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Design of VCC Abutment and open foundation

o
Skew angle of the bridge = 0

Formation level - FRL =+ 103.030 m

Bottom of Deck - BOD =+ 102.140 m

Top of abutment cap =+ 102.140 m

Bottom of abutment cap =+ 101.840 m

Abutment bottom level =+ 96.300 m

Ground level =+ 96.800 m

Foundation level =+ 94.800 m

Width of Abutment Cap = 0.875 m

Top width of abutment = 0.800 m

Bottom width of Abutment at sill level = 2.750 m

Length of Abutment = 8.450 m ( Skew) 8.45 (Stright)

Height of Abutment = 5.540 m

Depth of foundation = 1.500 m

Width of foundation at first step = 4.250 m

Width of foundation at second step = 5.000 m

Heel projection = 0.750 m

Toe projection = 0.750 m

Thickness of first step = 0.750 m

Thickness of second step = 0.750 m

Length of approach slab = 3.800 m ( Skew) 3.80 (Stright)

Thickness of deck slab = 0.790 m

Thickness of approach slab = 0.30 m

Thickness of wearing coat = 0.10 m

Height of Dirt Wall = 0.490 m

Thickness of dirt wall and cap = 0.30 m

Unit weight of concrete for RCC = 2.50 t/m3


Unit weight of concrete = 2.50 t/m3

Unit weight of soil = 1.80 t/m3

Length of the span = 10.740 m ( Skew) 10.74 (Stright)

Effective span = 10.370 m ( Skew) 10.37 (Stright)

Grade of concrete = M 20

Width of the deck slab = 8.450 m ( Skew) 8.45 (Stright)

Carriage way width = 7.500 m ( Skew) 7.50 (Stright)

Width of kerb = 0.475 m

Soil bearing capacity = 30.00 t/m2


3.800
FRL + 103.030

0.790
#
0.875
0.800

0.750 2.750 0.750


+ 96.300
0.75

0.750
4.250 + 95.550
0.75

A FL + 94.800

5.000
5.200

C/S OF SECTION OF ABUTMENT


8.450

0.800

0.750 0.875 0.750 0.750

2.750

5.000

PLAN OF ABUTMENT & FOUNDATION


Design of Abutment wall
Calculation of moments about center of abutment base:

Resisting
Description of Item Weight Lever arm moment

Approach slab 8.45 x 3.8 x 0.3 x 2.5 x 0.5 1.375 - 0.3 x 0.5 14.751
= 12.041 = 1.23

Crash barrier - 031 m2 2 x 0.31 x 2.5 x 3.8 x 0.5 1.375 - 0.3 x 0.5 3.608
= 2.945 = 1.225

Dirt wall 8.45 x 0.3 x 0.49 x 2.5 1.375 - 0.3 x 0.5 3.804
= 3.105 = 1.23

Abutment cap 8.45 x 0.875 x 0.3 x 2.5 1.375 - 0.875 x 0.5 5.20
= 5.55 = 0.94

Abutment
a) Rectangular part 8.45 x 0.8 x 5.54 x 2.5 1.375 - 0.8 x 0.5 91.29
= 93.626 = 0.98

b) Triangular part 0.5 x 1.95 x 5.54 x 8.45 x 2.5 0.575 - 1.95 / 3 -8.558
= 114.107 = -0.075

DL from 77.390 1.375 - 0.52 66.168


super structure = 0.855

LL from
super structure 68.330 1.375 - 0.52 58.422
= 0.855
377.090 t MR 234.679

Horizontal force due to Braking : ( as per Cl: 211.5.1.2 and 211.5.14 )

Horizontal force = Fh / 2 or mRg

Fh = Applied Horizontal force

m = Coefficient of friction at the movable bearing

= 0.50 ( concrete over concrete with bitumen layer in between )

Rg = Reaction at the free end due to dead load = 77.390 t

Horizontal force = Fh / 2 = 13.6 x 0.5 = 6.80 t

mRg = 77.39 x 0.5 = 38.695 t

Design horizontal force = 38.695 t acting at bottom of deck

Moment at bottom of abutment M L = 38.695 x ( 102.14 - 96.3 ) = 225.979 t-m

Moment at bottom of foundation M L = 38.695 x ( 102.14 - 94.8 ) = 284.021 t-m


Horizontal force due to differential movements of spans : ( as per Cl: 211.5.14 )

10% variation of force due to Spans = 8.00 x 10 / 100 = 0.800 t


( acting at bottom deck slab)

Moment at bottom of abutment M L = 0.8 x ( 102.14 - 96.3 ) = 4.672 t-m

Moment at bottom of foundation M L = 0.8 x ( 102.14 - 94.8 ) = 5.872 t-m

FORCES DUE TO EARTH PRESSURE & SURCHARGE (Fep):

Total Height of earth behind Abutment (normal case ) = 5.540 m

Angle of slope of the backfill b = 0 deg

Angle of internal friction f = 33 deg

Angle of internal friction with wall to dsoil = 22 deg

Inclination of wall with respect to vertical


a = 0.00 deg

Cohesion c = 0.0 t/m2

Density of earth g = 1.80 t/m3

Density of water gW = 10.0 t/m3

Longitudinal Force due to earth pressure & Surcharge Normal Condition:(Clock wise)

Coefficient of active earth pressure in horizontal direction

Ka = Cos2 (f-a) x 1 2

2 1/2
Cos a * Cos (d+ 1 + Sin(f+d)*Sin(f-b) = 0.264
Cos (a-b) * Cos(d+a)

Ka = 0.264

Pressure diagram:
Live load surcharge Active earth pressure

+ 103.030 FRL
6.73

6.73

96.300
(bottom of abutment)
0.57 3.198
Due to live load surcharge : ( 1.2 m of earth fill as per IRC : 78 - 2000 Cls: 710.4.4 )

2
Ka x g x h = 0.264 x 1.8 x 1.2 = 0.570 t / m

Force = 0.57 x 6.73 x 8.45 = 32.415 t

Moment = 32.415 x 0.5 x 6.73 = 109.08 t m

Due to earth pressure :

Ka x g x h = 0.264 x 1.8 x 6.73 = 3.198

Force = 0.5 x 3.198 x 6.73 x 8.45 = 90.933 t

Moment = 90.933 x 0.42 x 6.73 = 257.03 t - m

Total Over turning moment = 109.076 + 257.031 = 366.107 t-m

Net longitudinal moment = 366.107 + 225.979 + 4.672 - 234.679 = 362.079 tm

Transverse Moment due to live load eccentricity = 68.33 x 1.115 = 76.188 tm

Sectional properties :

2
Area at the base of the abutment = 8.45 x 2.75 = 23.238 m
3
Section modulus ZL = 8.45 x 2.75 ^ 2 / 6 = 10.651 m

3
Section modulus Zt = 2.75 x 8.45 ^ 2 / 6 = 32.73 m

Check for stress at Abutment bottom :

Case : - I ( Normal condition )

Transverse moment MT = 76.188 Kn m

longitudinal moment ML = 362.079 Kn m

Pmax = 377.09 + 362.079 + 76.188


23.24 10.651 32.726

2 2
= 16.23 + 34.00 + 2.328 = 52.55 t / m < 500.0 t / m

Pmin = 377.09 - 362.08 - 76.188


23.24 10.651 32.726

2 2
= 16.23 - 34.00 - 2.328 = -20.10 t / m > -53.0 t / m
Check for stress at foundational :

No. of steps = 2 Nos Width of First step = 4.250 m

Depth of each step = 0.750 m Width of Second step = 5.000 m

Projection on heel side = 0.750 m Length of First step = 8.450 m

Projection on toe side = 0.750 m Length of Second step = 8.450 m

Calculation of Moments at Foundation Level for Stability check and Stress over Soil
Resisting
Description of Item Weight Lever arm @ A moment

Approach slab 8.45 x 3.8 x 0.3 x 2.5 x 0.5 5 x 0.5-(0.75+0.3 x 0.5) 19.266
= 12.041 = 1.600

Railing 0.554 t/m 2 x 0.31 x 2.5 x 3.8=x 0.5


2.945 5 x 0.5-(0.75+0.3 x 0.5) 4.712
= 1.600

Dirt wall 8.45 x 0.3 x 0.49 x 2.5 5 x 0.5-(0.75+0.3 x 0.5) 4.969


= 3.105 = 1.600

Abutment cap 8.45 x 0.875 x 0.3 x 2.5 5 x 0.5-(0.75+0.875 x 0.5) 7.28


= 5.55 = 1.313

Abutment
a) Rectangular part 8.45 x 0.8 x 5.54 x 2.5 5 x 0.5-(0.75+0.8 x 0.5) 126.40

= 93.626 = 1.350

b) Triangular part 0.5 x 1.95 x 5.54 x 8.45 x 2.5 5 x 0.5-(0.75+0.8 + 34.232


= 114.107 1.95 / 3 )
= 0.300
DL from 77.390 5 x 0.5- ( 0.75+0.21 ) 119.181
super structure = 1.540

LL from
super structure 68.330 5 x 0.5- ( 0.75+0.21 ) 105.228
= 1.540
Foundation :
First step 8.45 x 4.25 x 0.75 x 2.5 = 0.00 0.000
= 67.336

Second step 8.45 x 5 x 0.75 x 2.5 0.00 0.000


= 79.219
Weight of earth
on toe portion
a) Rectangular part 0.75 x 8.45 x 6.18 x 1.8 5 x 0.5 - 0.75x 0.5 149.809
= 70.50 = 2.13

594.143 t MR 571.070
Pressure diagram:
Live load surcharge Active earth pressure
Ka = 0.264 + 103.030 RCL

8.23

8.23
+ 94.800 FL

0.57 3.911

Due to live load surcharge : ( 1.2 m of earth fill as per IRC : 78 - 2000 Cls: 710.4.4 )

Ka x g x h = 0.264 x 1.8 x 1.2 = 0.57 t/m2

Force = 0.57 x 8.23 x 8.45 = 39.64 t

Moment = 39.64 x 0.5 x 8.23 = 163.12 t - m

Due to earth pressure :

Ka x g x h = 0.264 x 1.8 x 8.23 = 3.911

Force = 0.5 x 3.911 x 8.23 x 8.45 = 135.99 t

Over turning moment = 135.992 x 0.42 x 8.23 = 470.1 t - m

Total Over turning moment = 163.119 + 470.07 = 633.19 t-m

Net longitudinal moment = 633.189 + 284.021 + 5.872 - 571.07 = 352.012 t-m

Transverse Moment due to live load eccentricity = 68.33 x 1.115 = 76.188 t-m
3
Section modulus Z L = 8.45 x 5 ^ 2 = 35.208 m

3
Section modulus Z T = 5 x 8.45 ^ 2 = 59.502 m
6
Check for stability :

1) Factor of safety against Overturning = Resisting moment MR


Over turning moment MO

= 1786.015 = 2.82 > 2 Hence safe


633.189

2) Factor of safety against Sliding = tan f x S V


SH

0
= tan 33 x 594.143 = 1.79 > 1.5 Hence safe
215.13
Check for stress at foundation level :

Case : I ( Normal condition )

Transverse moment MT = 76.188 Kn m

longitudinal moment ML = 352.012 Kn m

P = 594.143 + 352.01 + 76.188


42.25 35.21 59.50

P = 14.063 + 9.998 + 1.280

2
P max = 25.341 < 30.00 t/m Hence safe

P min = 2.784 > 0.00 Hence safe

Case : I ( Wind condition )

Axial load = 594.1426625 + 5.609 = 599.752 t

Transverse moment MT = 76.188 + 51.285 = 127.473 tm

Longitudinal moment ML = 352.012 + 7.827 = 360.012 tm

P = P + ML + MT = 599.752 + 360.012 + 127.473


A ZL ZT 42.25 35.21 59.502

P = 14.195 + 10.225 + 2.142

2
P max = 26.563 < 37.50 t/m Hence safe

P min = 1.828 > 0.00 Hence safe