2 x + 4 + y2 y + 4
x=y (do x,y 0 ).
Thay y = x va o phng trnh th nha t cua he ta c:
x3 + 3x2 + x + 2= 2x + 11 + 2x2 x + 4 .
Nh va y mau cho t cu a ba i toa n la x ly phng trnh vo ty tre n. Ta co ba
ca ch x ly nh sau:
Cach 1: ieu kie n: x 0 t gia thie t.
Vie t la i phng trnh d i da ng:
(x + 2 2x + 11 + x 2 x + 3 2 x + 4 =
) ( 0. )
TH1: Ne u x + 2 > 2x + 11 x > 2 2 1 x + 3 > 2 x + 4 phng trnh vo
nghiem.
TH2: Ne u x + 2 < 2x + 11 4 x < 2 2 1 x + 3 < 2 x + 4 phng
trnh vo nghie m.
TH3: Ne u x + 2= 2x + 11 x= 2 2 1 phng trnh tho a ma n.
Va y phng trnh co nghie m duy nha=
t x 2 2 1 suy ra he co nghiem duy
nha t: ( x;y ) = 2 2 1;2 2 1 .
( )
Cach 2: Nhan lie n h p ta c:
(x + 2 2x + 11 + x 2 x + 3 2 x + 4 =
) ( 0. )
x2 + 2x 7 x2 + 2x 7
+ x2 . =
0.
x + 2 + 2x + 11 x +3+2 x+ 4
2
x 1
x2 + 2x 7
( ) + =0.

x + 3 + 2 x + 4 x + 2 + 2x + 11
x2 + 2x 7 =0

x2 1
+ =0 (1)
x + 3 + 2 x + 4 x + 2 + 2x + 11
e x ly phng trnh (1) ta lam nh sau:
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x2 1
+ =
0
x +3+2 x+ 4 x + 2 + 2x + 11
x3 + 2x2 + x + 3 + x2 2x + 11 + 2 x + 4 =0.
Ke t h p v i phng trnh a u tie n ta c he :
3 2 2
x + 2x + x + 3 + x 2x + 11 + 2 x + 4 =0
3 .
2 2
x + 3x + x + 2= 2x + 11 + 2x x + 4
2 2
Suy ra x2 + 1 + 2 ( x + 1) x + 4 + ( x + 1) 2x + 11 =0.
x2 + 1
( )( 2x + 11 + 2 x + 4 1 + 2 =
) 0.
Phng trnh na y vo nghiem do o x2 + 2x 7 =0 x =1 2 2 .
Ke t h p v i ieu kie n suy ra =
x 2 2 1 =
y 2 2 1.
Cach 3: a t=
t x + 4 phng trnh tr thanh:
2
2 2
(t 4 ) (t 2t 1 + t 2 2 2t 2 + 3 =
) 0.
2 2 t 0
t 2 2t 1 t 2 4
( )( ) +1+ = 0 =
t 1+ 2 .
2t 1 + 2t 2 + 3
2
x + x =2y
Bai 14. Gia i he phng trnh .
2
2x
y + y =
Li giai
ie u kien : x,y 0 .
Xe t ha m so f(t)= t 2 + t tre n oa n 0; + ) .
1
Ta co f '(t)
= 2t + > 0, t ( 0; + ) .
2 t
Do o ham so f(t) o ng bie n tre n 0; + )
2y = f(x)
He phng trnh tng ng vi 2 ( y x ) = f(x) f(y)
2x = f(y)
Do f(t) la ham ong bien ne n, ne u y x f(x) f(y) va ne u
y x f(x) f(y) . Va y x = y , khi o he tr tha nh:
=x y= x y
2 2 .
=
x + x 2y =
x 2x + x 0
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x= y= 0

x = y
x =y =1 .
x x 1 x + x 1 =
( 0
)( )
3 5
x= y=
2

3 5 3 5
Va y he phng trnh co ba nghie m la ( x,y ) = ( 0;0 ) ; (1;1) ; ; .
2
2
Nhan xet:Ngoa i s du ng ha m so ta th c hien theo hai ca ch sau:
Cach 1: Nha n tha y ( 0;0 ) la nghiem cu a he , xe t v i x2 + y2 > 0 khi o tr
theo ve hai phng trnh cu a he ta c
1
x2 y2 + 2 ( x y ) + x y = 0 ( x y ) x + y + 2 + = 0 x = y.
x + y
Cach 2: Tr theo ve hai phng trnh cu a he ta c:
x2 + 2x + x = y2 + 2y + y .
Khi o ham so f(t) = t 2 + 2t + t o ng bie n tre n 0; + ) ne n:
f(x)= f(y) x= y .
2 y
x + 3x + ln ( 2x + 1) =
Bai 15. (VMO1994 Bang B) Gia i he phng trnh .
2
x
y + 3y + ln ( 2y + 1) =
Li giai
1
ie u kien: x,y > .
2
Tr theo ve hai phng trnh cu a he ta c:
x2 y2 + 3x 3y + ln ( 2x + 1) ln ( 2y + 1) = y x .
x2 + 4x + ln ( 2x + 1) = y 2 + 4y + ln ( 2y + 1) (1) .
1
Xe t ha m so f(t) = t 2 + 4t + ln ( 2t + 1) tre n ; + , ta co :
2
2 1 2 1
f '(t)= 2t + 4 + = 2 t + + + 3 > 0, t > ne n f(t) la ha m o ng
2t + 1 2 2t + 1 2
1
bie n tre n ; + .
2
112
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V vay (1) f(x)= f(y) x= y .
Thay y = x va o phng trnh th nha t cu a he ta c:
x2 + 3x + ln ( 2x + 1) = x x 2 + 2x + ln ( 2x + 1) = 0 (2) .
1
Xe t ha m so g(t) = t 2 + 2t + ln ( 2t + 1) tre n ; + , ta co :
2
2 1 2 1
g'(t)= 2t + 2 + = 2 t + + + 1 > 0, t > ne n g(t) la ha m o ng
2t + 1 2 2t + 1 2
1
bie n tre n ; + .
2
V vay (2) g(x) = g(0) x = 0 y = 0 .
Va y he phng trnh co nghiem duy nha t ( x;y ) = ( 0;0 ) .
2
x + 1 + x 2x + 2 = 3y
Bai 16. Gia i he phng trnh .
2
y + 1 + y 2y + 2 =3x
Li giai
Tr theo ve hai phng trnh cu a he ta c:
x y + x2 2x + 2 y 2 2y + 2 = 3y 3x .
3x + x + x2 2x + 2 = 3y + y + y 2 2y + 2 (1) .
Xe t ha m so f(t) = 3t + t + t 2 2t + 2 tre n , ta co :
2
t 1 ( t 1) +1 + t 1 t 1 + t 1
f '(t) =+
3t ln3 1 + =+
3t ln3 > 3t ln3 + > 0,
t 2 2t + 2 t 2 2t + 2 t 2 2t + 2
t R ne n f(t) la ha m ong bie n tren .
V vay (1) f(x)= f(y) x= y .
Thay y = x va o phng trnh au cu a he ta c:
x + 1 + x 2 2x + 2 = 3x 3 x x + 1 + x 2 2x + 2 1= 0 (2) .

Xe t ha m so g(t)
= 3 t t + 1 + t 2 2t + 2 1 , ta co :

t 1
g'(t) =3 t ln3 t + 1 + t 2 2t + 2 + 3 t 1 +
.

t 2 2t + 2
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t 1
= 3 t 1 + ln3 t + 1 + t 2 2t + 2 < 0, t R

t 2 2t + 2
t 1
Do 1 + ln3 t + 1 + t 2 2t + 2
t 2 2t + 2
t 2 2t + 2 + t 1 t 2 2t + 2 ln3 t + 1 + t 2 2t + 2
=
t 2 2t + 2
t 2 2t + 2 + t 1 t + 1 + t 2 2t + 2

2
< =
<0
t 2 2t + 2 t 2 2t + 2
Do o g(t) la ham nghch bie n tre n R.
V vay: (2) g(x) =g(1) x =1 y =1 .
Va y: he phng trnh co nghiem duy nha t ( x;y ) = (1;1) .
Tng t ca ch tre n ta giai c he to ng quat:
2 2 y
x 1 + x 2x + a + 1 = a
, ( a 1) .
2 2
y 1 + y 2y + a + 1 =ax
He phng trnh na y cu ng co nghiem duy nha t ( x;y ) = (1;1) .
DANG 2: NG DUNG HE OI XNG LOAI II
TRONG BAI TOAN GIAI PHNG TRNH VO TY.
n
Dang 1: Phng trnh ( ax + b =
) p n cx + d + qx + r .
n
a t cx + d = ay + b ne u pc > 0 .
n
a t cx + d = ( ay + b ) ne u pc < 0 .
n
+ b(x) a(x) n a(x)f(x) b(x) .
Da ng 2: Phng trnh f(x) =
n
u = f(x) a(x)v
u + b(x) =
a t .
= n a(x)f(x) b(x) n
v a(x)u
v + b(x) =
a y la he o i x ng loai II co nha n t ch a bie n a(x) .
3
Bai 1.Gia i phng trnh 3x 5= 8x3 36x2 + 53x 25 .
Li giai
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Cach 1: Vie t la i phng trnh a cho d i dang:
3 3
3x 5= ( 2x 3) ( x 2 ) .
3
a t 3x 5 = 2y 3 khi o ta co he phng trnh:
3 3
2y 3= ( 2x 3) ( x 2 ) 2y + x 5= ( 2x 3)

.
3

3
( 2y 3)
3x 5= 3x 5= ( 2y 3)
a y la he n a o i x ng loa i II. Tr theo ve hai phng trnh cua he ta c:
2 2
y x.
2 ( x y ) ( 2x 3) + ( 2x 3)( 2y 3) + ( 2y 3) =

2 2
0.
( x y ) 2 ( 2x 3) + 2 ( 2x 3)( 2y 3) + 2 ( 2y 3) + 1 =

2 2
x=y (do 2 ( 2x 3) + 2 ( 2x 3)( 2y 3) + 2 ( 2y 3) + 1 > 0 ).
3
Va y: ba i toan a ve giai phng trnh: 3x 5 = 2x 3 .
3
y= 3x 5
Cach 2: a t y= 3 3x 5 .
3 2
y = 8x 36x + 53x 25
Co ng theo ve hai phng trnh cu a he ta c:
3
y3 + y= ( 2x 3) + ( 2x 3) (1) .
Xet ham so f(t)= t 3 + t , ta co: f '(t)
= 3t 2 + 1 > 0, t nen ham so f(t) ong bien.
Do o (1) f(y) = f(2x 3) y = 2x 3 3 3x 5 = 2x 3 .
x = 2
(
8x3 36x2 + 51x 22 =0 ( x 2 ) 8x2 20x + 11 =0 5 3 . )
x = 4
5 3
Va y: phng trnh co ba nghiem la= =
x 2,x .
4
1
Bai 2. Gia i phng trnh: 8x2 13x + 7 = 1 + 3 ( x + 1)( 2x 1) + x 2 x 1
x
Li giai
3
Phng trnh a cho tng ng v i: 8x3 13x 2 + 7x = ( x + 1) 3x 2 2
3
( 2x 1) x 2 x 1 =
( ) ( x + 1) 3 ( x + 1)( 2x 1) + ( x2 x 1)
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3
a t u = 2x 1,v = 3x2 2 ta co he phng trnh:
u3 x 2 x 1 = ( x + 1) v
( ) .

v3 x 2 x 1 =
( ) ( x + 1) u

Tr theo ve hai phng trnh trong he ta c:
u = v
( u v ) ( u2 + uv + v2 + x + 1) = 0 2 2
u + uv + v + x + 1 =0
3 2 1
TH1:V i u = v 2x 1 = 1 x=
3x 2 2 ( x 1) ( 8x + 1) = 0 x =
8
2
u 3 2
TH2:V i u2 + uv + v2 + x + 1 =0 v + + ( 2x 1) + x + 1 =0
2 4
2
u 2
4 v + + 4x 2 + 2 ( 2x 1) + 5 =0 , phng trnh na y vo nghie m.
2
1
Va y phng trnh co hai nghiem x = 1;x = .
8
B. BAI TAP REN LUYEN
1
x + =y + 1
y
Bai 1.Gia i he phng trnh .
1
y + =x + 1
x
Li giai
ie u kien: xy 0 .
2
xy + 1= y + y
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i: .
2
xy + 1= x + x
Tr theo ve hai phng trnh cu a he ta c:
y = x
y2 x2 + y x = 0 ( y x )( x + y + 1) = 0 .
y =1 x
TH1: Ne u y = x thay va o phng trnh a u cua he ta c:
x2 + 1 = x2 + x x = 1 y = 1 .
TH2: Ne u y =1 x thay va o phng trnh th nha t cu a he ta c:
116
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2 x0
x =2 y =1 .
x ( 1 x ) + 1 =( 1 x ) + x 2x 2 + 4x =0
Va y: he phng trnh co hai nghiem la (=
x;y ) (1;1) ; ( 2;1) .
2
x xy = 3 ( 2 + y )
Bai 2.Gia i he phng trnh .
2
y xy = 3 ( 2 + x )
Li giai
Tr theo ve hai phng trnh cu a he ta c:
y = x
x2 y2 = 3y 3x ( x y )( x + y + 3) = 0 .
y =3 x
Xe t tr ng h p thay va o phng trnh a u cua he tm c ca c nghie m
3 3 + 3 3 + 3 3 + 3
; ; ; .
( x;y ) =( 2; 2 ); 3 +2 2 2
2
Va y: he phng trnh co ba nghie m:
3 3 + 3 3 + 3 3 + 3
;
; ; .
( x;y ) =( 2; 2 ); 3 +2 2 2
2
2
( 4x + 2 ) =2y + 15
Bai 3. Gia i he phng trnh .
2

( 4y + 2 ) =2x + 15
Li giai
Tr theo ve hai phng trnh cu a he ta c:
2 2
( 4x + 2 ) ( 4y + 2 ) =2y 2x 4 ( x y )( 4x + 4y + 4 ) = 2 ( y x )
y = x
0
( x y )( 8x + 8y + 10 ) = 5 + 4x .
y=
4
He phng trnh co bon nghiem:
11 11 1 1 9 + 221 9 + 221
9 + 221 9 + 221

( x;y ) = ; ; ; ; ; ; ; .
8 8 2 2
6 6 6 6

2
x + y = y3
Bai 4. Gia i he phng trnh .
2
y + x =x3
Li giai
Tr theo ve hai phng trnh cu a he ta c:
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x y + y2 x 2 = y3 x3 x y + ( y x )( y + x ) = ( y x ) ( y2 + xy + x2 ) .
y = x
( y x ) x2 + xy + y 2 x y + 1 = 0 2
( ) 2
.
x + xy + y x y + 1 =0
TH1: Ne u y = x thay va o phng trnh a u cua he ta c:

= x 0 = x 0,y
= 0

1 5 1 5 1 5
( )
x + x2 = x3 x x 2 x 1 = 0 x = x = ,y = .
2 2 2

1+ 5 1+ 5 1+ 5
= x = x = ,y
2 2 2
TH2: Ne u x2 + xy + y2 x y + 1 =0 co ng theo ve hai phng trnh cu a he
ta c: x + y + x2 + y2 = x3 + y3 .
2 2 3 3
x + y + x + y = x + y
Xe t he phng trnh (a y la he oi xng loa i I).
2 2
x + xy + y x y + 1 = 0
Cach 2: Vie t la i:
2 2 2
x2 + xy + y 2 x y + 1 = 0 ( x + y ) + ( x 1) + ( y 1) = 0
x + y = 0

x = 1 (vo ly).

y = 1
Va y tr ng h p na y he phng trnh vo nghie m.
Va y he phng trnh co ba nghie m:

( x;y ) = ( 0;0 ); 1 2 5 ; 1 2 5 ; 1 +2 5 ; 1 +2 5 .

3 2
x +=1 2 x x +(y )

Bai 5. Gia i he phng trnh .
y3 +=1 2 y2 y + x
( )

Li giai
Tr theo ve hai phng trnh cu a he ta c:
x3 y3 = 2x2 2y 2 4x + 4y .
( x y ) x2 + xy + y2 = 2 ( x y )( x + y ) 4 ( x y ) .
( )
118
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y = x
( x y ) x2 + xy + y2 2x 2y + 4 =0 2
( ) 2
.
0
x + xy + y 2x 2y + 4 =
TH1: Ne u y = x thay va o phng trnh th nha t cu a he ta c:

= x 1 = x 1,y
= 1

1 5 1 5 1 5
x3 + 1 = 2x2 x 1 x2 x 1 = 0 x =
( ) ( ) x = ,y =
2 2 2

1+ 5 1+ 5 1+ 5
= x = x = ,y
2 2 2
TH2: Ne u x2 + xy + y 2 2x 2y + 4 =
0.
x = y
2 2 2
( x + y) + ( x 2) + ( y 2) =0 x =2 (vo ly).

y = 2
Va y he phng trnh co ba nghie m la :

( x;y ) = (1;1) ; 1 2 5 ; 1 2 5 ; 1 +2 5 ; 1 +2 5 .

3
x + 1 = 2y
Bai 6. Gia i he phng trnh .
3
y + 1 =2x
Li giai
Tr theo ve hai phng trnh cu a he ta c:
x3 y3 =
2y 2x ( x y ) x2 + xy + y 2 =
( 2 ( x y ) .
)
( x y ) x2 + xy + y2 + 2 = 0 x = y .
( )
V i y = x thay va o phng trnh a u cu a he ta c:

x = 1

1 + 5
( )
x3 + 1 = 2x ( x 1) x 2 + x 1 = 0 x =
2

1 5
x=
2
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= x 1,y
= 1

1 + 5 1 + 5
=
x = ,y .
2 2

1 5 1 5
= x = ,y
2 2
Va y he phng trnh co ba nghie m:
5 1 + 5 1 5 1 5
; ; ; .
( x;y ) = (1;1); 1 +2 2 2
2
2 2
2x y = 3x 2
Bai 7. Gia i he phng trnh .
2 2
2y x = 3y 2
Li giai
Tr theo ve hai phng trnh cu a he ta c:
y = x
3x2 3y2 = 3x 3y ( x y )( x + y 1) = 0 .
y= 1 x
Xe t tr ng h p thay va o phng trnh a u cua he ta c: ( x;y ) = (1;1) ; ( 2;2 ) .
2 4 7
1 + x ) 1 + x 1
( + x =y )(+ 1 )
(
Bai 8. Gia i he phng trnh .
(1 + y ) 1 + y 2 1 + y 4 =x 7 + 1
( )( )

Li giai
Tr theo ve hai phng trnh cu a he ta c:
2 4 2 4 7 7
(1 + x ) (1 + x )(1 + x ) (1 + y ) (1 + y )(1 + y ) =y x .
7 2 4 7 2 4
x + (1 + x ) (1 + x )(1 + x ) = y + (1 + y ) (1 + y )(1 + y ) (1) .
Xe t ha m so f(t) = t 7 + (1 + t ) 1 + t 2 1 + t 4 tre n .
( )( )
2
Ta co f '(t)
= 14t 6 + ( t + 1) 3t 4 + 2t 2 + 1 > 0, t .
( )
Do o f(t) la ham so o ng bien tre n . V vay (1) f(x)= f(y) x= y .
Thay ng c la i phng trnh cu a he ta c:
1 + x7 .
(1 + x ) (1 + x2 )(1 + x4 ) =
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Nha n thay x = 1 kho ng la nghie m cu a phng trnh nen nha n theo ve hai
phng trnh v i 1 x ta c:
(1 x )(1 + x ) (1 + x2 )(1 + x4 ) =
(1 + x7 ) (1 x )
x = 0

1 x8 =
1 + x 7 x x8 x =1 .

x = 1
=
Ke t h p v i x 1 suy ra ( x;y ) ( 0;0 ); ( 1; 1) .
=
Va y: he phng trnh co hai nghiem la ( x;y ) ( 0;0 ); ( 1; 1) .
2
x 4 + xy = 4
y
Bai 9. Gia i he phng trnh .
4 2
y + xy =
4
x
Li giai
ie u kien: xy 0 .
Tr theo ve hai phng trnh cu a he ta c:
2 2 2(x y)
x4 y4 + = 0 ( x y )( x + y ) x2 + y2
( =0 .
)
y x xy
2 x = y

( x y ) ( x + y ) x2 + y2
( ) =0 2 2 .
xy xy ( x + y ) x + y 2 =0 ( )

Xe t tr ng h p thay va o phng trnh a u cua he tm c nghiem.
( 5x 4y )( 3x + 2y ) =7y 2x
Bai 10. Gia i he phng trnh .
( 5y 4x )( 3y + 2x ) =7x 2y
Li giai
Tr theo ve hai phng trnh cu a he ta c:
x = y
( x y )( 23x + 23y + 9 ) =0 23x + 23y + 9 =0 .

Xe t ca c tr ng hp thay va o phng trnh a u cu a he , suy ra:
( x;y ) = ( 0;0 ); (1;1) .
121
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2
( 5x 4y )( 3x + 2y ) = 7y 2x + 20
Bai 11. Gia i he phng trnh .
2

( 5y 4x )( 3y + 2x ) = 7x 2y + 20
Li giai
Tr theo ve hai phng trnh cu a he ta c:
( x y ) ( 61x2 + 113xy + 61y2 + 9 ) = 0 x = y (do 61x2 + 113xy + 61y2 + 9 > 0 ).
Thay y = x va o phng trnh au cu a he ta c:
25x3 = 5x + 20 5x3 x 4 = 0 ( x 1) 5x2 + 5x + 4 = 0 x = 1 y = 1 .
( )
Va y he phng trnh co nghiem duy nha t ( x;y ) = (1;1) .
Bai 12. Tm ca c so th c dng x,y tho a man he phng trnh
3
( 5x 4y )( 3x + 2y ) = 5 ( 7y 2x + 20 )
.
3

( 5y 4x )( 3y + 2x ) = 5 ( 7x 2y + 20 )
Li giai
Tr theo ve hai phng trnh cu a he ta c:
( x y ) ( x + y ) (167x2 + 266xy + 167y2 ) + 45 = 0 x = y (do x,y > 0 ).
Thay y = x va o phng trnh th nha t cu a he ta c nghie m dng duy nhat
x =1 y =1 .
Va y: he phng trnh co nghiem duy nha t ( x;y ) = (1;1) .
35
( 3x + 2y ) y2 +=
( 6 )y x2 + 1
( )
2
Bai 13. Gia i he phng trnh .
35
( 3y + 2x ) x 2 +
( =6 )x y2 + 1
( )
2
Li giai
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
2 2
2 3x + 2y ) y
( +=6 35y
) x (+ 1 )
(
.
2 ( 3y + 2x ) x2 +=
( 6 35x y2 + 1
) ( )

Tr theo ve hai phng trnh cu a he ta c:
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x = y
( x y ) ( 4x2 + 45xy + 4y2 47) =0 2 2
.
0
4x + 45xy + 4y 47 =
TH1: Ne u y = x thay va o phng trnh th nha t cu a he ta c:
=
x 0 =
x 0,y
= 0

10x x 2 + 6 =35x x 2 + 1 x 25x 2 25 =0 x =1 x =1,y =1 .
( ) ( ) ( )
x 1 x 1,y
= 1
= =
TH2: Ne u 4x2 + 45xy + 4y 2 47 =
0 co ng theo ve hai phng trnh cu a he ta
c:
( x + y ) ( 4x2 33xy + 4y2 0.
+ 25) =
2 2
( x + y ) 4x 33xy + 4y + 25 =
( 0
)
Xe t he phng trnh: .
2 2
4x + 45xy + 4y 47 = 0
a y la he o i x ng loai I a bie t ca ch gia i(he phng trnh na y vo nghiem).
=
Va y he phng trnh co ba nghie m la ( x;y ) ( 0;0 ); ( 1; 1); (1;1) .
2 2 2
6x + 4y ) x + y ( =1 5y x + 1) ( )
(
Bai 14. Gia i he phng trnh .
( 6y + 4x ) x2 + y2 =
( 1 5x y2 + 1 ) ( )

Li giai
Tr theo ve hai phng trnh cu a he ta c:
x = y
( x y ) 2x2 5xy + 2y2 + 3 =0 2
( ) 2
.
2x 5xy + 2y + 3 = 0
Xe t trng h p va th c hie n tng t ba i toa n tre n tm c ca c nghie m cu a
=
he la : ( x;y ) ( 0;0 ); ( 1; 1); (1;1) .
x + 9 + y 7 = 4
Bai 15. Gia i he phng trnh .
y + 9 + x 7 =4
Li giai
ie u kien x 7,y 7 .
Nha n thay x = 7 y = 7 . Xe t v i x > 7 .
Tr theo ve hai phng trnh cu a he ta c
x+9 y+9 + y7 x7 =0.
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1 1
(x y) =0 x=y.
x + 9 + y + 9 x 7 + y 7
x = y x = y
V vay ta co he phng trnh .
x + 9 + y 7 =4 x + 9 + x 7 =4
x = y
x=y=7.
2
x + 2x 63 =7 x
Va y he phng trnh co nghiem duy nha t ( x;y ) = ( 7;7 ) .
Nhan xet:e y x+9 + y7 7+9 =4 nen he tng ng vi=
x 7,y
= 7.
x + 2 y =2
Bai 16. Gia i he phng trnh .
y + 2 x =2
Li giai
ie u kien: 0 x,y 2 .
Ne u x = 0 y = 0 . Neu x = 2 y = 2 .
Xe t v i 0 < x,y < 2 tr theo ve hai phng trnh cu a he ta c:
xy xy
x y + 2y 2x =0 + =0.
x+ y 2y + 2x
1 1
(x y) + =0 x=y.

x+ y 2 x + 2 y
x 0,x
Thay ng c la i y = x va o phng trnh a u cua he ta c= = 2 (vo ly).
Va y: he phng trnh co hai nghiem ( x;y ) = ( 0;0 ) ; ( 2;2 ) .
2 y 2 + y2
x + 91 =
Bai 17. Gia i he phng trnh .
2
y + 91 = x 2 + x2
Li giai
ie u kien: x,y 2 .
La y (1) (2) theo ve ta c:
x2 + 91 y2 + 91 = y 2 x 2 + y2 x2 .
x2 y2 yx
= + ( y x )( y + x ) .
x2 + 91 + y2 + 91 x2 + y2
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x+y 1
(x y) + + x + y =0.
2 2 x2 + y2
x + 91 + y + 91
x+y 1
x=y (do + + x + y > 0 ).
x2 + 91 + y 2 + 91 x2 + y2
Thay x = y va o phng trnh au cu a he ta c:
x2 + 91 = x 2 + x 2 x 2 + 91 10 = x 2 1 + x2 9 .
x2 9 x3
= + ( x 3)(=
x + 3) 0 .
x2 + 91 + 10 x 2 +1
x+3 1
( x 3) x 3 =0.
2 x 2 +1
x + 91 + 10
x+3 1 x+3
x=
3 (do x3< x 3 < 1 2 3 =4 < 0 ).
x2 + 91 + 10 x 2 +1 x + 10
Va y he phng trnh co nghiem duy nha t ( x;y ) = ( 3;3) .
2 2
x + 21 = y + y 1
Bai 18. Gia i he phng trnh .
2 2
y + 21 = x + x 1
Li giai
ie u kien: x 1,y 1 .
Tr theo ve hai phng trnh cu a he ta c:
x2 + 21 y2 + 21 = y2 x2 + y 1 x 1 .
x2 + 21 + x2 + x 1 = y 2 + 21 + y 2 + y 1 (1) .
Xe t ha m so f(t) = t 2 + 21 + t 2 + t 1 tre n 1; + ) ta co:
t 1
=
f '(t) + 2t + > 0, t > 1 ne n f(t) la ham o ng bie n tren
t 2 + 21 2 t 1
1; + ) .
V vay (1) f(x)= f(y) x= y .
Thay y = x va o phng trnh au cu a he suy ra x = 2 .
Va y he phng trnh co nghiem duy nha t ( x;y ) = ( 2;2 ) .
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2
3 7x 8 + 7 2x = y
6
Bai 19. Gia i he phng trnh , ( x,y 0 ) .
3 7 2y2
7y 8 + =x
6
Li giai
7
ie u kien: x,y 0 .
2
7
Nha n thay x = kho ng thoa man he phng trnh.
2
7
Xe t x > tr theo ve hai phng trnh cu a he ta c:
2
3 7 2x2 7 2y2
7x 8 3 7y 8 + = yx.
6 6
7(x y) 2 x2 y2
( )
yx
2 2
3 3 7 2x2 7 2y2
( 7x 8 ) + 3 7x 8 3 7y 8 + ( 7y 8 ) 6 +
6 6




7 2(x + y)
(x y) + 1 =
0
2 2
3 3 7 2x2 7 2y2
( 7x 8 + 3 7x 8 3 7y 8 +
) ( 7y 8 ) 6 +
6 6

x=y do x,y 0 .
Thay y = x va o phng trnh au cu a he ta c:
3 7 2x2 7 2x2
7x 8 + = x 3 7x 8 ( 2x 2 ) + (2 x) = 0 .
6 6
3 7 2x2 2
7x 8 ( 2x 2 ) (2 x)
+ 6 =
0.
2 2
3 7 2x2
( 7x 8 ) + ( 2x 2 ) 3 7x 8 + ( 2x 2 ) +2x
6
126
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x 1
8x2 24x + 17
( ) + =0.
2 2
3 7 2x2
( 7x 8 ) + ( 2x 2 ) 3 7x 8 + ( 2x 2 ) 6 + 2 x
6

8x2 24x + 17 = 0 (do x 0 ) phng trnh nay vo nghiem v i x 0 .
Va y he phng trnh a cho vo nghie m.
y

x = 1
4
Bai 20. Gia i he phng trnh .
x
1
y =
4
Li giai
He phng trnh co nghiem khi x > 0,y > 0 .
x

y = 1
4 .
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
y = log 1x

4
x
1
=
Hai ha m so f(x) = ,g(x) log 1 x la ham ng c cu a nhau ne n co o th
4 4
o i xng nhau qua ng pha n gia c go c pha n t th nha t suy ra
f(x)= g(x) x= y .
Thay y = x va o phng trnh au cu a he ta c:
x
1 1 1
x = x.4x 1 = 0 x = y = .
4 2 2
1 1
Va y he phng trnh co nghiem duy nha t ( x;y ) = ; .
2 2
x
1+ 2 ( ) =y + 1 + y 2

Bai 21. Gia i he phng trnh .
y
1+ 2 =x + 1 + x 2
( )
Li giai
Tr theo ve hai phng trnh cu a he ta c:
127
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x y
2 2
(1 + 2 ) (1 + 2 ) = y + y + 1 x x + 1 .
x y
2 2
x + 1 + x + (1 + 2 ) = y + 1 + y + (1 + 2 ) (1) .
t
2
Xe t ha m so f(t) =t + 1 + t + (1 + 2 ) tre n , ta co :
t t
f '(t) = 1 + + ln 1 + 2 1 + 2
(
)( ) > 0,t nen f(t) la ham ong bien
t2 + 1
tre n .
V vay (1) f(x)= f(y) x= y .
Thay y = x va o phng trnh au cu a he ta c:
x x
=x + 1 + x 2 1 + 2 2
(1 + 2 ) ( ) x + 1 + x 1 =0 (2) .

x
Xe t ha m so g(x) = 1 + 2 2
( ) x + 1 + x 1 tre n , ta co :

x x x
g'(x) = 2
1 +
ln (1 + 2 )(1 + 2 ) x + 1+ x + 1+ 2 ( )
1 + x2
x 1
= 1+ 2 2
ln 1 + 2 < 0, x .
( )
x + 1 + x
1 + x2 ( )

Ne n g(x) la ha m nghch bie n tre n .
V vay: (2) g(x) = g(0) x = 0 y = 0 .
Va y he phng trnh co nghiem duy nha t ( x;y ) = ( 0;0 ) .
y2 x2 x2 + 1
e =
Bai 22. Gia i he phng trnh y2 + 1 .

1 + x + 1 + y= 2 1 xy
Li giai
ie u kien: x,y 1,xy 1 .
Phng trnh th nha t cu a he tng ng v i:
2
ey x2 + 1 2 2 y2 2 2 x = y
= ex ( x + 1) = e ( y + 1) x = y2 .
2
ex y2 + 1 x = y
=
Xe t tr ng h p va tm c ca c nghiem cu a he la ( x;y ) ( 0;0 ); ( 1; 1) .
128
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3 2
8x + y + 5x = 3 y + x2
Bai 23. Gia i he phng trnh .
3 2
8y + x + 5y = 3 x + y2
Li giai
Tr theo ve hai phng trnh cu a he ta c:
8x3 8y3 + y2 x2 + 5x 5y =x y + x2 y2 .
8x3 2x2 + 4x = 8y3 2y2 + 4y x = y .
Thay y = x va o phng trnh au cu a he ta c:
3
8x3 + 6x = 3 4x3 + 3x = (giai phng trnh na y ba ng phng phap
2
l ng gia c hoa hoa c an phu da ng a i so xem chng 1).
He phng trnh co nghiem duy nha t
3 7 3 3 + 7 3 3 7
3 3 + 7 + 3
( x;y ) = ; + .
16 16 16 16

2
x + 3x + ln ( x 1) =y + 8
Bai 24. Gia i he phng trnh .
2
y + 3y + ln ( y 1) =x + 8
Li giai
ie u kien: x > 1,y > 1 .
Tr theo ve hai phng trnh cu a he ta c:
x2 y2 + 3x 3y + ln ( x 1) ln ( y 1) = y x .
x2 + 4x + ln ( x 1) = y 2 + 4y + ln ( y 1) x = y .
Thay y = x va o phng trnh au cu a he ta c:
x2 + 2x + ln ( x 1) 8 =0.
Ve tra i la mo t ham o ng bie n tre n (1; + ) ne n phng trnh co nghie m duy
nha t x = 2 y = 2 .
Va y he phng trnh co nghiem duy nha t ( x;y ) = ( 2;2 ) .
1 2 1
xy + = x + +
x 1 y ln y
Bai 25.Gia i he phng trnh .
xy + 1 = y 2 + 1
y 1 + x ln x
Li giai
129
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ie u kien: x,y > 0 .
V x ln x + 1 > 0,y ln y + 1 > 0, x,y > 0 (chu y xe t ham so).
Tr theo ve hai phng trnh cu a he ta c:
1 1 1 1
= x2 y2 + .
x y 1 + y ln y 1 + x ln x
1 1 1 1
x2 = y2 (1) .
x 1 + x ln x y 1 + y ln y
1 1
Xe t ha m so f(t) = t 2 tre n ( 0; + ) , ta co :
t 1 + t ln t
2
1 1 + ln t
f '(t)= 2t + + = 2t +
(1 + t ln t ) + t 2 + t 2 ln t > 0, t > 0 (do t 2 + t 2 ln t > 0 )
2 2
t2 (1 + t ln t ) (1 + t ln t )
Ne n f(t) la ha m ong bie n tren ( 0; + ) v va y (1) f(x)= f(y) x= y .
Thay y = x vao phng trnh a u cu a he va th c hie n xe t ha m so ta co
x= y= 1 .
Va y he phng trnh co nghiem duy nha t ( x;y ) = (1;1) .
log2 (1 + 3cos x= ) log3 ( sin y ) + 2 .
Bai 26. Gia i he phng trnh
y ) log3 ( cos x ) + 2
log2 (1 + 3sin=
Li giai
ie u kien: cos x > 0,sin y > 0 .
Tr theo ve hai phng trnh cu a he ta c:
log2 (1 + 3cos x ) log2 (1 + 3sin=
y ) log3 ( sin y ) log3 ( cos x ) .
log2 (1 + 3cos x ) + log3 ( cos x ) = log2 (1 + 3sin y ) + log3 ( sin y ) (1) .
Xe t ha m so f(t) =
log2 (1 + 3t ) + log3 t tre n ( 0; + ) , ta co :
3 1
=f '(t) + > 0, t > 0 ne n f(t) la ha m ong bie n tren ( 0; + ) .
(1 + 3t ) ln 2 t ln3
V vay (1) f ( cos x )= f ( sin y ) cos x= sin y .
Thay vao phng trnh th nha t cu a he ta c:
log2 (1 += =
3cos x ) log3 ( cos x ) + 2 log2 (1 + 3cos x ) log3 ( cos x ) 2 0 (2) .
130
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Khao sat ham g(t)
= log2 (1 + 3t ) log3 ( cost ) 2 suy ra (2) co toi a hai nghiem.
cos x = 1

cos x = 1 sin y = 1
1
Ta co : g(1) = 0
g = 1.
3 cos x = 1 cos x =
3
3
1
sin y =
3
131
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Chu e 4. HE PHNG TRNH CO YEU TO ANG CAP
A. NOI DUNG PHNG PHAP
1. He a ng ca p la he co dang:
k
P (x,y) = c1
k , ( c1 ,c2 ) .
Q (x,y) = c2
1
trong o P k (x,y),Q k (x,y) la ca c a th c bac k, k = ,1,2,3,4,5,... cu a x,y
2
kho ng cha tha nh phan bac nho hn k :
k k
k i i
=P k (x,y) p=
ix y ;Q k (x,y) qi x k i yi , ( pi ,qi ) .
=i 0=i 0
2 2
xy(x + y =
30
)

V du 1. He phng trnh th ve tra i ca c phng trnh cu a
xy x2 y 2 =
( 24
)

he la a th c ba c 4 cu a x,y .
2 2
2x 5xy + 3y = 1
V du 2. He phng trnh th ve tra i ca c phng trnh
2 2
3x + 4xy y = 3
cu a he la a th c ba c 2 cua x,y .
Phng phap: Xet xem x = 0 hoa c y = 0 co pha i la nghie m cu a he phng
trnh hay khong?
Xe t tr ng h p x 0 khi o a=
t y tx, ( t ) va a ve he phng trnh
k k k
=
P (x,tx) c=1 x P (t,1) c1
.
k k k
=Q (x,tx) c=2 x Q (t,1) c2
e n ay suy ra c2 .P k (t,1) = c1 .Q k (t,1) , a y la phng trnh a th c a bie t
ca ch gia i. Tm c t t o suy ra mo i lie n he gi a x,y va a ve phng
trnh a th c v i bie n x hoac bie n y .
1. Mot so he quy c ve dang he ong bac
2 2
a x + b1y + c1xy + d1x + e1y = 0
Dang 1: He phng trnh bac hai 1 .
2 2
a2 x + b2 y + c2 xy + d 2 x + e2 y = 0
132
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Phng phap:
Xe t x = 0 hoa c y = 0 co la nghiem cu a he phng trnh hay kho ng?
Xe t v i x 0 khi o a=
t y tx, ( t ) .
a ve he phng trnh:
2 2 2
x a1 + b1t + c1t + x ( d1 + e1t ) =
( ) 0 x a + b t + c1t =
( ( d1 + e1t )
)
1 1
.
x2 a2 + b2 t 2 + c2 t + x ( d 2 + e2 t ) =
( ) 0 x a2 + b2 t 2 + c2 t =
( ( d 2 + e2 t )
)

d1 + e1t d 2 + e2 t
Suy ra: = .
a1 + b1t 2 + c1t a2 + b2 t 2 + c2 t
( d1 + e1t ) a2 + b2 t 2 + c2 t =
( ( d 2 + e2 t ) a1 + b1t 2 + c1t .
) ( )
a y la mo t phng trnh ba c ba co phng pha p gia i to ng qua t ne n tm c
nghiem t .
Thay ng c la i he ta tm c ( x;y ) .
Ngoai ra da ng he nay con c gia i ba ng phng pha p he so ba t nh(xem
phng pha p he so ba t nh).
2 2
a x + b1y + c1xy + d1x + e1y + f1 = 0
Dang 2:He bac hai hai an 1 .
2 2
a2 x + b2 y + c2 xy + d 2 x + e2 y + f2 = 0
Phng phap:
Th tm ca c nghie m n gia n cha ng han tm =
c x x=
0 ,y y 0 .
x= u + x 0
Khi o at thay va o he phng trnh va a ve he co da ng 1.
y= v + y 0
2 2
a x + b1y ) c1x + d1xy + e1y ( =f1 )
( 1
Dang 3: He phng trnh co dang .
( a x + b2 y ) c2 x 2 + d 2 xy + e2 y 2 =
( f2 )
2
Phng phap:
Xe t y = 0 co la nghiem cu a he phng trnh hay kho ng.
Xe t y 0 a t x = ty khi o he phng trnh tr thanh:
133
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3 2
y a t + b 1 ) c1t + d1t + e1 =
( ) f1
( 1
.
y3 ( a2 t + b2 ) c2 t 2 + d 2 t + e2 =
( ) f2

Suy ra: f2 ( a1t + b1 ) c1t 2 + d1t + e1= f1 ( a2 t + b2 ) c2 t 2 + d 2 t + e2 .
( ) ( )
a y la phng trnh ba c ba co phng phap gia i to ng qua t ne n tm c t ,
thay ng c la i he ta tm c ( x;y ) .
Chu y: Trong mo t so trng h p a c bie t he gia i c ba ng phng phap he
so ba t nh hoa c ph c hoa(Xem phng pha p he so ba t nh va ph c ho a
trong cu ng cuon sa ch).
m
P (x,y) = a
Dang 4: He dang , trong o m + n = k khi o ta pha i
n k
Q (x,y) = R (x,y)
a ve mo t phng trnh a ng ca p ba c k e la m c ieu na y ta the t
phng trnh a u va o phng trnh th hai cu a he ta c:
P m (x,y).Q n (x,y) = a.R k (x,y) , ay la phng trnh ang cap bac k ta giai c.
2 2
x + y = 2
V du 3. He phng trnh .
3 2
x y
x + x y =+
Ta vie t la i he d i dang :
x2 + y2 =2
x2 + y2 =2
1 .
3 2 2 2 3 2 2 3
x + x y = ( x + y ) x + y ( x + x y xy y =
) 0
2
Lu y:o i khi ca n bie n oi a t a n phu e a ve da ng he a ng ca p.
B. BAI TAP MAU
2 2
x 2xy + 3y = 9
Bai 1. Gia i he phng trnh .
2 2
2x 13xy + 15y = 0
Li giai
Nha n thay x = 0 kho ng thoa man he phng trnh.
V i x 0 ta a= t y tx, ( t ) khi o he phng trnh tr tha nh:
2
x2 1 2t + 3t 2 = 2 x2 1 2t + 3t 2 =
9
( )9 9 ( )
x 1 2t + 3t =
( )

2 1
x2 2 13t + 15t 2 = 0 2 t = t =
( )15t 13t + 2 =0
3 5
134
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5 2
x = 3 x = 5 2 x=
2 x = 3
2
2 .
t = 1 y = 2 2
3 t =
5 y = 2
5 2 2
Va y: he phng trnh co bo n nghiem la ( x;y ) =( 3; 2 ) ; ; .
2
2
2 2
x + 2xy + 3y = 9
Bai 2. Gia i he phng trnh .
2 2
2x + 2xy + y = 2
Li giai
Nha n thay x = 0 kho ng thoa man he phng trnh.
Xe t v i x 0 ta a=
t y tx, ( t ) khi o he phng trnh tr tha nh
2 2 2 2
x 1
( + 2t + 3t =
) 9 2 1 +(2t + 3t = 9 2 + 2t
) ( + t )

.
x2 2 +=
( 2t + t 2 2
) x 2 2 += 2t + t 2 2
( )

2 8
3t + 14t + 16 = 0 t =2 t =
3 .
x 2 2 + 2t + t 2 =
( ) 2 x 2 2 + 2t + t 2 =2
( )
8 3
t= x=
t = 2 3 x =1 17
.
x = 1 3 y =2 8
x = y =
17 17

Va y he phng trnh co bon nghie m la ( x;y ) = ( 1; 2 ); 3 ; 8
17 17
2 2
3x + 2xy + y = 11
Bai 3. Gia i he phng trnh .
2 2
x + 2xy + 3y = 17
Li giai
Nha n thay x = 0 kho ng thoa man he phng trnh.
Xe t v i x 0 ta a=
t y tx, ( t ) khi o he phng trnh tr tha nh
2 2 2 2
x 3
( +
= 2t + t ) 11 x 3 +
= 2t +(t 11 )

.
x2 1 + 2t + 3t 2 = 17 11 1 + 2t + 3t 2 = 17 3 + 2t + t 2
( ) ( ) ( )

135
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5 4 3
2 2 t= x =
x 3 + 2t + t =
( 11 t = 2
) 4 x = 1 3 .

2 x = 1 4 3 y = 2 5 3
0
16t 12t 40 = x = y=
3 3
4 3 5 3
Va y he phng trnh co bon nghie m la ( x;y ) = ( 1; 2 ) ; ; .
3
3
2 2
6x xy 2y = 56
Bai 4. Gia i he phng trnh .
2 2
5x xy y = 49
Li giai
Nha n thay x = 0 kho ng thoa man he phng trnh.
Xe t v i x 0 ta a=
t y tx, ( t ) khi o he phng trnh tr tha nh
2 2 2 2
x 6
(= t 2t 56
) x 6= t
( 2t 56 )

.
2 2
x2 5 t t=
( ) 49 56 5 t t=
( 49 6 t 2t 2
) ( )

1 2
42t 2 7t 14 =0 t = t =
2 3
2
x 6 t 2t 2 =56
( ) 7 7
x = 2 x = 3
3 5
7 7
x = 2 x= 3
3 5
.
7 7
y= y = 2
3 5
7 7 7 7
2 ; 3 ; 2 .
Va y: he phng trnh co bo n nghiem la : ( x;y ) =
3 5
3 5
2 2
2x x ( y 1) + y =3y
Bai 5. Gia i he phng trnh .
2 2
x + xy 3y =x 2y
Li giai
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
2 2
2x xy + y + x 3y = 0
2 .
2
x + xy 3y x + 2y =0
Nha n thay x = 0 y = 0 suy ra ( x;y ) = ( 0;0 ) la nghie m cu a he .
136
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Xe t x 0 ta a=
t y tx, ( t ) khi o he phng trnh tr tha nh:
3t 1
x2 2 t + t 2 + x 1 3t =0
( )( ) x =
2 t + t2 .

x2 1 + t 3t 2 + x ( 1 + 2t ) =0
( ) x = 1 2t
1 + t 3t 2
3t 1 1 2t
Suy ra: = .
2 t + t2 1 + t 3t 2
7t 3 3t 2 7t + 3 = 0 t 2 1 ( 7t 3) = 0 .
( )
3
t =
t = 1 t ==
1 t 1 7
7
t = 1 x =
1 x =
1 x = .
3 = y 1= y 1 43
t = 3
7 y = 43

3
Va y: he phng trnh co bo n nghie=
m la ( x;y ) ( 0;0 ); (1;1); ( 1;1); 437 ; 43 .

2 2
14x 21y + 22x 39y = 0
Bai 6. Gia i he phng trnh .
2 2
35x + 28y + 111x 10y =0
Li giai
Nha n thay x = 0 y = 0 ne n ( 0;0 ) la nghiem cu a he .
Xe t x 0 ta a=
t y tx, ( t ) khi o he phng trnh tr tha nh
39t 22
2 2 x=
x 14
( 21t + x ( 22
) 39t ) =
0
14 21t 2 .

x2 35 + 28t 2 + x (111 10t ) =0 10t 111
( ) x =
35 + 28t 2
39t 22 10t 111
= 186t 3 421t 2 + 175t +=
112 0 .
14 21t 2 35 + 28t 2
1
( 3t + 1) 62t 2 161t + 112 =0 t = .
( )
3
1 39t 22
V i t = suy ra x = =3 y =tx =1 .
3 14 21t 2
Va y he co hai nghie m la =
( x;y ) ( 0;0 ); ( 3;1) .
137
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2 2
2y x y =3x ( )

Bai 7. Gia i he phng trnh .
x x2 + y2 = 10y
( )

Li giai
Ne u x = 0 y = 0 suy ra ( 0;0 ) la nghie m cua he .
Xe t x 0 ta a=
t y tx, ( t ) khi o he phng trnh tr tha nh
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
2tx x ( t x = 3x 2t 1 )t x =3 ( 2t 1 t .10t
) =3 1 + t ( ) ( )

.
2 2 2
x x 2 + t 2 x=
( 10tx 1 + t 2 x=
) ( 10t 1 + t 2 x=) 10t ( )

2
3 1
4 0
20t 17t + 3 = t = 5 t = 2
.
1 + t 2 x2 =
( 10t
) 1 + t 2 x2 =
10t ( )

3 5 3
1 t = x = 4
t = 5 x = 2 2 5
2 .
5 3 y = 1 5 27
x = 2 x = 4 y= 4
2 5 2 125
5 3 5 27
Va y: he phng trnh co bo n nghiem la ( x;y ) =( 2; 1) ; 4 ; 4 .
2 5 2 125

2 2
x x y =
6y
( )

Bai 8. Gia i he phng trnh .
2y x2 + y2 = 5x ( )

Li giai
Nha n thay x = 0 y = 0 suy ra ( 0;0 ) la nghie m cu a he .
Xe t x 0 ta a=
t y tx, ( t ) khi o he phng trnh tr tha nh
3 2 2 2
x 1 t =
) 6tx 5 1 t =) 6t.2t (1 + t )
( (
.
2 3 2 2
2t 1 += t ) x 5x x = 1 t ) 3t
( (
2 2 1
12t 4 + 17t 2 5 =0 4t 1
( )( ) 3t + 5 =
0 x = 2
t =
2 .
x2 1 t 2 =
( 6t x2 1 t 2 =
) 6t y = 1
) (
x = 2
138
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=
Va y he phng trnh co ba nghie m la ( x;y ) ( 0;0 ); ( 2; 1) .
2 2
x y ) x (y =
3 )
(
Bai 9. Gia i he phng trnh .
( 15
( x + y ) x 2 + y 2 = )

Li giai
Nha n thay x = 0 kho ng thoa man he phng trnh.
Xe t v i x 0 ta a=
t y tx, ( t ) khi o he phng trnh tr tha nh
2 2 2 2
x 1 t ) .x (1 t )= 3 15 1 t ) 1 ( t = 3 (1 + t )
) 1 + t ( )
( (
.
x (1 + t ) .x 2 = (1 + t 2 15 x3 (1 t ) =
) 1 t2 3
( )

2 5 21
1 + t ) ( 2t 10t + 2 =)0
( t =1 t =
2
.
x3 (1 t ) 1 t 2 =
( ) 3 x3 (1 t ) 1 t 2 = 3
( )
5 + 21 5 21
t = t =
2 2
.
21 3 21
=x 3 2+ =x 3 2+
14 7
21 3 21
=x 3 2+ =x 3 2+
14 7
.
5 + 21 21 5 21 3 21
y = .3 2 + y = .3 2 +
2 14 2 7
Va y: he phng trnh co hai nghiem la

( x;y ) = 3 2 + 21 ; 5 + 21 .3 2 + 21 ; 3 2 + 3 21 ; 5 21 .3 2 + 3 21
14 2 14 7 2 7

2 2
x x ( xy + y =
6y )

Bai 10. Gia i he phng trnh .
2y x2 + xy + y 2 =
( 7x )

Li giai
Nha n thay x = 0 y = 0 suy ra ( 0;0 ) la nghie m cu a he .
Xe t v i x 0 ta a=
t y tx, ( t ) khi o he phng trnh tr tha nh
139
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3 2 2 2
2x t 1 +
( t + t = 7x) 6t.2t 1 + t + t = 7(1 t + t ) ( )

.
x3= 1 t + t 2 6tx
( ) x 2= 1 t + t 2 6t
( )

3 2 3 2
4 0 2t 1) 6t + 9t + 7t + 7 =
0 ( )
12t + 12t + 5t + 7t 7 = (
.
x2 1 t + t 2 =6t
( ) x2 1 t + t 2 =6t
( )
1 3 2 3 2
t = =
6t + 9t + 7t + 7 0 =
x = 2 6t + 9t + 7t + 7 0 (1)
2 2 2
.
= x 1 t + t ( 6t y= = 1 x2 1 t + t 2 6t
) ( )
x = 2
6t
=
Nhng do x2 > 0 t > 0 do o (1) vo nghiem.
t2 t + 1
Va y he co ba nghie m la ( 0;0 ) ; ( 2; 1) .
3 3
x 8x = y + 2y
Bai 11. Gia i he phng trnh 2 .
x =
3 3 y2 + 1 ( )

Li giai
3 3
x y = 8x + 2y (1)
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i: .
2 2
x 3y = 6 (2)
Nhan thay x = 0 khong thoa man he xet vi x 0 ta at y = tx , khi o he tr thanh:
x3 1 t 3 = ( 2t + 8) x
( )

x 2 1 3t 2 =
( 6 )

1
t =
T ay suy ra 6 1 t 3 = ( 2t + 8) 1 3t 2
( ) ( ) 12t 2 t 1 = 0 3 .
1
t = 4
1
1 y = 3 x x = 3
TH1: V i t = .
3 2
x 1 3t 2 =
6 y = 1
( )
140
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x 4 78
x =
1 y = 4 13 .
TH2: V i t =
4 2 2 78
x 1 3t =
6 ( )
y = 13
Va y he co bo n nghiem la:
78 4 78 78
=
( x,y ) ( 3,1) ; ( 3, 1) ; 4 1378 , ; , .
13 13 13
Nhan xet:T he tre n ta co the bie n o i nh sau Ve tra i cu a (1) la a th c
ba c ba, ve pha i (1) la a th c ba c mo t. Ve tra i cu a (2) la a th c ba c hai do
va y nha n ve trai cu a (2) vao ve pha i cu a (1) e c mo t phng trnh a ng
ca p ba c ba t o suy ra mo i lie n he gi a x,y . Ca c ba i toa n sau to i trnh ba y
ca ch nh tre n(ng nhie n ca c ban co the x ly ba ng ca ch a t y = tx ).
3 3 8x + 2y
x y = 8x + 2y =x3 y3 . x2 3y2 ( )
6 .
2 2
x 3y = 6 x2 3y2 =
6
3 2 2 0 3y x = 4y
x + x y 12xy =0 x ( x 3y )( x + 4y ) = x =
2 2
.
2 2 2 2 6
x 3y = 6 x 3y = 6 x 3y =
3 3
x + y = 1
Bai 12. Gia i he phng trnh .
2 2 3
x y + 2xy + y =2
Li giai
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
3 3 3 2 2 3
x + y = 1 2x x y 2xy + y =0
2 .
x y + 2xy 2 + y3= 2 x3 + y3 3 3
( x + y =
) 1
0
( x y )( x + y )( 2x y ) = x = y x = y y = 2x
3 .
3 3 y3 1
x + y = 1 x + =
y3 1 x3 + =
y3 1 x3 + =
1 1
x = 3 x = 3
2 9
.
1 2
=y = y
3 3
2 9
141
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1 1 1 2
Va y he co hai nghie m la ( x;y ) = ; ; ; .
3 3 3 3
2 2 9 9
2 2
x + y = 2
Bai 13. Gia i he phng trnh .
( 2y 5
( x + y ) 4 x2 y2 2xy = )

Li giai
Nhan thay ve phai cua phng trnh th hai co bac 5 nen bieu dien 4 x2 y2 2xy
d i da ng ba c 4. Tha t va y ta co :
2
4 x2 y2 2xy =x2 + y2
( ) x2 y2 x2 + y2 xy =
( x 4 + y 4 + x2 y2 xy x2 + y2 .
) ( )
Va y he phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
2 2 2 2
x + y = 2 x + y =2
.
2y 5 5 5
( x + y ) x4 + y4 + x2 y2 xy x2 + y2 =
( ( x + y =
))2y 5

x = y
2 2
x=y=1 .
x + y =2
Va y he co hai nghie m la ( x;y ) = ( 1; 1) .
2
5x 3y =x 3xy
Bai 14. Gia i he phng trnh .
3 2 2 3
x x = y 3y
Li giai
2
x 3y
5x + 3xy =+
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i: .
3 3 2 2
x + 3y =x + y
Nha n thay x = 0 y = 0 suy ra ( 0;0 ) la nghie m cu a he .
Xe t v i x 0 a=
t y tx, ( t ) khi o he phng trnh tr thanh:
2 x 5 + 3t ) =+ 1 3t
x ( 5 + 3t ) = x (1 + 3t ) (
.
3 3 2 2
x 1 + 3t = x 1 + t
( ) (
( 5 + 3t ) 1 + t 2 =+
) (1 3t ) 1 + 3t3
( ) ( )

1 3t 1 3t
x ( 5 + 3t ) =+
x ( 5 + 3t ) =+
2 2
.
4 2 0
9t 5t 4 = 0 t 1 9t + 4 =( )( )
142
Tm ti liu Ton ? Chuyn nh - www.toanmath.com
1
t = 1 x=
t =
1 2 x =1
1 .
x = x =
1 1 y =1
2 y =
2
1 1
Va y he co ba nghie m la ( 0;0 ) ; ; ; ( 1;1) .
2 2
3 3 2
x + y xy = 1
Bai 15. Gia i he phng trnh .
4 4
4x + y = 4x + y
Phan tch li giai. Ve trai phng trnh a u cu a he da ng ba c 3 v vay nha n
va o ve pha i phng trnh th hai cua he ta c mot phng trnh ang ca p
ba c 4.
Li giai
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i
3 3 2 3 3 2
=
x + y xy 1 = x + y xy 1
.
4x 4 + y 4 = ( 4x + y ) x3 + y3 xy2
( xy 3y2 4xy + x2 = 0
) ( )

3 3 2
x + y xy = 1 = x 0= =
x 1 x y=
x 3y

hoa c 3 3 2
3 3 2
0=
xy ( x y )( x 3y ) = y 1= y 0 x + y xy= 1 x + y xy= 1
1
x = 3
= x 0= x 1= x 1 25

= y 1= y 0= y 1 3
y=
3
25
Va y he phng trnh co bon nghie m la:
3
( x;y ) = ( 0;1); (1;0 ); (1;1); 3 1 ; .
3
25 25
2
y. ( x y ) = 2
Bai 16. Gia i he phng trnh .
3 3
x y = 19
Li giai
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
143
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2 2 3 3
y. ( x y ) = 2 19y. ( x y ) = 2 x y ( )
.
3 3 3 3
x y = 19 x y = 19
3 3 2 2 0
0
2x 21y + 38xy 19x y = ( x y )( x 7y )( 2x 3y ) =
.
3 3 3 3
x y =19 x y = 19
7
3 x=
= = y 3
x y= x 7y x = 18 x 3
3 2 .
x = y3 19 3
y3 19 x3 = 3 1 y = 2
x y =19 y =
3
18
7 1
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la ( x;y ) = ; ; ( 3;2 ) .
3 3
18 18
3 3
x + y = 1
Bai 17. Gia i he phng trnh .
5 5 2 2
x + y = x + y
Phan tch li giai. Ve tra i phng trnh nha t cu a he la a th c ba c 3 ne n
nhan vi ve phai cua phng trnh th hai ta c mot phng trnh ang cap bac 5.
Li giai
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i
3 3 3 3
x + y = 1
x + y = 1
5 .
x + y 5 = x 2 + y 2 x3 + y3 2 3 3 2
( )( x y + x y =
) 0
2 2
xy x + y =
( 0 =x 0=x 1
)
.
3 3 =y 1=y 0
x + y = 1
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la ( x;y ) = ( 0;1) ; (1;0 ) .
m m
x + y = 1
Nhan xet: To ng qua t cho he phng trnh: ,( k > m ) .
k k k m
x + y = x + y k m
Nghiem cu a he la ( 0;1) ; (1;0 ) .
3 3
=
x + 3x 448y + 6y
Bai 18. Gia i he phng trnh .
2 2
385x 16y = 96
Li giai
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
144
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3 3 3 3 1
x 448y = 6y 3x x 448y = ( 6y 3x ) 385x2 16y 2
( )
96 .
2 2
385x 16y = 96 385x2 16y2 = 96

3 3 2 2
1251x 42912y 2310x y 48xy = 0
.
2 2
385x 16y = 96
2 2
( x 4y ) 1251x + 2694xy + 10728y =
( 0 )

2 2
385x 16y = 96
1
x = 4y x=
2.
2 2

385x 16y = 96 1
y=
8
1 1
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la ( x;y ) = ; .
2 8
2 2
x + y = 2
Bai 19. Gia i he phng trnh 4
.
( x + y )(1 + xy ) =32
2
x2 + y2 (x + y)
Phan tch li giai. e y 1 +=
xy +=
xy khi o phng trnh
2 2
9
th hai cua he tr tha nh
( x + y ) = 32 x + y = 2 .
16
Li giai
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i
x2 + y2 = 2
9
4 ( x + y ) = 29
2 2 .
x + y
( x + y ) + xy = 32 x2 + y2 = 2

2
x + y = 2
2
x = 1

xy =
( x + y ) x2 y2 = 1 y = 1 .
2
Va y: he phng trnh a cho co nghie m duy nha t ( x;y ) = (1;1) .
145
Tm ti liu Ton ? Chuyn nh - www.toanmath.com
3 3 1
3x y =
Bai 20. Gia i he phng trnh x+y.
2 2
x + y = 1
Phan tch li giai. Quy ong phng trnh th nha t ta c ve tra i la a th c
ba c 4 va y ch nha n ve pha i phng trnh o vi bnh phng ve trai cu a
phng trnh th hai cu a he ta c phng trnh a ng ca p ba c 4.
Li giai
ie u kien x + y 0 .
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
3 3 2
1 3 3 2 2
( x + y ) 3x y =
( )( x + y ) 3x y = x + y
( ) ( )
.
2 2 2 2
x + y = 1 x + y = 1
4 3 2 2 3 4
2x + 3x y 2x y xy 2y =0

2 2
x + y = 1
3 2 2 3
( x y ) 2x + 5x y + 3xy + 2y =
( 0 )
.
2 2
x + y = 1
1 2
( x y )( x + 2y ) 2x2 + xy + y2 = 0 x = x =
( ) 2 5
.
2 2 1 1
x + y = 1 y= y=
2 5
Va y he phng trnh a cho co bo n nghie m la :
1 1 2 1

( x;y ) = ;
; ; .
2 2 5 5
2 2
x + xy + y = 3
Bai 21. Gia i he phng trnh 5 5
.
32
x + y + 15xy ( x + y ) =
Li giai
Nhan xet: a y la he o i x ng loa i I tuy nhie n theo ca ch gia i tho ng th ng
a t S =+
x y,P = xy ba i toa n se bie n o i tng o i da i va kho kha n.
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
x2 + xy + y 2 =3 x2 + xy + y 2 =3

5 5 2 2
5
.
(
x + y + 5xy ( x + y ) x + xy + y = 32 )
( x + y ) =32
146
Tm ti liu Ton ? Chuyn nh - www.toanmath.com
x + y =2 x + y =2
2 2
x = y = 1.
x + xy + y =3 xy = 1
Va y he co nghiem duy nha t ( x;y ) = (1;1) .
3 3
0
x + 4y y 16x =
Bai 22. Gia i he phng trnh .
y 2 5x2 + 4
=
Li giai
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i
3 3 3 3 2 2
x y = 16x 4y x y = ( y 4x ) 5x y ( )
.
2 2
5x y = 4 4
5x2 y 2 =
0
21x3 5x2 y 4xy2 = 0
x ( 7x 4y )( 3x + y ) =
.
2 2 2 2
5x y = 4 5x y = 4
4
x= y
x =
0 7 x =
1 x =
0 x =
1
.
y =
2 80 2 y=
3 y =
2 y =3
y y2 =
4
49
Va y he phng trnh co bon nghie m la ( x;y ) =( 0; 2 ) ; ( 1; 3) .

x x y y= 2 4 x + y ( )
Bai 23. Gia i he phng trnh .
6
x 3y =
3
Phan tch li giai: Ve tra i cu a phng trnh th nha t co da ng ba c va ve
2
1
pha i la ba cdo va y ch can nhan them va o ve pha i v i ve tra i cu a phng
2
3
trnh th hai a ve phng trnh ong ba c .
2
Li giai
ie u kien x 0,y 0 .
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
1
x x y y= 4 x + y ( x 3y )
( ) 0
x x + x y 12y x =
3 .
x 3y =
6 6
x 3y =

147
Tm ti liu Ton ? Chuyn nh - www.toanmath.com
x +4 y =
0
x x 3 y
( )( )
.
6
x 3y =
= x 0= =
x 3 y x + = 4 y 0 x 9
.
= x 3y
x 3y 6 = = 6
= 6 x 3y y 1
Va y he phng trnh co nghiem duy nha t ( x;y ) = ( 9;1) .
3 3
2x 9y =( x y )( 4xy 1)
Bai 24. Gia i he phng trnh .
2 2
x 3xy + y =1
Phan tch li giai: Thay 1= x 2 3xy + y2 t phng trnh th hai cu a he
va o phng trnh th nha t ta c mo t phng trnh a ng ca p ba c 3.
Li giai
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i
3 3 2 2 3 3 3 3
2x 9y = ( x y ) 4xy + x 3xy + y
(
2x 9y =x y
)
.
2 2
1
x 2 3xy + y 2 = x 3xy + y = 1
3 =
= x = 8y3 x 2y x 2y x = 2
2 2
.
2 2 1
x 3xy + y =1 x 3xy + y =1 y2 = y = 1
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la ( x;y ) =( 2; 1) .
2 2 2
2x y + x + 2x = 2
Bai 25. Gia i he phng trnh .
2 2 2
2x y x y + 2xy =1
Li giai
2 2 2
2x y + ( x + 1) = 3
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i: .
2 2
2xy ( x + 1) x y = 1
a t u =x + 1,v =xy khi o he phng trnh tr tha nh
2 2 2
u2 + 2v2 =
3 u + 2v = 3 2uv v ( )
.
2
2uv v =1 1
2uv v2 =
0
u2 6uv + 5v2 = 0
( u v )( u 5v ) =
.
2 2
2uv v = 1 2uv v = 1
148
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5
= u=
u v= u 5v 3.
u =v =1
v2 1 2uv =
2uv = v2 1 1
v =
3
5 8
x + 1 = x = 2 2 x =
x + 1 =1 3 x =
1 3
3.
xy = 1 1 y= 1
xy = 2 y = 2 y =
3 8
1 2 8 1
2; ; ;2 ; ; .
Va y he phng trnh co ba nghie m la ( x;y ) =
2 3 3 8
3 2
x + 3xy = 49
Bai 26. Gia i he phng trnh .
2 2
x 8xy + y = 8y 17x
Li giai
Nha n thay x = 0 kho ng la nghiem cu a he phng trnh.
Xe t v i x 0 a=
t y tx, ( t ) khi o he phng trnh tr thanh
8t 7 8t 7 b
= x = =
3 2 2 2 ab
x 1
( + 3t )= 49 1 8t + t t (16 ( 8t
) 17 )

.
x 2 1 8t + t 2 = x ( 8t 7 ) 3 = 49 49 49
( ) = x =
1 + 3t 2 3 t 2 16 + 49 49 + 4a
( )
trong o a =t 2 16,b =
8t 17 .
b3 49 3
T o suy ra : = 3a 0
49 b3 + ( a b ) +=
3 49 + 3a
(a b)
2
a 49b2 49b ( a b ) + 49 ( a b ) + 3 = 0 a = 0

Suy ra t 2 =16 x3 =1 x =1 y =4 .
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m ( x,y ) = ( 1,4 ) ; ( 1, 4 ) .
Nhan xet:Ngoai ra co the gia i he tre n ba ng phng pha p he so ba t nh va
a t a n phu da ng to ng hieu khi co dau hie u(xem phng pha p he so ba t nh
trong cu ng cuon sa ch) hoac a t a n phu da ng tong hieu.
149
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2 2
x y = 5
Bai 27.Gia i he phng trnh 3
.
y ( x y ) = 2
Li giai
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
x2 y2 = 5 2 2
x y = 5
3 2 2 2 2 2 2
.
y ( x y )= x y2
( ) (
( x y ) 2x 21xy + 27y =0
)
25
x =3,y = 2
x2 y2 = 5
9 1
2 2 x =
,y =
x y = 5 x = y 4 4.
2
0 2x = 3y 9 1
( x y ) ( 2x 3y ) ( x 9y ) = =
x = ,y
4 4
x = 9y
= = 2
x 3,y
Va y he phng trnh co bon nghie m la :

( x;y ) =( 3; 2 ); 94 ; 14 ; ( 3;2 ); 94 ; 14 .

Nhan xet: T ba i toa n giai he tren ta hoan toa n gia i c phng trnh:
3
x5 ( x x5 ) =
2 ba ng phe p a t a n ph:
2 2
u = x u v = 5
3
.
=v x 5 v ( u v ) = 2
C. BAI TAP REN LUYEN
2 2
14x 21y + 22x 39y = 0
Bai 1. Gia i he phng trnh .
2 2
35x + 28y + 111x 10y =0
Li giai
2 2
14x 21y = 22x + 39y
Vie t la i he phng trnh d i da ng: .
2 2
35x + 28y =111x + 10y
2
14x = 22x
Nha n tha y y = 0 x = 0 ( x;y ) = ( 0;0 ) la mo t nghie m
2
35x = 111x
cu a he phng trnh.
150
Tm ti liu Ton ? Chuyn nh - www.toanmath.com
Xe t y 0 , a t x = ty khi o he phng trnh tr tha nh:
2 2
y 14t
( 21 =y
) ( 22t + 39 )

.
y2 35t 2 + 28 =y ( 111t + 10 )
( )

Suy ra: ( 111t + 10 ) 14t 2 21 =
( ( 22t + 39 ) 35t 2 + 28 .
) ( )
112t 3 + 175t 2 421t + 186 = 0 ( t + 3) 112t 2 162t + 62 = 0 t = 3 .
( )
y2 14t 2 21 =y ( 22t + 39 )
( ) x = 3

Khi o : x = 3y .
t = 3 y = 1


Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la =
( x;y ) ( 0;0 ); ( 3;1) .
2
3x 2xy = 16
Bai 2. Gia i he phng trnh .
2 2
x 3xy 2y =8
Li giai
Nha n che o hai phng trnh cu a he ta c:
2
8 3x2 2xy =
( 16 x2 3xy 2y2 ( x + 2y ) =
) ( ) 0x=2y .
y =
1 x =
2,y =1
Thay vao phng trnh cu a he ta c: 16y2 =
16 .
1
y = x =2,y =1
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la ( x;y ) =
( 2;1) ; ( 2; 1) .
2 2
x 2xy + 3y = 9
Bai 3. Gia i he phng trnh .
2 2
2x 13xy + 15y =18
Li giai
Nha n che o hai phng trnh cu a he ta c:
y = 0
2 x2 2xy + 3y2 = 1 2x2 13xy + 15y 2
( ) ( . )
x = y
TH1: Ne u y = 0 thay va o phng trnh a u cua he ta c: x = 3 .
TH2: Ne u y = x thay va o phng trnh a u cua he ta c:
3 3
2x 2 =9x= y= .
2 2
151
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Va y he phng trnh co bon nghie m la:
3 3 3 3
( x;y ) =
( 3;0 ); ( 3;0 ); ; ; ; .
2 2 2 2
2 2
x 3xy + y = 1
Bai 4. Gia i he phng trnh .
2 2
x + 2xy 2y = 1
Li giai
Nha n che o theo ve hai phng trnh cu a he ta c:
x = y
1 x 2 3xy + y 2 =
( ) 1 x 2 + 2xy 2y 2 2x 2 xy y 2 =
( ) 0 .
y = 2x
Xe t tr ng h p thay ng c la i he phng trnh tm c ca c nghie m:
( x;y ) =( 1; 1); (1;1) .
2 2
x y ) x + y =
13 ( )
(
Bai 5. Gia i he phng trnh .
25
( x + y ) x 2 y 2 = ( )

Li giai
Nha n che o hai phng trnh cu a he ta c:
25 ( x y ) x 2 + y 2 = 13 ( x + y ) x 2 y 2 .
( ) ( )
x = y

( x y )( 2x 3y )( 3x 2y ) =0 2x =3y .

3x = 2y
Xe t tr ng h p thay
ng c lai he tm c ca c nghiem
( x;y ) =( 2; 3); ( 3;2 ) .
2 2
x + y = 2
Bai 6. Gia i he phng trnh 2 2 3
.
0
5x y 4xy + 3y 2 ( x + y ) =
Li giai
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
2 2 2 2
x + y = 2 x + y = 2
2 2 3 2 2
.
0 3 2 2 3
(
5x y 4xy + 3y x + y ( x + y ) = 2y 5xy + 4x y x =
) 0
152
Tm ti liu Ton ? Chuyn nh - www.toanmath.com
x =1,y = 1

2 =x 1,y
= 1
2 2
x + y =
2
2 2
x + y = 2 2.
2 x = y x = 2 ,y =
0 5 5
( y x ) ( 2y x ) =
x = 2y
2 2
= x 2= ,y
5 5
Va y he phng trnh co bon nghie m:
2 2 2 2
( x;y ) =( 1; 1); (1;1); 2 ; ; 2 ; .
5 5 5 5
2 2 2
x + xy( 3y + 1 x =
48 )

Bai 7. Gia i he phng trnh .
y2 + xy + 1 y 2 =
( 12 )

Li giai
Nha n che o hai phng trnh cu a he ta c:
x2 x2 + xy 3y2 =
( + 1 4y2 y2 + xy + 1 x 2 4y 2 x2 + xy + y2 =
) ( ) ( +1 0.
)( )
x = 2y
x 2 4y 2 =0 .
x = 2y
TH1: Ne u x = 2y thay va o phng trnh th hai cu a he ta c:
2 2
(3y + 1) y =
12 vo nghiem.
TH2: Ne u x = 2y thay va o phng trnh th hai cu a he ta c:
2 2
(1 y ) y =2 y 4 y 2 12 =0 y =2 x =4 .
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la ( x;y ) =
( 2;4 ) ; ( 2; 4 ) .
2 2
6 x ) x + y( =6x + 8y )
(
Bai 8. Gia i he phng trnh .
( 3 y ) x 2 + y 2 =8x 6y
( )

Li giai
Ne u ( x;y ) = ( 0;0 ) la mo t nghie m cu a he .
Xe t x2 + y2 > 0 nha n che o hai phng trnh cu a he va l c i x2 + y2 hai ve
ta c:
( 6 x )( 8x 6y ) = ( 3 y )( 6x + 8y ) ( x 2y )( 4x + 2y 15) = 0
153
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x = 2y
.
4x + 2y 15 = 0
Xe t tr ng h p thay ngc la i mo t trong hai phng trnh cu a he tm c

=
ca c nghiem la ( x;y ) ( 0;0 ) ; ( 2;1) ; ( 4;2 ) ; 6; 29 .

2 2
6 x ) x (y =6x + 8y )
(
Bai 9. Gia i he phng trnh .
( 3 y ) x 2 y 2 =8x 6y
( )

Li giai
Ne u x2 y2 = 0 x = y = 0 .
Xe t x2 y2 0 nha n cheo hai phng trnh cu a he ta c:
( 6 x )( 8x 6y ) = ( 3 y )( 6x + 8y ) ( x 2y )( 4x + 2y 15) = 0
x = 2y
.
0
4x + 2y 15 =
2 2
( )
2x + 7 ( x y ) + 1 = 0
Bai 10. Gia i he phng trnh .
2
3x2 4xy + 4y2 7 ( x y ) 1 =
( 0 )

Li giai
Nha n thay x = y kho ng thoa man he phng trnh.
Xe t x y khi o he phng trnh tr tha nh:
2 1
2x + 7 = 2 2 2 2
(x y) 2x + 7 = 3x 4xy +
( 4y 7
)

.
1 2
2 2 2x2 + 7 ( x y ) + 1 = 0
3x 4xy + 4y 7 = ( )
2
(x y)
x = 2
2
0
( x 2y ) = x = 2y y = 1
2
2 2 .
2x2 + 7 ( x y ) + 1 = 0 8y + 7 y + 1 =
( 0 ) x = 2
( )
y = 1
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la ( x;y ) =( 2; 1) ; ( 2;1) .
3 3 2
x + 8y 4xy = 1
Bai 11. Gia i he phng trnh .
4 4
2x + 8y 2x y =0
154
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Li giai
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
3 3 2
x + 8y 4xy = 1
4 .
( 0
2x + 8y 4 ( 2x + y ) x3 + 8y3 4xy2 = )

3 3 2 3 3 2
x + 8y 4xy = 1 x + 8y 4xy = 1
.
4 2 2 3 0
2x 8x y + 12xy = 0 2x ( x 2y )( x 6y ) =
1
x3 + 8y3 4xy2 =
1 = x 0,y =
2
x = 0 1
x = 1,y = .
x = 2y 2

3 1
x = 6y = x = ,y
3
25 2 3 25
1 1 3 1
Va y he phng trnh co ba nghie m la : ( x;y ) = 0; ; 1; ; ; .
2 2 3 25 2 3 25
3 2
x 2xy = 1
Bai 12.Gia i he phng trnh .
4 4
x + y + x 3y =0
Li giai
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
3 2
x 2xy = 1
4
( 0
x + y 4 + ( x 3y ) x3 + 2xy2 =
)

3 2
x 2xy = 1
.
3 2 2 3
3x + 2x y 6xy + y =0
2 x3 2xy2 = 1
3 1
x 2xy =
x = y .
( 0
( x y ) 3x2 + 5xy y2 = 2
) 2
0
3x + 5xy y =
Xe t tr ng h p tm ra nghie m cu a he phng trnh la:
155
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( x;y ) = ( 1;0 ); (1;1); 3 375 6 ; 5 + 2 37 .3 375 6 ;

.

3 37 6 ; 5 + 37 .3 37 6
5 2 5

16x 2 y2 17y 2 =1
Bai 13. Gia i he phng trnh .
4xy + 2x 7y = 1
Li giai
Phng trnh th hai cua he tng ng v i :
2 2
4xy + 1= 7y 2x ( 4xy + 1) = ( 7y 2x ) .
16x 2 y2 + 8xy + 1 =4x 2 28xy + 49y 2 17y 2 + 8xy =4x 2 28xy + 49y 2 .
x = y
x2 9xy + 8y2 =0 .
x = 8y
TH1: Ne u x = y thay va o phng trnh th hai cu a he ta c :
= x 1 =x 1,y= 1
4x2 + 2x 7x =1 4x 2 5x + 1 =0 1
=x 1 = x 1= ,y
4 4 4
(th la i thay tho a man).
TH2: Ne u x = 8y thay va o phng trnh th hai cu a he ta c :
32y 2 9y + 1 =0 (vo nghie m).
1 1
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la ( x;y ) = (1;1) ; ; .
4 4
3 3
x + y = 7x + 7y
Bai 14. Gia i he phng trnh .
3 3
x y = 19x 19y
Li giai
Nha n che o hai phng trnh cu a he ta c:
19 ( x y ) x3 + y3 = 7 ( x + y ) x3 y3
( ) ( )
6x 4 13x3 y + 13xy3 6y 4 =
0.
156
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y = x

y = x

( x y )( x + y )( 2x 3y )( 3x 2y ) =0 y = 3 x .
2
2
y= x
3
Xe t tr ng h p thay va o phng trnh a u cua he tm c ca c nghie m:
( x;y ) =( 3; 2 ); ( 3;2 ); ( 2; 3); ( 2;3); ( 0;0 ) .
3 3 2 2
x + y = 4x + 4y
Bai 15. Gia i he phng trnh .
3 3 2 2
x y = 6x 6y
Li giai
Nha n che o hai phng trnh cu a he ta c:
6 x 2 y 2 x3 + y3 = 4 x 2 + y 2 x3 y3 .
( )( ) ( )( )
3 y = x
( x y ) x 2 + 3xy + y 2 =0 2
( ) 2
.
x + 3xy + y = 0
TH1 : Ne u y = x thay va o phng trnh th nha t cu a he ta c :
=
x 0 =
x 0,y
= 0
2x3 =
8x2 .
=
x 4 = = 4
x 4,y
TH2 : Neu x2 + 3xy + y2 =
0 ket hp vi phng trnh th hai cua he ta c :
2 = + y2 0 2 = + y2 0
x + 3xy x + 3xy
3 .
x y3= 6 x2 y2
( ( x y ) x2 + xy + y2 6x 6y = 0
) ( )


x = y =
x 0,y
= 0
2 2
x + 3xy + y 3 5 3+ 5

= x =,y .
2 2 2 2
x + 3xy + y
2 2 3+ 5 3 5
0
=
x + xy + y 6x 6y = x = ,y
2 2
Va y he phng trnh co bon nghiem:
5 3 5 3 5 3+ 5
;
( x;y ) = ( 0;0 ); ( 4;4 ) ; 3 +2 ; ; .
2 2 2
157
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2 2
x + xy + y =x + 4y
Bai 16. Gia i he phng trnh .
2 2
x 4y = 1
Li giai
2 2
T he phng trnh suy ra: x 2 + xy + y 2
( ) = ( x + 4y ) x 2 4y 2 .
( )
2x = 5y
0
( 2x 5y ) ( 3x2 + 12xy + 13y 2 ) = 2 2
.
3x + 12xy + 13y =0
TH1: Ne u 2x = 5y thay va o phng trnh th hai cu a he suy ra:
25 2 5
y2 4y2 =
1 y= x= .
4 3 3
2
TH2: Ne u 3x2 + 12xy + 13y 2 =0 3 ( x + 2y ) + y 2 =0
x +=
2y 0 =
x 0
(th lai tha y kho ng tho a ma n).
=y 0= y 0
5 2 5 2
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la ( x;y ) = ; ; ; .
3 3 3 3
4 4
x + y = 17 ( x + y )
Bai 17. Gia i he phng trnh .
4 4
x y = 45 ( x y )
Li giai
Nha n che o hai phng trnh cu a he ta c :
45 ( x y ) x 4 + y 4 = 17 ( x + y ) x 4 y 4
( ) ( )
x = y

x = 2y
( x 2y )( x y )( 2x y ) 7x 2 + 9xy + 7y 2 =
( 0 ) .
y = 2x

x= y= 0
Xe t tr ng h p va thay vao phng trnh a u cu a he ta c:
( x;y ) = ( 0;0 ) ; ( 3 3;2 3 3 ) ; ( 2 3 3; 3 3 ) ; ( 3 17; 3 17 ) .
Va y he phng trnh co bon nghie m:
( x;y ) = ( 0;0 ) ; ( 3 3;2 3 3 ) ; ( 2 3 3; 3 3 ) ; ( 3 17; 3 17 ) .
158
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Chu e 5. KY THUAT S DUNG PHEP THE
A. NOI DUNG PHNG PHAP
He go m hai phng trnh trong o co the ru t c mo t bie n theo bie n co n la i
va theo suy ngh n gia n the va o phng trnh con la i cu a he ta c mo t
phng trnh a th c ba c cao gia i c. o i khi ta cu ng th c hien phe p the
ha ng so hoa c the mo t bieu th c va o phng trnh co n la i.
Dau hieu nhan biet
- He go m mo t phng trnh la phng trnh ba c nha t o i v i x,y .
- Co the ru t mo t bien theo bie n co n la i t mo t phng trnh cu a he .
Cac dang he a gap
He phng trnh c ba n go m mo t phng trnh ba c nha t va mo t phng trnh
ba c hai hai a n.
B. BAI TAP MAU
0 (1)
x + y 1 =
Bai 1. Gia i he phng trnh 3
2y2
3x + x2 ( 7y 3) + x 2y2 7y =( (2) )

Li giai
Phan tch tm li giai:
Nha n thay t (1) ta co the ru t y = 1 x hoa c x = 1 y e the vao phng trnh
(2) va e y se a ve phng trnh ba c ba v i a n x hoa c a n y . a y ta l a
cho n phe p the y = 1 x va o (2) v ba c cu a . y . (2) cao nha t la 2 ne n vie c
2
tnh ca c bie u th c (1 x ) , (1 x ) n gia n hn vie c tnh ca c bie u th c
3
(1 y ) .
Ru t y = 1 x t (1) the va o (2) ta c:
2 2
3x3 + x2 7 (1 x ) 3 + x 2 (1 x ) 7 (1 x ) = 2 (1 x ) .


( x;y ) =(1; 2 ); 21 ; 21 ; ( 2;1) .

1 3
Suy ra ( x;y ) =
; ; (1;0 ) ; ( 2; 1) .
2 2
1 3
; ; (1;0 ) ; ( 2; 1) .
Va y he phng trnh co ba nghie m la ( x;y ) =
2 2
159
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xy =x + 7y + 1
Bai 2. Gia i he phng trnh 2 2 .
y 10y 2 1
x=
Phan tch li giai:
Ta ru t c y theo x t phng trnh au cu a he the vao phng trnh th hai
cua he a ve mot phng trnh bac 4 vi x .
Li giai
Nha n thay y = 1 kho ng thoa man he phng trnh.
7y + 1
Xe t v i y 0 t phng trnh a u cu a he ta co x = the vao phng
y 1
trnh th hai cu a he ta c:
2
7y + 1 2 2 4 3 2
1 0.
y= 10y 1 39y + 34y 8y 2y +=
y 1
( y + 1) 39y3 5y2 3y + 1 = 0 ( y + 1)( 3y + 1) 13y2 6y + 1 = 0
( ) ( )
y = 1
.
y = 1
3
V i y = 1 suy ra x = 3 .
1
V i y = suy ra x = 1 .
3
1
1; ; ( 3; 1) .
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la ( x;y ) =
3
Bai 3. Gia i he phng trnh .
Phan tch li giai:
Ca hai phng trnh cua he eu co the ru t c bie n y theo bie n x nhng
vie c ru t t phng trnh th hai n gia n hn.
Li giai
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i
3 3 2 2
x 2xy + 5y = 7 7
x 2x 3x + 2x + 3 + 5 3x + 2x + 3 =
( ) ( )
.
y =3x2 + 2x + 3 y =
3x2 + 2x + 3
160
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3 2 2
7x 19x + 4x + 8 =0 0
( x 1) 7x 12x 8 =
( )
.
y = 3x2 + 2x + 3 3x2 + 2x + 3
y =
6 2 33 6 + 2 33
= x = x
x = 1 7 7
.
y = 2 153 + 44 23 153 44 23
= y = y
49 49
Vy h phng trnh co ba nghim la :
6 + 2 33 153 44 23
= =
( x;y ) (1;2 ; .
); 6 27 33 ; 153 +4944 23 ; 7 49

3
4x 2
2x + y ( x + 1) =
Bai 4. Gia i he phng trnh .
4 6
5x 4x = y2
Phan tch li giai:
Phng trnh au cua he ch cha y t do ne n ta ru t y theo x va the va o
phng trnh th hai cu a he va hy vong a ve mo t phng trnh ba c cao o i
v i x pha n tch c nghiem.
Li giai
Nha n thay x = 1 kho ng thoa man he phng trnh.
Xe t v i x 1 khi o he phng trnh tng ng v i
4x2 2x3
4x 2 2x3 y =
y = x + 1
x +1 2
4 6 2 4 6
2
4x 2x 3
5x = 4x y 5x = 4x

x +1
4x2 2x3
y = 4x2 2x3
x +1 x = 0
y = x + 1
2
4 2 x )
x 4 5 4x2 (
( ) =
0 y = 0 5 4x2 x + 1 2 4 2 x 2 =
( ) ( ) 0
2 ( )
( x + 1)
4x2 2x3
x = 0 y =
x +1
y = 0 4 3 2
0
4x + 8x + 3x 26x + 11 =
161
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4x2 2x3 1
x =
x = 0 y = =x 0=x 1
x + 1 2.
y = 0 2 =y 0=y 1 1
x 1)( 2x 1) 2x( + 7x + 11 =
0 ) y =
( 2
1 1
Va y he phng trnh co ba nghie m la ( x;y ) = ( 0;0 ) ; (1;1) ; ; .
2 2
5
x y +1 =
2
Bai 5. Gia i he phng trnh .
y + 2 ( x 3) x + 1 = 3
4
Phan tch li giai:
Phng trnh a u cu a he ne u bnh phng kh can th c ta rut c y theo
x do vay ta th c hie n phe p the .
Li giai
x 1
ie u kien khi o he phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
y 1
5 5
x x
2 2
2
5 21
y = x 1 y = x2 5x + .
2 4
3 x2 5x + 2 ( x 3) x + 1 + 6 =0
y + 2 ( x 3) x + 1 =
4
5
x
2
x = 3
21
y = x 2 5x + 3.
4 y =
4
( x 3) x 2 + 2 x + 1 =0



Va y he co nghiem duy nha t ( x;y=
) 3; 43 .

4 3 2 2
x + 2x y + x y = 2x + 9
Bai 6. (TSH Khoi B 2008) Giai he phng trnh .
2
x + 2xy =6x + 6
Phan tch li giai:
162
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Ca hai phng trnh cu a he co iem chung la co ch a nhan t chung
6x + 6 x2
x2 + xy do va y ta se the xy = t phng trnh th hai cu a he va o
2
phng trnh a u a ve phng trnh ba c 4 v i a n x .
Li giai
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
2
2 2
2
( x + xy = )2x + 9 x 2 + 6x + 6 x = 2x + 9
2
2
.
xy = 6x + 6 x 6x + 6 x2
2 xy =
2
3
x 4 + 12x3 + 48x2 + 64x =
0 x x + 4 =
( ) 0 x = 4

2 2 17 .
6x + 6 x
xy = xy = 6x + 6 x y =
2 2 4
17
He phng trnh co nghiem duy nha t ( x;y ) = 4; .
4
2 4y
x + 1 + y ( y + x ) =
Bai 7. (TSH Khoi B 2006) Giai he phng trnh .
2
x + 1 ( y + x 2) =
( ) y

Phan tch li giai:
Ca hai phng trnh co nha n t chung x2 + 1 ne u ru t t phng trnh au the
va o phng trnh th hai ta co nha n t chung y .
Li giai
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
x2 + 1= y ( 4 y x ) x2 + 1= y ( 4 y x )

2 .
x + 1 ( y +=
( ) x 2) y x 2) y
y ( 4 x y )( y +=

x2 + 1 = 2
0 x + 1= y ( 4 y x )

y = 0 ( 4 x y )( y + x 2 ) = 1
2 2 3
x + 1= y ( 4 y x ) x + 1= y ( 4 x y ) x + y =
2
2
2
( x + y ) + 6 ( x + y= 3) 0
) 9 0 ( x + y = x + 1 =y
163
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y= 3 x x2 + x 2 =0 x = 1 x = 2
2 .
x + 1 = 3 x y = 3 x =y 3= y 5
He phng trnh co hai nghiem la (=
x;y ) (1;3); ( 2;5) .
x2 + 1
+x+y= 4
y
Nhan xet: Ngoa i ra co the a ve he .
2
x +1
1
.( y + x 2 ) =
y
x2 + 1
a t a n phu u = ;v = x + y 2 (xem the m phng pha p a t a n phu ).
y
x x + y + 1 3 =
( ) 0

Bai 8. (TSH Khoi D 2009) Giai he phng trnh 2 5 .
( x + y ) 2 + 1 = 0
x
Li giai
ie u kien x 0 khi o he phng trnh a cho tng ng v i
3 3
x + y = 1 x + y = 1
x x
2 .
3 5 4 6
1 2 +1=0 +2= 0
x x 2 x
x
3 x = 2
y = x 1 x = 1
x 3.
0 y = 1 y =
( x 1)( 2x 4 ) = 2

He phng trnh co hai nghiem la=
( x;y ) (1;1) ; 2; 23 .

x + y =1
Bai 9. Gia i he phng trnh 3 3
.
x 3x = y 3y
Li giai
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i
y =1 x y =1 x
3 3
3 3
x 3x = y 3y x 3x = ( 1 x ) 3 ( 1 x )
y =1 x 0
( x 1)( 2x + 1)( x + 2 ) =
3 2

2x + 3x 3x 2 =0 y =1 x
164
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1
x=
x = 1 2 x = 2 .

y = 2 1 1
y =
y =
2
1 1
Va y he phng trnh co ba nghie m la ( x;y ) =(1; 2 ) ; ; ; ( 2;1) .
2 2
Nhan xet: Qua ca c v du tre n nha n tha y phng pha p the he t s c n gian
ma ba t ky ho c sinh na o cu ng ngh e n au tien khi gia i he . Tho ng th ng
ca c he co nghiem e p khi a ve phng trnh ba c cao ta se gia i c nh
pha n tch tha nh nha n t . Ha n che cu a phng phap nay la oi khi tnh toan
co ng ke nh de da n e n sai so t va mo t iem na la ne u he co nghiem le vie c
gia i phng trnh ba c cao se he t s c kho khan. Luc na y th ngh e n cac
phng pha p kha c cha ng ha n nh a t a n phu. Mot lu y cu a phng phap
na y la ta co the the mot bie u th c, mo t ha ng so t mo t phng trnh vao
phng trnh con lai.
2
y xy + 1 =0
Bai 10. Gia i he phng trnh .
2 2
0
x + y + 2x + 2y + 1 =
Phan tch li giai:
2
Ru t y= xy 1 t phng trnh a u the va o phng trnh th hai cu a he ta
c phng trnh a c ve phng trnh tch nen ta s dung phng phap the.
x2 + xy + 2x + 2y =0 x ( x + y ) + 2 ( x + y ) =0
x = 2
( x + 2 )( x + y ) =0 .
x = y
Li gii
H phng trnh a cho tng ng vi:
2 2
y= xy 1 y= xy 1
2

x + xy + 2x + 2y = 0 0
( x + 2 )( x + y ) =
x =2 x =y x = 2
2 .
y =2y 1 y 2 =y2 1 y = 1
Vy h phng trnh co nghim duy nht ( x;y ) =( 2; 1) .
2
2x + y ( x + y ) + x ( 2x + 1) =7 2y
( )
Bai 11. Gia i he phng trnh .
x ( 4x + 1) =7 3y
165
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Phan tch li giai.
Ne u th c hie n phe p the bie n tho ng th ng trong trng hp na y kho ng th c
hie n c e y e n so 7 t do hai phng trnh th the t phng trnh d i
le n phng trnh tre n xem ta c g? Hy vong a ve c mo t phng
trinh tch.
Li giai
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i
2
2x + y ( x + y ) + x ( 2x + 1) =7 2y
( )
.
2
7= 4x + x + 3y
2 2
2x + y ( x + y ) + x ( 2x + 1)= 4x + x + 3y 2y
( )
.
2
7= 4x + x + 3y
2 2 2
2x + y ( x + y ) =2x + y
( ) 2x + y ( x + y 1) =0
( )
.
2 2
7= 4x + x + 3y 7= 4x + x + 3y
2
y = 2x y = 1 x
2
.
2
7= 4x + x + 3y 7= 4x + x + 3y
1 17
2 y= 1 x x=
y = 2x y = 1 x 4
2 1 17 .
2 0
2x x + 7 =0 2x x 2 = x = 3 17
4 y =
4

1 17 3 17
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la ( x;y ) = ; .
4 4

3 2 2
x + 7y = ( x + y ) + x y + 7x + 4
Bai 12. Gia i he phng trnh .
2 2
3x + y + 8y + 4 = 8x
Phan tch li giai. Ba i toan na y ta th c hie n tng t ba i toa n tre n ru t 4 t
do t phng trnh hai the va o phng trnh a u cu a he .
Li giai
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
166
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3 2 2 2 2
x + 7y = ( x + y ) + x y + 7x + 8x 8y 3x y
.
2 2
4 = 8x 8y 3x y
3 2 2 0
0
( x y ) x2 + 2x 15 =
x + 2x x y 2xy 15x + 15y = ( )
.
2 2 2 2
4 = 8x 8y 3x y 4 = 8x 8y 3x y
x = y 0
x2 + 2x 15 =
2 2
.
2 2
4 = 8x 8y 3x y 4 = 8x 8y 3x y
x = y x = 5 x = 3 = x 3= x 3
2
2y =
+ 4 0 y2 + 8y + 119 +7 0
= 0 y 2 + 8y = y = 7
1 y =
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la ( x;y ) =
( 3; 1); ( 3; 7) .
2
x ( y + 1) = 6y 2
Bai 13. Gia i he phng trnh .
4 2 2 2 2 2
x y + 2x y + y x + 1= 12y 1
( )

Phan tch li giai. Ca hai phng trnh co nha n t chung x2 t phng trnh
6y 2
cu a he ru t c x2 = t i a y the va o phng trnh th hai cu a he a
y +1
ve phng trnh a th c bac bo n v i a n y . Nhng tr c tie n phai xet xem
y = 1 co la nghiem cu a he hay kho ng?
Li giai
Nha n thay y = 1 kho ng thoa man he phng trnh.
Xe t y 1 khi o he phng trnh a cho tng ng v i
2 6y 2
x =
y +1
2 .
6y 2 2 2 6y 2 6y 2 2
y + 1 y + 2y y + 1 + y y + 1 + 1= 12y 1

2 6y 2
x = 2 6y 2 2 6y 2
y +1
x = x = y + 1
y +1 .
4 y 1 9y + 1 y2
)( ) 2
( = y 1 y = 1 2
2 4 ( 9y + 1) y =( y + 1)
( y + 1)
167
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3 2
36y + 3y 2y 1 =0
x = 2
2 6y 2 .
y = 1 x =
y +1
(0
( 3y 1) 12y 2 + 5y + 1 =
)
x = 2 x 2 x = 0
6y 2 1.
= y = 1 x2 y = 1 y =
y +1 3
1
Va y he phng trnh co ba nghie m la ( x;y ) = ( 2;1 ; 0; .
) 3
2
x + xy + 2x + 2y = 16
Bai 14. Gia i he phng trnh .
32
( x + y )( 4 + xy ) =
Bai giai
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i
16
( x + y )( x + 2 ) =
.
( x + y )( 4 + xy ) =32
Nha n thay x = 2 kho ng thoa man he phng trnh.
Xe t v i x 2 khi o he tng ng v i
16 16
x + y = 16
x + y = x+2 x + y =
x+2 x+2 .
32 32
4 + xy = 2x + 4
16 . ( 4 + xy ) =
( x + y )( 4 + xy ) = x + 2
16
x + y = x =0 x =2x =6
x+2 .
=
y 8= y 2
x ( y 2 ) = 0
=
Va y he phng trnh co ba nghie m la ( x;y ) ( 0;8); ( 2;2 ); ( 2; 6 ) .
2 2
( x 1) + 6 ( x 1) y + 4y =20
Bai 15. Gia i he phng trnh .
2
2 2
x + ( 2y + 1) =
Phan tch li giai: Cha tha y mo i lien he na o gi a hai phng trnh cu a he
ta th khai trie n ca c bie u th c tch va ha ng a ng thc ra xem sao? Nhan
tha y co nha n t chung x2 + 4y 2 ta s dung phe p the cho he nay.
Li giai
168
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He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i
2 2 20
x 2x + 1 + 6xy 6y + 4y =20 2x + 1 + 1 4y + 6xy 6y =
2 2 2
.
2 1 4y
x + 4y + 4y + 1 = 2 x + 4y =
x 9
( 3x 5) y =+
.
2 2
x + 4y = 1 4y
5
Nha n thay x = kho ng thoa man he phng trnh.
3
5
Khi o vi x he tng ng v i:
3
x+9
x+9 y=
y = 3x 5 3x 5
2 .
2 2
x + ( 2y +=1) 2 x + +=
2 2x + 18 21
3x 5

x+9
y =
3x 5 .
4 3 2
0
9x 30x + 32x + 190x + 119 =
x+9
y= x = 1
3x 5
.
0
( x + 1)2 9x 2 48x + 119 = y = 1
( )
Va y he phng trnh co nghiem duy nha t ( x;y ) = ( 1; 1) .
3 2
x + 2xy = 5
Bai 16. Gia i he phng trnh .
2 2
2x + xy + y = 4x + y
Li giai
5 x3
Nha n thay x = 0 kho ng thoa man he phng trnh, v i x 0 rut y2 =
2x
t phng trnh th nha t va thay va o phng trnh th hai cu a he ta c:
5 x3
2x 2 + xy + = 4x + y 3x3 8x 2 + 5 + 2x2 y 2xy = 0 .
2x
( x 1) 3x 2 5x 5 + 2xy ( x 1) =0 ( x 1) 3x 2 5x 5 + 2xy =0 .
( ) ( )
169
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2
1 + 2y = 5
V i x = 1 khi o he tr tha nh y= 2.
2
2 + y + y = 4 + y
V i 3x2 5x 5 + 2xy khi o thay va o phng trnh th hai ta c
1
2x2 3x2 5x 5 + y2 = 4x + y .
( )
2
x2 + 5x + 5 + 2y2 = 8x + 2y x 2 3x + 5 = 2y (1 y ) (1) .
2
3 11 11
Ve tra i x2 3x + 5 = x + .
2 4 4
1 2 1
Ve pha i 2y (1 y ) ( y + 1 y ) = .
2 2
T ay suy ra phng trnh (1) vo nghie m.
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m=
la ( x;y ) (1; 2 ); (1; 2 ) .
3 2
13y 3x = 1
Bai 17. Gia i he phng trnh
2
y + 4y + 1 = 5x + 4xy
Li giai
5 5 y2 + 4y + 1
Nha n thay y = kho ng thoa man he , ne n vi y ru t x =
4 4 4 + 5y
t phng trnh th hai thay va o phng trnh th nha t cu a he ta c:
2
y2 + 4y + 1 3 y = 2
13y3 3 =
1 . ( y 2 ) ( y + 2 ) 13y2 + 16y + 7 =0
( ) .
y = 2
4 + 5y
Va y he co hai nghie m la ( x;y=
) (1; 2 ); (1;2 ) .
xy x + y =2
Bai 18. Gia i he phng trnh 3 2 3 2
.
x 4x + x + 18= 2y + 5y y
Li giai
Nha n thay x = 1 kho ng thoa man he phng trnh.
x+2
Xe t x 1 ru t y = t phng trnh au thay va o phng trnh th hai
x +1
3 2
x+2 x+2 x+2
cu a he ta c: x3 4x2 +=
x + 18 2 + 5 .
x +1 x +1 x +1
170
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x = 2 x = 2,y = 2

= x 2 = x = 2,y 2
2
( )(
x2 2 x2 x 4 == )
0 x 1 = 17
1 17
1 17 .
x = ,y
2 2 4

1 + 17 1 + 17 1 + 17
= x = x = ,y
2 2 4
Va y he phng trnh co bon nghie m la:
1 17 1 17 1 + 17 1 + 17
( x;y ) =
( 2; 2 ;
)(2; 2 ; ) ; ; ; .

2 4 2 4
Nhan xet: Xem the m mot so ba i toa n cung da ng nay c e ca p trong chu
e Ky thua t he so bat nh.
C. BAI TAP REN LUYEN
xy + x 1 = 3y
Bai 1. Gia i he phng trnh 2 .
2y2
x ( y x ) =
Li giai
Nha n thay x = 3 kho ng thoa man he phng trnh.
x 1
Xe t x 3 t phng trnh au suy ra y = thay va o phng trnh th hai
3x
cu a he ta c:
2
x 1 x 1 5 4 3 2
x2 = x 2 4x + 2 0 .
x 5x + 5x + 5x =
3x 3x
( 0.
( x + 1) x 4 6x3 + 11x 2 6x + 2 = )
2 1
( x + 1) x 2 3x + 1 + 1 =0 x =1 y = .
( )
2
1
Va y he phng trnh co nghiem duy nha t ( x;y ) = 1; .
2
1
x ( y 3) 9y =
Bai 2. Gia i he phng trnh 2 2
.
( x 1) y + 2y =1
Li giai
Nha n thay y = 3 kho ng thoa man phng trnh t phng trnh a u cu a he suy
ra he phng trnh tng ng v i:
171
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4 ( 2y + 1)

x ( y 3) ( y 3) = 8y + 4 x 1 =
y3
2
.
2
( x 1) y + 2y = 1 2 2
( x 1) y + 2y = 1
4 ( 2y + 1)
4 ( 2y + 1) x 1 =
x 1 = y 3 y3
2 .
2 2 4 ( 2y + 1) 2
( x 1) y + 2y =1 y 3 y + 2y + 1 =0

4 ( 2y + 1)
x 1 = 4 ( 2y + 1) x = 2,y = 1
y3 x 1 =
y3 1.
x = 1,y =
2y + 1 16y2 2y + 1 + y 3 2 = 0
( ) ( ) ( ) 0 ( 2y + 1)( y + 1) = 2


Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la ( x;y ) =
( 2; 1); 1; 21 .

2
y
2 ( x + 2 ) =+ 19
Bai 3. Gia i he phng trnh .
2
x 1
2 ( y + 2 ) =+
Li giai
2
Rut x = 2 ( y + 2 ) 1 t phng trnh hai cua he the vao phng trnh au ta c:
2
2
2 2 ( y + 2 ) 1 + 2 = y + 19 8y 4 + 64y3 + 200y 2 + 287y + 143 = 0 .

( 0.
( y + 1) 8y3 + 56y2 + 144y + 143 = )
y = 1
3 3 12081 277 .
7 10 k ,k =
y = + 2
3 3k 6
x = 1, y = 1
2
1 10 k 7 10 k .
x =2
+ 1,y = +
3 3k 6 3 3k 6
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la :
2
277
( x;y ) =(1; 1); 2 1 10 + k 1; 7 10 + k vi k = 3 3 12081 .
3 3k 6 3 3k 6 2

172
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2 2 2 3
4x y + xy + 4xy 3y + 1 =7y 2
Bai 4. Gia i he phng trnh .
2
3xy 3y y + 1 =0
Li giai
xy ( 4xy + y + 4 )= 7y2 + 3y3 1

Vie t la i he d i dang:
3y2 + y 1
xy =
3
3y2 + y 1 3y2 + y 1
4. + y + 4 = 7y2 + 3y3 1
3 3

y = 1

y = 1
6
( y 1)( 6y 1) 6y2 + 8y + 1 = 0
( ) 4 + 10
y=
6

y = 4 + 10
6
= x 1,y
= 1

x = 3 1
,y =
2 6
5 4 + 10 .
x= 1 ,y =
2 6

x = 5 4 + 10
1+ ,y =
2 6
Va y he phng trnh co bon nghie m la :
5 4 + 10 5 4 + 10
; ; 1 + ;
( x;y )= (1;1); 23 ; 61 ; 1
2 6 2 6

x y
2x + 4y + + = 8
y x
Bai 5. Gia i he phng trnh .
4x + 1 + 1 =6
x y
Li giai
ie u kien: xy 0 .
173
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6x 4x 2 1
Ru t y = t phng trnh th hai va thay va o phng trnh a u cu a
x
he ta c:
6x 4x 2 1 x2 6x 4x 2 1
2x + 4. + + =
8.
x 6x 4x 2 1 x2
( 0.
( x 1) 8x3 20x 2 + 24x 5 = )
x = 1
=x 1,y
= 1
3 3 3261 155
6k 4k 2 1
5 11 2 2 = x =
k,y
x = 3 + k
6 6 3 3261 155 6
3 3 3261 155
5 11 2 2
vi k = 3 + .
6 6 3 3261 155 6
2
6k 4k 1
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la ( x;y ) = (1;1) ; k;
k

3 3 3261 155
5 11 2 2
v i k = 3 + .
6 6 3 3261 155 6
xy 3x 2y =6
Bai 6. Gia i he phng trnh 2 2
.
8
x + y 2x 4y =
Li giai
Nha n thay x = 2 kho ng thoa man he phng trnh.
3x + 6
Xet x 2 rut y = t phng trnh au thay vao phng trnh th hai ta c:
x2
2
3x + 6 3x + 6
x2 + 2x 4. =8 x 4 6x3 + x2 + 60x + 52 =0 .
x2 x2
x = 1 x = 1,y = 1
( x + 1)( x + 2 ) x 2 9x + 26 =0
( ) .
x = 2 x = 2,y = 0
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la ( x;y ) = ( 1; 1) ; ( 2;0 ) .
9
x ( x + 2 )( 2x + y ) =
Bai 7. Gia i he phng trnh .
2
x + 4x + y = 6
174
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Li giai
Cach 1: Ru t y =
x2 4x + 6 t phng trnh th hai cu a he the va o phng
trnh a u ta c:
9
x ( x + 2 ) 2x x 2 4x + 6 =
( )x 4 + 4x3 2x 2 12x + 9 =0.
2 2 x =3 x =
3,y =
9
( x 1) ( x + 3) =0 .
=x 1 =x 1,y
= 1
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la (=
x;y ) (1;1) ; ( 3;9 ) .
2 9
x + 2x ( 2x + y ) =
( )
Cach 2: Vie t la i he phng trnh d i da ng: .
2
x + 2x + 2x + y = 6
a t u =x2 + 2x,v =2x + y khi o he phng trnh tr tha nh:
u + v = 6 u = 3 2
x + 2x =3 x = 1,y = 1
.
uv = 9 v = 3 2x + y =3 x = 3,y = 9
2
x + xy =x + 2
Bai 8. Gia i he phng trnh 2 .
2y + 5 x + 13x 2 =
( ) 26

Li giai
Nha n thay x = 0 kho ng thoa man he phng trnh.
x + 2 x2
Xe t x 0 ru t y = t phng trnh au the va o phng trnh th hai
x
cu a he ta c:
2
x + 2 x2
x 2 + 5 + 13x 2 = 26 2x 4 + 9x3 x 2 18x + 8 = 0 .
x

=x 1,y
= 2
x = 1
9
x = 1 =
x 1=,y
2 2 .
( x 1)( 2x 1)( x + 2 )( x + 4 ) =0 2
x=2,y =
2
x = 2
9
x = 4 x =4,y =
2

Va y he phng trnh co bon nghie m la=
( x;y ) (1;2 ); 21 ; 29 ; ( 2;2 ); 4; 29 .

Bai 9. (TSH Khoi D 2012) Giai he phng trnh :
175
Tm ti liu Ton ? Chuyn nh - www.toanmath.com
xy + x 2 = 0 (1)
3 2 2 2
.
2x x y + x + y 2xy y = 0 (2)
Li giai
De tha y x = 0 khong tho a man he phng trnh.
2x
Khi o ru t y = t (1) the va o (2) ta c:
x
2
2x 2x 2x 2x
2x3 x2 . + x2 + 2x. =
0 .
x x x x
2x5 + 2x 4 2x 2 6x + 4 = 0 2 ( x 1) x 4 + 2x3 + 2x 2 + x 2 = 0 .
( )
2
( x 1) x2 + x + x2 + x 2 = 0 ( x 1) x2 + x + 2 x 2 + x 1 = 0 .
( ) ( ) ( )( )

x = 1
x = 1
2 1 5 .
x + x 1 = 0 x =
2
5
=
Suy ra ( x;y ) ; 5 .
(1;1) ; 1 2

5
=
Va y he phng trnh co ba nghie m la ( x;y ) ; 5 .
(1;1) ; 1 2

2
x + 5x + y = 9 (1)
Bai 10. Gia i he phng trnh .
3 2 2
3x + x y + 2xy + 6x = 18 (2)
Li giai
Ru t y =9 x2 5x t (1) thay va o (2) ta c:
x 4 + 4x3 5x2 18x + 18 =
0.
x = 3

( x 1)( x + 3) x2 + x 6 = 0 x = 1
( ) .

x =1 7
Suy ra: ( x;y ) = ( 3;15) ; (1;3) ; 1 7;6 + 3 7 ; 1 + 7;6 3 7 .
( )( )
Va y he phng trnh co bon nghie m la :
( x;y ) = ( 3;15); (1;3); ( 1 7;6 + 3 7 ; 1 + 7;6 3 7 .
)( )
176
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2 2
x + y xy =1
Bai 11. Gia i he phng trnh .
3
2x = x + y
Li giai
Rut=
y 2x3 x t phng trnh th hai cua he thay vao phng trnh au ta c:
2
x2 + 2x3 x
( ) x 2x3 x = 1 4x6 6x 4 + 3x2 1 = 0 .
( )
x =1 x =
1,y =
1
x2 1 4x 4 2x 2 + 1 =0 x 2 =1
( )( ) .
=x 1 =x 1,y
= 1
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la ( x;y ) = ( 1; 1) ; (1;1) .
2 2
x ( y + 1)( x + y + 1)= 3x 4x + 1
Bai 12. Gia i he phng trnh .
xy + y + 1 =x2
Li giai
x2 1
Rut y = t phng trnh th hai the vao phng trnh au cua he ta c:
x
2
x 1 2
x 1
x2 + x + 1= 3x2 4x + 1 .

x x
=x 1,y
= 0
2 x = 1
x ( x 1) ( x + 2 ) =0 3.

2,y =
x = 2 x =
2

=
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la ( x;y ) (1;0 ); 2; 23 .

4 2
9y xy =12 4x
Bai 13. Gia i he phng trnh .
2 2 2
4x y x =3
Li giai
He phng trnh tng ng vi:
2
4 2 2 3 2 4
9y xy =12 4x 9 4x 3( x 4x
) 3(= (12 4x ) x)

2 3 .
y = 4 2 y2= 4 3
x x2
177
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4 3 2 x 1 132x3 + 135x 2 81 =
0
132x + 3x 216x + 81 =
0 ( ) ( )

2 3 .
3
y = 4 2 y 2= 4
x x2
x = 1

y 1
3 2
0.
132x + 135x 81 =
2 3
y = 4 2
x
3 3
Do y2 0 4 0 x
x2 2
3
Khi o phng trnh 132x3 + 135x 2 81 =
0 vo nghiem vi x .
2
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la x; y= ( ) (1; 1) ; (1;1) .
2
x + x y =+ y 2
Bai 14. Gia i he phng trnh 2
.
2
( 2x + y ) + 3y =12
Li giai
2
He phng trnh tng ng vi
(
y x 1 =2 x (1) )
.
2
2
( 2x + y ) + 3y =12 (2)
Ne u x = 1 thay va o (2) ta c:
2 y = 1
(2 + y) + 3y 2 = 12 4y 2 + 4y 8 = 0 .
y = 2
Suy ra=
( x;y ) (1;1) ; (1; 2 ) .
Ne u x = 1 thay va o (2) ta c:
2 y = 1
(2 y) + 3y 2 = 12 4y 2 4y 8 = 0 .
y = 2
Suy ra ( x;y ) = ( 1; 1) ; ( 1;2 ) .
2x
Ne u x 1 khi o ru t y = t (1) the vao (2) ta c:
x2 1
178
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2 2
2x 2x
2x + 2 + 3 2 12 . x6 3x 4 x3 + 9x2 6x + 1 =
= 0
x 1 x 1
2
x3 3x + 1
( ) =
0 x3 3x + 1 =0.
( )
t x 2 cost, t 0; phng trnh tr thanh:
Ta xet nghiem x 2;2 , a=
1 2 2
8cos3 t 6 cos t + 1 =0 cos3t = t = + k ,k .
2 9 3
2 4 8 2 4 8
Do t 0; t ; = cos ,x 2=
; x 2= cos ,x 2 cos .
9 9 9 9 9 9
Do phng trnh bac ba co toi a ba nghiem nen ay la ba nghiem cua phng trnh.
Vay he phng trnh co bay nghiem la:
2 (1 cos t ) 2 4 8
(=
x;y ) (1;1) ; (1; 2 ) ; ( 1; 1) ; ( 1;2 ) ; 2 cos t; vi t ; ; .
9 9 9
cos2 t 1
4 2 2
x 4x + y 6y + 9 =0 (1)
Bai 15. Gia i he phng trnh .
2 2
0
x y + x + 2y 22 = (2)
Li giai
22 x2
Ru t y = t (2) thay va o (1) ta c:
x2 + 2
2
2 2
22 x 2 16 x 4 ( )
x 4 4x 2 + 3 =0 x 2 x 2 4 + ( =0 .)
2 2
x +2 x2 + 2 ( )
x = 2
x2 4 x2 2 x 4 + 6x 2 + 32 =
( )( )(0 . )
x = 2
a p so. ( x;y ) =
( 2;3) ; 2;5 .( )
2 2
( x 1) + 6 ( x 1) y + 4y =20
Bai 16. Gia i he phng trnh .
2
2 2
x + ( 2y + 1) =
Li giai
Vie t la i he d i dang:
179
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2 2
19
x + 4y 2x + 6 ( x 1) y = 19
1 4y 2x + 6 ( x 1) y =
.
2 2
x + 4y =1 4y x 2 + 4y2 =1 4y
x+9
Ru t y = the va o phng trnh th hai tm c nghiem: ( x;y ) = ( 1; 1) .
3x 5
6 1
8x xy = y 3x 4
Bai 17. Gia i he phng trnh 2 .
3 2
y
x 4x y =
Li giai
Ru t y theo x t hai phng trnh cu a he ro i so sa nh v i nhau tm c
nghiem ( x;y ) = ( 0;0 ) .
2
x ( y + 1) = 6y 2
Bai 18. Gia i he phng trnh .
4 2 2 2 2 2
x y + 2x y + y x + 1= 12y 1
( )

Li giai
2 2
2 2 2
x + 1 y + y x + 1= 13y 1
( ) ( )
Vie t la i he phng trnh d i da ng: .
( y + 1) x2 + 1 = 7y 1
( )

u2 v2 + uv= 13v2 1
a t u = x2 + 1,v = y, ( u 1) he phng trnh tr tha nh: .
u ( v + 1) = 7v 1
7v 1
Ru t u = t phng trnh th hai cu a he thay va o phng trnh au cua
v +1
he ta c:
2 v = 1 1
7v 1 2 7v 1 = =
x 0,y
v + =
.v 13v2 1 1 3 .
v +1 v +1 v=
2,y =
3 x = 1

Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la= (
( x;y ) 0; 13 ; 2;1 . )

2 2
y 4x 1 + 3= 5y 12x 3
Bai 19. Gia i he phng trnh .
2
2y 3 2x = 6
180
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Li giai
1 3
ie u kien: x .
4 2
6
Ru t y2 = t phng trnh th hai cu a he thay vao phng trnh a u,
2 3 2x
ta c: 4x 1 + 6 4x + ( 6 4x )( 4x 1) 5 =0 .
a t t = 4x 1 + 6 4x t 2 = 5 + 2 ( 6 4x )( 4x 1) , ( t > 0 ) .
t2 5 t = 3
Phng trnh tr thanh: t + 5 = 0 t 2 + 2t 15 = 0 .
2 t = 5
Suy ra t = 3 4x 1 + 6 4x = 3 5 + 2 ( 6 4x )( 4x 1) = 9 .
1 1 3
x = x = ,y =
2 2 2 .
5 5
y = x = ,y = 3
4 4

1 ; 3 ; 5 ; 3 .
Va y he phng trnh co bon nghie m la ( x;y ) =
2 2 4

2
1 y = 4xy
Bai 20. Gia i he phng trnh .
2 4 3
4x + y 4xy =1
Li giai
Nha n thay y = 0 kho ng thoa man he phng trnh.
1 y2
Xe t y 0 ru t x = t phng trnh au thay va o phng trnh th hai cua
4y
2
1 y 2 1 y 2
he ta c: 4 + y4 4 y3 = ( )( 0
1 . y2 1 8y 4 + 5y 2 1 = )

4y 4y


x = 0,y = 1
y = 1
y = 1 x = 0,y = 1 .

57 5 21 57 57 5
y = x =
,y =
4 4
16 57 5
181
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Va y he phng trnh co bon nghie m la :
21 57 57 5
( x;y ) =
( 0; 1); ( 0;1); ; .
57 5 4
16
3 3
x y + x + xy + x = 1
Bai 21. Gia i he phng trnh
3 2 3
8
4x y + 4x 8xy 17x =
Li giai
Nha n thay x = 0 kho ng thoa man he phng trnh.
Xe t x 0 khi o he phng trnh tng ng v i:
3 1
x + x ( y + 1) =
( )

3 2 3
4x y + 4x 8xy 17x = 8
1
= y 1
x3 + x
2
3 1 3 1
4x 3 1 + 4x 8x 3 1 17x = 8
x +x x +x
1 1
y= 1 y= 1
x3 + x x3 + x

2 2
x 8x6 + 7x 4 10x
( = 5) 0 =
x x2 1 8x 4 + 15x
( )( +5 0 )

x2 = 1 3
x= 1,y =
2.
1
= y 1 1
x3 + x x = 1,y = 2
3 1
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la ( x;y ) = 1; ; 1; .
2 2
3 3
= ( x 1) x + 2 + 1
Bai 22. Gia i he phng trnh y .
2
y = x + x + 1
Li giai
ie u kien: y 0,x 3 2 .
The y = x2 + x + 1 t phng trnh hai vao phng trnh a u cu a he ta c:
3
3= ( x 1) x3 + 2 + 1 .

182
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a=
t u x3 + 2 phng trnh tr thanh:
2 3
3= ( u 3) ( u + 1) u + u2 3u 6= 0
( u 2 ) u2 + 3u + 3 = 0 u = 2
( )
x3 + 2 = 2 x = 3 2 y = 3 4 + 3 2 + 1 .
3
=
Va y he phng trnh co nghiem duy nha t ( x;y ) ( 2; 3 4 + 3 2 + 1 .
)
3
x + xy 2 = 0
Bai 23. Gia i he phng trnh .
3
y + 3xy + 3 =0
Li giai
Nha n thay x = 0 kho ng thoa man he phng trnh.
2 x3
Xe t x 0 khi o t phng trnh a u cu a he ta co y = .
x
2 x3
Thay y = va o phng trnh th hai cua he ta c:
x
3
2 x3 2 x3 3
+ 3x. + 3 = 0 x3 1 = 7 .( )
x
x
3 3 1 3 7
x 3 1= 7 x= 1+ 3 7 y= .
3
1+ 3 7
3
Va y he phng trnh co nghiem duy nha t ( x;y = ) 3 1+ 3 7; 1 7 .
3
1 + 3 7
Nhan xet: Dang he na y c nha c t i trong chu e Co ng tr va nhan theo
theo ve hai phng trnh cu a he ca c em theo do i.
2 2
2x y + 3xy = 4x + 9y
Bai 24. Gia i he phng trnh
2
7y + 6= 2x + 9x
Li giai
Nha n thay 2x2 + 3x 9 =0 kho ng thoa man he phng trnh.
4x2
Ru t y = t phng trnh a u cu a he thay va o phng trnh th
2x2 + 3x 9
hai ta c:
183
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4x2
7. 0
+ 6= 2x2 + 9x ( x + 2 )( 2x 1) 2x2 + 9x 27 =
( )
2x2 + 3x 9
16
x = 2 x = 2,y =
7
1 1 1
x =
x =,y =
2 2 7

9 3 33 9 3 33
x = x= ,y = 3
4 4
Va y he phng trnh co bon nghie m:
33
; =3 .
( x;y ) = 2; 167 ; 21 ; 17 ; 9 43


4 2 2
x y 4xy + y = 1
Bai 25. Gia i he phng trnh .
2
2x 2x + y =1
Li giai
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
4 2 2
x y 4xy + y = 1

y =2x2 + 2x 1
4 2
2 2 2
x 2x + 2x 1 4x 2x + 2x 1 + 2x + 2x 1
( ) ( ) ( ) =
1
.
2x 2 + 2x 1
y =
4 4 3 2
( 0
x 4x 8x + 8x 4x + 5 = )

2x2 + 2x 1
y =
2 2
4 2
0
x 4 x x + ( 2x 1) + 4 =
( ) x = 0
.
y = 1
y =2x2 + 2x 1
Va y he phng trnh co nghiem duy nha t ( x;y=
) ( 0; 1) .
x + y = 1

Bai 26. Gia i he phng trnh 2x + 3y + 25 .
( 4 x )(13 y ) =2x + y + 2

184
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Li giai
ie u kien: ( 4 x )(13 y ) 0,2x + y + 2 0 .
Rut y = 1 x t phng trnh au va the vao phng trnh th hai cua he ta c:
( 4 x )(12 + x ) = xx ++ 328 ( x + 3) ( 4 x )( x + 12 ) = 28 x .
x + 3)( 28 x ) 0
( x + 3)( 28 x ) 0 (
2 2
2 2
( )( 0 )
( x + 3) ( 4 x )( x + 12 ) = ( 28 x ) x + 6x 22 x + 8x 16 =
x = 31 3 x = 31 3,y = 4 31
.
x = 4 2 4 x = 4 2 4,y = 5 4 2
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m:
( x;y )= ( 31 3;4 31 ; 4 2 4;5 4 2 .
)( )
3
2x + y ( x + 1) = 4x 2
Bai 27. Gia i he phng trnh .
4 6
5x 4x = y2
Li giai
Nha n thay x = 1 kho ng thoa man he phng trnh.
4x2 2x3
Ru t y = t phng trnh a u thay va o phng trnh th hai cu a he ,
x +1
2
4x2 2x3
ta c: 5x 4 4x 6 = .

x +1

=
x 0 = x 0,y
= 0

x 4 ( x 1)( 2x 1) 2x 2 + 7x + 11 =0 x =1 x =1,y =1 .
( ) 1 1 1
=x =x = ,y
2 2 2
.
1 1
Va y he phng trnh co ba nghie m ( x;y ) = ( 0;0 ) ; (1;1) ; ; .
2 2
2
x 2xy + x + y = 0
Bai 28. Gia i he phng trnh .
4 2 2 2
x 4x y + 3x + y = 0
Li giai
1
Nha n thay x = kho ng thoa man he phng trnh.
2
185
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1 x2 + x
Xe t x t phng trnh a u cu a he suy ra y = .
2 2x 1
x2 + x
Thay y = va o phng trnh th hai cua he ta c:
2x 1
2
x2 + x x2 + x
x 4 4x2 . + 3x2 + 0.
=
2x 1
2x 1
=
x 0 = x 0,y
= 0

x ( x 1)( x 2 ) 2x 2 + 1 =0 x =1 x =1,y =2 .
( )

= = 2
x 2 = x 2,y
Va y he phng trnh co ba nghie m ( x;y ) = ( 0;0 ) ; (1;2 ) ; ( 2;2 ) .
4 3 2 2 3 4
x + 2x y 2x y 12xy + 8y + 1 =0
Bai 29. Gia i he phng trnh .
3 4
2x y + y = 1
Li giai
Co ng theo ve hai phng trnh cu a he ta c:
x 4 + 4x3 y 2x 2 y2 12xy3 + 9y 4 =
0.
2
x2 + 2xy 3y2
( ) =
0 x2 + 2xy 3y2 =0.
Ta gia i he phng trnh:
1 1
y = x x= ,y =
2 2 4 4
x + 2xy 3y = 0 3 3
3 x = 3y .
4 1 1
2x y + y = 1 3 4 ,y
2x y + y =1 =
x 4= 4
3 3

Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m:=
( x;y ) 41 ; 41 ; 41 ; 41 .
3 3 3 3
3 y x2 + 3
xy +=
Bai 30. Gia i he phng trnh .
2 2 2
y + 4x + 2 ( x 1) x 2x + 4= 2x + 5
Li giai
Cach 1: He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
2
y x + 3 x = 3
.
2 2 2
y + 4x + 2 ( x 1) x 2x + 4= 2x + 5
186
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2
y= x + 3 + x
.
2 2 2
y + 4x + 2 ( x 1) x 2x + 4= 2x + 5
2
y= x + 3 + x
2 .
x + x2 + 3 + 4x + 2 ( x 1) x2 2x + 4= 2x 2 + 5

2
y= x + 3 + x
.
2 2
4x 2 + 2x x + 3 + 2 ( x 1) x 2x + 4 =0 (1)
Xe t phng trnh (1):
4x 2 + 2x x2 + 3 + 2 ( x 1) x 2 2x + 4 =0.
2
x + x x2 + 3 =1 x + (1 x ) ( x 1) + 3 (2) .
Xe t ha m so f(t) =
t + t t 2 + 3 tre n , ta co :
t2
f '(t) = 1 + t 2 + 3 + > 0, t ne n f(t) la ha m ong bie n tren .
t2 + 3
1 1 + 13
V vay (2) f(x) =f(1 x) x =1 x x = y = .
2 2
1 1 + 13
Va y he phng trnh co nghiem duy nha t ( x;y ) = ; .
2 2
Cach 2: Vie t la i he phng trnh d i da ng:
y = x + x2 + 3 y = x + x2 + 3
2
2
2
2 2 2 2 .
y= (1 x ) + 3 + 1 x x + x + 3 = (1 x ) + 3 +1 x

2
Nha n xe t: x + x2 + 3 > 0, (1 x ) + 3 + 1 x > 0 do o
2 2
2 2 2
x + x +3 = (1 x ) + 3 + 1 x x + x 2 + 3= (1 x ) + 3 +1 x

1 1 + 13
x =1 x x = y = .
2 2
2
x + 3y = 9
Bai 31. Gia i he phng trnh 4 2
.
0
y + 4 ( 2x 3) y 48y 48x + 155 =
187
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Li giai
9 x2
Rut y = t phng trnh au thay vao phng trnh th hai cua he ta c:
3
4 2
9 x2 9 x2 9 x2
+ 4 ( 2x 3) 48. 48x + 155 =
0.
3
3 3
2
x 4 18x2 + 36x 18 =0 x 4 =18 ( x 1) .
3 9+6 2

x =
= x2 3 2 ( x 1) 2 2
.
2 3 2 ( x 1)
x = 3 9 6 2
=
x
2 2
Chu e 6. KY THUAT PHAN TCH THANH NHAN T
A. NOI DUNG PHNG PHAP
F(x,y) = 0
He co dang .
G(x,y) = 0
Trong o co mo t phng trnh cua he a c ve phng trnh tch.
Chang han F(x,y) = f(x,y).g(x,y) la mot a thc phan tch c thanh nhan t.
Tho ng thng F(x,y) la phng trnh ba c hai hai a n hoa c la phng trnh
a ng ca p tm c mi lien he gi a ca c bie n trong phng trnh.
Mo t so tch hay ga p:
a + b =1 + ab ( a 1)( b 1) =0
.
au + bv = ab + uv ( a v )( b u ) = 0
Khi o he phng trnh tng ng v i:
f(x,y).g(x,y)
= 0= f(x,y) 0= g(x,y) 0
.
= G(x,y) 0 = G(x,y) 0= G(x,y) 0
Phng pha p phan tch thanh nha n t o i v i phng trnh ba c hai hai an
Phng trnh ba c hai hai an co da ng:
F(x,y) = ax2 + bxy + cy 2 + dx + ey + f = 0 .
Vie t la i phng trnh d i da ng: ax2 + ( by + d ) x + cy2 + ey + f =0.
Coi ay la phng trnh bac hai an x va tham so la y ta c:
2 2
=
( by + d ) 4 cy2 + ey + =
( f ) ( my + p ) .
188
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( by + d ) + my + p
x =
Suy ra 2a .
( by + d ) my p
x =
2a
( by + d ) + my + p ( by + d ) my p
Do o F(x,y) =
a x x .
2a 2a

Khi o he phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
( by + d ) + my + p ( by + d ) my p
a x
x =0
2a 2a .



G(x,y) = 0
o i v i phng trnh a ng ca p ba c cao ca c em xem them he a ng ca p trong
cu ng cuo n sa ch.
Chu y: Da u hie u nha n biet a ve tch oi vi phng trnh cu a he.
- He co mo t phng hoa c hai phng trnh ba c hai(nhng nh la co the la
2
ba c bon hoa c ba c sa u v ba ng phe p a=
t x t= ,x t 3 a phng trnh ba c hai
ve phng trnh ba c cao hn).
- He co phng trnh ang ca p.
- He co mo t phng trnh co da ng tch uv Av Bu + AB =
0.
- He co mo t phng trnh la ha ng ang th c da ng ...
- He co mo t phng trnh ch a ca n( th ng a ve nha n t chung ba ng
php t n ph; phe p nhan lie n hp hoa c a nh gia ha m so ).
Nhan xet. Ngoa i ra ne u tha nh thao s du ng ma y tnh cam tay ta phan tch
phng trnh tha nh nha n t het s c n gia n:
Mo t v du phan tch thanh nha n t ba ng ma y tnh Bo tu i:
x3 3x2 + 2 y2 3 y =
( 0 (1).
)
Ta ca n tm mo i lien he gi a x va y tho ng thng se chu ng se co dang tuye n
tnh .
+ Bc 1: Nhap vao may so 1000 va lu vao bien nh A(SHIFT + STO + A).
+ Bc 2: Nhap va o may tnh phng trnh (1) v i chu y a u co y ta thay
ba ng bien nh A v a lu.
+ Bc 3: Gia i nghie m tren ma y (SHIFT + SOLVE).
+ Bc 4: Ma y hie n ke t qua 1000 t c la .
189
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Va y ta vie t la i phng trnh di dang:
.
Nh vay ne u s du ng thanh thu c ma y tnh Bo tui ca c ba i toa n s du ng tnh
n ie u cu a ha m so vie c tm ra ha m a c trng kha n gia n.
B. BAI TAP MAU
Bai 1. (TSH Khoi A 2011) Giai he phng trnh:
Li giai
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
2 2 3 2 2 3
5x y 4xy + 3y = 2(x + y) 0 5x y 4xy + 3y = 2(x + y) 0
2 2 2 2

xy x + y + 2 x + y =
( ) ( ) 2 0
2xy 0 ( xy 1) x 2 + y 2 = ( )

xy = 1
2 2 3
5x y 4xy + 3y 2 ( x + y ) =
0 2 2 3
5x y 4xy + 3y 2 ( x + y ) = 0

xy = 1
2 2
x2 + y2 = 2
x + y = 2 2
0
5x y 4xy2 + 3y3 2 ( x + y ) =

xy = 1

5x2 y2 4xy.y2 + 3y 4 2 xy + y2 =
( 0 )


x2 + y2 = 2

3y x2 + y2 + 2x2 y 4xy2 2 ( x + y ) =
( ) 0

190
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x = 1
xy = 1 y = 1
4 2
3y 6y + 3 = 0 x = 1
2 2

x + y = 2 y = 1

0
6y + 2x 2 y 4xy 2 2 ( x + y ) = x2 + y2 =
2

0
(1 xy )( 2y x ) =

x = 1 2 10 2 10
x = x =
y = 1 5

5 .
x = 1 10 10

y = 5 y=
y = 1 5
Va y he phng trnh co bon nghie m la :
10 2 10 10
( x;y ) =( 1; 1) ; (1;1) ; 2 510 ; ; ; .
5 5 5
2
y =(5x + 4)(4 x)
Bai 2. Gia i he phng trnh .
2 2
0
y 5x 4xy + 16x 8y + 16 =
Li giai
Vie t la i phng trnh th hai cu a he d i dang:
y2 (4x + 8)y 5x2 + 16x + 16 =
0.
Coi ay la phng trnh bac hai v i an la y ta c
y= (4x + 8)2 4 5x2 + 16x + 16 = 36x 2 .
( )
4x + 8 + 6x
= y = 5x + 4
Suy ra 2 .
4x + 8 6x
y = = 4x
2
TH1: V i =
y 5x + 4 , thay va o phng trnh a u cu a he ta c
x = 0 y = 4
x(5x + 4) =0 4 .
x = y= 0
5
TH2: V i y= 4 x , thay va o phng trnh th nha t cu a he ta c
191
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x = 0 y = 4
x(4 x) =0 .
x = 4 y = 0

=
Va y he phng trnh co ba nghie m la ( x;y ) ( 0;4 ) , ( 4;0 ) , 45 ;0 .

Nhan xet: a y la da ng he phng trnh ba c hai hai a n a c ba n t i ta
hoa n toan x ly bang phng pha p a trnh ba y trong chu e tr c.
3 3 2 2
x 4y = 6x y 9xy
Bai 3. Gia i he phng trnh .
2
x + y + x y =
Li giai
x + y 0
ie u kien: .
x y 0
Nhan xet: He co phng trnh a u la phng trnh a ng ca p nen ta x ly
phng trnh na y tr c tien.
x3 4y3= 6x2 y 9xy2 ( x 4y ) x2 2xy + y2 = 0 .
( )
2 x = 4y
( x 4y )( x y ) =0 .
x = y
TH1: Ne u x = y thay va o phng trnh th hai cu a he ta c:
2x = 2 x = 2 y = 2 .
TH2: Ne u x = 4y thay va o phng trnh th hai cu a he ta c:
3y + 5y = 2 y = 8 2 15 x = 32 8 15 .
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la ( x;y )= ( 2;2 ); ( 32 8 15;8 2 15 .)
2 2
xy + x + y = x 2y
Bai 4. (TSH Khoi D 2008) Giai he phng trnh .
x 2y y x 1= 2(x y)
Li giai
ie u kien: x 1,y 0 .
Nhan xet: Ro ra ng phng trnh th hai ch a ca n co da ng ph c ta p ta kho ng
x ly c g nen tap trung nghien cu phng trnh au cua he co dang bac hai.
Phng trnh th nha t cu a he tng ng v i:
192
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2 x = y
( x + y ) ( x + y ) 3y2 3xy = 0 ( x + y )( x 2y 1) = 0 =x .
2y + 1
Do x 1,y 0 ne n x = y vo ly.
Va y =
x 2y + 1 thay va o phng trnh th hai cua he ta c:
( 2y + 1) 2y y 2y = 2y + 2 ( y + 1) ( 2y 2 = 0 y = 2 (do y 0 ).
)
Suy ra ( x;y ) = ( 5;2 ) la nghiem cua he phng trnh.
Bai 5. (TSH Khoi B 2013) Giai he phng trnh
.
Li giai
ie u kien: .
Th c hien tng t ca c bai toa n tren ta vie t la i phng trnh au cu a he d i
da ng: .
+ TH1: Ne u thay vao phng trnh th hai cua he ta c:
.
.
.
.
+ TH2: Ne u thay va o phng trnh th hai cu a he ta c:
.
.
.
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la .
193
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Nhan xet: Nh va y mau cho t cua ba i toa n la a ve gia i mo t phng trnh
vo ty ba ng phep nha n lien h p. Ca c nam ga n ay Bo giao du c va o a o ta o
ra t hay a ba i toan gia i he phng trnh ve mo t ba i toan gia i phng trnh
vo ty ba ng ca ch nha n lien hp. e chi tie t them ve phng pha p ba n oc
tham kha o Cuo n Nhng ieu can biet LTH Ky thuat giai nhanh Phng
trnh, bat phng trnh vo ty cu ng ta c gia .
3
2
1 x + xy + 3 = y3
2 2
Bai 6. Gia i he phng trnh x .
2 1 4
( xy + 2 ) + 2 = 2y +
x x
Li giai
ie u kien: x 0 .
Phng trnh th hai cua he tng ng v i:
2
2 1 xy + 2 1 1 1 2
( xy + 2 ) + = 2. xy + 2 = 0 xy + 2 = 0 y =
x2 x x x x2 x
1 2
Thay =
y va o phng trnh th nha t cu a he ta c:
x2 x
3 3
1 x2 1 2 3 1 2
+ x 2 + = 2 .
2 x x x x x
x
x0 3
x= 2 y=
x ( x 2 ) 3x 4 + 4x3 + 2x 2 12x + 6 = 0
( ) .
4
Do 3x 4 + 4x3 + 2x 2 12x + 6 > 0, x .

Va y he phng trnh co nghiem duy nha t ( x;y=
) 2; 43 .

2 2
x + 2x + ( xy 1) = 2x 2 y
Bai 7. Gia i he phng trnh .
3 3 2 3
x y + 3xy 7y = 1
Li giai
Phng trnh th hai nha t cu a he tng ng v i:
2
x 2 + 2x + x 2 y 2 2xy + 1 2x 2 y = 0 ( xy x ) 2 ( xy x ) + 1 = 0 .
2 x +1
( xy x 1) = 0 xy x 1 = 0 y = (do x = 0 kho ng tho a ma n he
x
phng trnh).
194
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x +1
Thay y = va o phng trnh th hai cua he ta c:
x
2 3
3 3 2 3
1 x3 ( x + 1) + 3x2 ( x + 1) 7 ( x + 1) =
( x + 1) + 3x x x+ 1 7 x x+ 1 = x3

3 3
x ( x + 1) + 1 = 8 ( x + 1) x 2 + x + 1 = 2 ( x + 1) .
( )
1 5 1 5 1 5
= x = x = ,y
x2 x 1 = 0 2 2 2 .
1+ 5 1+ 5 1+ 5
= x = x = ,y
2 2 2
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la :

( x;y ) = 1 2 5 ; 1 2 5 ; 1 +2 5 ; 1 +2 5 .

2 2 8xy
x + y + = 16
x + y
Bai 8. Gia i he phng trnh .
2
x 2x x3 x 2 y
+ = +
8y 3 3y 4 2
Li giai
x3 x 2
ie u kien: x + y 0,y 0, + 0.
3y 4
Phng trnh th hai cua he tng ng v i:
x2 2x y x3 x 2 x 2 4x + 3y x2 3y x 2 4x + 6y
+ + = + + = x + = 2 .
8y 3 2 3y 4 8y 6 3y 4 8y 8
2 2
x2 4x + 3y x2 4x + 6y x2 4x + 3y
+ = 4 . = 0.
8y 8
8y 6 8y 6
x2 4x + 3y 2 x = 6y
= 3x= 2y ( 4x + 3y ) .
8y 6 3x = 2y
TH1: Ne u x = 6y thay va o phng trnh a u cua he ta c:
28 168 28
y = x = ,y =
48y2 37 37
36y2 + y2 + = 16 37 .
7y 4 24 4
= y = x = ,y
7 7 7
195
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TH2: Ne u 3x = 2y thay va o phng trnh a u cua he suy ra:

( x;y ) =
( 8;12 ); 138 ; 12 .
13

o i chie u la i ieu kie n ch nha n hai nghie m ( x;y ) = ( 8;12 ); 247 ; 47 .


Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la ( x;y ) = ( 8;12 ); 247 ; 47 .


x 5 + 2y 4 = x y + 1
Bai 9. Gia i he phng trnh 2.
8 y ( x 2 ) + 4 8y = ( y x )

Li giai
ie u kien: x 5,y 2 .
Phng trnh th hai cua he tng ng v i:
2
8 xy 2y + 4 8y = x2 2xy + y2 4 ( xy 2y ) + 8 xy 2 + 4 = (x + y) .
2 2
2 xy 2y + 2
( ) =( x + y ) 2 xy 2y + 2 =x + y
(do 2 xy 2y + 2 > 0,x + y > 0 ).
V vay he phng trnh tr tha nh:
0
2 xy 2y + 2 = x + y x 2 2 y ( x 2 ) + y =
.
x 5 + 2y 4 = x y + 1 x 5 + 2y 4 = x y + 1
2
x2 y =
( 0 ) x 2 =y
.
x 5 + 2y 4 = x y + 1 x 5 + 2y 4 = x y + 1

y= x 2 y= x 2 x = 6
.
x 5 + 2y 4 = x y + 1 x 5 + 2x 8 =3 y = 4
Va y he phng trnh co nghiem duy nha t ( x;y ) = ( 6;4 ) .
2
3y + 1 + 2 ( x += 1) y 4y x 2 + 2y + 1
Bai 10. Gia i he phng trnh .
y ( y x ) =3 3x
Li giai
ie u kien: x2 + 2y + 1 0 .
196
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Phng trnh th nha t cu a he vie t la i d i da ng:
4y2 4y x 2 + 2y + 1 + x 2 + 2y + 1 = x 2 2xy + y 2 .
2 2y x 2 + 2y + 1 = x y
2
2y x 2 + 2y + 1 = ( x y ) .
2
2y x + 2y + 1 = y x
TH1: Ne u 2y x2 + 2y + 1 = x y ke t hp v i phng trnh th hai ta co he
phng trnh:
3y x 0 3y x 0
2
3y x= x + 2y + 1
9y2 6xy 2y 1 =0 9y2 6xy 2y 1 =0
y ( y x ) =3 3x 2 2
y xy + 3x 3 =0 0
3y 2y 18x + 17 =
x = 1
3y x 0
y = 1
3y2 2y + 17
9y2 y. 2y 1 = 0 x = 62 + 4 178 .
3 9
3y2 2y + 17
x = 13 + 178
18 y =
3
TH2: Ne u 2y x2 + 2y + 1 = y x ke t hp v i phng trnh th hai ta co he
phng trnh:
x + y 0 = x 1,y
= 1
2
x + y= x + 2y + 1
y 2 + 2xy 2y 1 = 0 2 1 + 10 .
y ( y x ) =3 3x 2 = x =,y
y xy + 3x 3 =0 3 3
Va y he phng trnh co ba nghie m la :
178 13 + 178 2 1 + 10
;; ; .
( x;y ) = (1;1); 62 + 49 3
3 3
0
( x + y + 1) x y + 2y + 2 =
Bai 11. Gia i he phng trnh , ( x,y ) .
2 2
x + 2 ( x y 3) = y + 2
( )

Phan tch tm li giai: Ta se pha n tch phng trnh a u cu a he suy ngh t
a2 + b
x =
=a xy 2 .
nhie n nha t la a t ,(a 0)
b= x + y b a2
y = 2
197
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Khi o phng trnh th nha t cu a he tr tha nh:
( b + 1) a + b a2 + 2 =0 a2 ( b + 1) a b 2 =0 (1) .
2 2
Ta co (1) la phng trnh ba c 2 cua a co a = ( b + 1) + 4 ( b + 2) = ( b + 3) .
b + 1 ( b + 3) b + 1 + b+3
Suy ra a = = 1 hoa c a= = b+2.
2 2
Do vay vie t la i phng trnh th nha t d i da ng:
( a + 1)( a b 2 ) = 0 ( x y +1 )( xy xy2 = 0. )
Li giai
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
x + y + 2 x y x y + 1 =0
( )( )
x + y + 2 = x y
.
2
x2 + 2 ( x y 3) = y2 + 2 x + 2 ( x y 3) = y2 + 2
( )
( )
2 2
x y = ( x y ) x( y 2 )

.
x2 + 2 ( x y 3) = y2 + 2
( )

2 2 3
y =x ( x y ) + 2 ( x y )
.
x 2 + 2 ( x y 3) = x 2 + 2 ( x y )3 + 2 ( x y )
( )
2 2 3
y =x ( x y ) + 2 ( x y )
.
x 2 x y 4 ) + ( x y )3 8 =0
(
2 2 3
y =x ( x y ) + 2 ( x y )

.
2 x y + 2 x y + 4
( x y 4 ) x + =0
xy +2

x=y 4 = x 3
.
x + y =2 y =1
Va y he phng trnh co nghiem duy nha t ( x;y=
) ( 3; 1) .
Nhan xet. Ca ch kha c xem chu e Ky thua t a t a n phu da ng to ng hieu.
198
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C. BAI TAP REN LUYEN
Bai 1. (TSH Khoi D 2012) Giai he phng trnh:
xy + x 2 =0
3 2 2 2
.
0
2x x y + x + y 2xy y =
Li giai
Ba i toa n na y a c nhac e n trong chu e phng pha p the. Tinh y ta phan
tch c phng trnh th hai cua he d i da ng:
2
y = x2
(x y ()2x y + 1) = 0 .
y 2x + 1
=
Xet tng trng hp ket hp vi phng trnh au cua he tm c cac nghiem:
1 + 5
5 ; ; 5.
( x;y ) =(1;1) ; 1 +2 5 ; 2

2 2
y =+( x 8 ) x (+ 2 )
Bai 2. Gia i he phng trnh .
2
2 0
y ( 8 + 4x ) y 5x + 16x + 16 =
Li giai
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
y2 =+
( x 8) x2 + 2
( )
=
x 0,y
= 4
y=
2 ( x 8) x2 + 2
y =+ ( ) 4x x=2,y =
6
.
0 2 x = 5,y =
9
( y 5x 4 )( y + x 4 ) = y =+
( x 8) ( x2 + 2 )
= = 99
x 19,y
=y 5x + 4
Va y he phng trnh co bon nghie m ( x;y ) = ( 0;4 ); ( 2;6 ); ( 5;9 ); (19;99 ) .
2 2
x 3x = y y 2
Bai 3. Gia i he phng trnh 2
.
x + y ) x2 4x + 5 = ( 2 x ) (x + y) +1
(
Li giai
Phng trnh th nha t cu a he tng ng v i:
2 2
1 3 y= x 1
x 2 3x + 2 =y 2 y y = x .
2 2 y= 2 x
199
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Xe t t ng trng h p va thay va o phng trnh th hai cu a he tm c ca c
nghiem: ( x;y ) = ( 0;2 ) ; (1;0 ) .
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la ( x;y ) = (1;0 ) ; ( 2;0 ) .
2 0
x + 2y + 3 + 2y 3 =
Bai 4. Gia i he phng trnh 2
.
3 3 2
2 x + 2y + 3y ( x + 1) + 6x + 6x + 2 =
( ) 0

Li giai
ie u kien: x2 + 2y + 3 0 .
Phng trnh th hai cua he tng ng v i:
2
2x3 + 6x 2 + 6x + 2 + 4y3 + 3y ( x + 1) =0.
3 2 2
2 ( x + 1) + 3y ( x + 1) + 4y3 =0 ( x + 1 + 2y ) 2 ( x + 1) y ( x + 1) + 2y2 =0

2y = x 1
2y =x 1
2 2
x = 1 .
0
2 ( x + 1) y ( x + 1) + 2y =
y = 0
TH1: Ne u ( x;y ) = ( 1;0 ) th lai thay khong thoa man.
TH2: Ne u 2y =x 1 thay va o phng trnh a u cua he ta c:
14 5
x2 x + 2 =x + 4 x = y= .
9 8
14 5
Va y he phng trnh co nghiem duy nha t ( x;y ) = ; .
9 8
3 2 2 2
x + 2x y 3xy + xy + x
= 2y 2y ( 5y + 1)

Bai 5. Gia i he phng trnh 2 .
x2 + 17y + 12 = 4 ( x + y + 7 ) x 2 + 3x + 8y + 5
( ) ( )

Li giai
Phng trnh th nha t cu a he vie t la i d i da ng:
( x 2y ) ( x2 + 4xy + 5y2 + y + 1) =0 .
2
( x 2y ) ( x + 2y ) + y2 + y + 1 = 0 x = 2y .

Thay vao phng trnh th hai cua he ta c:
200
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2 2
2
( 4y + 17y + 12 = 4 ( 3y + 7 ) 4y 2 + 14y + 5 4y 2 + 11y 2 = 0 .
) ( ) ( )
11 + 3 17 11 + 3 17 11 + 3 17

y =
x =
,y =
4y 2 + 11y 2 = 0 8 4 8 .
11 + 3 17 11 + 3 17 11 + 3 17
= y = x = ,y
8 4 8
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la :

11 + 3 17 11 + 3 17 11 + 3 17 11 + 3 17

( x;y ) = ; ; ; .
4 8 4 8

2 2 2
x + 9 x + 9y = 22 ( y 1)
( )( )
Bai 6. Gia i he phng trnh .
2 2 4y y + 1
x =
Li giai
ie u kien: y 1 .
Phng trnh th nha t cu a he c vie t la i d i dang:
2 2 2
( x + 9) ( x + 9 + 9 ( y 1=)) 22 ( y 1) .
2 2
2
x2 + 9
( ) + 9 ( y 1) ( x + 9) 22 ( y 1) = 0 (1) .
Coi (1) la phng trnh bac hai v i an la x2 + 9 va tham so la y , ta c:
2 2 2
= 81( y 1) + 4.22 ( y 1) = 169 ( y 1) .
x2 + 9
2
Suy ra x= 2y 11 hoa c x2 =
11y + 2 .
2
TH1: Ne u x= 2y 11 thay va o phng trnh th hai ta c:
2y 13
= 4y y + 1 .
Phng trnh na y vo nghiem v e phng trnh co nghiem ta co
13
2y 13 0 y 4y y + 1 > 2y > 2y 13 .
2
TH2: Ne u x2 =
11y + 2 thay va o phng trnh th hai cu a he ta c:
11y =4y y + 1 y =0 x2 =2x= 2.
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la ( x;y ) = ( 2;0 .
)
201
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x + y =2
Bai 7. Gia i he phng trnh 2 2
.
4x + y = 5 ( 2x y ) xy
Li giai
ie u kien: xy 0 .
Ro rang he na y co mo t phng trnh ba c nha t ne n ta co the x ly ba ng phep
the . Tuy nhie n ne u e y phng trnh th hai:
2
4x2 + y2= 5 ( 2x y ) xy ( 2x y ) 5 ( 2y y ) xy + 4xy= 0 .

2x y xy =0
( 2x y xy )( 2x y 4 xy ) = 0 .
2x y 4 xy =
0
T i a y th c hie n xe t trng h p va the t phng trnh au va o hai phng
25 + 8 6 28 8 6
trnh tre n de da ng tm c nghiem ( x;y ) = (1;1) ; ; .
25
25
2 2 2 2
( x y ) x + xy + y + 3= 3 x + y + 2
( ) ( )
Bai 8. Gia i he phng trnh .
2
4 x + 2 + 16 3y = x + 8
Li giai
16
ie u kien: x 2,y .
3
Phng trnh a u cu a he vie t la i d i da ng:
3 3
x3 y3 + 3 ( x y ) = 3x2 + 3y2 + 2 ( x 1) = ( y + 1) x = y + 2 .
Thay vao phng trnh th hai cua he ta c:
2
4 y + 4 + 16 3y = ( y + 2 ) + 8 .
e gia i phng trnh vo ty tre n ta du ng ky thua t nha n lien h p tm c
nghiem y = 0,y = 3 .
=
He phng trnh co hai nghiem la ( x;y ) ( 2;0 ); ( 1; 3) .
2
3y + 1 + 2 ( x += 1) y 4y x 2 + 2y + 1
Bai 9. Gia i he phng trnh .
y ( y x ) =3 3y
Li giai
ie u kien: x2 + 2y + 1 0 .
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Phng trnh th nha t cu a he vie t la i d i da ng:
4y2 4y x 2 + 2y + 1 + x 2 + 2y + 1 = x 2 2xy + y 2 .
2 2y x 2 + 2y + 1 = x y
2
2y x 2 + 2y + 1 = x y
( ) .
2
2y x + 2y + 1 = y x
Xe t tr ng hp va ke t h p v i phng trnh th hai cua he tm c
17
( x;y ) = (1;1); 415 ; .
51 3
415 17
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la ( x;y ) = (1;1) ; ; .
51 3
2 2
x + y + x = 3

Bai 10. Gia i he phng trnh 2 2 2xy .
x 4y + =
1
x + y 1
ie u kien: x + y 1 0 .
Phng trnh th hai cua he tng ng v i:
( x + y 1) ( x2 4y2 ) + x + y + 2xy + 1 =0 .
x + 2y 1 =0
( x + 2y 1) ( x2 xy 2y2 + y + 1) = 0 2 2
.
x xy 2y + y + 1 =0
Xe t tr ng h p tm c ca c nghiem cua he phng trnh la
11 17 1 + 2 14 3 + 14
(=
x;y ) (1;1) ; (1; 1) ; ( 2; 1) ; ; ; ; ;
10 10 5 5
1 + 2 14 3 14
;
5
5
2
y + 3 = x x y 3

Bai 11. Gia i he phng trnh y .
12 = x + 3 2 4y x
x
Li giai
ie u kien: x 0,y 3,4y x 0 .
203
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He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
2 2
2
y + 3 + 1 = x 1
y + 3 + y + 3 = x x
2 2 .
2
3 ( 4y x ) = x 2x 4y x
4y x + x
( 4y x x =
)( 0 )

Ba n o c t chia tr ng hp va gia i tiep tm c:

( x;y ) = ( 3;1); 1 6145 ; 19 18145 .

2 2 2xy
x + y + =
1
Bai 12. Gia i he phng trnh x+y .
2
x+y = x y
Li giai
ie u kien: x + y > 0 .
Phng trnh th nha t cu a he tng ng v i:
x y.
( x + y ) ( x2 + y2 ) + 2xy =+
2
( x + y ) ( x + y ) 2xy + 2xy x y =0.

( x + y )( x + y 1)( x + y + 1) 2xy ( x + y 1) =0.
x + y = 1
( x + y 1) ( x2 + y2 + x + y ) = 0 2 2
.
x + y + x + y =0
1.
V x + y > 0 x 2 + y 2 + x + y > 0 do o x + y =
Va y he phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
x = 1

x + y = 1 y = 0
2

.
x + y = x y x = 2

y = 3
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la =
( x;y ) (1;0 ); ( 2;3) .
2 2 2xy
x + y + = 1
Bai 13. Gia i he phng trnh x+y .
3 2
x+y = x y
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Li giai
Th c hie n tng t ba i tren a ve gia i he phng trnh:
1 x = 1
x + y = y = 1 x y= 1 x
3 2
3 2 2 .
x y = x + y x (1 x ) 1 =0 0
( x 1) x + 2 = y = 0 ( )
Va y he phng trnh co nghiem duy nha t ( x;y ) = (1;0 ) .
2 4 2 4 2
2 x y + 2xy y + 1= 2 3 2 x y ( )
Bai 14. Gia i he phng trnh .
2
xy +x= 3
Li giai
ie u kien: x y2 0,x2 y 4 + 2xy2 y 4 + 1 0 .
Phng trnh th nha t cu a he vie t la i d i da ng:
2
2
( xy + 1) y 4 = 2 1 + xy 2 3 2 y 2 .
( ( ) )
Nha n tha y y = 0 kho ng tho a ma n he phng trnh ne n chia hai ve phng
xy 2 + 1
trnh tre n cho y2 va a t t = ta c:
y2
t 3 2

t 2 1 = 2t 2 3 2
( ) 2 t = 3.
2 2
t 1= 4t 8t 3 2 + 4 3 2 ( ) ( )

Va y he phng trnh tng ng v i:
x = 2
xy2 + 1 2 1
=3 y = y = 1
2 3x
y .
2 x 1 = 3 x x= 4 2
x y + x =3 3x
2 +1
y =
Va y he phng trnh co bon nghie m la
( x;y ) =( 2; 1); ( 2;1); 4 2; 2 + 1 ; 4 2; 2 + 1 .

3 3
)
x 2y + 3 ( x 2y = 3xy ( x y )
Bai 15. Gia i he phng trnh .
3 2
2x = 1 + 4y 3x( 2x + 1 )

Li giai
1
ie u kien: x .
2
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He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
2 2 2 2
x 2y ) x ( xy + y + 3 ( x
) =2y ) 0 x 2y ) x xy + y ( =
+ 3 0 )
( (
.
2x3 = 1 + 4y 3x 2 2x + 1
( ) 2x3 = 1 + 4y 3x 2 2x + 1
( )

x = 2y
x = 2y
3 3 3 .
2x = 1 + 2x 3x2 2x + 1 2
( ) 2x + 3x 2x + 1 ( 2x + 1 ) =0
x = 2y
x = 2y

2 x + 2x + 1 = 0
x + 2x + 1
( ) ( 2x + 2x + 1 =
0 )
0
2x + 2x + 1 =
x =
1 2,y =22 2

1 5 1 5 .
=x = ,y
4 2
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la :
1 5 1 5
( x;y ) =
(1 2;2 2 2 ;
) ; .

4 2
3 2 3 2
x 3x y + 4y = 4 ( x 2y )
Bai 16. Gia i he phng trnh .
x + y + x 2y =3
Li giai
ie u kien: x + y 0,x 2y 0 .
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
x = 6
x + y x 2 4xy + 4y 2 =x 2y 2 x = 2y
( ) ( ( )
) y = 3
x + y = 1 .
x = 2
3
x + y + x 2y = 3
x + y + x 2y =

y = 1
=
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la ( x;y ) ( 6;3); ( 2; 1) .
4 2 2 2
y 2xy + 7y = x + 7x + 8
Bai 17. Gia i he phng trnh .
2
3y + 13 = 15 2x + x + 1
206
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Li giai
15
ie u kien: 1 x .
2
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
2 2
2 2 2 0
y x + 7 y x 8=
( ) ( 0 ) y x 1 y x + 8 =
( )( )
.
2 2
3y + 13 = 15 2x + x + 1 3y + 13 = 15 2x + x + 1
Xe t tr ng h p va tm c nghiem cu a he la ( x;y=
) ( 3; 2 ); ( 3;2 ) .
2 xy y + x + y = 5
Bai 18. Gia i he phng trnh .
5 x + 1 y =1
Li giai
ie u kien: xy y 0,y 1,x 5 .
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
x + y 5
2 xy y = 5 x y
4 ( xy y ) = 25 10 ( x + y ) + x2 + y2 + 2xy .
5 x + 1 y =1
6 x y + 2 5 x 5y + xy = 1
x + y 5 x + y = 5

x2 + y2 2xy 10x 6y + 25 =0 x 2 + y 2 2xy 10x 6y + 25 =0

2 5 x 5y + xy = x + y 5 2 5 x 5y + xy = x + y 5
x = 5
.
y = 0
Va y he phng trnh co nghiem duy nha t ( x;y ) = ( 5;0 ) .
x 2y = xy
Bai 19. Gia i he phng trnh .
x 1 2y 1 =1
Li giai
1
ie u kien: x 1,y .
2
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
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+ xy 0 x =
2 y 0
x y y =
( x+ y
) ( )( )
.
2y 1 1
x 1 = 2y 1 1
x 1 =
= x 4y= x 4y
.
x 1 = 2y 1 1
2y 1 1 4y 1 =
= = x = 2 x = 10
x 4y x 4y
1 hoa c 5 .
4y 1 = 1 + 2y 1 4y 1 = 2y + 2 2y 1 y = y =
2 2
1 5
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la ( x;y ) = 2; ; 10; .
2 2
2 2
x + 4y = 5
Bai 20. Gia i he phng trnh .
( x + y 1) y 1 = ( y 2) x+y
Li giai
ie u kien: x + y 0,y 1 .
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
2 2
x + 4y = 5
.
( x + y ) y 1 y 1 ( y 1) x + y + x + y =0
2 2 2 2
x + 4y = 5 x + 4y = 5
.
x + y y 1 +1
( )( x + y y 1 =0
) x + y = y 1

x2 + 4y2 =
5 x =1,y =
1
.
x = 1 =x 1,y
= 1
o i chie u v i ieu kie n suy ra ( x;y ) = (1;1) .
Va y he phng trnh co nghiem duy nha t ( x;y ) = (1;1) .
x
2 + 6y = x 2y
Bai 21. Gia i he phng trnh y .

x + x 2y =x + 3y 2
Li giai
ie u kien: y 0,x 2y 0,x + x 2y 0 .
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
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x 2y y x 2y 6y 2 =
0 x 2y + 2y =
0
x 2y 3y
( )( )
.
x + x 2y =x + 3y 2
x + x 2y =x + 3y 2

=
Xe t tr ng h p va tm ra nghiem cua he la ( x;y ) (12; 2 ); 38 ; 94 .

2 2
x + y + x y= x y + 1
Bai 22. Gia i he phng trnh 2 .
x2 + y2 =
( 1 )

Li giai
ie u kien: x + y 0,x y 0 .
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
x + y 1 x y 1 = x + y =
1
( )( 0 )
1
2
x y = .
x2 + y2 = 2 2
( 1) x + y2 = 1
( )
x + y = 1
2 1
2 x + y =
1 2 2
= x 0,y= 1
( x + y ) 2xy =
0
4x y 4xy =
x = 1,y = 0 .
x y = 1 x y =1
2 2 2 x = 0,y = 1
2 1 4x y + 4xy = 0
( x y ) + 2xy =

o i chie u v i ieu kie n nha n hai nghiem ( x;y ) = ( 0;1) ; (1;0 ) .
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la ( x;y ) = ( 0;1) ; (1;0 ) .
1 1
x = y
Bai 23. Gia i he phng trnh x y.
3
x= 2y 1
Li giai
ie u kien: xy 0 .
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
2 2 x = y
y x 1= x y 1
( ) ( ) ) 0
( x y ) ( xy + 1=
xy = 1

3
3 3
x= 2y 1 x= 2y 1
x= 2y 1
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x = 1
x = y

3 y = 1
x 2x + 1 = 0
x = y
2 x = 1 5 .
y= 1 ( x 1) x + x 1 =0
( ) 2
x

4 1 5
x + x + 2 =0 y =
2
Va y he phng trnh co ba nghie m la :
5 1 + 5 1 + 5 1 + 5
=( x;y ) ; ; ; .
(1;1) ; 1 +2 2 2
2
3 2
x 3x + x + 3y = xy + 3
Bai 24. Gia i he phng trnh .
2 2
2y 9x 3xy = y 3x
Li giai
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
x = 3
2
( x 3) x2 y + 1 =
( ) 0 x y + 1 = 0
.
( y 3x )( 3x + 2y 1) =0 y = 3x
0
3x + 2y 1 =
x = 3

y = 3x
x = 3 x = 3,y = 4

3x + 2y 1 =0 = x 3,y= 9

x = 1,y = 2 .
x2 y + 1 = 0
1 5
y = 3x x = ,y =
2 4
2 0
x y + 1 =
3x + 2y 1 =0
Va y he phng trnh co bon nghie m la:

( x;y ) =
( 3; 4 ); ( 3;9 ); ( 1;2 ); 21 ; 45 .

2
( x y )

Bai 25. Gia i he phng trnh 2x + 1 + 2y + 1 = 2 .

( x + y )( x + 2y ) + 3x + 2y = 4
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Li giai
1 1
ie u kien: x ,y .
2 2
Phng trnh th hai cua he tng ng v i:
y= 1 x
x2 + 3 ( y + 1) x + 2y 2 + 2y 4 = 0
x+4.
y=
2
TH1: Ne u y = 1 x thay va o phng trnh th nha t cu a he ta c:
2 2
2x 1 2
4x 4x + 1
2x + 1 + =
3 2x 4x 2
4 + 2 3 + 4x= .
2 4

a t u = 3 + 4x 4x2 a ve phng trnh ba c bon vi a n la u cuo i cung tm
c hai nghiem cua phng trnh la:
1 3 1 3 3 1
x=
,x = ; ; ; .
( x;y ) =
2 2 2 2 2 2
x+4 1 1
TH2: Ne u y = x 3 vo ly do x .
2 2 2
1 3 3 1
; ; ; .
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la ( x;y ) =
2 2 2 2
3 2y2 + 11 (17 y ) + y
4x = ( )
Bai 26. Gia i he phng trnh .
) 5 ( 3x + 2 )
y ( y 3x + 3=
Li giai
3
ie u kien: x ,y 0 .
5
Phng trnh th hai cua he tng ng v i:
y0
( y + 5)( y 3x 2=) =
0 y 3x + 2 .
y2
Thay x = va o phng trnh th nha t cua he ta c:
3
y2 4y 17
4. 3 =2y2 + 11 (17 y ) + y
( ) y =2y2 + 11 (17 y )
( )
3 3
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y 17 1
=2y2 + 11 (17 y ) ( y 17 )
( ) + 2y2 + 11 =
0
4y 17 4y 17
+ y + y
3 3
y = 17 x = 5 .
Va y he phng trnh co nghiem duy nha t . ( x;y ) = ( 5;17 ) .
.
2 2
= x + 1 + 1 x2 y3 + 3y 2
4x ( )

Bai 27. Gia i he phng trnh 2 .
x2 + y + 1 2 = 2 1 + 1 x
( )

y
Li giai
ie u kien: y 0 .
Phng trnh th hai cua he tng ng v i:
y = 2
( y + 2 ) x2 + y2 1 = 0 2 2 .
( ) x + y = 1
TH1: Ne u y = 2 thay va o phng trnh th nha t cu a he ta c:
x = 0
=
4x 2 x2 x2 + 1 + 1 .
x = 2 2
Suy ra ( x;y ) =( 0; 2 ) ; 2 2; 2 ; 2 2; 2 .
( )( )
TH2: Ne u x2 + y2 = 1 1 x,y 1 .
Khi o phng trnh th nha t cu a he vie t la i d i dang:
4 x2 + 1 x2 + y3 3y 2 =0.
4x2 + 4 x 4 4 + x2 4 x2 ( )
Ta co : 4 =
x2 + 1 x2 = 4, x 1;1 .
4 x2 + 1 + x2 4 x2 + 1 + x2
2
Ma t kha c: y3 3y 2 + 4 = y3 3y + 2 = ( y 1) ( y + 2 ) 0, y 1;1 .
Suy ra 4 x2 + 1 x2 + y3 3y 2 0 .
Da u ba ng xay ra khi va ch khi=
x 0,y
= 1.
Va y he phng trnh co bon nghie m la :
( x;y ) =( 0; 2 ); ( 0;1); ( 2 2; 2 ; 2 2; 2 .
)( )
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Bai 28. Gia i he phng trnh:
5 3 4 2 2 3 2
( ) 0
x + ( 7 4y ) x + ( 4 y ) x + ( 4 9y ) x + 4y 6y + 2 x 2y + 2y 2y =

2 3 2 4
4 x + y + 1 = 1 + 5x 2y + 4y x
Li giai
ie u kien: x + y2 + 1 0 .
Nha n xe t. Vie c phng trnh a u cua he ra t co ng kenh co du ng y cu a ta c gia
ne n suy ngh ngay en viec ru t c y theo x va ng c la i.
Vie t la i phng trnh th nha t cu a he phng trnh d i da ng:
4 2
( x y ) ( x + 1) + x2 + y2 + ( y 1) =0 x =y .
Thay y = x va o phng trnh th hai cua he ta c:
4 x2 + x + 1 = 1 + 5x 2x3 + 4x 2 x 4
x2 + x x2 + x 5 + 4 x2 + x + 1 1 =
( )( ) 0.
2
1 3 3
a t u= x2 + x + 1= x + + khi o phng trnh tr tha nh:
2 4 2
2 2 2
( u 1)( u 6) + 4u 1 =
0 (u u 1 u2 + u 5 =
)( 0
)
1+ 5
3 u =
u
2 2
1 + 21
u =
2
2 1+ 5
=
x + x +1 = x 1 3 + 2 5
2 2 .

1 + 21 1 19 2 21
x2 + x + 1 = x=
2 2
Va y he phng trnh co bon nghie m la :

( x;y ) = 1 3 + 2 5 ; 1 3 + 2 5 ; 1 19 2 21 ; 1 19 2 21
2 2 2 2

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3 2 43
2xy 3y 4xy + =0
Bai 29. Gia i he phng trnh 27 .
3 3
= 6x2 y2 + 2x2 + y2 + 1
6x y + 3xy + 5xy
Li giai
Phng trnh th hai cua he vie t la i d i da ng:
( 3xy 1) ( 2x2 + y2 + xy + 1) =0 xy = 13 .
2
y 3y2
V 2x2 + y2 + xy + 1= x + + x2 + + 1 > 0, x,y .
2 4
1
Thay xy = va o phng trnh th nha t cua he ta c:
3
43 2 4 43
2xy.y 2 3y2 4xy + =0 y 2 3y 2 + =0 .
27 3 3 27
1 1
y = x = 1,y =
3 3.
1 1
= y = =
x 1,y
3 3
1 1
Vy h phng trnh co hai nghim la : ( x;y ) = 1; ; 1; .
3 3
3 3
( xy + 1) + x ( y 1) = x 1
Bai 30. Gia i he phng trnh .
3
x 4xy 4 = 0
Li giai
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
3
3 3 x=2,y =
( xy + 1) + xy + 1 = x + x xy + 1 =x
3 2.
0 x 4xy 4 =0 1
x3 4xy 4 = = =
x 2,y 2
3 1
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la ( x;y ) = 2; ; 2; .
2 2
2
2x x y + 2= 2x + 2y + 3 + 4x + 2y + 6
Bai 31. Gia i he phng trnh .
2 2
x y + x 3y =2
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Li giai
ie u kien: 2x + 2y + 3 0,4x + 2y + 6 0 .
Phng trnh th hai cua he vie t la i d i da ng:
y= x 1
( x + y + 2 )( x y 1) = 0 x + y =2 .

o i chie u v i ieu kie n suy ra y= x 1 .
Thay y= x 1 va o phng trnh au cu a he ta c:
2x2 2x + =
3 4x + 1 + 6x + 4 .
2x2 4x= 4x + 1 ( x + 1) + ( 6x + 4 ( x + 2 ) .)
1 1
x2 2x 2 +
( ) + =0.
4x + 1 + x + 1 6x + 4 + x + 2
x = 0 x = 0,y = 1
x 2 2x =0 .
=
x 2 = = 1
x 2,y
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la ( x;y=
) ( 0; 1); ( 2;1) .
Bai 32. Gia i he phng trnh
3 3 2
7x + y + 3xy ( x y ) 12x + 6x 1 =0
2 .
y + 7y 17 = 9x + 2 ( x + 6 ) 5 2y
Li giai
5
ie u kien: y .
2
Phng trnh th nha t cu a he vie t la i d i da ng:
3 3
( 2x 1) = ( x y ) 2x 1 = x y x = 1 y .
Thay x = 1 y va o phng trnh th hai cua he ta c:
y2 + 7y 17 = 9 (1 y ) + 2 ( 7 y ) 5 2y .
14 2y ) y 2 + 16y 26 0
( ( )
y 2 + 16y 26 = (14 2y ) 5 2y 2
y 2 + 16y 26 = (14 2y )2 ( 5 2y )
( )

2
(14 2y ) y + 16y 26 0
( y =
2
) x =1,y =
2
.
4 3 2 y = 39,y =
38 x = 38
0
y + 40y + 72y 160y 304 =
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la x; y =
1;2 ; 39; 38 .
( ) ( )( )
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2 2
x + y ) x +(y + 2xy =+
x
) y
(
Bai 33. Gia i he phng trnh .
log2 = x + y log3 x 2 + y 2 + 1 1

Li giai
ie u kien: x + y > 0,x2 + y2 > 0 .
Phng trnh a u cu a he vie t la i d i da ng:
( x + y 1) ( x2 + y2 + x + y ) =0 .
TH1: Nu x + y =1 y =1 x thay v o phng trnh th hai ca h ta c:
log3 x 2 + y 2 + 1 1 = 0 x 2 + y 2 + 1 1 = 1 .

x2 + y2 + 1 = 2 x2 + y2 = 3 .
y = 1 x
Ta co he phng trnh: 2 2
.
x + y = 3
1 5 1+ 5
y = 1 x = x = ,y
2 2 .
2 2
x + (1 x ) 3 =0 1+ 5 1 5
= x = ,y
2 2
TH2: Ne u x2 + y2 + x + y =0 v do x2 + y2 > 0,x + y > 0 nen trng h p nay
vo nghiem.
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la :

( x;y ) = 1 2 5 ; 1 +2 5 ; 1 +2 5 ; 1 2 5 .

x =
+ 3 2 ( 3y x )( y + 1)

Bai 34. Gia i he phng trnh .
x+5
3y 2 = xy 2y 2
2
Li giai
2
ie u kien: x 5,3y x 0,y .
3
Phng trnh th nha t cu a he tng ng v i:
3y x + 2 ( 3y x )( y + 1) 3 ( y + 1) =0 .
216
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( 3y x y + 1 )( 3y x + 3 y + 1 = 0 3y x = y + 1 x = 2y 1
)
Thay =
x 2y 1 va o phng trnh th hai cua he ta c:
3y 2 y + 2= 2y 2 3y 2 .
2 ( y 2)
=
( y 2 )( 2y + 1) .
3y 2 + y + 2
2
( y 2) 2y 1 = 0 y = 2 x = 1 .

3y 2 + y + 2
2 2 2
Do 2y 1 2. 1 < 0 .
3y 2 + y + 2 2 3
2+
3
Va y he phng trnh co nghiem duy nha t ( x;y ) = (1;2 ) .
Bai 35. Tm nghiem h u ty cu a he phng trnh
2 2 2
+
3 17x y 6x + 4 = x 6 2x + x + y 3y + 2
.
2
3x + xy + 1= x + 1
Li giai
17x 2 y 2 6x + y 0

2x2 + x + y 0
ie u kien:
3x2 + xy + 1 0

x + 1 0
Bnh phng hai ve phng trnh th hai cu a he ta c:
x = 0
3x2 + xy + 1 = x + 1 x ( 3x + y 1) = 0 .
3x + y 1 =0
TH1: Ne u x = 0 thay va o phng trnh th hai cu a he ta c:
3 4 y2 + 3y 6 y 2 =0.
=
e gia i phng trnh na y ta a t t y, ( t 0 ) phng trnh tr tha nh:
3 4 t 4 + 3t 2 6t 2 =0 3 4 t 4 =3t 2 + 6t + 2 .
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3t 2 + 6t + 2 0
3t 2 + 6t + 2 0
2 .
4 2 4 3 2
9 4 t =3t + 6t + 2
( ) ( ) 0
18t 36t + 24t + 24t 32 =

2
3t + 6t + 2 0
(phng trnh nay khong co nghiem hu ty).
4 3 2
0
18t 36t + 24t + 24t 32 =
TH2: Ne u 3x + y 1 = 0 y = 1 3x thay va o phng trnh th nha t cua he
ta c: 3 8x2 + 3 8x 6 2x2 2x + 1 + 1 =0.
e gia i phng trnh na y ta a t hai a n phu:

= 8x2 + 3
u
u2 4v2 = 8x 1 thay va o phng trnh ta c:
v= 2x2 2x + 1
u2 4v2 = 3u 6v ( u 2v )( u + 2v 3) = 0 .
2 2 0.
2 2x2 2x + 1 + 8x2 + 3 3
8x + 3 2 2x 2x + 1 =

8x2 + 3 2 2x2 2x + 1 =0 8x2 + 3 =2 2x2 2x + 1 .
1 5
8x2 + 3 = 4 2x2 2x + 1 x =
( ) y= .
8 8
2
1 1
V 2 2x2 2x + 1 + 8x2 + 3=
3 2 2 x + + 8x2 + 3 3 .
2 2
1
2 + 3 3= 2 + 3 3> 0
2
1 5
Va y nghie m duy nha t thoa man yeu cau bai toa n la ( x;y ) = ; .
8 8
3 2
x + ( 2 y ) x + ( 2 3y ) x = 5 ( y + 1)
Bai 36. Gia i he phng trnh .
2
3 y + 1= 3x 14x + 14
Li giai
ie u kien: y 1 .
Phng trnh th nha t cu a he vie t la i d i da ng:
( x y 1) ( x2 + 3x + 5) = 0 x = y + 1 .
Thay vao phng trnh th hai cua he ta c:
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2
3 y + 1= 3 ( y + 1) 14 ( y + 1) + 14 3 y + 1= 3y 2 8y + 3 .
3y2 8y + 3 0
3y2 8y + 3 0 y = 0
2 .
4 3 2
9 ( y + 1=
) 3y2 8y + 3
( ) 0
9y 48y + 82y 57y = y = 3

Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la ( x;y ) = (1;0 ) ; ( 4;3) .
x +1
= 8y2 + 8y + 1
Bai 37. Gia i he phng trnh 2 .
4 x3 8y3 6 x2 + 4y2 + 3 ( x 2y ) 1 =
( ) ( ) 0

Li giai
ie u kien: x 1 .
Phng trnh th hai cua he vie t la i d i da ng:
3 3
( 2x 1) = ( 4y + 1) 2x 1 = 4y + 1 2y = x 1 .
Thay vao phng trnh au cu a he ta c:
x +1 2 x +1
= 2 ( x 1) + 4 ( x 1) + 1 = 2x2 1 .
2 2
2 x = 1 =x 1,y
= 0
2x 1 0
1 + 5 1 + 5 5 + 5.
4 2
8x 8x x + 1 =0
,y =
x = 4 x = 4 8

1+ 5 5 + 5
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la ( x;y ) = (1;0 ) ; ; .
4 8

2 2
x 3y + 2 + 2 x y + 2y = 0
Bai 38. Gia i he phng trnh .
2 3
x + 4x y + 1 + 2x 1 =1
Li giai
ie u kien: y 0,x2 + 4x y + 1 0 .
Nha n thay y = 0 kho ng thoa man he phng trnh.
Xe t y > 0 phng trnh th nha t cu a he vie t la i d i da ng:
x2 + 2 x2 + 2 y>0 x2 + 2
+2 =
3 0 = 1=
y x2 + 2 .
y y y
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Thay vao phng trnh th hai cua he ta c:
1 9
4x 1 + 3 2x 1 = 1 x = y= .
2 4
1 9
Va y he phng trnh co nghiem duy nha t ( x;y ) = ; .
2 4
x + y 2(x y) 2
=
+ xy +
xy x+ y xy
Bai 39. Gia i he phng trnh .
1 1
+x+y= 4
y x
Li giai
ie u kien: x > 0,y > 0 .
Phng trnh a u cu a he tng ng v i:
2
1 1 2 1 1
+ + xy 2 ( x 0
y) = 2 ( x y + xy =
) 0
x y xy x
y
2
x y
2 ( x y + xy =
) 0.

xy
2
x y x > y
xy =0 x y =xy .
xy x2 y2
x + y 2 xy =

3+ 5
x > y x
2 .
He phng trnh tng ng vi: x + y 2 xy= x2 y2
3 5
1 1
+x+y= 4 x = 2
y x
3+ 5 3 5
Va y he phng trnh co nghiem duy nha t ( x;y ) = ; .

2 2
2 2 2
( x y + 2 ) + x + 4x + 3 y 1 =
( 81)( )
Bai 40. Gia i he phng trnh .
x + y 2= ( x + 1)( y 1)

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Li giai
ie u kien: x 0,y 2 .
Bnh phng hai ve phng trnh th hai cu a he ta c:
x + y 2 + 2 x ( y 2) = ( x + 1)( y 1) .
2
xy 2x 2 xy 2x + 1 =0 ( xy 2x 1
) =0 xy 2x =1
1
y= + 2 (do x = 0 kho ng tho a man he phng trnh).
x
1
Thay y= 2 + va o phng trnh au cu a he tm c ca c nghie m:
x

( x;y ) = 21 ;4 ; 2; 25 .

2 4 2
4x + y =4 4xy
Bai 41. Gia i he phng trnh sau 2 .
x 2 xy2 + 8 =
y 4 ( )

Lii giai
Phng trnh th hai cua he pha n tch c tha nh:
2 2 =x y2 + 4
(y x 4 )( y x + 4) = 0 .
=x y2 4
TH1: Ne u =
x y2 + 4 thay va o phng trnh a u cua he ta c:
2
4 y2 + 4
( ) + y 4 =4 4 y2 + 4 y2 phng trnh vo nghiem.
( )
TH2: Ne u =
x y2 4 thay va o phng trnh a u cua he ta c:
2
4 y2 4
( ) + y 4 =4 4 y2 4 y2 9y 4 48y2 + 60 =0 .
( )
y2 = 2 x =
2,y =
2

2 10 .
2 10
y = ,y =
x =
3 3 3
Va y he phng trnh co bon nghie m la:
2 10 2 10
( x;y ) =( 2; 2 ; 2; 2 ; ;
)( ) ; ; .

3 3 3 3
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Chu e 8. KY THUAT AT AN PHU DANG AI SO
A. NOI DUNG PHNG PHAP
No i dung chu e nay e ca p e n phng pha p chung khi a t a n phu da ng ai
so o la tm nha n t chung gia hai phng trnh cua he(Ca c bai toa n a t a n
phu c co n c nha c e n trong ca c chu e khac nh he phng trnh co
ch can th c, a t a n phu da ng to ng hieu).
Cac dau hien at an phu
- He o i x ng loai I.
- He co ca c nha n t la p la i trong hai phng trnh cua he.
- He co to ng va hie u x + y ; x y .
- Co ch a ca n th c at a n m i ba ng ca n th c(ca c bai toa n a t an phu oi
v i he ch a ca n th c ra t hay).
- Mo t so he sau khi a t a n phu a ve he oi xng loai I va loa i II.
Ap dung vi he co so hang chung xuat hien cac phng trnh trong he.
u= x y
Thng th cac bai toan bien oi n gian ta at an phu vi
v = xy
2
3 2 2 3 ( 4
x + y ) ( x + y ) 2xy =
x + xy + x y + y = 4
V du 1.
( x + y ) x2 + xy + y2 = 6 2
( ) ( x + y ) 6
( x + y ) xy =

2
u= x + y u u 2v
( = 4 )

Ta a t a n phu nh sau: khi o c he m i: n
v = xy u u2 v =
( 6 )

gia n hn nhieu.
oi khi chia(hoac nhan) hai ve cua phng trnh trong he vi mot bieu thc
nao o cua bien( thng n gian la x,x2 ,x3 ;y,y2 ,y3 ) luc nay se c he
mi co the at an phu c.
2
x + xy 3x + y =0
V du 2. .
4 2 2 2
x + 3x y 5x + y =0
M i a u nhn he na y cha co g a c bie t tuy nhie n, v i x 0 ta chia hai ve
cu a phng trnh a u cho x va chia hai ve cu a phng trnh th hai cho x2 ta
c he m i nh sau:
254
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y y
x + + y 3 = 0 x + + y 3 =0
x x
2
2 .
2 y y
x + + 3y 5 =0 x + +y5=0
x2
x
y u + v = 0
e n a y ta a t u =+
x ;v =
y 3 . Khi o he tr thanh: 2 .
x u + v 2 =0
B. BAI TAP MAU
2 2
( 2x 1) + 4 ( y 1) = 25
Bai 1. Gia i he phng trnh .
6
xy ( x 1)( y 2 ) =
Li giai
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i :
2 2 2 2

( 2x 1) + 4 ( y= 1) 25
( 2x 1) + 4 ( y= 1) 25
.
x2 x y2 2y =
( )( ) 6 4x2 4x y2 2y =
( )( 24 )

2 2
( 2x 1) + 4 ( y 1) = 25
2 2
.
24
( 2x 1) 1 ( y 1) 1 =

2 2
a t u =
( 2x 1) ,v =
( y 1) , ( u,v 0 ) he phng trnh tr thanh :
x = 3
2
u + 4v = 25 u,v 0 u = 25 ( 2x 1) = 25 y = 1
.
24 2 x = 2
( u 1)( v 1) = v = 0 0
( y 1) =
y = 1
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la (=
x;y ) ( 3;1); ( 2;1) .
5
x2 + y + x3 y + xy2 + xy =
4
Bai 2. Giai he phng trnh(TSH Khoi A 2008)
5
x 4 + y 2 + xy (1 + 2x ) =
4
Li giai
5
x2 + y + xy x2 + y + 1 =
( )
4.
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
2 5
x2 + y + xy =
( )
4
255
Tm ti liu Ton ? Chuyn nh - www.toanmath.com
=u x2 + y
a t he phng trnh tr tha nh :
v = xy
5 5
u + v ( u + 1) = v= u2
4 4
.
u2 + v = 5 u + v ( u + 1) = 5
4 4
5 5 5
u2 u2 u = 0,v =
v = 4 v =
4 4 .
2 1 3
u3 + u 2 + u =0 0 u = ,v =
4 u ( 2u + 1) = 2 2
5
u = 0 2
x + y = 0 x = 3
4
TH1 : Ne u 5 5 .
v = xy = 25
4 4 y = 3
16
1 1 3
u= x2 + y = 2x + x 3 =0
2 2
TH2 : Ne u 3 .
3 3 xy =
v = xy = 2
2 2
0
x 1) 2x2 + 2x + 3 =
( x = 1 )
(
3.
3
xy = y =
2 2
3
5 25
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la ( x;y ) =
1; ; 3 ; 3 .
2 4
16
3 3
1
x y + x + xy + x =
Bai 3. Gia i he phng trnh .
3 2 3
8
4x y + 4x 8xy 17x =
Li giai
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i :
3 1
x ( y + 1) + x ( y + 1) =
.
2 2 2 2 3
4x x y + x + 2x y 8x y 8xy 17x =
( ) 8

xy + x x2 + 1 =
) 1
(

( ) .
2
4x ( xy + x ) 8xy x 2 + 1 17x =
( 8 )

256
Tm ti liu Ton ? Chuyn nh - www.toanmath.com
2
xy + x ) x
( + 1 =
) 1
(
.
2
4x ( xy + x ) 8 ( xy + x ) x 2 + 1 + 8x x 2 + 1 17x =
( ) ( ) 8

x = 0
2
xy + x ) x( + 1 =
1) 2 2
( 0.

2
(
4 ( xy + x ) + 8 x + 1 17 = )
0
4x ( xy + x ) + 8x x2 + 1 17x =
( )
( xy + x ) x2 + 1 = (1 )

2 2
( 0
4 ( xy + x ) + 8 x + 1 17 =)
.
( xy + x ) x2 + 1 =
( 1)

a t u =xy + x,v =x2 + 1, ( v 1) he phng trnh tr tha nh :
= uv 1= uv 1
2 2 2 3
8v 17 0
4u += 4u v + 8v= 17v2 0
x = 1

1 1 y = 3
uv = 1 v1 u = xy + x = 2
3 2
2 2 .
8v 17v + 4 =0 v = 2 2 x = 1
x + 1 =2
1
y =
2
3 1
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la ( x;y ) = 1; ; 1; .
2 2
3 64
x ( 3y + 55) =
Bai 4. Gia i he phng trnh .
2
xy y + 3y + 3 = 12 + 51x
( )

Li giai
Nha n thay x = 0 kho ng thoa man he phng trnh.
Xe t x 0 vie t la i he phng trnh di dang:
3 3
4 = 3y + 55 4 = 3 ( y + 1) + 52
x x
.
3 2 12 3 4
y + 3y + 3y = + 51 ( y + 1) = 3. + 52
x x
257
Tm ti liu Ton ? Chuyn nh - www.toanmath.com
4
u =
a t x he phng trnh tr tha nh:

v= y + 1
3
u= 3v + 52 u3 v3 = 3 ( v u )
3 .
3
v= 3u + 52 u= 3v + 52
2 2 0
( u v ) u + uv + v + 3 = u = v
3 .
3 u= 3u + 52
u= 3v + 52
4
=
( u 4 ) u2 +
( =
0
4u + 13 = u 4=
) 4 x 1
x .
u = v = v 4= y + 1 = y 3
4
Va y he phng trnh co nghiem duy nha t ( x;y ) = (1;3) .
2x2 + xy = 1

Bai 5. Gia i he phng trnh 9x2 3xy .
= 1+
4 2
2 (1 x ) 2 (1 x )
Li giai
Cach 1: ieu kie n : x 1 .
3x
a t u = khi o he phng trnh tr tha nh :
2
2 (1 x )
2
2x + xy =1
2 x,u la hai nghiem cu a phng trnh 2t 2 + yt 1 =0.
1
2u + uy =
1 3x 1 1 3
Theo vi-e t ta co : xu = .x = x= y=2.
2 2 2 2
2 (1 x )
1 + 3 1 + 3
=
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m ( x;y ) ;2 ; ;2 .
2 2

1 2x 2
Cach 2: Ru t y = the va o phng trnh th hai cu a he.
x
y 2x + 1 = 2x + 9
( )

Bai 6. Gia i he phng trnh 3x2 x 35 .
x3 + =2y3 + 4y
2 4 8
258
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Li giai
1 1
y x + = x + + 4
2 2
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i: 3
1 1 3
x + 2 x + 2 4 =2y + 4y

1 yt = t + 4
a t t= x + he phng trnh tr tha nh: 3 3
.
2 t t 4 =2y + 4y
yt = t + 4 yt = t + 4

3 3
3 3
.
0
t + 2y ( t + 4 ) 4y = 0
t + 2y yt 4y =
yt = t + 4 yt = t + 4
3 3
3 3
0
t + 2y y ( t + 4 ) = 0
t + 2y y.yt =
y = t

yt = t + 4 yt = t + 4 yt = t + 4
3 3 2
2 .
0
t + 2y y t = 0 t = 2y
( t y ) ( t + 2y ) =
yt = t + 4
1 17
t =
2
y = t 1 17
2 y =
t = t + 4 y = t 2
2

t = 2y t = t + 4 1 + 17
2 t =
2y = 2y + 4 2

y = 1 + 17
2
1 1 17 17
x + = x =
2 2 2
1 17 1 17
= y = y
2 2
.

17 17
= x + 1 1 + = x
2 2 2

+ 17 1 + 17
= y 1= y
2 2
259
Tm ti liu Ton ? Chuyn nh - www.toanmath.com
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la :
17 1 17 17 1 + 17
( x;y )= ; ; ; .

2 2 2 2
Nhan xet: Ba n o c tham kha o mo t so ba i ta p tng t da ng na y trong chu e
Ky thua t he so ba t nh.
3
x + y = 2xy2
Bai 7. Gia i he phng trnh .
3 9
x + y = 2xy 4
Li giai
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
3 2 3 2
= x + y 2xy = x + y 2xy
2
2
.
x + y3 x= xy3 + y6 2xy 4
( )( 2xy2 x= xy3 + y 6 2xy 4
) ( )

3 2
x + y3 = 2xy 2
2xy
x + y =
2xy 2 = 0 .
2xy 2 x 2 xy3 + y 6 y 2 =
( 0 )
2 3 6 2
x xy + y y =0
2
2xy = 0 x = 0

x + y3 =
2xy2 y = 0
3
.
x + y3 = 2xy2 2xy 2
x + y =
2 3 6 2 2 3 6 2
x xy + y y = 0 x xy + y y =0
= x + y3 2xy 2 = x + y3 2xy 2
Xe t he phng trnh .
2 3 6 2 3
y2 0
x xy + y = y6 y2
x xy +=
Nghiem=
x 0,y
= 0 a xe t tre n ta xe t xy 0 khi o he phng trnh tng
ng v i:
x 2 x 2
+y = 2xy +y = 2xy
y y
2 2 .
x xy + y 4 =
1 x 2
2 1
+ y 3xy =
y y
x
a t u =+ y2 ,v =
xy he phng trnh tr tha nh:
y
260
Tm ti liu Ton ? Chuyn nh - www.toanmath.com
u = 2

v = 1
= u 2v= u 2v
2 u = 1 .
3v 1 0
u=
3v 1 4v2 = 2
1
v =
4

x x = 1 + 5
2 4
+ y = 2
y 1
x = 1 y =
xy = 1
y = 1 1+ 5
x 2 1
.
x = 1 1+ 5
y + y = 2 x =
y =1
4
1
xy = 1
4 y =
1+ 5

Va y he phng trnh co nam nghiem la:

=
( x;y ) ( 0;0 ); ( 1; 1); (1;1); 1 + 5 ; 1 ; 1 + 5 ; 1 .
4 4
1 + 5 1 + 5
xy + x + 1 =7y
Bai 8. Gia i he phng trnh 2 2 .
x y + xy + 1 =13y2
Li giai
Nha n thay y = 0 kho ng thoa man he phng trnh.
Xe t y 0 khi o he phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
x 1 x 1
x + + = 7 +x + = 7
y y y y
2
.
x2 + x + 1 = 13 1 x
y y2 x + y y = 13

1 x
a t u =+
x ,v =khi o he phng trnh tr tha nh:
y y
261
Tm ti liu Ton ? Chuyn nh - www.toanmath.com
u = 5

u + v = 7 v= 7 u v = 7 u v = 12
2 2 2 .
= u v 13 u =( 7 u ) =
13 u + u 20 0 u = 4

v = 3
1
x + = 5
y
2 x = 3
x 12y + 5y + 1 =0
= 12
y = 1
y x = 12y
x = 1 .
1 2
4 3y 4y + 1 = 0
x + =
1
y
x x = 3y y 3

= 3
y
1
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la ( x;y ) = ( 3;1) ; 1; .
3
2
x + xy 3x + y =0
Bai 9. Gia i he phng trnh .
4 2 2 2
x + 3x y 5x + y =0
Li giai
y = 0
Neu x = 0 2 y = 0 ( x;y ) = ( 0;0 ) la mot nghiem cua he phng trnh.
y = 0
Xe t x 0 chia phng trnh th nha t cua he cho x , chia phng trnh th hai
cu a he cho x2 ta c:
y y
x + + y 3 = 0 x + + y 3 = 0
x x
2
2 .
2 y
x + + 3y 5 =0 x + y + y 5 =0

x2
x
y
a t u= x + he phng trnh tr tha nh:
x
u = 1

u +=y3 0 u +=y3 0 y=4
2 2 .
u +=y 5 0 u =u 2 0 u = 2

y = 1
262
Tm ti liu Ton ? Chuyn nh - www.toanmath.com
y
x + = 1 2
x + x + 4 =0
x
y = 4 y = 4 x = 1
.
2
x + y =2 x 2x + 1 =0 y = 1

x y = 1

y = 1
Va y he phng trnh co nghiem duy nha t ( x;y ) = (1;1) .
2 2
x + y + xy + 1 = 4y
Bai 10. Gia i he phng trnh 2
.
2
y ( x + y ) = 2x + 7y + 2
Li giai
2
x + 1 + y ( x + y ) =4y

He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i: 2
.
2
y ( x + y )= 2 x + 1 + 7y( )

Nha n thay y = 0 kho ng thoa man he phng trnh.
Xe t y 0 vie t la i he d i dang:
x2 + 1
+x+y= 4
y
.
2
2
( x + y=
) 2. x y+ 1 + 7

x2 + 1
u =
a t y he phng trnh tr tha nh:

v= x + y
u + v = 4 u= 4 v u = 4 v
2
2 .
= 2u + 7 v v) + 7 =
2 ( 4 = v2 v + 2v 15 0
x2 + 1
=9
y

u =9,v =
5 x + y =5 x = 2,y =
5
.
=u 1,v
= 3 x2 + 1 =x 1,y
= 2
=1
y
x + y = 3

Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la ( x;y ) = ( 2;5); (1;2 ) .
263
Tm ti liu Ton ? Chuyn nh - www.toanmath.com
4x2 y + y2 + 2 = 7xy

Bai 11. Gia i he phng trnh 4 2 4 2 2 4 .
16x y + y= + 4 25y x
25
Li giai
Nha n thay xy = 0 kho ng thoa man he phng trnh.
Xe t xy 0 khi o vie t la i he phng trnh d i dang :
y2 + 2
4x + = 7
xy
.
2 y 4 + 4y 2 + 4
16x + =
25
x2 y2

y2 + 2
a= =
t u 4x,v khi o he phng trnh tr tha nh :
xy
4x = 4
= x 1,y
= 1
2
y + 2 x 1,y
= 2
=3 =
u + v = 7 u + v= 7 u= 4,v= 3 xy 3
2 2
=
x =,y 1 .
u + v = 25 uv
= 12 =
u 3,v
= 4 4x = 3 4
2
y + 2 3
x = ,y = 3
xy = 4 4


=
Va y he phng trnh co bo n nghie m la ( x;y ) (1;1) ; (1;2 ); 43 ;1 ; 43 ; 3 .

Nhan xet. Ta co the th c hie n tng t v i ba i toan sau :
4x2 y + y2 + 2 = 7y

4 2 4 2 2 4 .
16x y + y= + 4 25y x
25
2
=
2x y xy 2xy (1 x )
2
Bai 12. Gia i he phng trnh .
1
x2 + 2y2 1 +
( ) = 12
xy
Li giai
ie u kien: xy 0 .
264
Tm ti liu Ton ? Chuyn nh - www.toanmath.com
2x2 y xy2 + 2x y = 2xy

He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i: 2 2
1 2 .
( )
x + 2y 2 2 + 12
+ 1 =
x y xy
xy + 1 xy + 1
2xy
2x ( xy + 1) y ( xy + 1) = 2. = 2
y x
1 2x 2 1 2y 2
2 2 .
2 + 2 + x + 2 2 + + y =12 1 1
y y x x x + y + 2 y + x = 12

xy + 1 xy + 1
=
a t u = ,v he phng trnh tr tha nh:
y x
2 v 2u 2 = u 2,v
= 2
2u v = =
2 2
2 2 2 22 .
12 12 u=
,v =
u + 2v = u + 2 ( 2u 2 ) = 9 9
xy + 1
=2
y
xy + 1
=2
x x = 1
.
xy + 1 2 y = 1
=
y 9
xy + 1
22
=
x 9
Va y he phng trnh co nghiem duy nha t ( x;y ) = (1;1) .
4 3 2 2
6x x
( x y ) ( y + 12 ) x =
6

Bai 13. Gia i he phng trnh 2
.
5x 4 x2 1 y 2 11x 2 =
( ) 5

Li giai
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
2
(6 x2 1 x x2 1 y2 x2 y =
) ( ) 0

.
2 2
5 x 2 1 x 2 1 y 2 x 2 = 0
( ) ( )
Nha n thay x = 1 kho ng thoa man he phng trnh.
265
Tm ti liu Ton ? Chuyn nh - www.toanmath.com
2
Xe t x2 1 0 chia hai ve cu a phng trnh cho x2 1 ta c:
( )
2 2

6 xy x y = 0
x2 1 x2 1
.
2
2 x
5 y 2 = 0
x 1
x
a t u = khi o he phng trnh tr tha nh:
x2 1
6
2 2 6
uy + u y 6 =0 uy ( u + y ) =
uy = u + y
2 2
.
2 2 12
u + y 5 = 0 5 u + y =
5
( u + y ) 2uy = ( )
u+y
6 6
uy = u + y uy = u + y
.
3
0 0
( u + y 3) ( u + y )2 + 3 ( u + y ) + 4 =
( u + y ) 5 ( u + y ) 12 =
x 1 17
2 =2 x =
u = 2 4
x 1
= uy 2 = =
y 1= y 1 y 1
.
3 u = 1
u + y = x 1 5
= 1 x =
2
y = 2
x 1 2
y = 2 y = 2
Va y he phng trnh co bon nghie m la :

( x;y ) = 1 2 5 ;2 ; 1 +2 5 ;2 ; 1 4 17 ;1 ; 1 + 4 17 ;1 .

3 2 2
( 0
9xy 24y + 27x + 40 y + 3x 16 = )
Bai 14. Gia i he phng trnh .
2 0
y + ( 9x 10 ) y + 3 ( x + 3) =
Li giai
Cach 1: Vie t la i he phng trnh d i da ng:
y2 + 3x + 9xy +=
1 2 5y 4
( )

2 2
.
y + 3x ( 9xy + 1) = ( 5y 4 )
( )

266
Tm ti liu Ton ? Chuyn nh - www.toanmath.com
a t u =y2 + 3x,v =9xy + 1 khi o he phng trnh tr tha nh:
v 2 ( 5y 4 )
u +=
2
u,v la hai nghiem cu a phng trnh:
uv ( 5y 4 )
=
2 2
t 2 2 ( 5y 4 ) t + ( 5y 4 ) = 0 t ( 5y 4 )
( ) = 0 t = 5y 4 .

=
x 0,y = 1

=
u 5y 4 2
y + 3x = 5y 4 1 + 21 7
V vay x = ,y =2 .
v 5y 4
= 9xy + 1= 5y 4 9 3
1 + 21 7
x= ,y= 2 +
9 3
Va y he phng trnh co ba nghie m la :

( x;y ) =( 0; 1); 1 + 9 21 ;2 37 ; 1 +9 21 ;2 + 37 .

2 2
y + 3x ( 9xy + 1) = ( 5y 4 )
( ) (1)
Cach 2: Vie t la i he phng trnh d i da ng
2
y + 3x = 10y 9xy 9 (2)
1
Nha n thay xy = kho ng thoa man he phng trnh.
9
1
Xet xy khi o nhan theo ve vao (2) vi 9xy + 1 va so sanh vi (1) ta c:
9
2
( 9xy + 1)(10y 9xy 9 ) = ( 5y 4 ) .
2
( 5y 4 ) .
( 9xy + 1) 2 ( 5y 4 ) ( 9xy + 1) =
2 5
( 5y 4 ) ( 9xy + 1) = 0 9xy = 5y 5 xy =
9
( y 1) .
Khi o (2) tr tha nh y2 + 3x 5y + 4 =0 . Nhan tha y y = 0 kho ng tho a ma n
do vay nha n va o hai ve vi y ta c:
1
y3 + 3xy 5y2 + 4y =0 y3 + ( 5y 5) 5y2 + 4y =0 .
3
y = 1
3y3 15y2 + 17y 5 =
0 ( y 1) 3y2 12y + 5 =
( 0
7 . )
y= 2
3
267
Tm ti liu Ton ? Chuyn nh - www.toanmath.com
u(x,y) + v(x,y) = t(x,y)
Nhan xet: To ng qua t dang he na y co da ng trong o
u(x,y).v(x,y) = s(x,y)
t 2 ( x,y ) 4s(x,y) . D i ay toi trnh ba y mo t so ba i ta p tng t cho ca c em
re n luye n pha n xa khi ga p he da ng tre n.
2 2
7x 8xy + 4y = 6xy + 4
Bai 15. Gia i he phng trnh .
12x 4 4xy 7x 2 + 4y 2 =
( 4 + 12xy 23x 2 y 2
)

Li giai
He phng trnh a ho tng ng v i:
2 2
7x 8xy + 4y = 6xy + 4
2
.
4 3 3 2 2
12x 28x y 16xy + 32x y =( 3xy + 2 )
3x2 4xy + 4y2 + 4x 2 4xy = 2 3xy + 2
( )


( ) ( ) .
2
4x ( x y ) 3x2 4xy + 4y 2 = ( 3xy + 2 )
( )

a t u = 3x2 4xy + 4y2 ,v = 4x2 4xy khi o ta co he phng trnh:
v 2 ( 3xy + 2 )
u +=
2
u,v la hai nghiem cu a phng trnh:
uv ( 3xy + 2 )
=
2 2
t 2 2 ( 3xy + 2 ) t + ( 3xy + 2 ) = 0 ( t 3xy 2 ) = 0 t = 3xy + 2 .
Va y ba i toan a ve gia i he phng trnh:
2 2 2 2
3x 4xy + 4y = 3xy + 2 x 4y = 0
2 .
2
4x 4xy = 3xy + 2 4x 4xy = 3xy + 2
= x 2,y
= 1

x =2,y = 1
x = 2y
2 1
x = 2y x = ,y = .
2 15 15
4x 4xy = 3xy + 2 2 1
x = ,y =
15 15
Va y he phng trnh co bon nghie m la:
2 1 2 1
=
( x;y ) ( 2;1); ( 2; 1); ; ; ; .
15 15 15 15
268
Tm ti liu Ton ? Chuyn nh - www.toanmath.com
2 2
x + 3x ( y 4 ) + 4y + 4 =0
Bai 16. Gia i he phng trnh .
3 2 2
12 y + 1 x + 8y + ( 3xy 34 ) x 1 =
( ) 0

Li giai
Gia i he phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
2 2 2
x + 4y ( 3xy + 2 ) = ( 6x 1)
( ) x2 + 4y 2 =6x 1
.
x 2 + 4y 2 + 3xy +=
2 2 ( 6x 1) 3xy + 2 = 6x 1

Gia i he phng trnh ba ng phng pha p the hoa c he ba c hai hai a n tong qua t
tm c ca c nghiem:
2
4 11
( x;y ) = 5
,k = + 3 6 267 91 .
(1;1) ; k; 5k 4k 3
6 267 91
He phng trnh co hai nghiem la:
2
4 11
( x;y ) = 5
,k = + 3 6 267 91 .
(1;1) ; k; 5k 4k 3
6 267 91
2 2
x xy y = 1
Bai 17. Gia i he phng trnh .
3yx3 + 1 5y2 x2 + 3y 2 3y2 x = y2 + 1
( ) ( )

Li giai
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
2 2
x y + 3xy + 1 = 4xy
2 .
( x y2 ( 3xy +=
) 1) 5x2 y2 6xy + 1

a t u =x2 y 2 ,v =3xy + 1 he phng trnh tr tha nh:
u + v =4xy
2 2
u,v la hai nghiem cu a phng trnh:
uv= 5x y 6xy + 1
t 2 4xy + 5x 2 y 2 6xy + 1 =0.
2 2
xy= 2xy + x y + 6xy 1
Suy ra =
t 2xy x2 y2 + 6xy 1 xy= 1 .
2 2
xy= 2xy x y + 6xy 1
269
Tm ti liu Ton ? Chuyn nh - www.toanmath.com
Va y he phng trnh tng ng v i:
x = 1

=xy 1= xy 1 y = 1
2 2
2 2
.
x xy y =1 x y =0 x = 1

y = 1
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la ( x;y ) = ( 1; 1) ; (1;1) .
Cach 2: a t u =x2 y 2 ,v =xy a ve he phng trnh:
u v =1
2
.
u ( 3v + 1)= 5v 6v + 1
Gia i he phng trnh na y ba ng phng pha p the ta co ket qua tng t .
2
( v 1)( 3v + 1) = 5v2 6v + 1 ( v 1) = 0 v = 1.
x2 y2 =
0 x =1,y =
1
.
xy = 1 =x 1,y
= 1
2 2
( )
5 x + y + 6xy + 3x + y = 0
Bai 18. Gia i he phng trnh .
3 3 2
0
7 ( x + y ) + 2x + 6xy + 2 =
Li giai
Cach 1: Vie t la i he phng trnh d i da ng:
2 2 2
( ) 0
( 3x + y ) + 2 3x + 6xy + 7y + 3 ( 3x + y ) =
.
( 2
( 3x + y ) 3x2 + 6xy + 7y 2 = )

=u 3x + y
a t 2 2
.
v = 3x + 6xy + 7y
Khi o he phng trnh tr tha nh:
u2 + 2v + 3u =
0 uv = 2
3 2
.
uv =2 u + 3u 4 =0
uv = 2 u = 1,v = 2
2 .
( u 1)( u + 2 ) =0 u = 2,v = 1
270
Tm ti liu Ton ? Chuyn nh - www.toanmath.com
3x + y =1
TH1: Ne u u =1,v =2 2 2
he na y vo nghie m.
3x + 6xy + 7y =2
3
2 x=
3x + y = 4 .
TH2: Ne u u =
2,v =
1 2 2

3x + 6xy + 7y =1 y = 1
4
3 1
Va y he phng trnh co nghiem duy nha t ( x;y ) = ; .
4 4
Cach 2: Vie t la i he phng trnh d i da ng:
2 2
0
4 ( x + y ) + ( x y ) + 2 ( x + y ) + ( x y ) =
.
3 3
2
8 ( x + y ) + ( x y ) =
2 2
u= x + y 4u + v + 2u + v =0
e n a y a t a ve he phng trnh: 3 .
3
v= x y 8u + v =2
2
( x 3y )( 20x 9y + 33) + 49y + 33y = 0
Bai 19. Gia i he phng trnh 2
.
2 3
2 ( x y ) ( x + y ) + x y 10y + 3 =0
Li giai
Cach 1: Vie t la i he d i da ng:
2 2 2
(
18 ( x 2y ) + 33 ( x 2y ) + 2x + 3xy + 4y =0 )
.
( x 2y ) 2x 2 + 3xy + 4y 2 + 3 =
( ) 0

u= x 2y
a t 2 2
he phng trnh tr tha nh:
v = 2x + 3xy + 4y
2
18u2 += 33u + v 0 =
18u3 + 33u +3 0
.
= uv + 3 0 = uv + 3 0
Cach 2: Vie t la i he phng trnh d i da ng:
2 2
0
20x 69xy + 33x + 76y 66y =
3 2 2 3
2x x y 2xy 8y + 3 =0
2 2
(
20 ( x 2y ) + 33 ( x 2y ) + 4y + 11xy =0
.
)
( x 2y ) 2x2 + 3xy + 4y2 + 3 =0

271
Tm ti liu Ton ? Chuyn nh - www.toanmath.com
2 2
20 ( x 2y ) + 33 ( x 2y ) + 4y ( + 11xy =0 )

.
2
( x 2y ) 2 ( x 2y ) + 4y2 + 11xy + 3 =0
( )

2
3
( ) 3y
x y y + xy x y 2xy + 2 = ( )

Bai 20. Gia i he phng trnh .
1
x 2 2x 2 y =
0
x4 y
Li giai
ie u kien xy 0 .
Khi o vie t la i he phng trnh di dang:
y x 1 2 + y x 4 y 2x2 y + 2x =
3y

( ) ( )
1 .
x2 2x 2 y 4 = 0
x y
x 1 2 + x 4 y 2x2 y + 2x =
3 2 2 4
( ) ( x 2x) y + x y =
2

1 2 2 1 .
x 2 2x 2 y 4 =0 x 2x y 4 = 0
x y x y

u x2 2x 2 y
=
a t khi o he phng trnh tr tha nh:
4
v = x y
u + v =2
u=
+v 2 =
u 1
1 .
u = =
0 uv 1= v 1
v
2 2
2 2 x =
1 x 4 x2 2 =0
x 2x y = 1 x2
1 .
4
x y = 1 y = 1 y = 4
x
x4
x2 + 1 x2 2 =
0
( )( x = 2
)

1 (tho a ma n ieu kie n).
1
y = y =
x4 4
1 1
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la ( x;y ) = 2; , 2; .
4 4
272
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2 ( x 1)
x + y 2 + =3
Bai 21. Gia i he phng trnh x+y .

( x + y ) x y + 2= 6 x + y 2
Li giai
u2 + v2
x+y2 x =
u = x + y = u2 + 2 2
a t , ( u,v 0 ) .
2
v = xy+2 x y = y 2
u2 v2 + 4
y=
2
He phng trnh tr tha nh:
u2 + v2
2 1 2 2 2 2
v u + 2
( + u + v
)=2 3 u + 2 ( )
2 =
3
v + .
u2 + 2 u2 + 2 v = 6u
u2 + 2 v = ( )
( ) 6u

2 2 2 2 2
6u + u + v =2 3 u +(2 ) 0
2u v 6u + 8 =
2 .
u2 + 2 v = 6u u +2 v= 6u
( )
( )
2
4 2
2u2 6u 6u + 8 =0 u 1)( u 2 ) u + 6u + 6u +
( 8 =
0 )
(
u2 + 2 .
6u
6u v =
v = 2 u2 + 2
u +2
5
x + y 2= 1 x =
u 1 u 2 = 2
( )( ) 0
=u 1,v
= 2
xy+2 = 2 1
6u y = .
v = = = 2
u 2,v x+y2 = 2 2

u2 + 2 x = 4
xy+2 =2
y = 2

5 1
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m ( x;y ) = ( 4;2 ) ; ; .
2 2
2 2
x y + 6 + y x + 3 = 7xy
Bai 22. Gia i he phng trnh , ( x,y ) .
2 2 2 2
x x + 3 + y y + 6 = 2 + x + y
273
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Li giai
V i x = 0 hoa c y = 0 he phng trnh kho ng tho a ma n.
Xe t x 0,y 0 khi o bie n o i he phng trnh thanh
2 2
2 2
x +3 + y +6 = x +3 + y +6 = 7
7 x y
y
x .
2 2 3x 6y
2 + =
2
x x + 3 x + y y + 6 y = 2
x +3 +x y2 + 6 + y
2 2
x +3 + y +6 = 7
x y

3 6 .
+ =
2
2
x +3 y2 + 6
+1 +1
x y
x2 + 3 y2 + 6
=
a t u = ;v khi o he phng trnh tr tha nh
x y
u + v = 7
u= 7 v
3 6 .
+ =
2 3 ( v + 1) + 6 ( 8 v )= 2 ( v + 1)( 8 v )
u +1 v +1
7
u=
u= 7 v u = 2 2.
2
0
2v 17v + 35 = v=5 7
v=
2
2
x +3 =2 x = 1
u = 2 x
V i 1.
v = 5 y2 + 6 y =
=5 2
y
2
7 x +3 7 2 15
u= = x =
2 x 2
V i
15 .
7 y2 + 6 7 2 30
v = = y=
2 15
y 2
1 2 15 2 30
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la ( x;y ) = 1; ; ; .
2 15 15
274
Tm ti liu Ton ? Chuyn nh - www.toanmath.com
x2 + 2y2 + 3xy + 3 =0

Bai 23. Gia i he phng trnh x y + 18 .
= 9 xy
2
( x + y )
Li giai
ie u kien: x y 0,x + y 0 .
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
u + v2
u =x+y x + y =u x =
2 .

=v xy
xy= v2 u v2
y=
2
He phng trnh a cho tr thanh:
2 2
2 2 2 2
u + v + 2 u v + 3 u + v u v + 3 =0

2
2 2 2 .
v2 + 18
= 9v
u2
6u2 2uv2
+3= 0 2 2 2
4 3u = uv2 + 6 0 =
9u 3uv + 18 0
2 .
2 2 2 2
v + 18 = 9v v 9u v= + 18 0 v 9u v=+ 18 0
u2
Tr theo ve hai phng trnh cu a he ta c:
2 2
0
9u v 3uv ( v 3u ) = ( 3u v )( 3u + v + 3uv ) =0 u = 1
.
0
v2 9u2 v + 18 = v2 9u2 v + 18 = 0 v = 3
x + y = 1 x=+y 1 = x 5
.
x y = 3 x y =9 y =4
Va y he phng trnh co nghiem duy nha t ( x;y=
) ( 5; 4 ) .
2 2
x + x 7 y + 24 = 2
Bai 24. Gia i he phng trnh .
2 2
4 x 7 y + 24 =7y
Li giai
ie u kien: x 7 .
275
Tm ti liu Ton ? Chuyn nh - www.toanmath.com
2
u =x + x 7
a t ,( v > 0)
y + y 2 + 24
v =
u2 + 7
x =
2u
v2 24
2 2 2 y =
u 2ux + x = x 7 2v

2 2 2
v 2vy + y = y + 24 x2 7 = u2 7
2u

v2 + 24
y2 + 24 =
2v
(do u = 0 kho ng tho a ma n he phng trnh).
v2 + 24
u = 2
2v
Khi o he phng trnh tr tha nh: .
2 2 2
u 7 v + 24 v 24
4. =
7.
2u 2v 2v
v2 + 4v + 24
u =
v2 + 4v + 24 2v
u = 2
2v v2 + 4v + 24
7 .
2 2
u 7 4v 72 2v 4v2 72
2. = 2. =
u v v2 + 4v + 24 v

2v
v2 + 4v + 24
u = v2 + 4v + 24
2v u =
2 2v
2 2
v + 4v + 24 28v
( ) 0
v 6 ) 3v3 + 26v2 + 144v + 384 =
= 4v2 72 ( ( )
v2 + 4v + 24
2
= v>0 u 7=x + x 7 = 7 x 4
.
= v 6= 2
y + y + 24 =1 y 1
Va y he phng trnh co nghiem duy nha t ( x;y ) = ( 4;1) .
276
Tm ti liu Ton ? Chuyn nh - www.toanmath.com
Nhan xet: V i phep a t a n phu nh tre n ta x ly toa n bo nhng he phng
trnh co da ng:
2 2 2 2
a1x + b1 a x + b + c1y + d1 c y + d = e
.
a2 x + b2 a2 x 2 + b + c2 y + d 2 c2 y 2 + d =f
ax + a2 x2 + b
u =
Ba ng phe p a t an phu (xem the m chu e he phng
cy + c2 y2 + d
v =
trnh ch ca n th c).
6x + y 5 2x y =
)( ) 1
(
Bai 25. Gia i he phng trnh 2 .
2 2
2 6 4x y ( 2x y ) =
( ) 1

Li giai
Nhan xet: De tha y y 2x 0 khi o phng trnh th hai cu a he co da ng
tch ph c tap ta kho ng the nha n ra e tm mo i lien he g o c ma ta th
2
ngh en chia hai ve phng trnh cho ( 2x y ) xem sao? Va lam tng t
cho phng trnh au cu a he .
Nha n thay y 2x 0 khi o viet lai he d i da ng
1
=6x + y 5 ( 2x + y ) + ( 2x y ) 5 1
2=
2x y 2x y
2 2
.
1 1
2 6 =
4x2 y2
( ) 12 ( 2x + y ) = ( 2x y )
2 2
( 2x y )
( 2x y )
1
5
2 ( 2x + y )= ( 2x y )
2x y
2 2
.
1
12 ( 2x +=y) + ( 2x y )
2
( 2x y )

=u 2x + y

a t 1 khi o he phng trnh tr tha nh
v= 2x y ( 2x y )

2u 5 = v 2u 5 =v
2 2
2 2 .
12 u = v + 2 10 u = ( 2u 5)
277
Tm ti liu Ton ? Chuyn nh - www.toanmath.com
2u 5 =v = u 1= u 3
2 .
0
5u 20u + 15 = v = 1
3 v =
2x + y =1 1
u = 1 2x + y =
V i 1 .
3 ( 2x y )2 3 ( 2x y ) 1 =
v = 3 2x y ( 2x y ) = 0

5 13
2x + y =
1 x =
8
3 13 .
2x y = 1 13
2 y=
4
2x + y = 3 3
u = 3 2x + y =
V i 1 .
v = 1 ( 2x y ) =
1 ( 2x y )2 + ( 2x y ) 1 =
0
2x y
5 5
2x + y = 3 x=
8
1 5 .
2x y = 7 5
2 y=
4
Va y he phng trnh co bon nghie m la:

( x;y ) = 5 13 ; 1 13 ; 5 5 ; 7 5 .
4
8 8 4
1
Cach 2: Ru t = 6x + y 5 t phng trnh a u the va o phng trnh th hai
2x y
cu a he ta c:
1
( 6x + y 5)( 2x y ) =
2 2 2
( 6x + y 5) =8x 2y + 12
12x 2 4xy y 2 10x + 5y 1 = 0 (1)
.
2 2
44x + 12xy + 3y 60x 10y + 13 = 0 (2)
a y la he c gia i ba ng phng pha p o ng ba c hoa c he so ba t nh.
4 4
1
( 2x y ) + ( 2y x ) =
Bai 26. Gia i he phng trnh .
1
( x y ) x2 xy + y2 =
( )
9
278
Tm ti liu Ton ? Chuyn nh - www.toanmath.com
Li giai

=u 2x y u + v= 3 ( x y )
a t 2 2 2 2
.
v= x 2y u uv + v = 3 x xy + y
( )

Khi o he phng trnh tr tha nh:
4 4 4 4
u + v = 1 u + v = 1 (1)
.
( u + v ) u2 uv + v2 =
( ) 1 (2)
1 u3 + v3 =

T phng trnh (1) suy ra u,v 1;1 .
3 3
u =1 v 0 u 0
T phng trnh (2) ta co : .
3
v = 1 u3 0 v 0
Va y u,v 0;1 .
Khi o lay (1) (2) theo ve ta c:
0
u ( u 1) =
u3 ( u 1) + v3 ( v 1) = 0 .
0
v ( v 1) =
2x y = 0 2 1
x = ,y
=
u 0,v
= 1 1 =
x 2y = 3 3
Ke t h p v i u4 + v4 =
1 ta co .
=u 1,v
= 0 2x y =
1 1 2
x= ,y =
x 2y =0 3 3
2 1 1 2
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la (=
x;y ) ; ; ; .
3 3 3 3
2u v
x = 3
Nhan xet: Nhieu em thay kho bie n o i au th co the ru t thay
y = u 2v
3
va o he ta co ke t qua tng t tre n.
Ket qua tren cho ta x ly c bai toan tong quat:
2n 2n
x + y = 1
Giai he phng trnh: , ( n,k ) .
2k +1
x + y2k +1 =
1
C. BAI TAP REN LUYEN
279
Tm ti liu Ton ? Chuyn nh - www.toanmath.com
x 5y
+ = 4
2 2
x y x + y
Bai 1. Gia i he phng trnh .
x2 5y2
5x + y + xy = 5

Li giai
ie u kien: xy 0,x2 y 0,x + y2 0 .
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
x 5y x 5y
=+ 4 = + 4
2 2 2 2
x y x + y x y x + y
.
2 2 2 2 2
5x y + xy + x 5y x + y x2 y
= 5 + 5. = 5
xy y x
x y
=
a t u = ,v he phng trnh tr tha nh:
x2 y x + y2
= u + 5v 4 = u 2
u= 4 5v
1 5 2.
= + 5 =
v u 4 5v + 5v= 5v ( 4 5v ) v 5
x
=2
2 2
x y 2x x 2y = 0

2
y =2 2y + 2x 5y = 0
2 5
x + y
3
x = ,y = 3
2x 2 x 2
y =
2 1
x = 1,y = .
2 2x2 x 2
2y + 2x 5. = 0
2 3
= x 3= ,y
2 2
3 1 3 3
Va y he phng trnh co ba nghie m la ( x;y ) = ;3 ; 1; ; ; .
2 2 2 2
3 2y
+ =
1
x2 + y2 1 x
Bai 2. Gia i he phng trnh .
x 2 + y 2 2x = 4
y
Li giai
280
Tm ti liu Ton ? Chuyn nh - www.toanmath.com
ie u kien: xy 0,x2 + y2 1 .
x
a t u = x2 + y2 1,v = he phng trnh tr tha nh:
y
3 2 u 2v + 3
+ = 1 = u
= 2v + 3
u v .
u + 1 2v =4
) v ( 2v + 3) v2 2v 3 =0
3v + 2 ( 2v + 3=

x2 + y2 1 = 9

x x = 1,y = 1
y = 3
u =
9,v =
3 x= 1,y = 1
.
1,v =
1 2 2 x = 3,y = 1
u = x + y 1 =1

x x = 3,y = 1
= 1
y
Va y he phng trnh co bon nghie m la ( x;y ) =( 1;1) ; (1; 1) ; ( 3; 1) ; ( 3;1) .
x2 + y2 xy = 4y 1

Bai 3. Gia i he phng trnh y .
y
x = +2
x2 + 1
Li giai
Nha n thay y = 0 kho ng thoa man he phng trnh.
V i y 0 vie t la i he phng trnh di dang:
x2 + 1
x2 + 1 + y ( y x ) =4y +yx= 4
y
y .
y
x = +2 y
x2 + 1 x
= y +2
x2 + 1
x2 + 1
a t u= ,v= x y he phng trnh tr tha nh:
y
u v =4 u =3 10,v =1 10
v= u 4
1
v= +2 u ( u 4 ) = 2u + 1 u =3 + 10,v =1 + 10
u
281
Tm ti liu Ton ? Chuyn nh - www.toanmath.com
x2 + 1
= 3 10
y

x y =1 10
.
2
x + 1= 3 + 10
y

x y =1 + 10
He phng trnh vo nghiem.
1 1
x + y + =4
x y
Bai 4. Gia i he phng trnh .
1 1
2 x + +y+ = 6
x y

Li giai
ie u kien: xy 0 .
1 1
a t u =+
x ,v =+
y , u , v 2 he phng trnh a cho tr tha nh:
( )
x y
=2u + v 6 =
v= 6 2u u2 3u + 2 =0 u 2 u 2
.
= uv 4= 4
u ( 6 2u ) = v= 6 2u v 2
1
2 2
x + =
x x 2x=+ 1 0 = x 1
.
2
y + 1 = 2 y 2y + 1 = 0 y = 1
y
Va y he phng trnh co nghiem duy nha t ( x;y ) = (1;1) .
y x2 +=1 2x y2 + 1


( ) ( )
Bai 5. Gia i he phng trnh 1 .
x2 + y2 1 +
( ) =16
2 2
x y
Li giai
ie u kien: xy 0 .
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
1 1 1 1
x + = 2 y + x + = 2 y +
x y x y
2 2
.
x2 + 1 + y2 + 1 =16 1 1
20
x2 y2 x + x + y + y =

282
Tm ti liu Ton ? Chuyn nh - www.toanmath.com
1 1
a t u =+
x ,v =+
y , u , v 2 he phng trnh tr tha nh:
( )
x y
= =
u 2v u 2v =
u 4,v
= 2
2 2 .
+ v2 20 =
u= 5v 20 u =4,v =
2
1
x + =
4
x
1 x2 4x + 1 =0 x = 2 3,y =1

y + y =2
y = 1 x = 2 + 3,y =1
.
1 2
=4 x + 4x + 1 = 0 x =2 + 3,y =1
x +
x y = 1
x =2 3,y =1
1
y+ y =2

Va y he phng trnh co bon nghie m la :
( x;y ) = (2 + 3;1 ; 2 3;1 ; 2 3; 1 ; 2 + 3; 1 .
)( )( )( )
2 2
x y ) x ( y =
3)
(
Bai 6. Gia i he phng trnh .
( 15
( x + y ) x 2 + y 2 =)

Li giai
3 3
x + y xy ( x + y ) =3
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i: .
3 3
15
x + y + xy ( x + y ) =
a t u =x3 + y3 ,v =xy ( x + y ) he phng trnh tr tha nh:
3 3
=uv 3 = u 9 x + y = 9
.
=u + v 15 =v 6 xy ( x + y ) =6
3
( x + y ) = 27 x + y = 3 x = 1,y = 2
.
6 = 2
xy =
x 2,y= 1
xy ( x + y ) =
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la ( x;y ) = (1;2 ) ; ( 2;1) .
Nhan xet: a y la he co ye u to a ng cap ne n nhan che o hai phng trnh cu a
he ta c:
15 ( x y ) x 2 y 2 = 3 ( x + y ) x2 + y2 ( x + y )( x 2y )( 2x y ) = 0 .
( ) ( )
283
Tm ti liu Ton ? Chuyn nh - www.toanmath.com
xy ( 2x + y 6 ) + y + 2x =0
2
Bai 7. Gia i he phng trnh 1 .
x2 + y2 1 +
( ) = 8
xy
Li giai
ie u kien: xy 0 .
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
1 1
2x ( xy + 1) + y ( xy + 1) = 6xy 2x 1 +
+ y 1+
=6
xy xy
2 2
2 1 .
x + y 1 +
( ) + = 8 2 2 2x 2y 1 1
2 2 x + y + + + + =
8
xy x y y x x2 y2

1 1
2 x + + y + = 6
y x
2 2
.
1 1
x + y + y + x = 8

1 1
a t u =+ x ,v =+
y he phng trnh tr tha nh:
y x
2u + v =6 v= 6 2u 5u2 24u + 28 =
0
2 2
2 2 .
u + v =8 u + ( 6 2u ) =8 v =6 2u
1
x + = 2
y
u = 2 1
= u 2,v
= 2 y + = 2
14 x x = 1
u = 2 .
5 = =
u 14 ,v 1 14 y = 1
5 5 x + =
v= 6 2u y 5

1 2
y+ =
x 5
Va y he phng trnh co nghiem duy nha t ( x;y ) = (1;1) .
1 9
( x + y ) 1 + =
xy 2
Bai 8. Gia i he phng trnh 2
.
2 2 1 45

( )
x + y 1 + xy =
4
Li giai
284
Tm ti liu Ton ? Chuyn nh - www.toanmath.com
ie u kien: xy 0 .
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
1 1 9 1 1 9
x + y + + =
x y 2 x + + y + =
x y 2
2 2 .
2
2 1 45 1 1 45
2
x + y 1 + + =
( )
xy x y 4
2 2 x + y + y + x =
4

1 1
a t u =+
x ,v =+y he phng trnh tr tha nh:
y x
9 9 9 3
u + v= u + v= u + v= u= 3,v=
2 2

2 2.
3
u2 + v2 = 45 ( u + v )2 2uv = 45 uv = 9 u = ,v = 3
4 4 2 2
1
x + = 3
y 1
= =
x 1,y
1 3 2
y + = = = 1
x 2 x 2,y
.
1 3 1
x + = = x = ,y 1
y 2 2
x 1,y
= 2
1 =
y+ = 3
x
1 1
Va y he phng trnh co bon nghie m la ( x;y ) = (1;2 ) ; ( 2;1) ; ;1 ; 1; .
2 2
2
1 25
x2 + y2
( ) 1 + =
xy 2
Bai 9. Gia i he phng trnh .
3
3 3 125
x +y
( =
4

) 1 + xy1
Li giai
ie u kien: xy 0 .
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
2 2
2 1 25 25
x2 + y2 1 +
( ) + = x + 1 + y + 1 =
xy x 2 y 2 2
y x 2
.
3 3
3 3 3 3 1 125 1 1 125
( )
x + y 1 + xy + 2 2 + 3 3 = 4 x + + y + =
x y x y y x 4
285
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25
u2 + v2 =
1 1 2 .
a t u =+
x ,v =+
y he phng trnh tr tha nh:
y x 3 3 125
u + v =
4
a y la he o i x ng loai I a bie t ca ch gia i.
5 5
=
Tm c ca c nghie m ( u;v ) ; ; 5k;5 1 + k 2k 2 4k 3
( ( )) , vi:
2 2
k =1 4 12 + 3 .
Bai 10. Gia i he phng trnh:
1 1
x2 + y2 + + =5
x2 y2
.
x 2 1 y 2 + 1 xy x + y + x y= x 2 y 2 + x 2 + y2 x2 y2 + 1
(
)( ( )
)( ) ( )( )
Li giai
ie u kien: xy 0 .
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
2 2 1 1
x + y + 2 + 2 = 5
x y
.
1 1 1 1 2 2

x y + x + y + =1 + x + y (
x y y x 2 2
) 1 + x 1y

2 2
2 2 1 1
x + y + + = 5 x 1 + y + 1 = 5
x2 y2 x y

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
x y + x + y + = 6 6
x y y x x x y + y x + y + y x =

1 1
a t u = x ,v =+
y , v 2 he phng trnh tr tha nh:
( )
x y
2 12
u + v) =
5
u2 + v2 = 5 u + v 2 2uv =
( ) 5 ( u+v

uv ( u + v ) =6 6 6
uv ( u + v ) = uv =
u+v
286
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1 1 5
x = 1
= x = ,y 1
=u + v 3 =v 2 u 1 x 2
.
uv = 2 v = 2 1 1+ 5
y + =
2 x = ,y 1
y = 2

1 5
1+ 5
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la ( x;y ) = ;1 ; ;1 .
2 2

2 2 2
x + y 7 (x + y) =
( ) 2
Bai 11. Gia i he phng trnh .
1
( x 3)( x + y ) =
Li giai
Nha n thay x + y =0 kho ng thoa man he phng trnh.
V i x + y 0 vie t la i he phng trnh di dang:
2 2 2 2 4 2
x + y 7 = ( x + y ) + + (x y) =14
2 2
(x + y) (x + y)
.
1 2
x 3 = x + y x + y + x y + x + y =6

2
u = x + y +
a t x+y, u 2 2 .
( )

v= x y
Khi o he phng trnh tr tha nh:
u2 4 + v2 =
14 u + v 2 2uv =
) 18
(
.
u + v =6 u + v = 6
2 x = 2,y = 1
u=
+v 6 =
u 3 x + y + =3
x+y 5 1.
= uv 9= v 3 x y = x = ,y =
3 2 2

Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la ( x;y ) =
( 2; 1) , 25 ; 21 .

1
Cach 2: Ru t x + y = thay va o phng trnh a u cu a he ta c:
x3
2 2 2
x + y 7 + 2 ( x 3) =0 (1)
.
2
x + xy 3x 3y + 1 =0 (2)
287
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2
La y (1) 2.(2) theo ve ta c: ( x y 3) = 0 x y 3 = 0 .
Khi o a ve giai he phng trnh:
0 x = 2,y = 1
x y 3 =
5 1.
1 x = ,y =
( x 3)( x + y ) = 2 2
2 2 2
4x + 4y 4xy 51 ( x y ) + 3 =
( ) 0
Bai 12. Gia i he phng trnh .
0
( 2x 7 )( x y ) + 1 =
Li giai
Nha n thay x y =0 kho ng thoa man he phng trnh.
Xe t v i x y 0 khi o vie t la i he d i da ng:
2 2 3
4x + 4y 4xy 51 + =
0
2
(x y) .

1
2x 7 + x y =0

2 2 3
3 ( x y ) + ( x + y ) + =
51
2
(x y)
.
1
x y + x y + x + y = 7

1
u = x y +
a t x y , u 2 khi o he phng trnh tr tha nh:
( )

v= x + y
2 2
3 u 2 + v =
( ) 51 v= 7 u
2 2 .
u + v =7 3u + ( 7 u ) =57
= u 4,v
= 3
v= 7 u
2
1 15 .
4u 14u 8 =0 u= ,v =
2 2
o i chie u v i ieu kie n ch nhan nghiem ( u;v ) = ( 4;3) .
Va y ta gia i he phng trnh:
288
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5 3 1+ 3
1 = x = ,y
x y + =4 2
xy 2 .
5+ 3 1 3
x + y = 3 = x = ,y
2 2
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la :
5 3 1+ 3 5 + 3 1 3
=( x;y ) = ; ; ; .
2 2 2 2
1
Cach 2: Ru t x y = thay va o phng trnh a u cu a he ta c:
2x 7
2 2 2
4x + 4y 4xy 51 + 3 ( 2x 7 ) = 0 (1)
.
( 2x 7)( x y ) + 1 =0 (2)
La y 2.(1) 3.(2) ta c: ( x + y 3)( 2x + 2y 15) =0.
e n a y xet t ng tr ng h p the vao he ban a u ta c nghiem tng t
ke t qua tren.
6x + y 5 2x y =
)( ) 1
(
Bai 13. Gia i he phng trnh 2 .
2 2
2 6 4x y ( 2x y ) =
( ) 1

Li giai
Nha n thay y = 2x kho ng thoa man he phng trnh.
Xe t y 2x vie t la i he phng trnh di dang:
1 1
=6x + y 5 + y ) + 2x y
2 ( 2x= 5
2x y 2x y
2 2
.
1 1
2 6= 4x2 y2
( ) ( 2x + y ) + ( 2x y ) =+ 12
2 2
( 2x y )
( 2x y )
1
a t u = 2x + y,v = 2x y he phng trnh tr tha nh:
2x y
2u + v = 5 v= 5 2u =u 1,v= 3
2 2
2 2 .
12
u + v + 2 = 0
u + ( 5 2u ) 10 = u = 3,v = 1
289
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5 13 13 1
2x + y =1 = x = ,y
8 4

2x y 1 = 5 + 13 1 + 13
3 x = ,y =
2x y 8
4 .
2x + y =3 5 5 7+ 5
= x = ,y
2x y 1 =1 8 4
2x y 5+ 5 7 5
= x = ,y
8 4
Va y he phng trnh co bon nghie m la :

= ( x;y ) 5 8 13 ; 134 1 ; 5 + 8 13 ; 1 + 4 13 ;

5 5 7+ 5 5+ 5 7 5
; ; ; .

8 4 8 4
y ( xy 1) 2
=
y2 + 1 5
Bai 14. Gia i he phng trnh .
x ( xy 1) 1
=
x2 + 1 2
Li giai
Nha n thay xy = 0 kho ng thoa man he phng trnh.
1
x y 2
=
1 5
1+
2
Xe t xy 0 vie t la i he phng trnh di dang: y .
1
y x 1
=
1 + 1 2
x 2
1 1
a=
t u = ,v he phng trnh tr tha nh:
x y
290
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1 1 uv 2
v 2 =
= 2
u v2 + 1 5 ( )
u u 1 + v 5 =
1 + v2 5 ( ) 2.
1 uv
1 u 1 uv = 1 v u2 + 1 ( )
v 1 v u2 + 1 2 =2
= ( )
1 uv
1 + u2 2
1 1
Tr theo ve hai phng trnh cu a he ta c: u v = u = v + thay va o
2 2
phng trnh a u cu a he ta c:
1
=1
1 2 5 1 1 x x = 1
+ v v + 1 = 1 v + v v = u = 1 .Va y
( ) .
2 2 2 2 1 = 1 y = 2
y 2
Va y he phng trnh co nghiem duy nha t ( x;y ) = (1;2 ) .
x y 1 3x
=
1 xy 3 x
Bai 15. Gia i he phng trnh .
x + y = 1 2y
1 + xy 2 y
Li giai
ie u kien: x2 y2 1 ( 2 y )( 3 x ) 0 .
( )
xy
e y ca c nha n t co hnh th c tng t nhau co da ng ne n ta van du ng
1 xy
ca c ang th c:
u + v + 1 + uv = ( u + 1)( v + 1)

u + v 1 uv = ( u 1)(1 v ) .

u v + 1 uv = ( u + 1)(1 v )

u v 1 + uv = ( u 1)( v + 1)
Nha n thay x =
1,y =
1 kho ng la nghiem cu a he phng trnh.
Xe t x 1,y 1 ta bie n o i ca c phng trnh cu a he:
291
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Phng trnh a u cu a he vie t la i d i da ng:
x+y 1 2y x + 1 y + 1 3 y 1
( )( ) ( ) ( x + 1)( y + 1) 1 + xy
=
+1 +1 = =
1 + xy 2y 1 + xy 2y 3 ( y 1) 2y

x+y= 1 2y x 1)( y 1) ( y + 1) ( x 1)( y 1) 1 + xy
1 1 ( = =
1 + xy 2y 1 + xy 2y y +1 2y

So sa nh hai phng trnh cu a he ta c:
2
=
( x + 1)( y + 1) ( x 1)( y 1) x + 1 y + 1 2 =
3 ( y 1) y +1
( )( ) 3 ( x 1)( y 1) (1) .
Phng trnh th hai cua he vie t la i d i da ng:
( x + 1)( y 1) 1 xy
xy 1 3x ( x + 1)( y 1) 4 ( x 1)
=
= +1 +1 = 3x
1 xy 3x 1 xy 3x 4 ( x 1)

xy 1 3x ( x 1)( y + 1) 2 ( x + 1) ( x 1)( y + 1) 1 xy
=
1 = 1 =
1 xy 3x 3x 3x
1 xy 2 ( x + 1)
So sa nh hai phng trnh cu a he ta c:
( x + 1)( y 1) ( x 1)( y + 1) 2 2
= ( x + 1) ( y 1) =2 ( x 1) ( y + 1) (2) .
4 ( x 1) 2 ( x + 1)
T (1) va (2) ta co he phng trnh:
2

2 2 x + 1 = 3 y 1

( x + 1)( y + 1) = 3 ( x 1)( y 1) x 1 y +1
.
2 2 2
2 ( x 1) ( y + 1) x + 1 y +1
( x + 1) ( y 1) = = 2.
x 1 y 1
5
12 1
2 2 x = 5
y 1 x + 1 y 1 x +1 5 12 + 1
x +1 = 3 = 3 = 12
x 1 x 1
y +1 y +1 x 1 9
5 1
3 6 2
x + 1 y 1 y 1 y 1 y 1= 5 2
= 6. 27 = 6. y + 1 9 y = 9
x 1 y +1 y +1 y +1 5 +1
2
9
5 5 1
12 1 2 .
Va y he phng trnh co nghiem duy nha t ( x;y ) = ;
5 12 + 1 9
5 +1
2
292
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f(x,y) = g(a,y)
Nhan xet: To ng qua t ta gia i he phng trnh .
g(x,y) = f(b,x)
x+y xy
=
Trong o f(x,y) = ;g(x,y) .
1 + xy 1 xy
1 1
V i ba i toa n tre n ta co=a = ,b .
2 3
Hai ha m f(x,y) va g(x,y) la ca c ham co tnh cha t kha a c bie t :
2
x+y xy 2x 1 y ( )
f(x,y) + g(x,y) = + =
1 + xy 1 xy (1 + xy )(1 xy )
2
x+y xy 2y 1 x ( )
f(x,y) g(x,y) = =
1 + xy 1 xy (1 + xy )(1 xy )
u 1 v 1
Cach 2 : =
a t x = ,y he phng trnh tr tha nh :
u +1 v +1
u v 4 2u
= 2 2
u + v 2u + 4 2u + 4u 2uv 4v = 4u + 4v 2u 2uv
.
2 2
uv 1 = 3 v uv v + 3uv 3= 3uv + 3 uv v
uv + 1 v + 3
2 2
u2 u = 5 12
4u = 8v 0 = u 2v v =
2 9 .
2 2
=2uv 6= uv 3 = 5 v 5
u = 12 2
2 2 1
3(x + y ) + = 2(10 xy)
2
(x y)
Bai 16. Gia i he phng trnh .
1
2x + x y =5

Li giai
+ ie u kien x y .
2 2 1
2(x + y) + (x y) + =
20
(x y)2
+ He phng trnh .
1
x + y + x y + =5
xy
293
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1
a t u = x + y; v = x y + ( v 2) , khi o he tr tha nh
xy
1
u= 5 v u=
2u2 + v2 2 =20 u = 3 3 .
2
= u + v 5
3v 20v + 28 0
=
v = 2 14
v =
3
x + y = 3
= u 3 x=
+y 3 =
x 2
+ V i 1 .
= v 2 x y + x y =2 y 1 =
x= y 1

1 1 4 10
= u = x+y= x
3 3 3
+ V i .
v = 14 x y + 1 =14 3 10
3 xy 3 y = 3
4 10 3 10
Va y he phng trnh co 3 nghiem la ( x;y ) = ( 2;1) , ; .
3 3

2
y + x + xy 6y + 1 =0
Bai 17. Gia i he phng trnh .
3 2 2
y x 8y + x y + x =0
Li giai
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
2 6y
y + x + xy + 1 =
2 y 2 + x,xy + 1 la hai nghiem cu a phng trnh:
y + x ( xy + 1) =
( ) 9y 2

2
t 2 6yt + 9y 2 = 0 ( t 3y ) = 0 t = 3y .
2
y2 + x =
3y =x 3y y x=2
V vay .
xy + 1 =3y y 3y y2 + 1 =
( 3y y = 1
)

Va y he phng trnh co nghiem duy nha t ( x;y ) = ( 2;1) .
Nhan xet: Ta co the chia phng trnh a u cu a he cho y, phng trnh th
hai cua he cho y2 va a t a n phu .
4 2 2
x + 4x + y 4y = 2
Bai 18. Gia i he phng trnh .
2 2
23
x y + 2x + 6y =
Li giai
294
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4 2
t 4y =2 x 4x
a t t = y 2 , khi o he tr tha nh: 2 , ta coi x la hang so
( x + 6 y =23 2x 2
)

khi o ta c he n gia n v i 2 a n la t,y .
Ta co : D =
x2 + 6;Dt = 23 2x 2 .
x6 10x 4 30x 2 + 104;Dy =
2
D Dy 2
Ta co t = y2 t = x2 + 6 x6 10x 4 30x2 + 104 = 23 2x 2
( )( ) ( )
D D
x =1 y =3
(1 x)(1 + x)(1 + x 2 )(x 4 + 16x 2 + 95) = 0 .
x =1 y =3
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la ( x;y ) = ( 1;3); (1;3) .
2 2
x + xy + y = 3y 1
Bai 19. Gia i he phng trnh .
3 2 2
x + x y = x x + 1
Li giai
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
2 0
x + 1 + y ( x + y 3) =
.
2 2 2
x x + 1 + y x + 1 y = x + 1
( ) ( )

Ne u y = 0 x = 1 .
Xe t y 0 he phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
x2 + 1 x2 + 1
+ x+ y3= 0 + x+ y3=0
y y
2
.
2
x x +1
( ) x2 + 1 x +1 x2 + 1
+ x2 + 1 1 = y (x + y) 1 = y
y y
x2 + 1
a t u= ,v= x + y he phng trnh tr tha nh:
y
1+ 5 5+ 5
2
x + 1 x =
,y =
u + =
v3 0 =u 1 =1 2
y 2 .
=
uv 1 u =v 2 1 + 5 5 5
=
x + y =2 x = ,y
2 2
1 + 5 5 + 5 1 + 5 5 5
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la : ( x;y ) = ; ; ;
2 2 2
2
295
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2 2
x + y + xy + 2x = 7y
Bai 20. Gia i he phng trnh .
3 2 2
x + x y x + 2xy 6x + 3y =0
Li giai
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
2 0
x + 2x + y ( x + y 7 ) =
2 .
2
x + 2x ( x + y ) 3 x + 2x + 3y =
( ) ( ) 0

x2 + 2x 0 =
= x 0
TH1: Ne u y = 0 .
3 2
x x 6x = 0 x = 2
TH2: Ne u y 0 chia hai ve cu a phng trnh au cho y, phng trnh th hai
x2 + 2x
+x+y7= 0
y
cho y ta c: .
2
x + 2x x2 + 2x
. ( x + y ) 3. +3=0
y y
x2 + 2x
a t u= ,v= x + y he phng trnh tr tha nh:
y
u= 2 7

u + v 7 = 0 v= 7 u v= 5+ 7
.
uv 3u + 3 =0 u ( 7 u ) 3u + 3 =0 u= 2+ 7

v= 5 7

4+ 7 + 5 7+4 7
( )
x =
x 2 + 2x 2
= 2 7

y 14 7 + 5 7+4 7
( )
y =
x + y = 5 + 7 2 .

2
x + 2x= 2 + 7 4 7 + 5 7+4 7
( )
y x =
2

x + y = 5 7
14 7 5 7+4 7
( )
y = 2

Va y he phng trnh co bon nghie m la:
296
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4 + 7 + 5 7 + 4 7 14 7 + 5 7 + 4 7
( ) ( )
( x;y ) = ( 0;0 ); ( 2;0 ); ; ;
2 2

.

4 7 + 5 7 + 4 7 14 7 5 7 + 4 7
( ) ( )
;
2 2

2 2
4x 3y =
Bai 21. Gia i he phng trnh 2 .
2x + y 4x 4 3x2 + y 4x 2 + y + 6 =
( )( (8 ))

Li giai
4x2 2
Nhan xet: Ta co the ru t y = the xuo ng phng trnh th hai cua he.
3
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
2x2 + y + 2 x2 2y = 2

( )
2 .
2x 2 + y 2x 2 + y 3 x 2 2y =
( )( ) ( 8 )

a t u =2x2 + y,v =x2 2y he phng trnh tr tha nh:
4 2
2 2 x = ,y =
u + 2v = =u 2 =
2x +y 2 5 5
.
u u2 3v = 2
( 8 v = 0
) x 2y =0 4 2
= x = ,y
5 5
4 2 4 2
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la ( x;y ) = ; ; ; .

5 5 5 5
3 3
9y (3x 1) =125 (1)
Bai 22. Gia i he phng trnh .
2
6y2
45x y + 75x = (2)
Li giai
Nha n thay y = 0 kho ng la nghie m cu a he , khi o chia 2 ve cua phng trnh
(1) cho y3 ; va chia 2 ve cua phng trnh (2) cho y2 ta c:
297
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3 125 3 125
27x + = 9 27x + =
9
y3 y3
2
.
x x x 5
45 + 75 = 6 15 (3x + ) = 6
y
y2 y y
5
a= =
t u 3x;v , khi o he tr tha nh:
y
3
u3 + v3 =9 9
u + v ) 3uv(u + v) =
( .
uv(u + v) = 6 uv(u + v) = 6
=
u + v 3 =
u 2 =
u 1
.
=
uv 2 = v 1=v 2
3x = 2 2
u = 2 x =
+ V i 5 3.
v = 1 =1 y = 5
y
3x = 1 x = 1
u = 1 3.
+ V i 5
v = 2 =2 5
y y =
2
2 1 5
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la ( x;y ) = ;5 ; ; .
3 3 2
11
x(1 + x) + + 1 =4
Bai 23. Gia i he phng trnh yy .
3 3 2 2
x y + y x + xy + 1 =4y3
Li giai
ie u kien y 0 .
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
2
2 1 1
x + x + + = 4 x+ 1 + x+ 1 2x =
4
y2 y y
y y
2
.
x 1 3
3 x
x + + + =4 1 x 1
y y 2 y3 x + 2 x + = 4
y y y
298
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1 x
a t u =+
x ;v =, khi o he tr tha nh:
y y
2 2
u + u 2v = 4 2v = 4 u u
3 .
3
u= 2uv 4 u u2 ) 4
u + u(4 =
1
2 x + = 2
2v = 4 u u u = 2 y
x = y = 1.
2
(u 2) = 0 v = 1 x =1
y
Va y he phng trnh co nghiem duy nha t (1;1) .
3
x (2 + 3y) = 1 (1)
Bai 24. Gia i he phng trnh (x,y )
3
x(y 2) = 3 (2)
Li giai
Nha n tha y x = 0 , kho ng la nghiem cu a he , khi o chia 2 ve cu a (1) cho
1 1
2=
+ 3y 2=
+ 3y
x3 x3 ,
x3 va chia 2 ve cu a (2) cho x , he tr thanh:
= 3 3
y3 2 = 2+ y3
x x
u = y

a t 1 a ve he phng trnh o i x ng loa i II tm c:
v =
x
1
u= y= 1 x= 1 x =
2.
u= y= 2 y= 1 y = 2

1
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la ( x;y ) = (1;1) ; ;2 .
2
2
x + 1 + y(x + y) = 4y (1)
Bai 25. Gia i he phng trnh (x,y )
2
(x + 1)(x + y 2) = y (2)
Li giai
Nha n tha y y = 0 , kho ng la nghie m cu a he, ne n ta chia ca 2 ve cua (1) va (2)
x2 + 1
+ (x + y) = 4
y
cho y ta c:
2
x +1
(x + y 2) =1
y
299
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x2 + 1
a t u = ;v = x + y 2 , he tr tha nh:
y
x2 + 1
u + v =2 u =1 =1 x =1 x =2
y .
=
uv 1 = v 1 =y 2= y 5
x + y 2 =1
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la =
( x;y ) (1;2 ); ( 2;5) .
1 2x x + y
=
+ 2
Bai 26. Gia i he phng trnh 3x 3y 2x + y ( x,y ) .

( )
2 2x + y = 2x + 6 y
Li giai
ie u kien : 3 x 0;y > 0 .
kx > 0
Khi o ta a t =
y kx 2 2
.
y = k x
Khi o phng trnh th nha t cu a he tr tha nh :
1 2x x + kx 2
+ = ( k 2) k2 + k + 1 = 0 k = 2 .
( )
3x 3k 2 x2 2x2 + k 2 x2
V i k = 2 ta co y = 2x x > 0 , thay va o phng trnh th hai cu a he ta
2
c : 4x2 + 8x= 2x + 6 ( 2x + 2 ) 4= 2x + 6 .
a t 2x + 6 = 2t + 2 , khi o ta co he o i x ng loa i II.
3 + 17
2 2 x=

2x + 6 = ( 2t + 2 ) 2x + 6 = ( 2t + 2 ) 4
.
2
0
( x t )(1 + 2x + 2t + 4 ) =
13 3 17
( 2x + 2 ) 4 = 2t + 2 y = 2
3 + 17 13 3 17
Va y he phng trnh co nghiem duy nha t ( x,y ) = , .
4 2

6
x + y 1 =
Bai 27. Gia i he phng trnh
2
x + 2x + y + 2x y 1 + 2 y 1 =29
Li giai
ie u kien: y 1 .
300
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a t a = y 1 y = a2 + 1 , khi o he phng trnh tr tha nh:
6 x + 1 + a = 7
x + a =
2 2
2 .
x + 2x + a + 1 + 2 ( x + 1) a =29 29
x + 1) + a2 + 2 ( x + 1) a =
(
2 2
( x + 1) + a + 2 ( x + 1) a =49 (1)
.
x + 1)2 + a2 + 2 ( x + 1) a =29 (2)
(
La y phng trnh (1) tr theo ve cho phng trnh (2), ta c:
2 2 2
( x + 1) + a2 ( x + 1) + a2 20 =0 ( x + 1) + a2 =5 > 0
2
25
( x + 1) + a2 =
Va y ta co he phng trnh:
x + a = 6 =
x 2;a
= 4 =
x 2;y
= 17
2 2
.
25 =x 3;a
= 3 =x 3;y
= 10
( x + 1) + a =
Th lai tha y hai nghiem na y e u tho a ma n
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la ( x,y ) = ( 2,17 ) ; ( 3,10 ) .
2
x + xy 3x + y =0
Bai 28. Gia i he phng trnh .
4 2 2 2
x + 3x y 5x + y =0
Li giai
Nha n thay ( x;y ) = ( 0;0 ) la mo t nghiem cu a he phng trnh.
Xe t x 0 , khi o chia hai ve cu a phng trnh th nhat cho x va chia hai ve
cu a phng trnh th hai cho x2 ta c:
y y
0 x + + y 3 =0
x + x + y 3 =
x
2
2
2 y y
x + + 3y 5 =0 x + +y5=0
x2
x
y
e n a y ta a t u =+
x ;v =
y 3.
x
u + v =0 v = u
Khi o he phng trnh tr tha nh: 2
2 .
u +=v2 0 u2 0
u =
301
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y
u = 1 x + = 1
x

= v 1 =y 3 1 x = 1

.
u = 2 y y = 1
x + =
2
v = 2
x
y 3 =2

Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la ( x;y ) = ( 0;0 ) ; (1;1) .
2
y + x + xy 6y + 1 =0
Bai 29. Gia i he phng trnh:
3 2 2
y x 9y + x y + x =0
Li giai
Nha n tha y y = 0 khong la nghie m cu a he , ne n vi y 0 ta chia hai ve cua
phng trnh th nha t cu a he cho y va hai ve cu a phng trnh th hai cu a he
x + y2 xy + 1
+ = 6
y y
cho y2 , ta c: .
2
x + y xy + 1
. =9
y y
x + y2 xy + 1
=
Va y ta a t u = ;v . Khi o ta co he phng trnh:
y y
x + y2
=3
u + v = 6 y
u = v =3 .
uv = 9 xy + 1 = 3
y
=x 3y y2 y 1 3 =
( ) 0 x = 2

1 1 y = 1 .
x= 3 x= 3
y y
Va y he phng trnh co nghiem duy nha t ( x;y ) = ( 2;1) .
x2 + x y 2 4y 2 + y + 1 =0
( )
Bai 30. Gia i he phng trnh :
xy + x 2 y2 + 1 4 x3 y3 =
( )0

302
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Li giai
2 2 2
x + x y + y +1=
( ) 4y
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i: .
2 2 3 3
xy + x y + 1 + x y = 4y3
Nha n tha y y = 0 khong tho a man he, ne n v i y 0 ta chia hai ve cua phng
trnh th nhat cho y2 va chia hai ve cu a phng trnh th hai cho y3 ta c:
2 1 xy + 1
x + + =4
y2 y
.
x +
2 1 xy + 1 =
4
y 2 y

1
= u x2 +
y2
Ta a t khi o he tr tha nh:
v = xy + 1
y
xy + 1
=2
=u + v 4 = y x 1
u =v =2 .
= uv 4= 2 1 = y 1
x + 2
y2
Va y he phng trnh co nghiem duy nha t ( x;y ) = (1;1) .
2
x ( y + 1) = 6y 2
Bai 31. Gia i he phng trnh .
4 2 2 2 2 2
x y + 2x y + y x + 1= 12y 1
( )

Li giai
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
2 6y
x ( y + 1) + 2 =
4 2 2 2 2 2 2
x y + 2x y + y + y x + 1= 13y 1
( ) ( )

2
x ( y + 1) + 2 =6y (1)

2 .
y2 x2 + 1 + y x2 + 1 + 1 =
( ) ( 13y 2 (2)
)

Nha n tha y y = 0 kho ng tho a ma n he phng trnh, ne n v i y 0 ta chia hai
ve phng trnh (1) cho y va chia hai ve phng trnh (2) cho y2 , ta c :
303
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2 x2 2 2 1 x2 + 1
=
x + + 6 x= +1+ + 7
y y y y
.
2 x2 + 1 1 2 1 x2 + 1
2 2
x + 1
( + ) =
+ 13 x + 1 + + = 13
( )
y y2 y2 y

1 x2 + 1 2
e n a y ta a t S= x2 + 1 + ;P = ; (S 4P 0 khi o he tr tha nh:
)
y y
S + P = 7 P = 7 S S2 4P S = 4
2 .
=
S P 13 S2 += S 20 0 P = 3
x2 + 1 =3
x = 2
2 1 1
4 =1
x + 1 + y =
y y = 1
2 x = 0 .
x +1 = 3 x2 =
+1 1
1
y 1 y =
= 3 3
y
1
Va y he phng trnh co ba nghie m la ( x;y ) = ( 2;1); ( 2;1 ; 0;
) 3
3
y 1 + 2x y =
( 3x6 )
Bai 32. Gia i he phng trnh
6 2
1 + 4x y =5x6
Li giai
Nha n tha y x = 0 khong tho a man he, v i x 0 ta chia hai ve cua ca c phng
y 1
+ 2y =
3
3 3
trnh trong he cho x6 ta c: x x .
1 + 4y2 = 5
x 6
y 1
a t =
a ;=
b + 2y khi o he phng trnh tr tha nh:
x3 x3
b2 5 y
a = = 1 =x 1,y
= 1
ab = 3 4 a = 1 3
2
x 1 1.
5 b2 5 = x 3= ,y
b 4a = b =3
b=3 1
+ 2y =
4 x3
3 2 2

304
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1 1
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la ( x;y ) = (1;1) ; 3 ; .

2 2
3
x y + xy =5 + x
Bai 33. Gia i he phng trnh 2 4 2 .
x x y y2 + 2y =5 + x2
( )

Li giai
3 5
x y + xy x =
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i: 2
.
6 2
x y ( xy x ) =5
a t =
u x3 y,v
= xy x he phng trnh tr tha nh:
u + v = 5 u=
+v 5 =
u 3 x3 y = 3 =
x 1
2 2
.
= u v 5 u= v 1 =
= v 2 y 3
xy x 2 =
Va y he phng trnh co nghiem duy nha t ( x;y ) = (1;3) .
x 4 + x 2 + xy x 2 2x y =
2

Bai 34. Gia i he phng trnh
( )
2 x2 y xy 2x2 2y + 1 =
( ) ( 5 )

Li giai
2 2
2
x y + xy x y + 2 =
( ) 0 ( )
He phng trnh tng ng vi: .
2 x2 y (1 xy ) xy 5 =
( 0
)

=u x2 y
a t , khi o he phng trnh tr tha nh:
v= 1 xy
u2 + u (1 v ) + 2 =0 u2 uv + u + 2 =0

2uv + v 6 = 0 6
v ( 2u + 1) =
2 1
1 7
x y = 2
TH1: Ne u u = v=
2 2 7

1 xy =
2
305
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1 1 1
y x2 + =x a
= 2 a 2 81 + 6567
2 3 ( )
2
(vi a = ).
7 1 1 1 9

1 x x2 + 1 =
y =+ a
2 2
2 4 a
1 6
TH2: Neu u v = the vao phng trnh au tien cua he ta c:
2 2u + 1
6u
u2 + u + 2 = 0 2u3 + 3u2 u + 2 = 0
2u + 1
( u + 2 ) 2u2 u + 1 =
( 0 u=
) 2 v =2
y x2 + 2 ( x 1) x2 + x + 3 =0 x = 1
x2 y =2 = ( )
.
1 xy =2 x x2 + 2 =
( 3 ) y x2 + 2 y = 3
=
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la :
1 2 2 81 + 6567
1 1 1 1 ( )
(=
x;y ) (1;3) ; a ; + a (v i a = 3 ).
2 2 2 4 a 9

3 2 2 3
0
x y (1 + y ) + x y ( 2 + y ) + xy 30 =
Bai 35. Gia i he phng trnh
2 2
x y + x 1 + y + y + y 11 =
( )0

Li giai
0
x3 y + x3 y2 + 2x2 y2 + x2 y3 + xy3 30 =
He phng trnh tng ng vi: .
2 2
x y + x + xy + xy + y 11 = 0
2 2 2 2 2 2
xy x + y + x y ( x + y ) + 2x y 30 =
( ) 0
.
xy ( x + y ) + x + y + xy 11 =0
a y la he phng trnh oi x ng loa i I tm c ca c nghiem:
He phng trnh co bon nghiem:

( x;y ) = (1;2 ); ( 2;1); 5 2 21 ; 5 + 2 21 ; 5 + 2 21 ; 5 2 21 .

1 1 1
+ =
x + y xy 2
Bai 36. Gia i he phng trnh .
5 2 = 1
2 2
x + y x2 y2 2
306
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Li giai
ie u kien : xy 0,x + y 0 .
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i :
1 1 1 2 2
1 + + = (x + y) x + y = 2
x y 2 x y
.

1 1 1 2 2 2 4 2 4
5 2 + = ( x + y ) x + + y + = 10
2 y2 2 x2 y2
x
2
u= x
x
a t
v = y 2 = 2
y
u + v = 2 u + v = 2
He phng trnh tr tha nh: 2 2
(he vo nghie m).
u + 4 + v + 4 = 10 uv = 2
Va y he phng trnh a cho vo nghie m.
10 1
+ = 1
2x + 3y xy
Bai 37. Gia i he phng trnh .
124 1
=
1
2 2
4x + 9y x2 y2
Li giai
ie u kien : xy 0,2x + 3y 0 .
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i :
2x + 3y 3 2
10 + =2x + 3y 2x + 3y = 10
xy x y
.
4x2 + 9y2 2 2 9 4
124 = 4x + 9y 4x2 + + 9y2 + =
124
x2 y2 x2 y2

3 2
a t u =2x ,v =3y he phng trnh tr tha nh :
x y
= u + v 10 = u + v 10 =
u 0,v
= 10
2 2
2 .
u + 12 + v= + 12 124 u=+ v2 100 = = 0
u 10,v
307
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3
2x = 0
x
2
2x2 3 =0
10
3y y = 3y2 10y 2 = 0

3 2x2 10x 3 =0
2x = 10
x 2
3y 2 = 0
2
3y y =0

3 5 31 5 31 2
x = ,y = x = ,y =
2 3 2 3
3 5 + 31 5 31 2
x = ,y = = x = ,y
2 3 2 3
.

x = 3 ,y = 5 31 x = 5 + 31 ,y = 2
2 3 2 3

3 5 + 31 5 + 31 2
= x = ,y = x = ,y
2 2 2 3
Va y he phng trnh co tam nghiem nh tre n.
2 2
x + y =x 4y 4
Bai 38. Gia i he phng trnh
4 3 3 2 2
0
y + 8y 3x + 24y 9x + 32y 9x + 37 =
Li giai
2 2
0
( x + 1) + ( y + 2 ) ( x + 1) =
Vie t la i he phng trnh d i da ng: .
3 4
24
3 ( x + 1) ( y + 2 ) =
u= x + 1
a t he phng trnh tr tha nh :
v= y + 2
2 2
2 2 v = u + u 2 2
u + v u =0 v = u + u
3 2 .
4 3 2 4 3 2
=3u v 24 3u u = + u =24 u 5u + u + 24 0
( )

Phng trnh cuo i la phng trnh ba c bon to ng quat a biet ca ch gia i (xem
chng 1).
308
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3x 17

+ x2 + 3y =
2x y + 1 4
Bai 39. Gia i he phng trnh 3 .
3x + 9xy = 15
2x y + 1 4
Li giai
ie u kien : 2x y + 1 0 .
3x
a t =
u ,v
= x2 + 3y he phng trnh tr tha nh :
2x y + 1
17 17 3
u + v = u + v =
4 4 u =5,v =4
.
15 17 15 3
uv = u u + = 0 u= ,v 5
4 4 4 4
3x
= 5 x = 2,y = 3
3x = 10x + 5y 5
2x y + 1
3 3 x = 4,y = 7
2
= x2 + 3y = x + 3y 15 37
4 4 x = ,y = .
2 2
3x 3 4x = 2x y + 1
= 3 11
2 ,y =
2x y + 1 4 x + 3y = 5
2
x = 10 50
x + 3y = 5
Va y he phng trnh co bon nghie m la :
15 37 3 11

( x;y ) = ; ; ; ; ( 2; 3) ; ( 4; 7 ) .
2 2 10 50

3 1
x ( 21y 20 ) =
Bai 40. Gia i he phng trnh .
3
x y + 20 =
( ) 21

Li giai
Nha n thay x = 0 kho ng thoa man he phng trnh.
1
= 21y 20
3
Xe t x 0 he phng trnh vie t la i d i da ng : x .
y=3 21
20
x
1
a=
t u = ,v y he phng trnh tr tha nh :
x
309
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=x 1,y
= 1
u= v= 1
u3 21v 20
= =u3 21v 20 1
3 3 u =v =4 x = ,y =4 .
=v 21u 20 u v3= 21( v u ) 4

u = v = 5 1
x = ,y =5
5

Va y he phng trnh co ba nghie m=
la ( x;y ) (1;1) ; 14 ;4 ; 15 ; 5 .

x + y + 3 x y = 6

Bai 41. Gia i he phng trnh 3 2
.
6 x + y) ( x y) = 8
(
Li giai
ieu kien : x + y 0 . at u = x + y,v =3 x y, ( u 0 ) he phng trnh tr thanh:
u + v = 6
u + v = 6 =
u 4,v
= 2
u + v =6 uv = 8 u 0
6
uv = 8 =u = 2,v 4 .
6 6 u + v =6
u v = 8 u =
uv = 8
3 + 17,v =
3 17
uv = 8
Thay ng c la i ta tm c nghie m cu a he phng trnh :
( x;y =) (12;4 ); ( 34; 30 ); (103 19 17;25 17 77 . )
2x y + 2 + x + 2y 3 = 3
Bai 42. Gia i he phng trnh .
2 2
x y xy + 9x + 9y 25 = 0
Li giai
ie u kien : 2x y + 2 0,x + 2y 3 0 .
2u2 + v2 1
2x y + 2 x =
u= 5
a t , ( u,v 0 ) .
v = x + 2y 3 2v2 u2 + 8
y = 5
He phng trnh a cho tr thanh :
= u + v 3 = u + v 3
4 4 2 2 2 2
4 3 2
.
u v + u v + 8u + 19v = 73 0 + 17 0
u + 6u 18u 6u=
310
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u = 1

3 v = 2
u + v = u,v 0
.
u2 1 u2 + 6u 17 =
( )( 0 )
u =3 + 26
v= 6 26

Thay ng c la i tm c ca c nghiem cua he la:
26 97 18 26
( x;y ) = (1;3); 131 24 ; .
5 5

2 2 2
x + xy + y = 19 ( x y )
Bai 43. Gia i he phng trnh .
2 3
2
x xy + y = 7 ( x y )
Li giai
2 2
( x y ) + 3xy = 19 ( x y )
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i : .
2 3

( x y ) + xy = 7 ( x y )
x = 0

x y =0 y = 0
2
xy 6 x y
( ) x = 3
= xy = 0
.
2 2 3 x y =1 y = 2
( x y ) + 6 ( x y ) = 7 ( x y )

xy = 6 x = 2

y = 3
Va y he phng trnh co ba nghie m=
la ( x;y ) ( 0;0 ); ( 3;2 ); ( 2; 3) .
2 2 2
x + xy + y = 19 ( x + y )
Bai 44. Gia i he phng trnh .
2 3
2
x xy + y = 5 ( x + y )
Li giai
2 2
( x + y ) xy= 19 ( x + y )
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i : .
2 3

( x + y ) 3xy = 5 ( x + y )
311
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x + y = 0 =
x 0,y
= 0
xy = 2
18 ( x + y ) xy = 0 11 11
x = 73 1 ,y = 73 + 1
( ) ( )
3 2 x + y =11 2 2

5 ( x + y ) = 55 ( x + y ) 11 11
xy = 2178 x = 73 + 1 ,y =( 73 1
) ( )
2 2
Va y he phng trnh co ba nghie m la :

( ) ( ) ( )
( x;y ) =( 0;0 ) ; 112 73 1 ; 112 73 + 1 ; 112 73 + 1 ; 112 73 1 .

( )
2 2 5
8 x + y + 4xy +
( ) =13
2
(x + y)
Bai 45. Gia i he phng trnh .
1
2x + x + y = 1

Li giai
ie u kien : x + y 0 .
2 2 5
5 ( x + y ) + 3 ( x y ) + =
13
2
(x + y)
He phng trnh tng ng vi : .
1
x + y + x y + x + y = 1

1
a t u = x + y + ,v = x y, u 2 he phng trnh tr tha nh:
( )
x+y
1 u = 2,v = 1
u + v = u 2 u = 2
2 2 5 9 .
( ) 13 u= ,v = v = 1
5 u 2 + 3v = 4 4
1
x + y + =2 = x+y 1 = x 0
x+y .
x y =1 y =1
x y =1
Va y he phng trnh co nghiem duy nha t ( x;y=
) ( 0; 1) .

2 2 1 1
5 x + y 1 +
( ) + 2xy 1 =35
2 2
x2 y2 x2 y2
Bai 46. Giai he phng trnh : ( (
) )

3x y + 3x + y = 9
2 2
x y
312
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Li giai
ie u kien : x y khi o he phng trnh c vie t la i :
2 3 2 2
3 ( x + y ) + + 2(x y) + =
35
2 2
(x + y) (x y)
.
1 1
2 x + y + x + y + x y + x y =9

1
u = x + y + x + y

a t , u , v 2 khi o he phng trnh tr tha nh :
( )
v = x y + 1
xy
u = 3

v = 3
3 u2 2 + 2 v2 2 =
( ) ( 35 3u2 + 2v2 =
) 45
u = 39 .

2u + v =9 2u + v =9 11
21
v =
11
Do u , v 2 ne n ch nha n nghiem u= v= 3 .
( )
1 3 5
= 3 2 x = ,y =
x + y + 0
x+y ( x + y ) 3 ( x + y ) + 1 = 2
2 .
1 2
x y + = 3 0 3 5
( x y ) 3 ( x y ) + 1 == x = ,y 0
xy 2
Va y he phng trnh co bon nghie m la:
3 5 3 5 3 5 3 + 5
( x;y=) ; ; ; ; ;0 ; ;0 .

2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2
x + y + 2x = 3
Bai 47. Gia i he phng trnh .
3 3 2 2
2x + 2y = 3y 3x + 5
Li giai
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i :
2 2 2 2
x + y + 2x = 3 x + y + 2x = 3
3 3 3 2
.
3 2 2 2
2x + 2y = 3y + 3x 6x + 5 2x + 2y = 3 ( 3 2x ) 6x + 5
2 2
( x + 1) + y =4
. a t u =x + 1,v =y de tm c ( u;v ) = ( 0;2 ) ; ( 2;0 )
3 3
8
( x + 1) + y =
313
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Suy ra =
( x;y ) (1;0 ); ( 1;2 ) .
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m =
( x;y ) (1;0 ); ( 1;2 ) .
2
2x + xy + y = 5
Bai 48. Gia i he phng trnh 4 3 2
.
x + x y + x ( y + 1) + xy + y =9
Li giai
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i :
2 2 2
x + 1 + x + xy + y = 6
x + 1 =3 x = 2,y =1 2
2 2
.
9 2
( )(
x + 1 x + xy + y = ) x + xy + y = 3 =x 2,y
= 2 1
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la ( x;y ) = 2; 2 1 ;
( )( 2; 2 1 .)
2 2
x + y + xy = 3x 2

Bai 49. Gia i he phng trnh 4 4 .
2 2
x + xy + y + 2 =
( ) ( 17x 4
)

Li giai
Nha n thay x = 0 kho ng thoa man he phng trnh.
x2 + xy y2 + 2
+ =3
x x
Xe t x 0 he phng trnh a cho tng ng v i: 4 4
2 2
x + xy y + 2
x + x = 17

x2 + xy y2 + 2
=
a t u = ,v he phng trnh tr tha nh :
x x
u + v = 3 v= 3 u =
u 2,v
= 1
4 4
4 .
u + v = 17 u4 + ( 3 u ) =17 =u 1,v
= 2
x2 + xy
=2
x
2 x2 + xy = 2x =x 1,y
= 0
y + 2
=1
x y2 + 2 =
x x= 3,y = 2
.
2 x2 + xy = x =x 2,y
= 0
x + xy
= 1
x 2 x = 3,y = 1
y + 2 = 2x
2
y + 2 = 2
x
Va y he phng trnh co bon nghie m la ( x;y ) =
(1;0 ); ( 3; 2 ); ( 2;0 ); ( 3; 1) .
314
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2 4 2
x + y + xy= 2xy + 7
Bai 50. Gia i he phng trnh 3 .
xy x2 y + 4xy + 11 x y 2 =
28
( )

Li giai
2
2
xy ( + xy 7 =0
)
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
xy y 2 x + 4xy + 11 x y 2 =
( ) 28 ( )

a t u =y2 x,v =xy he phng trnh tr tha nh :
2
u2 + v 7 = 0 v= 7 u
2 2
.
( ) ( 28
28 u 7 u + 4 7 u 11u =
uv + 4v 11u = )

= u 0 =y 2 x 0 x = 3
2
v= 7 u = v 7= xy 7 y = 1
2 3
.
u = 2 2 49
u ( u + 2 ) =0 y x =2 x =
xy = 3 y = 3 7
v = 3

3
Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la ( x;y ) = ( 3;1) ; ( 49; 3 7 .
)
2 2
x + y ( x + y + 1=
( )
Bai 51. Gia i he phng trnh
) 25 ( y + 1) .

2 2
x + xy + 2y + x 8y =9
Li giai
2 2
( )
x + y ( x + y + 1=) 25 ( y + 1)
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i:
2
2 2
x + y + x ( y + 1) + ( y + 1)= 10 ( y + 1)
Nha n thay y = 1 kho ng thoa man he phng trnh.
x2 + y2
. ( x + y + 1) =25
y +1
Xe t y 1 he phng trnh a cho tng ng v i :
2 2
x + y
+ x + y +1= 10
y +1
x2 + y2
a t u = ,v = x + y + 1 he phng trnh tr tha nh :
y +1
315
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x2 + y2 = x 3,y
= 1
=u + v 10 =u 5 =5
y +1 3 11 .
= uv 25= v 5 x= ,y =
x + y + 1 =5 2 2

Va y he phng trnh co hai nghie m la =
( x;y ) ( 3;1); 23 ; 112 .

3 2 2 2 2 2
81x y 81x y + 33xy 29y = 4
Bai 52. Gia i he phng trnh .
3 2 3 3 2
25y + 9x y 6xy 4y = 24
Li giai
Nha n thay y = 0 kho ng thoa man he phng trnh.
Xe t y 0 chia hai ve phng trnh a u cu a he cho y2 , chia hai ve phng
trnh hai cu a he cho y3 ta c :
3 4 3 4
2
81x 81x + 33x 29 = 3 ( 3x 1) + 2 ( 3x 1) = 24 +
y2 y2
3
.
25 + 9x2 6x 4 =24 2 2 2
y y3 3 y + 2. y =24 + ( 3x 1)

2 3u3 + 2u = 24 + v2

a t u =3x 1,v = he phng trnh tr tha nh : .
y 3 2
3v + 2v = 24 + u
3x 1 =2
x = 1
a y la he o i x ng loai II de tm c u =
v=
2 2 .
y = 2 y = 1

Va y he phng trnh co nghiem duy nha t ( x;y ) = (1;1) .
1 1
+ 2=0
3 3
Bai 53. Gia i he phng trnh ( x + y 1) ( x y + 1) .
2 2
x y + 2y 2 = 0
Li giai
ie u kien : x + y 1 0,x y + 1 0 .
u+v
x=
u = x + y 1 2
a t .
v = x y + 1 y = u v + 2
2
He phng trnh a cho tr thanh :
316
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1 1
3 + 3 2= 0 1 1
u v + 2=0
2 2 u3 v3
u + v u v + 2 uv+2
+ 2. 2=0 uv = 1
2 2 2
u3 + v3 2 =0 u + v 3 3uv u + v 2 =
) ( ) 0
(
uv = 1 uv = 1
u + v =2
= u 1 x + = y 1 1 = x 1
u + v =1
= v 1 x y= +1 1 = y 1
uv = 1
Va y he phng trnh co nghiem duy nha t ( x;y ) = (1;1) .
1 1
+ 2=0
3 3
Bai 54. Gia i he phng trnh ( 2x 3y + 2 ) ( 4x 2y 1) .
2 2
8x + 2 ( 3 8y ) x + 6y y 3 = 0
Li giai
ie u kien : 2x 3y + 2 0,4x 2y 1 0 .
3v 2u + 7
x=
u = 2x 3y + 2 8
a t , ( u,v 0 ) .
v = 4x 2y 1 y = v 2u + 5
4
He phng trnh tr thanh :
1 1
3 + 3 2= 0
u v
2 2
3v 2u + 7 v 2u + 5 3v 2u + 7 v 2u + 5 v 2u + 5
8 + 2 3 8. . + 6 3=0
8 4 8 4 4
1 1 3
+ 2= 0 u + v ) 3uv ( u + v ) 2 = 0
u3 v3 ( .
uv = 1 uv = 1

u + v =2
= u 1 2x 3y= +2 1 = x 1
u + v =1 .
= v 1 4x 2y = 1 1 = y 1
uv = 1
Va y he phng trnh co nghiem duy nha t ( x;y ) = (1;1) .
317
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xy x = 2
16
Bai 55. Gia i he phng trnh 1 + =
1.
4 4
( x + 1) ( y + 1)
Li giai
ie u kien : x,y 1 .
He phng trnh a cho tng ng v i :
1 2
( x + 1)( y + 1)= 2 ( x + 1) + y + 1 + = 1
x +1 y +1
1 16 .
+ = 1 1 16
4 4 + =
1
( x + 1) ( y + 1) ( x + 1)4 ( y + 1)4

1 2
=
a t u = ,v , ( u,v 0 ) he phng trnh tr tha nh :
x +1 y +1
u + v = 1
u + v =1
2
4 4 2 2 2
u + v = 1 ( u + v ) 2uv 2u v =1

1
u + v = = u 0,v
= 1
2 2 (kho ng tho a ma n).
2u v 4uv = 0 =u 1,v
= 0
Va y he phng trnh a cho vo nghie m.
1
x+ + x+ y3 = 3
Bai 56. Gia i he phng trnh y .
2
2xy + y + 1 = 8y
Li giai
1
ie u kien : x + y 3 0,x + 0,y 0 .
y
1
x+ + x+ y3 =3
y
Chia 2 ve phng trnh th hai cua he cho y ta c :
1
2x + y + y =8

1
a t u = x + ;v = x + y 3 he phng trnh tr tha nh:
y
u + v = 3