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In continuous charge

system, infinite numbers of charges are closely packed and have minor space between them. Unlikely from the discrete charge system, the continuous

charge distribution is uninterrupted and continuous in the conductor. There are three types of the continuous charge distribution system.

Linear Charge Distribution

Surface Charge Distribution

Volume Charge Distribution

Very often the distances between charges in a group of charges are much smaller than the distance from the group to some point of interest (for example,

a point where the electric field is to be calculated). In such situations, the system of charges is smeared out, or continuous. That is, the system of closely

spaced charges is equivalent to a total charge that is continuously distributed along some line, over some surface, or throughout some volume.

To evaluate the electric field created by a continuous charge distribution, we use the following procedure: First, we divide the charge distribution into

small elements, each of which contains a small charge q, as shown in Figure 23.15. Next, we use Equation 23.4 to calculate the electric field due to one

of these elements at a point P. Finally, we evaluate the total field at P due to the charge distribution by summing the contributions of all the charge

elements (that is, by applying the superposition principle).

The electric field at P due to one element carrying charge q is where r is the distance from the element to point P and r is a

unit vector directed from the charge element toward P. The total electric field at P due to all elements in the charge distribution is

approximately where the index i refers to the ith element in the distribution. Because the charge distribution is

approximately continuous, the total field at P in the limit q i 0

is

where the integration is over the entire charge distribution. This is a vector operation and must be treated appropriately.

We illustrate this type of calculation with several examples, in which we assume the charge is uniformly distributed on a line, on a surface, or throughout

a volume. When performing such calculations, it is convenient to use the concept of a charge density along with the following notations:

If a charge Q is uniformly distributed throughout a volume V, the volume charge density is defined by where has units of

coulombs per cubic meter (C/m3).

If a charge Q is uniformly distributed on a surface of area A, the surface charge density (lowercase Greek sigma) is defined by where

has units of coulombs per square meter (C/m2).

If a charge Q is uniformly distributed along a line of length , the linear charge density is defined by where has units of coulombs

per meter (C/m).

If the charge is nonuniformly distributed over a volume, surface, or line, we have to express the charge densities

as where dQ is the amount of charge in a small volume, surface, or length element.

Ans 1(b)-- Statement. Total electric flux through any closed surface, is equal to 1/ times the total charge enclosed by the surface.

E=E.dS=q/

Where is the permittivity of the medium (for free space =0),

So E=E.dS=q/0

Where E.dS is surface integral over the closed surface and q is the charge present in the closed surface S

The imaginary closed surface is called Gaussian Surface. If the surface encloses a continuous charge distribution then q is replaced by the intergal

dV,where is the volume charge density.

Proof of gauss law of electrostatics:

Consider a source producing the electric field E is a point charge +q situated at a point O inside a volume enclosed by an arbitrary closed surface S. let us

consider a small area element ds around a point P on the surface where the electric field produced by the charge +q is E. if E is along OP and area vector

dS is along the outward drawn normal to the area element dS, (Try to make the diagram yourself),

Then the electric flux d through the area element dS is given by

d=E.dS=EdS cos

Where is the angle between E and dS and it is zero degree, therefore

d = EdS (1)

Since the source producing E at dS is a point charge +q at O, therefore

E=1/40 q/(OP)2=1/40q/r2 (OP=r)

Substituting this value of E in equation (1),we get

d=E.dS=q/40dS/r2 (2)

Hence , total electric flux through the entire closed surface S would be

d=q/40 r2dS (3)

But dS = 4r2

Therefore, equation(3) becomes

=E.dS= q40 r2 /40 r2

Or =E.dS= q/0 (4)

Equation (4) represents Gauss law for electrostatics for a single point charge. If the source producing the electric field has more than one point charges

such as +q1,+q2,+q3,-q4.-q5,-q6..etc,then the total flux due to all of them would be the algebric sum of all the fluxes as,

=E.dS=1/0(q1+q2+q3-q4-q5-q6.)

Or =E.dS=q/0

Hence proved a charge outside the Gaussian surface would contribute nothing to the electric flux.

Electric Field Due To A Point Charge Or Coulombs Law From Gauss Law:-

To derive Coulombs Law from gauss law or to find the intensity of electric field due to a point charge +q at any point in space using Gausss law ,draw a

Gaussian sphere of radius r at the centre of which charge +q is located (Try to make the figure yourself).

All the points on this surface are equivalent and according to the symmetric consideration the electric field E has the same magnitude at every point on

the surface of the sphere and it is radially outward in direction.Therefore, for a area element dS around any point P on the Gaussian surface both E and dS

are directed radially outward,that is ,the angle between E and dS is zero.Therefore,

The flux passing through the area element dS ,that is,

d =E.dS= EdS cos 00=EdS

Hence, the total flux through the entire Gaussian sphere is obtained as,

=EdS

Or =EdS

But dS is the total surface area of the sphere and is equal to 4r 2,that is,

=E(4r2) (1)

But according to Gausss law for electrostatics

=q/0 (2)

Where q is the charge enclosed within the closed surface

By comparing equation (1) and (2) ,we get

E(4r2)=q/0

Or E=q/40r2 (3)

The equation (3) is the expression for the magnitude of the intensity of electric field E at a point,distant r from the point charge +q.

In vector form, E=1/40 q/r2 =1/40qr/r3

In a second point charge q0be placed at the point at which the magnitude of E is computed ,then the magnitude of the force acting on the second charge

q0would be

F=q0E

By substituting value of E from equation (3),we get

F=qoq/40r2 (4)

The equation (4) represents the Coulombs Law and it is derived from gauss law.

Ans 3(a)-- Biot-Savart Law

The Biot-Savart Law relates magnetic fields to the currents which are their sources. In a similar manner, Coulomb's law relates electric fields to the point

charges which are their sources. Finding the magnetic field resulting from a current distribution involves the vector product, and is inherently a calculus

problem when the distance from the current to the field point is continuously changing.

Consider an infinitely long conductor AB through which current I flows. Let P be any point at a distance a from the centre of conductor.

Consider dl be the small current carrying element at point c at a distance r from point p. be the angle between r and dl. l be the distance

between centre of the coil and elementary length dl.

From biot-savart law, magnetic field due to current carrying element dl at point P is

This is the final expression for total magnetic field due to staright current carrying conductor.

If the conductor having infinite length then,

Ans 3(b)-- A long solenoid shaped in the form of closed ring is called a toroidal solenoid (or endless solenoid).

Let n be the number of turns per unit length of toroid and I the current flowing through it. The current causes the magnetic field inside the turns of the

solenoid. The magnetic lines of force inside the toroid are in the form of concentric circles. By symmetry the magnetic field has same magnitude at each

point of circle and is along the tangent at every point on the circle.

For points inside the core of solenoid

Consider a circle of radius r in the region enclosed by turns of toroid. Now we apply Amperes circuital law to this circular path, i.e.,

This is the magnetic field for points inside the core of toroid.

This expression is same as that inside a long straight solenoid. Clearly the magnetic field strength varies directly as the number of turns per unit length

and the strength of current. For points outside the core of solenoid :

(i) In the empty space surrounded by toroid : If we consider a circular path of radius r1outside the core of toroid but in the empty space enclosed by

toroid, then current enclosed by path = zero

Amperes circuital law

(ii) Outside the toroid : Now if we consider a circular path of radius r2 outside the toroid, then current closed by path = 0 because now each turn of

winding passes twice through the area enclosed by circular path of radius r2, carrying equal and opposite currents.

By Amperes circuital law

B 2r2 = 0 B = 0

Thus the magnetic field strength at all points outside the core of toroid is zero.

Ans 4(a)-- With a stationary loop of wire and field B B varying in time it doesn't seem that you'd be able to exploit the Lorentz force, because it's

difficult to introduce the velocity vv. But another configuration may be more helpful, see picture.

A metallic rod (orange) crosses the magnetic lines (light-blue) with a constant velocity v (blue) in the shown direction. It indeed moves the electrons in

the rod as your formula (1) says. The rod glides on two metallic tracks (light-gray) which are connected through another rod (light-gray) to form a closed

circuit.

Although the field B is constant, the magnetic flux varies in time, because

Ans5-[a] The electromagnetic spectrum describes a wide range of different electromagnetic waves. Also called EM waves, these are a special type of

wave that can travel without a medium. Unlike sound waves and water waves, electromagnetic waves don't need a fluid, or a solid, or even air to help

them travel from one place to another. EM waves can travel across the great vacuum of space, which is why we see light from distant stars and planets.

Electromagnetic waves are named for the fact that they have both an electric and a magnetic component. They begin when charged particles, like

electrons, vibrate due to the various forces acting on them. The vibration of charged particles results in an emission of energy known as electromagnetic

radiation. EM waves propagate outward from the source. Just like regular transverse waves, the oscillations of EM waves are perpendicular to the

direction of the wave's travel. But, EM waves are more complicated; the electric component oscillates in one plane, while the magnetic component

oscillates in a different plane. In a vacuum, EM waves always travel at the same speed - the speed of light, which is roughly 300 million meters per

second. We call this value the speed of light, but really, it counts as the normal speed for all of the EM waves.

So, what are the other EM waves besides light? Electromagnetic waves include infrared, ultraviolet, radio waves, and microwaves. They also include X-

rays and gamma rays. You've probably heard of all these waves before, but you may not have seen how they relate to visible light. Let's take a look at

how these seven groups of waves fit together on the electromagnetic spectrum. EM spectrum is the range of all possible frequencies of electromagnetic

waves. At one end of the spectrum are the waves with the lowest frequencies. At the other end are the highest frequency waves. The spectrum is broken

up into regions that define each of the different wave types. At the lowest frequencies, we have radio waves. Then, as we increase frequency, we

encounter the microwaves, infrared radiation, and visible light waves. Moving further up the spectrum, we have ultraviolet radiation, X-rays, and gamma

rays. Gamma rays have the highest frequencies of all the EM waves.

Electromagnetic waves can also be distinguished by their wavelength. Wavelengths for EM waves can be found by dividing the speed of light by the

wave's frequency; this is a modification of the wave equation. Since all EM waves travel at the speed of light, then the spectrum of wavelengths is exactly

opposite the spectrum of frequencies. In other words, wavelength and frequency are inversely proportional to each other. We can view our

electromagnetic spectrum not only in terms of increasing frequencies but also in terms of decreasing wavelengths. As frequencies increase on the EM

spectrum, wavelengths decrease. So, that means radio waves have the largest wavelengths and gamma rays have the smallest. The creation of all

electromagnetic waves begins with a charged particle. This charged particle creates an electric field (which can exert a force on other nearby charged

particles). When it accelerates as part of an oscillatory motion, the charged particle creates ripples, or oscillations, in its electric field, and also produces a

magnetic field (as predicted by Maxwell's equations).

Once in motion, the electric and magnetic fields created by a charged particle are self-perpetuatingtime-dependent changes in one field (electric or

magnetic) produce the other. This means that an electric field that oscillates as a function of time will produce a magnetic field, and a magnetic field that

changes as a function of time will produce an electric field. Both electric and magnetic fields in an electromagnetic wave will fluctuate in time, one

causing the other to change.

Electromagnetic waves are ubiquitous in nature (i.e., light) and used in modern technologyAM and FM radio, cordless and cellular phones, garage door

openers, wireless networks, radar, microwave ovens, etc. These and many more such devices use electromagnetic waves to transmit data and signals.

All the above sources of electromagnetic waves use the simple principle of moving charge, which can be easily modeled. Placing a coin in contact with

both terminals of a 9-volt battery produces electromagnetic waves that can be detected by bringing the antenna of a radio (tuned to a static-producing

station) within a few inches of the point of contact.

Ans 5[b]-- Total internal reflection is the phenomenon which occurs when a propagated wave strikes a medium boundary at an angle larger than a

particular critical angle with respect to the normal to the surface. If the refractive index is lower on the other side of the boundary and the incident angle is

greater than the critical angle, the wave cannot pass through and is entirely reflected. The critical angle is the angle of incidence above which the total

internal reflection occurs. This is particularly common as an optical phenomenon, where light waves are involved, but it occurs with many types of

waves, such as electromagnetic waves in general or sound waves. When a wave reaches a boundary between different materials with different refractive

indices, the wave will in general be partially refracted at the boundary surface, and partially reflected. However, if the angle of incidence is greater (i.e.

the direction of propagation is closer to being parallel to the boundary) than the critical angle the angle of incidence at which light is refracted such that

it travels along the boundary then the wave will not cross the boundary, but will instead be totally reflected back internally. This can only occur when

the wave in a medium with a higher refractive index (n1) reaches a boundary with a medium of lower refractive index (n2). For example, it will occur with

light reaching air from glass, but not when reaching glass from air. An important side effect of total internal reflection is the appearance of an evanescent

wave beyond the boundary surface. Essentially, even though the entire incident wave is reflected back into the originating medium, there is some

penetration into the second medium at the boundary. The evanescent wave appears to travel along the boundary between the two materials, leading to

the Goos-Hnchen shift. We have so far discussed the propagation of electromagnetic wave in an isotropic, homogeneous, dielectric medium, such as in

air or vacuum. In this lecture, we woulddiscuss what happens when a plane electromagnetic wave is incident at the interface between two dielectric

media. For being specific, we will take one of the medium to be air or vacuum and the other to be a dielectric such as glass. We have come across this in

school in connection with the reflection and transmission of light waves at such an interface. In this lecture, we would investigate this problem from the

point of view of electromagnetic theory. We have so far discussed the propagation of electromagnetic wave in an isotropic, homogeneous, dielectric

medium, such as in air or vacuum. In this lecture, we woulddiscuss what happens when a plane electromagnetic wave is incident at the interface between

two dielectric media. For being specific, we will take one of the medium to be air or vacuum and the other to be a dielectric such as glass. We have come

across this in school in connection with the reflection and transmission of light waves at such an interface. In this lecture, we would investigate this

problem from the point of view of electromagnetic theory.

Ans6-[a] Consider a portion of a thin, non-conducting, infinite plane sheet of charge with constant surface charge density . Suppose we want to find the

intensity of electric field E at a point p1near the sheet, distant r in front of the sheet. To evaluate the field at p1 we choose another point p2 on the other side

of sheet such that p1and p2are equidistant from the infinite sheet of charge Now we draw a small closed Gaussian cylinder with its circular ends parallel to

the sheet and passes through the points p1and p2.suppose the flat ends of p1and P2have equal area dS.The cylinder together with flat ends from a closed

surface such that the gausss law can be applied.

By symmetry,the magnitude of electric field E at all the points of infinite plane sheet of charge on either sides end caps is same and along the outward

drawn normal,for positively charged sheet.

Therefore, the electric flux through each cap is

1=E.dS=EdS cos 00=EdS

At the points on the curved surface,the field vector E and area vector dS make an angle of

900 with each other.

So, 2=E.dS=EdS cos 900=0

Therefore,cylindrical surface does not contribute to the flux.

Hence, the total flux through the closed surface is

=1+1+ 2 (there are two end caps)

Or =EdS+EdS+0=2EdS (1)

Now according to Gausss law for electrostatics

=q/0 (2)

Comparing equations (1) and (2),we get

2EdS=q/0

Or E=q/20dS (3)

The area of sheet enclosed in the Gaussian cylinder is also dS. Therefore,the charge contained in the

cylinder,q=dS (=q/dS)

Substituting this value of q in equation (3),we get

E=dS/20dS

Or E=/20

This is the relation for electric filed due to an infinite plane sheet of charge.

Thus, the field is uniform and does not depend on the distance from the plane sheet of charge.

Ans 6(b)- It is important to study what happens while a capacitor is charging and discharging. It is the ability to control and predict the rate at which a

capacitor charges and discharges that makes capacitors really useful in electronic timing circuits.

When a voltage is placed across the capacitor the potential cannot rise to the applied value instantaneously. As the charge on the terminals builds up to its

final value it tends to repel the addition of further charge.

The rate at which a capacitor can be charged or discharged depends on:

(a) the capacitance of the capacitor) and

(b) the resistance of the circuit through which it is being charged or is discharging.

This fact makes the capacitor a very useful if not vital component in the timing circuits of many devices from clocks to computers.

In the section headed Capacitors 1 we compared a charged capacitor to a bucket with water in it. Now, if a hole is made in the bottom of the bucket the

water will run out. Similarly, if the capacitor plates are connected together via an external resistor, electrons will flow round the circuit, neutralise some

of the charge on the other plate and reduce the potential difference across the plates. The same ideas also apply to charging

the capacitor.

During charging electrons flow from the negative terminal of the power supply to one plate of the capacitor and from the

other plate to the positive terminal of the power supply.

When the switch is closed, and charging starts, the rate of flow of charge is large (i.e. a big current) and this decreases as

time goes by and the plates become more charged so "resisting" any further charging. You should realise that the addition

of a resistor in the circuit in series with the capacitor ONLY affects the TIME it takes for the capacitor to become fully

charge and NOT the EVENTUAL POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE ACROSS IT this is always the same and equal to

the potential difference across the supply. (Figure 1)

Those of you who have a flash lamp built into your camera will know that it takes a few seconds to charge - this is

because the energy for the flash is being transferred to, and stored in, the capacitor inside the flash unit and this takes time

to become fully charged.

If we consider the example of a capacitor connected to an indicator lamp you should realise that if a capacitor was used to light it then the lamp would get

slowly dimmer as the capacitor discharges as the potential difference across it falls and the current flowing gets less.

Charging

As soon as the switch is closed in position 1 the battery is connected across the capacitor, current flows and the

potential difference across the capacitor begins to rise but, as more and more charge builds up on the capacitor

plates, the current and the rate of rise of potential difference both fall. (See Figure 3). Finally no further current

will flow when the p.d. across the capacitor equals that of the supply voltage V o.

The capacitor is then fully charged.

Discharging

As soon as the switch is put in position 2 a 'large' current starts to flow and the potential difference across the

capacitor drops. (Figure 4). As charge flows from one plate to the other through the resistor the charge is

neutralised and so the current falls and the rate of decrease of potential difference also falls.

Eventually the charge on the plates is zero and the current and potential difference are also zero - the capacitor

is fully discharged. Note that the value of the resistor does not affect the final potential difference across the capacitor only the time that it takes to reach

that value.

The bigger the resistor the longer the time taken.

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