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ROAD SECTOR - SKILLS DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY 221

Paper No. 565


ROAD SECTOR - SKILLS DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY
MUKESH C.GUPTA*

ABSTRACT
For the 12th Plan (2012-2017) , preliminary exercises suggest that investment in infrastructure will have to expand to US$ 1,000 billion
(Rs. 45,00,000 crore). As a modest estimate, about 40 per cent of these investments would directly contribute to construction activities.
This implies estimated expenditure of Rs 360,000 crore in construction sector per year. This does not include real estate and other
construction activities. A successful infrastructure development strategy depends critically on implementation of durable and quality assets.

Construction Sector offers huge potential for employment creation for skilled and unskilled workers. Over the last decades there has been
significant drop in the percentage proportion of qualified engineers and skilled work force employed in the construction sector. The
Working Group on construction sector set up by the Planning Commission for the Eleventh Five Year Plan has estimated the growth in
demand for employment at a rate of 8 to 9 per cent per annum implying addition to existing stock by around 2.5 million persons per year.
Currently, the number of workers in the construction sector would be 42 million. Per worker output in this sector is the lowest among all
non-agriculture sectors with a discernible declining trend. Only 2.3 per cent received formal training. The proportion of engineers,
technicians and skilled workers is declining and is not commensurate with the level of investments. The proportion of the unskilled
workforce is increasing. This is a disturbing trend and would lead to poor quality of construction and inferior quality of infrastructure assets.

This Paper highlights the issues and challenges in the skills development for the unorganised workers in the construction activities with
particular reference to the road sector. It recommends a strategy that aligns itself with the "Skills Development Initiative" (SDI) of the
Government of India. This proposed strategy would evolve a new strategic framework for skill development for early school leavers and
existing workers, especially in the un-organised sector in close consultation with industry and sectoral infrastructure organizations,
international agencies (ILO, World Bank & ADB) and the Indian Roads Congress with the support of Director General (Employment and
Training), Ministry of Labour and Employment, Government of India and the Planning Commission.

1 INTRODUCTION over 10-15 years, have focussed and accelerated the


1.1 In India, faster economic growth has put development of physical infrastructure. The Eleventh Plan
pressure on infrastructure, such as, roads, ports, railways, targets an investment of Rs 20 lakh crore in infrastructure
airports, dams, canals, power, irrigation, housing, urban over the five year period (2007-2012). This is more than
utility, watershed development works, building special double the investment realized during the 10th Plan period
economic zones, etc. All these infrastructure facilities (Box 1).
involve construction activities. The Construction Sector 1.2 For the 12th Plan (2012-2017) , preliminary
is a key link between the major upstream activities of exercises suggest an investment level of Rs 45 lakh crore
core sector industry such as cement, bitumen, steel, in the infrastructure. As a modest estimate, about 40
quarries (road and building aggregates), industrial per cent of these investments would directly contribute
products, services (engineering, technology transfer) and to construction activities. This implies estimated
downstream activities, such as, creation of social expenditure of Rs 360,000 crore in construction sector
infrastructure, agriculture, defence, transportation and per year. This includes a significant component of roads.
other activities. Cognizant of this, the governments at the A successful infrastructure development strategy depends
central and state levels have, particularly during the past critically on creation of durable and quality assets.

* Senior Specialist - Employment Intensive Investments, International Labour Organisation

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222 GUPTA ON

Box-1 Investments in the Infrastructure Development

Sectors Tenth Plan (2002-07) Eleventh Plan (2007-12)


(Projected Investment)
Rs Crore Share (%) Rs Crore Share (%)
Roads 144 892 16.63 314 152 15.25
Railways (including MRTS) 119 658 13.73 261 808 12.71
Ports 14 071 1.61 87 995 4.27
Airports 6 771 0.78 30 968 1.50
Irrigation including Watershed 111 503 12.80 257 344 12.49
Water Supply and Sanitation 64 803 7.44 143 730 6.98
Electricity and Power 291 850 33.49 666 525 32.35
Telecommunication 103 365 11.86 258 439 12.54
Storage 4 819 0.55 22 378 1.09
Gas 9 713 1.11 16 855 0.82
Total 871 445 100 2 060 193 100
Source: Eleventh Plan Document - Planning Commission

1.3 Table 1 gives a broad break up of the workforce construction sector is bottom heavy with over 80 per cent
in construction activities as per the assessment done by workers being unskilled. This is a disturbing trend as it
the Working Group for Construction Sector for the could lead to poor quality of infrastructure creation. The
Eleventh Five Year Plan set up by the Planning Working Group estimated the growth in demand for
Commission. It would be seen that over the last decade, employment at a rate of 8 to 9 per cent per annum implying
there is significant drop in the percentage proportion of addition to existing stock by around 2.5 million persons
qualified engineers and skilled workers employed in the per year. Currently, the number of construction workers
construction sector. The structure of employment in the is estimated to be 42 million.

Table 1 Workers in the Construction Sector


S.No Category 1995 2005 Growth in 10 Years
Number Share (%) Number Share (%) (Per cent)
1 Engineers 687 000 4.70 822 000 2.65 19.66
2 Technicians 359 000 2.46 573 000 1.85 59.61
and Foremen
3 Secretarial 646 000 4.42 738 000 2.38 14.24
4 Skilled Workers 2 241 000 15.34 3 267 000 10.54 45.78
5 Unskilled Workers 10 670 000 73.08 25 600 000 82.58 139.92
Total 14 603 000 100 31 000 000 100 112.28
Source: Report of the Working Group on Construction for Eleventh Plan: Planning Commission

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ROAD SECTOR - SKILLS DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY 223

1.4 The major issue facing the construction sector is 2026, up from 62.9 per cent in 2006. Other projections
that about 80 per cent of workers are casual. Since most also indicate emergence of a young India with 800 million
of the employment is in the informal sector, it calls for in the productive age group by 2015.
special attention to aspects such as occupational health,
2.2 The trend of an ageing, shrinking population is
safety of workers, social protection, timely payment of
visible across much of the developed world. It is now
wages and non-discrimination due to gender as per the
for developing countries, like India to benefit from the
various labour laws. Per worker output in this sector is
much awaited demographic dividend. In 2020, the average
the lowest among all non-agriculture sectors with a
Indian will be only 29 years old compared to average of
discernible declining trend. Only 2.3 per cent received
37 years for China and USA, 47 years for Western Europe
formal training. Manual unskilled labour in large numbers and 48 years for Japan. If we wish to realize this one
has entered the construction sector. This indirectly implies time opportunity, then investing in youth and preparing
need for upgrading of skills to improve productivity and them to meet the future challenges is the only option.
quality in construction. Otherwise, this demographic dividend could turn into a
1.5 It is one of the sectors providing high employment "demographic nightmare" if these youth continue to
opportunities to women though physical safety of women indulge in destructive Maoist activities.
workers is often at stake. There is high concentration of 2.3 Within the construction sector, roads need a
migrant workers, particularly seasonal migrant workers. special emphasis as most ITIs and Polytechnics have
It is extremely important to study the dynamics of migrant bypassed the needs of the roads sub-sector. In this context,
workers and address their needs. it may be mentioned that the World Bank undertook a
road construction industry study recently. Table 2 provides
2 THE SKILL CHALLENGE IN THE ROAD an analysis of projected investments in three scenarios.
SECTOR Scenario 1 is business as usual. Scenario 2 relates to
medium growth rate, in accordance with the vision
2.1 India's Eleventh five year Plan (2007-12)
documents of the states and the country and Scenario 3
indicates that "generation of productive and gainful
relates to high growth rate, incorporating massive
employment, with decent working conditions on a
investments in national highways and rural roads as
sufficient scale to absorb our growing labour force, must
proposed by GOI.
form a critical element in the strategy for achieving
inclusive growth". The ability to sustain labour-intensive 2.4 As per that Study, based on the past trend, a
growth depends on the expansion of the labour force's rough estimate has been made of the distribution of
capabilities with skills and knowledge as driving forces increased demand scenarios for the different contract
of economic growth and social development. According sizes for all types of road contracts in the country up to
to the 2007-08 Economic Survey, 64.8 per cent of India's 2014-15 . The contract sizes assumed for this analysis
population would be in the working age of 15-64 years in are Large (>Rs 125 crore, i.e. $28 million), Medium

Table 2 Estimated Project Investments in Road Sector (Rs billion)

Year 2007-08 08-09 09-10 10-11 11-12 12-13 13-14 14-15 Total
Scenario 1 267.0 277.0 284.2 292.6 301.3 310.3 319.5 329.0 2 384
Scenario 2 355.5 376.3 385.9 410.3 446.4 484.3 523.0 564.1 3 546
Scenario 3 586.5 740.0 853.1 861.6 874.4 488.7 493.5 498.6 5 396

(Source: World Bank Report - Indian Road Construction Industry, Oct.2007) (Rs. 1 billion i.e Rs 100 crore)

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224 GUPTA ON

(Rs 40-125 crore), Small (Rs 5-40 crore) and Very Small contractors, the present pool of contractors has tried to
(<Rs 5 crore i.e.$1 million). The number of actual Indian meet the demand of the past five years. Results have
contractors capable of doing the medium to large road been mixed. According to the Study (Table 3), there is a
contracts may not exceed 45-50. By associating among need to at least double, if not triple, the pool of contractors
themselves and with foreign contractors present in India at different levels to be able to meet the demand foreseen
(who number about 10-12) as well as with smaller under Scenarios 2 and 3.

Table 3 Projected Average Yearly Number of Contracts (different sizes)


Contract sizes Scenario 1 Scenario 2 Scenario 3
Large 90 180 400
Medium 100 250 550
Small 2 800 5 100 6 600
Very small 4 100 7 100 8 800
Total approx 7 100 approx 12 600 approx 16 400
(Source: World Bank Report - Indian Road Construction Industry, Oct.2007)

2.5 The World Bank Report has projected total 2.6 The analysis on the investment climate and
human resources requirement on an approximate basis, business environment in the road sector ranked the various
empirically correlated with the investments/turnover. The parameters as presented in Table 5. It will be seen that
average estimated requirement over the next eight years availability of skilled staff and operational issues, like,
is given in Table 4. This includes staffing gaps in the road land, licenses and clearance, governance have the highest
agencies at central and state levels, contractors and ranking.
consultants. The skill types considered include full-fledged Table 5 Ranking of Investment Climate
engineers to technical and mechanical staff. Presently Issues in the Road Sector
about 6,000 fresh engineers and diploma holders join the
Parameters Ranking
road sector workforce each year, offsetting a similar
number of retirements. But this does not cover the needed Availability of skilled staff 1
annual increment of 7,500-10,000 of such persons to meet Operational issues: land, licenses and 1
the demands of Scenario 1 over the next eight years. clearances, governance
The current pool of skilled and semi-skilled persons is Taxation issues 2
estimated to be about 110,000 in the road construction Materials cost and availability 2
sector. Scenarios 2 and 3 would require two to three times Contract enforcement and dispute resolution 2
these numbers. It is imperative to undertake the measures
Barrriers to entry 3
needed to meet the challenge of filling in this gap of skilled
workers in this sector. Subsidies and fiscal concessions 3
Finance cost and availability 4
Table 4 Yearly Skilled Human Resource
Sector policy and institutional structure 5
Requirement
Import procedures 6
Skilled HR Reqd Scenario 1 Scenario 2 Scenario 3 Infrastructure issues 6
Average (approx) 150 000 200 000 280 000 Industry structure 7
(Source: World Bank Report - Indian Road Construction (Source: World Bank Report - Indian Road Construction
Industry, Oct.2007) Industry, Oct.2007)

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ROAD SECTOR - SKILLS DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY 225

3 CURRENT INITIATIVES - SKILLS 4 PROPOSED STRATEGY FOR SKILLS


DEVELOPMENT DEVELOPMENT IN THE ROAD
CONSTRUCTION SECTOR
India's growing population and her demographic dividend
needs to be capitalized by building and constantly 4.1 Launching - Crash Programme on
upgrading the skill levels of the working population. The Modular Employable Skills
thrust is, therefore to be on creating a pool of 4.1.1 The training methods under Modular Employable
adequately-skilled personnel in appropriate numbers, in Skills (MES) focus on development of appropriate
line with requirements of ultimate users and enhanced competencies. The focus of the programme will be on
quality training of the labour force from the current 31 "performing" in addition to knowledge acquisitiion".
lakh to more than 1 crore per year with a multi-pronged Emphasis will be given to provide "hands on" training.
strategy. To meet this objective, the Government of India The training methods will be individual centered to make
has launched a number of key initiatives to meet this each person a competent one. Opportunities for individual
work will be provided. The learning process will be
challenge. For example:
continuously monitored and feedback will be provided on
a) Industrial Training Institutes (ITI) are being individual basis. Demonstrations using different models,
upgraded through PPP mode; audio visual aids and equipment will be used intensively.

b) A large well-resourced Programme on Skills 4.1.2 The concept for the MES is:
Development Initiative has been launched to
a) Identification of minimum skills set which is
provide vocational training to 1 million persons in
considered sufficient to get employment in the
the next 5 years and thereafter 1 million persons labour market.
every year in modular employable skills;
b) Skills up-gradation, multi-skilling, multi entry and
c) 1500 new ITIs and 50,000 Skill Development exit, vertical mobility and life long learning
Centres are being established. opportunities.
The Skill Development Initiative (SDI) supports c) Recognition of prior learning (certification of skills
employment generation, economic growth and social acquired informally).
development processes. Skill development policy and d) The modules in a sector, for example roads, when
programmes will be an integral part of the comprehensive grouped together could lead to a qualification
economic, labour and social policies and programmes. equivalent to National Trade Certificate or higher.
Only about 25 lakh vocational training seats are available
e) Courses could be available for different levels in
in the country, whereas, about 1.28 crore persons enter
different vocations depending upon the need of
the labour market every year. Even out of these training the employer organizations.
places, very few are available for early school dropouts.
Thus, a large number of school drop-outs do not have 4.1.3 For the construction workers in the road sector,
there is huge demand for trades, like, surveyor, excavator
access to skill development for improving their
operator, motorized grader operator, stone crusher
employability. The educational entry requirements and
operator, laboratory technician, earth moving equipment
long duration of courses of the formal training system operator, road roller operators, etc. Other trades like
are some of the impediments for a person of hot-mix plant operator, concrete mixer operator, mate,
low educational attainment to acquire skills for his and spray man, store keepers, materials specialists also
livelihood. needs to be covered to meet the demand. Very few

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226 GUPTA ON

opportunities for skill development are currently available HUDCO, IGNOU, private sector companies, such as,
for these trades. Most of the existing Skill Development Larsen &Toubro, Hindustan Construction Company and
programmes are long term in nature. Poor and less ITIs. However, there is need to consolidate and upscale
educated persons can not afford long term training these efforts in a coherent and integrated and coordinated
programmes due to higher entry qualifications, opportunity manner to meet the gaps particularly in the road sector,
cost, etc. MES is therefore designed to benefit different given that annual investments in the highways sector are
target groups, like: reaching Rs 50,000 - 60,000 crore. Currently there are
hardly any orgnaised training providers to train the
a) Workers seeking certification of their skills sophisticated construction equipment operators or quality
acquired informally; assurance technicians. People have evolved their own
b) Workers seeking skill upgradation / skill skills learning methodologies through hit and trial or
enhancement; apprenticeship rather than through the accredited training
providers in this sub-sector. NAC, Hyderabad is an
c) Early school drop-outs and unemployed youth. excellent example and it needs to be replicated in several
4.1.4 It is proposed that the framework for Skill regions of the country with due focus on road sector
Development in the road sector be evolved that should demands.
include the following key features: Only a very small fraction of the highway investments is
needed for launching the need based MES in the road
a) Demand driven Short term training courses based
construction sector. And it will contribute in producing
on modular employable skills to be decided in
quality and durable assets and create large scale
consultation with the construction Industry, viz
employment in this sector.
Contractors and Consultants.
b) Testing and certification of prior learning (skills 4.3 Aligning with the Skills Development
of persons acquired informally). Initiative (SDI)
c) Flexible delivery mechanism (part time, weekends The strategy proposed aligns itself with the "Skills
& full time). Development Initiative"(SDI) of the Government of India.
d) Different levels of programmes (Foundation level It is obvious that the skill level and educational attainment
as well as skill upgradation) to meet demands of of the workforce determines the productivity as well as
various target groups. the ability to adapt to the changing environment. A majority
of the workforce in the construction sector does not
e) Optimum utilization and enhancement of existing
possess adequate employable skills. Currently, this is an
training infrastructure to make training cost
impediment in getting higher productivity, decent
effective and purposeful.
employment and improving their socio-economic
f) Testing of skills of trainees by independent condition. Only 5 per cent of the Indian labour force in
assessing bodies who would not be involved in the age group of 20-24 years has obtained vocational
conduct of the training programms. skills through formal means, whereas, the percentage in
industrialized countries varies between 60 per cent and
4.2 Ongoing Initiatives
96 per cent.
For skill development of construction workers, some large
4.4 Partnership Approach - Skills Development
corporate houses are providing training to unskilled
Partners
workers in trades, like, plumbing, masonry, electrical and
sanitary works. There are several skill providers, such To meet the huge demand for specific skills of a high
as, Construction Industry Development Council (CIDC), order in the road construction sector, a Public Private
National Academy of Construction (NAC), Hyderabad, Partnership between Government and Industry is

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ROAD SECTOR - SKILLS DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY 227

proposed to promote skills development programme under c) Organising Modules into Course Matrix indicating
the umbrella of the SDI. This proposed strategy would vertical and horizontal mobility
evolve a new strategic framework for skill development
d) Development of detailed course curriculum for
for early school leavers and existing workers, especially
various trades
in the un-organised sector in close consultation with
industry (FICCI, AASHOCHAM, CII, PHD Chamber e) Vetting by DG(E &T) MOLE with support from
of Commerce, CIDC, Contractors & Consultants), trade Indian Roads Congress, training providers and
unions, un-organised sector, state governments and trade experts
sectoral infrastructure departments ( Ministry of Labour f) Inviting comments from Employers/ Employees
& Employment, Ministry of Road Transport & Highways, Organisations, Central / State Govts. etc.
NHAI, NRRDA, Academic Institutions) international
agencies (ILO, World Bank, ADB) and the Indian Roads g) Approval by the National Council for Vocational
Congress with the support of Director General Training (NCVT)
(Employment and Training), Ministry of Labour and
4.7 Eligibility Criteria for Candidates
Employment, Government of India and the Planning
Commission. The following minimum eligibility criteria is proposed:

4.5 Strategic Focus a) Supervisory Cadre - 10th Class


b) Artisan - 5th Class
The proposed strategy should focus on:
c) Age - Minimum 18 years
a) Hands on training side by side of knowledge
acquisition and knowledge enhancement;
4.8 Toolkits for successful conduct of the course
b) Providing certified modular employable skills to This should be developed as per the course curricula
school leavers, existing workers to improve their and syllabus for each trade. This should include theory
employability in the infrastructure sector by and practical aspects of each trade including explanation
optimally utilizing the existing training of safety aspects on how to use them. Their effective
infrastructure available in the government, private handling methods to gain maximum outputs should be
institutions and the industry. Existing skills of the demonstrated and trainees should be able to handle all
persons can also be tested and certified under the required tools for a first hand experience.
this scheme.
4.9 Flexibility to redesign curriculum to meet
c) Develop capacity in the area of standardized
special needs of the target segment
competency standards, course curricula, learning
material and assessment standards in the country 4.9.1 The training courses should be flexible and
in close cooperation with the industry. scalable with the option of incorporating local influences
and nuances to cater to a wider audience. The
4.6 Development Process for the Course requirements of particular states may be taken into
Curriculum consideration and the course delivery should be modified
as per the assessed requirements. Thorough training for
a) Identification of Employable Skill trades in road
competent, skilled equipment operators and heavy-duty
sector based on division of work in the labour
repair mechanics would require a combination of
market in consultation with Industry.
classroom and hands-on field instruction at the training
b) Development of training modules corresponding centers and on-the-job work experience as an apprentice
to skills set identified with a pre-identified contractor.

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228 GUPTA ON

4.9.2 New apprentices should be given an orientation - Laboratory Technicians (Asphalt Works)
to the industry, safety procedures on equipment and at - Tower Crane Erection and Operations
the jobsite, first aid, construction fundamentals and (Concreting Operations)
grade-checking.
- Hot Mix Plant Operators
4.9.3 The training period for apprentices will be
- Spray Man
governed by level of expertise and skills to be attained.
The training courses will be designed for attaining - Pavement Markings Technicians
various levels of skills. After the requirement is met, - Bar Bender
apprentices are dispatched for on-the-job training with
- Pre-stressing
contractors. Exact duration of the courses will be
determined based on consultation with the road - Pre-cast Concrete Elements
construction industry. - Pile Foundation / Driving Technicians;
- Scaffolding Technicians;
4.10 Tentative List of Trades
- Launching Girder Specialists
One of the key focus areas for road project execution
leading to capacity enhancement calls for skills - Shuttering Specialists
development, training, testing and certification of - Store Keepers
construction workers in different categories. The - Material Specialists
following trades are considered relevant for the
road sector: - Work Supervisors
- Carpenters
- Topographical Surveyors
- Plumbers
- Drillers
- Electricians
- Blasters
- Masons
- Dumper Operators
- Stone Crusher Operators 4.11 Brief Description of Trades
- Machine Operators Table 6 provides a brief description, employability
- Batching Plant Operators potential, entry level and estimated duration of training.
- Road Roller Operators These can be refined and finalized in consultation with
the Contractors, IRC and the training providers, like,
- Crane Operators
CIDC, NAC, Hyderabad.
- Crawler Dozer Operators
- Wheeled Loader Operators 4.12 Typical Course Content

- Motorized Grader Operators Annex 1 provides a typical example of terminal


- Hydraulic Excavator Operators competency, course content and list of tools for Bar
Bender ( as picked up from "Course Curricula for
- Tar Boiler Operators
Short-Term Courses based on Modular Employable Skills
- Laboratory Technicians (Concrete) (MES) in Construction Sector, Directorate General for
- Laboratory Technicians (Soils - Earthworks and Employment and Training, Ministry of Labour and
Base Course Materials) Employment).

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ROAD SECTOR - SKILLS DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY 229

Table 6 Brief Description of Trades


S.No Trade Description Employability Entry Level Estimated
Duration
hrs
1 Topographical Surveyor To be able to use total survey Entire construction Class 10 300
stations, theodolite and do setting industry
out of infrastructure works
2 Drillers Drilling in rocks - highways, Entire construction Class 5 200
railways hydro-electric in hilly areas industry
3 Blasters Rock Blasting highways, railways, Entire construction Class 5 200
hydro-electric in hilly areas industry
4 Stone Crusher Operators How to operate and organize a Entire construction Class 5 300
stone crusher. Different sizes of industry
stones, types, quality, etc
5 -11 Heavy Equipment Effective operation of heavy earth Entire construction Class 5 300
Operators moving equipment, how to do industry, highways,
- Bulldozer grading, earthwork cutting to railways, ports,
- Motor Grader certain grade and cross-slope. power houses
- Wheel Loader Including fine operational details of
- JCB each type of equipment
- Hydraulic Excavator
- Road Roller
- Asphalt Paver
- Dumper
12 Concrete Batching Plant All issues for effective production Entire construction Class 10 300
Operator of concrete, proportion of mix of industry
stone, sand, cement and water and
quality control checks
13 Asphalt Batching Plant All issues for effective production Highways / Airports Class 10 300
Operator of bituminous mixes, proportion of
mix of stone, sand, asphalt and
water and quality control checks
14 Crane Operators Effective operation of Crane Entire construction Class 5 300
including capacity constraints and industry
occupational safety etc
15 Pavement Marking How to use various types of Highways, runways, Class 5 200
pavement marking machines, types taxi ways
of materials used and quality control
16 Tar Boiler Operator Effective use of tar / asphalt boiler Highways / Rural Class 5 200
to the prescribed temperature Roads / Airports
17 Bitumen Sprayers Effective use of sprayer to achieve Highways / Rural 200
prescribed spread rates of bitumen Roads / Airports
18 Lab. Technician - Ability to carryout basis tests such Highways / Rural Class 10 300
Earthworks / Base Course as Atterberg Limits, Sieve Analysis, Roads / Airports
optimum dry density using sand
replacement, etc
(Table 6 Contd...)
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230 GUPTA ON
(Table 6 Contd...)
S.No Trade Description Employability Entry Level Estimated
Duration
(hours)
19 Lab. Technician - Ability to test aggregates, sieve Highways / Rural Class 10 300
Asphalt Works analysis, flakiness index, L.A Roads / Airports
Abrasion test, asphalt density test,
bitumen content tests
20 Pre-stressing Elementary pre-stressing for Highways / Rural Class 10 300
bridges, amount of tension / Roads / Airports
pressures
21 Pre-Cast items of Fabrication of pre-cast items of Highways / Rural Class 5 300
Concrete concrete for housing, electricity Roads / Airports
poles, roadside kerb, hume pipes, etc
22 Occupational Safety at Basic knowledge of how to Entire Construction Class 8 200
Work Sites introduce safety at work sites Industry (ESC)
23 Shuttering Carpenter ESC Class 5 200
24 Scaffolding Tech. ESC Class 5 200
25 Store Keeper ESC Class 10 200
26 Work Supervisor ESC Class 10 300
27 Launching Girder ESC Class 10 300
Technician
28 Shuttering Tech. ESC Class 8 300

29 Pile foundation Tech. ESC Class 10 300

5 WAY FORWARD c) Mapping of existing capacity of training providers


(Industry Contractors, Private Institutions, ITIs,
The Director General (E & T), Ministry of Labour and CIDC, National Academy of Construction, State
Employment in consultation with the Ministry of Road Level Institution, etc) and their potential.
Transport & Highways and Ministry of Rural
d) Scope for expansion of capacity of existing
Development should consider establishing a Task Force
training providers.
comprising of representatives from the sectoral
departments, industry and workers representatives to e) How to attract new training providers in this
oversee the formulation and implementation of the sector?
strategy in a coherent and time bound manner. The IRC f) Consider the possibility of using PPP Model.
may consider providing the needed technical support to Some of the ITIs developed under PPP should
the Task Force. The Task Force should primarily focus be specifically dedicated to development of road
on the following: sector skills.
a) Identify and finalize list of trades in the road g) How to make it obligatory through necessary
sector. contract provisions and incentives to the
Contractors to enable trainees to have hands-on
b) Identifying gaps in various trades in the road training at the various ongoing construction work
sector in the next five years. sites?

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ROAD SECTOR - SKILLS DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY 231

h) Development of curriculum and accreditation in setting up National Academy of Construction,


process for various courses in consultation with Hyderabad in at least 6-7 locations in different
the industry regions of the country and their linkage /
i) Based on above, finalise a national level Work networking with it is and Polytechnics in the
Plan with clear quantifiable and verifiable States.
indicators for skills development for the next five
d) Development of Course Curriculum for the
years including budgetary requirements.
needed trades.
j) Monitoring & Evaluation of the implementation
of the Work Plan. e) Provision in the Contract Agreement to
incentivise skill enhancement of workers and
6 POINTS FOR DISCUSSION binding the contractors to enable apprenticeship
on-job-training for a short duration.
The following points require deliberations among the
highway professionals so as to evolve a national level f) Development of plan for accreditation of
Work Plan for enhancement of skills for workers in the Competency Certificates issued to workers by
road sector: the training providers.
a) Assessment of skills development needs for g) Development of Work Plan for delivery of training
workers in the road sector. to road construction workers in the next five
b) Listing of existing training providers for road years.
related skills for workers with the help of IRC. h) Support to be provided to the Task Force to be
c) Replicating the example of the Government of established by the DG(E&T), Ministry of Labour
Andhra Pradesh with support of the Contractors & Employment.

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232 GUPTA ON

ANNEX -1
Typical - Format of Terminal Competency, Course Content & List of Tools for
Modular Employable Skill for Each Trade

BARBENDER d) Should be able to measure, mark, cut and tie to


make prefabricate precast element (slabs).
Name : Barbender
e) Should be able to measure, mark, cut and tie to
Sector : Construction make cage for beams with shear bars.
Code : CON 207 f) Should be able to measure, mark, cut and tie to
Entry : Vth Standard and MES course erect column with base.
Qualification on Assistant Barbender and g) Should be able to measure, mark, cut and tie to
Steel fixer erect column with corbels and cranks.
Age : 18 Years & above h) Should be able to measure, mark, cut and tie to
make cage for beam with alteration in beam
Duration : 300 hrs
section.
Terminal Competency
i) Should be well versed with functions and
a) Should be able to identify, select and practically operations of bar cutting machine, manual bar
use the bar bending and fixing tools bending machine and binding machine.
b) Should be well versed with the safety procedures j) Should be able to measure, mark, cut and tie to
with selection and use of safety tools and make cage for staircase.
equipments. k) Should be able to assess the requirement of
c) Should have knowledge of good housekeeping materials for a specific work.
practices, handling of materials and waste l) Should be able to calculate the quantum of work
disposal. done.

COURSE CONTENTS
Practical Competencies Underpinning Knowledge (Theory)
a) Identification of tools and equipments used in Bar a) Role of Bar Bender.
Bending work.
b) Use of protective clothing, boots, goggles and b) Description of trade.
equipment as applicable to a task.
c) Good house keeping practices, proper handling of c) Different types of tools and equipments used in
materials and waste disposal. bar bending work.
d) Safety precautions and safety belts while working d) While using raw materials.
at site.
e) Store/lay materials at work in safe manner. e) On the machines & equipments.
f) Use and store of tools and equipments in a f) Study of various types of steel used in Bar
safe manner. Bending work.
g) Measurement length & diameter in MKS & FPS g) Knowledge of measurements and its conversion
system. to other system.
h) Prefabricate Pre-cast Elements (Slabs)
From pre-cast drawings and schedule to form mats h) Read and understand pre-cast drawing schedule
with ends hooks and tie on moulds as per schedules to no. Repetition mirror images if any and spacers.
a tolerance of 5mm. All bends to be in flat plane.

Journal of the Indian Roads Congress, October-December 2010


ROAD SECTOR - SKILLS DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY 233

i) Prefabricate cage for beams


From simple drawing and schedule select, cut and bend i) Read and understanding drawing, and schedule
steel to given dimension and from page for beam, using marking out, sequence of construction,
closed four sided stirrups, all bars as per drawing to a selection of former. Use of hand tools.
tolerance of 5mm. Links to be tight (Can not be
moved by hand).
j) Prefabricate cage for beam with shear bars
From drawing / schedule. Select, cut and bend steel to j) Read and understand drawing/schedule,
given dimension and form cage for beam. Using stirrups. marking out, sequence of construction,
Additional crank bars all bars as per drawing and to a selection of former. Use of hand tools.
tolerance 5mm. Stirrups to be tight (cannot be
moved by hand)
k) Prefabricate cage for column and base and set in
position
From drawing / schedule. Select, cut and bend steel to k) Read and understand drawing/schedule,
given dimension, make up set up in-situ, all bars as per marking out, sequence of construction,
drawing 5mm. Base and starter bars rigid, all ties tight. selection of former. Use of hand tools.
l) Pre-fabricate cage for column incorporating Corbals
From drawing / schedule. Select, cut and bend steel to l) Read and understanding drawing/schedule,
given dimension, make up and all bars brackets as per marking out, sequence of construction,
drawing to a tolerance of 5mm. Bars to be true selection of former. Use of hand tools.
horizontal and vertical, ties tight.
m) Pre-fabricate cage for column incorporating crank bars
From drawing / schedule. Select, cut and bend steel to m) Read and understand drawing/ schedule,
given dimension, make up and all bars as per drawing marking out, sequence of construction,
to a tolerance of 5mm. All bars to be true vertical and selection of former. Use of hand tools.
ties tight. All crank bars in flat plane.
n) Prefabricate cage for beam with alteration in section
a long length
From drawing / schedule. Select, cut and bend steel to n) Read and understand drawing / schedule,
given dimension, make up and all bars as per drawing. marking out, sequence of construction,
Introduce new bars and alterations to a tolerance of selection of former. Use of hand tools.
5mm. All bars to be true vertical and ties tight. All
crank bars in flat plane.
o) Lap length to fabricate weld
From drawing / schedule. Select, cut and bend steel to o) Read and understand drawing / schedule,
given dimension, make up and all bars as per drawing. marking out, sequence of construction,
Introduce new bars and alterations to a tolerance of selection of former. Use of hand tools
5mm. All bars to be true vertical and ties tight. All
crank bars in flat plane.
p) Prefabricate and set in-situ cage for stair case
From drawing / schedule. Select, cut and bend steel to p) Read and understand drawing/schedule,
given dimension, make up and set up in-situ, required marking out, sequence of construction,
angle, slope all bars as per drawing 5mm. Base and selection of former. Use of hand tools
starter bars rigid, all ties tight.
Industry and construction site visit

Journal of the Indian Roads Congress, October-December 2010


234 GUPTA ON ROAD SECTORG- UPTA
SKILLS
ONDEVELOPMENT STRATEGY

LIST OF TOOLS AND EQUIPMENTS


For courses
Assistant Bar Bender & Steel Fixer and Bar Bender

S. No Description Quantity Total


Diaplay Training
1 10 Pounds Hammer 1 5 6
2 0.1 P Hammer 1 15 16
3 Chisel 1 10 11
4 Binding Hook 1 20 21
5 Lever (sizes - 6mm, 8 mm, 10 mm and 12 mm) 1 20 21
6 Lever (900 mm long) - 16, 20 and 25 mm) 12 No.
7 Plumb Bob 4 No.
8 Measuring Tape - 3 meter 1 20 21
15 m & 30 m 1 each 2
9 Tri-Square 4 No.
10 Pin Plate 20 No.
11 Bull Head Rail Pieces (90 Lbs) 600 mm length 6 No.
12 Chalk box 5 Box
13 Binding Wire (18 guage) 125 Kg
14 Reinforcement steel rods
a) 8 mm 0.5 ton per
batch
b) 10 mm 0.75 ton for
four batches
c) 12 mm 0.75 ton for
four batches
d) 16 mm 0.75 ton for
four batches
e) 25 mm 0.75 ton for
four
15 Wooden Planks (3 m 25 cm 5 cm) 10 No.
16 Wooden Posts (1.5 m 10 cm 10 cm) 40 No.
17 Paint (Smoke Grey) 10 litres
Safety Items
1 Safety Helmet 21 No.
2 Safety Shoes 21 No.
3 Goggles 21 No.
4 Hand Gloves 21 No.
Machineries
01 Bar Cutting Machine 02 No.
02 Bar Binding Machine 02 No.
03 Bar Bending Machine (Manual) 02 No.

Journal of the Indian Roads Congress, October-December 2010