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I thank Allah Almighty for blessing in life that I was able to be selected to join with student from
Coral ado to conduct a research at BOMA NGOMBE and finally report the findings. My
appreciate goes to my late Father Muktary may his soul rest in peace and my family for their
support. Also to Mr.Magombola and Madam Zemba and Mr. David for their academic support
through the knowledge and skills equipped from them made these work to be completed.

Finally I want to express my gratitude to my friends Londa, Amida, Sia and Fradey latly my
team members Sarah and Carre for their moral and material support, this was fundamental in
shaping this research paper up to it is accomplishment.

CCT Care, Counselling and Treatment clinic

HIV Human immunodeficiency virus

TICD Tengeru institute of Community development




TICD students we get opportunity to participate to the research which was conducted by the
Colorado University students (U.S.A) at Boma Ngombe at Hai hospital. The research based on
Health System specifically HIV Protection and Stigmatization. Through our intervention we
learn and acquire knowledge from the respective.



HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is the virus, which attacks the T-cells (CD-4 cells) in the
immune system and making people much more vulnerable to infections and diseases. HIV is
found throughout all the tissues of the body but is transmitted via the body fluids of an infected
person (semen, vaginal fluids, blood, and breast milk).

This research was conducted to people who have been affected by HIV at Hai District hospital
where the discussion focus to study the patients with HIV infection regardless of the age. Apart
from that to study also if there is stigma against people living with HIV.

The hospital have a special clinic for HIV people its called CCT (Care, Counselling and
treatment).This clinic is concerned with counselling the patients after being tested and giving
medication to the patients who are HIV positive, there are 2500 people living with HIV in the
area and about 80-100 patients registered each month. Apart from that the clinic also have 4
session every week, first is for HIV patients, second is for TB patients,Teeneger club and
childrens club who are under 15 years its done under supervision of nurses. All these are done
when a person is diagnosed. Diagnosis is made through a blood test that screens specifically for
the virus. If the HIV virus has been found, the test result is positive. The earlier HIV is detected,
the more likely the treatment will be successful.

2.0 Symptoms of HIV

For the most part, the symptoms of HIV are the result of infections caused by bacteria, viruses,
fungi, and/or parasites. These conditions do not normally change in individuals with healthy
immune systems which protect the body against contamination.

2.1 Early Symptoms

At first, a person with HIV will not have any visible symptoms.HIV symptoms can also be
similar to those caused by other illnesses. An HIV test is the only way to tell for sure whether
you have HIV.A few weeks after infection, many people have flu-like symptoms which then
disappear after a while. These symptoms can include fever, headache and tiredness. Other people
infected with HIV may have no symptoms. However, even if people with HIV feel healthy, HIV
is still affecting their bodies. Once HIV enters the body, it infects large numbers of CD4+ cells
and rapidly spreads throughout the body and into many organ systems. During this early period,
people with HIV are more likely to spread the infection during unprotected sex or other risky
situations because HIV is present in large amounts in genital fluids and in blood.

2.2 Later symptoms

AIDS is the late stage of HIV infection, when a person's immune system is severely weakened
and has difficulty fighting infections and certain cancers. At this stage, serious symptoms occur
that can include rapid weight loss, serious infections, pneumonia, recurrent fevers, prolonged
swelling of the lymph glands, blotches on the skin, prolonged diarrhea, sores of the mouth, anus,
or genitals; and memory loss, depression, and other neurologic disorders
3.0 Treatments for HIV

After a positive HIV diagnosis, regular blood tests are necessary to monitor the progress of the
virus before starting treatment. The therapy is designed to reduce the level of HIV in the blood,
which has many benefits. The CCT clinic treats with antiretroviral (ARVs) to patients with HIV
though there is no vaccine for HIV. The treatment fights the HIV infection and slows down the
spread of the virus and develop the condition and allow most infected people the opportunity to
live a long and relatively healthy life and improve patients general health.HIV treatment is
usually permanent and lifelong and based on routine dosage. Pills must be taken on a regular
schedule, every time. Each class of ARVs has different side effects, but some possible common
side effects may include nausea, fatigue, diarrhea, headache, skin rashes, or moodiness. Also
there is alternative medicine widely used like alternative complementary medications, such as
mineral or vitamin supplements may provide some benefits in overall health.

4.0 Prevention from HIV

Protected sex; having sex without a condom can put a person at risk of being infected with HIV
and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). HIV can be spread by having unprotected sex
(vaginal, oral, and/or anal sex). It can also be caught from sharing sex toys with someone
infected with HIV. Best way is to use condoms with every sexual act.

Stop sharing needle and sharp instrument; sharing needles can expose users to HIV and other
viruses, such as hepatitis. Strategies such as needle-exchange programs are used to reduce the
infections. If someone needs to use a needle, it must be a clean, unused, unshared needle.

Stop breastfeeding to infected mothers; some ARVs can harm the unborn child. But an effective
treatment plan can prevent HIV transmission from mother to baby. Precautions have to be taken
to protect the baby's health. HIV infected mothers should not breastfeed.

Education - Getting yourself educated about HIV risks and how you can reduce it, is the best way
to prevent yourself against HIV. Also health education is an important factor in reducing risky
5.0 Ways of Managing HIV to infected people

Obedience - HIV treatment is effective if the patient is committed and constant in taking the
medication on time. Missing even a few doses may put at risk the treatment. A daily careful
routine should be programmed to fit the treatment plan around the patient's lifestyle and

General Health - it is crucial for patients to take medication correctly and take steps to avoid
illness. Patients should seek to improve their general health and reduce the risk of falling ill by
practicing regular exercise, healthy eating, and not smoking and using a lots of supplements.

Long-term condition - HIV is a lasting condition, and therefore patients have to be in regular
contact with their healthcare team. Treatment plan should be reviewed regularly.

6.0 Challenges facing patient with HIV

Distance; some of the patients comes from very far places to come for their clinic date, so these
makes them same times miss their appointment with doctors hence miss their medication which
result to bad progress of their medication.

Stigma; Most people living with HIV at first it was difficult because the family, friends, relatives
and community members did not accept their condition, so there were stigmatized and its occurs
due to ignorance and lack of education due to these the people who are infected with HIV are
Psychological affected and make feel excluded, rejected, discriminated and isolated in which it
result to not participating in development issues, run away from their homes and even quite their

1.0 Description of the study area

Data Collection was participatory involving all affected people with HIV in the hospital in
finding about the HIV and if there were any stigma towards the community.

2.0 Source of Data

Both sources were used to enhance the study, secondary and primary data were collected
from various sources in order to fulfill the objectives of the study.

2.2.1 Primary Data

Primary data for the study were gathered by using different tools such as, interview,
questionnaires, observation were conducted by researchers with help from patients and doctors.

2.2.2 Secondary Data

Secondary data from different sources such as offices files were collected in order to complete
the information obtained from sample respondents. The types of secondary data collected
includes number of infected people with HIV