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Resources Engineering_FloodControl/Drainage_meenu

Flood control measures Structural & nonstructural

Structural measures:
Channelization clearance straightening widening clearance, straightening,
widening, deepening & lining
Bridge modification removal, replacement, widening, raising
Flood proofing floodplain or flood hazard zones by ring levees or flood
Detention basins small impoundments designed to temporarily store storm
runoff & release gradually
Levees: embankment constructed parallel to the course of stream to prevent
inundation of large areas
Design consideration: location, slope stability, seepage, interior drainage, top
width & free board, erosion & scour protection
Groyns: dikes extending from the bank of river to protect bank against
Cutoffs: artificial excavated cutoffs to straighten channel
Flood Bypass divert a portion of flood flow
Non-Structural measures:
Establishment of regulatory floodplains
Storm water regulations
Flood zones
Watershed management plans
Flood emergency planning
Relocation of flood prone units
Flood insurance based on flood risk zones
Flood forecasting & warning.

There are a number of ways managing floods:

1. Construction of storage reservoirs: reservoirs are created by building dams-in
addition to flood control, they serve multiple purposes irrigation, hydropower
production, etc.
2. Construction of dykes: simple earth dam sections parallel to the river flow in its
flood plain at a certain distance from the main channel
3. Improvement of channel capacity by (i) limiting the river for its cross section, (ii)
providing cutoff to a meander channel, (iii) straightening the channel
4. Channel Straightening and Dredging - smoothens the channel to increase the
speed (velocity) of the river and get water out of the drainage basin as quickly as
5. Construction of diversion Channels- overflow channels which take surplus water
out of a river in times of flood.
5. Construction of spurs/groynes
6. Afforestation - planting trees increases interception rates and reduces surface
runoff, and soil conservation measures such as control overgrazing, plantation
7. Artificial Levees - makes river banks higher therefore holding more water.

CE4003_S7CE_Water Resources Engineering_FloodControl/Drainage_meenu

8. Culverts - semi circular, smooth channels increase velocity and gets water away
from urban areas as quickly as possible.
9. Revetments, Channel Walls, gabions - strengthen river banks from erosion using
large lumps of stone
10. Restricted use of flood -plains - legislation, higher selective insurance
premiums/refusal to insure particular locations.
11. Co -ordinated flood warning and emergence reaction procedures e.g.
Environment Agency Flood watch
12. Construction of terraces: in sloping hills, terraces can store quantity of flood
water for a while, forcing overland flow to infiltrate into the ground.

Waterlogging & salinity
The state of land in which the subsoil water table is located at or near the surface
with the result that the yield of crops commonly grown on it is reduced well bellow
for the land, or, if the land is not cultivated, it cannot be put to its normal use
because of the high subsoil water table.

Drainage of irrigated land is required to reduce waterlogging and soil salinization
that inevitably accompanies waterlogging in arid zones. Salinity control is defined as
the physical control, management, and use of water and related land resources in
such a way as to maintain or reduce salt loading and concentrations of salt in water

The problem of waterlogging may be attacked on two fronts. First is preventive
measures, which keep the land free from waterlogging. Secondly curative measures
may be adopted to reclaim the waterlogged area. But in principle both measures aim
at reducing the inflow and augmenting the outflow from the underground reservoir.

Preventive measures include the following:
(a) Controlling the loss of water due to seepage from the canals:
i. By lowering the FSL of the canal
ii. By lining the canal section
iii. By introducing intercepting drains
(b) Preventing the loss of water due to percolation from field channels and fields
(c) Augmentation of outflow and prevention of inflow: using drains
(d) Quick disposal of rainwater: by surface or open drains

Curative measures include the following:
(a) Installation of lift irrigation systems:
When a lift irrigation project in the form of a tube well irrigation system is
introduced in the waterlogged area the water table gets lowered sufficiently. It is
found to be very successful method of reclaiming waterlogged land. Thus a
combination of a canal system and a supplementary tube well irrigation system may
be considered to be most successful and efficient irrigation scheme.
(b) Implementation of Drainage Schemes
(c) Sprinkler Irrigation

CE4003_S7CE_Water Resources Engineering_FloodControl/Drainage_meenu

Summarising the most effective and efficient anti-water-logging measures are:

i. Lining of channels (main canal, branches and field channels).
ii. Provision of surface drains for drainage of rainwater; and
iii. Implementation of tube well projects both extensive and local.
iv. proper irrigation scheduling

Land Drainage
1. Surface drainage
l Gently sloping ditches for water collection
l Can be used on all types of soils
l Can have problem with erosion on some soil types
l Best adapted for drainage of flat/nearly flat soils
l Remove excess irrigation
l Lower water table

l Classified as (i) shallow surface and (ii) deep surface drains
l Shallow surface drains: Suitable to dispose off runoff water collected
in depressions and reduce percolation
l Deep surface drains collect seepage water and a part of storm runoff
l DEMERITS of surface drainage: wastage of land for installation,
requires construction of bridges, etc. and washing away of plant
minerals is common.

CE4003_S7CE_Water Resources Engineering_FloodControl/Drainage_meenu

2. Subsoil Drainage
Tiles or underground drains are suitable for management of waterlogged
agricultural lands
Subsurface tile drains consist of a conduit installed beneath the ground surface to
collect and/or convey drainage water. Tiles may be constructed of corrugated
plastic tubing, clay, or concrete. The choice of tile material depends on the cost,
resiliency, strength, and conveyance.

l Need a soil permeable enough for water to reach the tile
l Drains into a surface ditch at outlet
l Expensive
l Depth & spacing varies with soil & crops grown
l Slow permeable soils need shallower tile lines, closer spacing
l Plastic Tube Drainage Systems-Easier to install than concrete/clay
tile, More ideal for field use

CE4003_S7CE_Water Resources Engineering_FloodControl/Drainage_meenu

l In less pervious soils, tile drain is surrounded by graded gravel layer

(envelope filter) to prevent soil from entering drain with water. Filter
increases the effective diameter of drain and hence, inflow is more.

l In less pervious soils, tile drain is surrounded by graded gravel layer
(envelope filter) as shown in the figure above, to prevent soil from
entering drain with water. Filter increases the effective diameter of
drain and hence, inflow is more.

Sump & Pump Drainage
l If level of outlet drain is higher than the outlet of the tile drain,
pumping out system is provided.
l Sump storage for the pump with outlet from the tile drain is provided
as shown

Vertical Drainage Systems
l Moves water from terraces
l Collection area at bottom of each terrace
l Move water through tile line to lower terrace or outlet

CE4003_S7CE_Water Resources Engineering_FloodControl/Drainage_meenu

Tile Drain patterns