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TRENDS OF BONDED NdFeB MAGNETS &

ITS APPLICATIONS

by
N.D.Senthil Ram
Characteristics
Magnets
What are Bonded Magnets

Magnet made from a mixture of Magnetic Material


Bonded

embedded with a polymeric binder / plastic / rubber


material

Bonded Magnet processes


Compression Moulding
Injection Moulding
Extrusion
Calendaring

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Compression Moulding
Process

Stages of Compression Moulding

Magnetic Material Binder

Blend

Mixture

Compact

Cure

Coat/Inspect

Magnetize Compression Moulding Production


process Assembly diagram

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Comparison of Manufacturing Processes
Process

Sintering
Ferrite
Compression
AlNiCo Process Versus
Process

Injection

Calendaring NdFeB Energy Product


Extrusion SmCo

0.5 1.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 40.0

Energy Product

Cost
Tolerance
Injection
High Excellent
Extrusion
Cost & Tolerance Compaction
with process Sintering
Calendering
Low (Rubber) Low

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Characteristics
Characteristics

Grades of NdFeB Magnetic Materials


Magnetic Characteristics
Thermal Characteristics
Permograph Characterization
FEMM Characterization

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Characteristics
Characteristics
Grades of NdFeB
In addition to MMPA and IEC
grade designations, we now
have Chinese NdFeB grades
as denoted by:
A number representing
the energy product in
MGOe
A suffix indicating the Hci
(or jHc - intrinsic
coercivity)
Since almost all NdFeB is
now supplied from China
and the designations are
descriptive and easy to use,
it makes sense to apply
No suffix - 80C maximum
them M -100 H - 120 SH -150
UH - 180 EH - 200

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Characteristics
NdFeB Thermal Behavior
Reversible Temperature Coefficients,
%/C
TCBr -0.07 ~ -0.13 %/C
TCHcJ +0.4 ~ +0.5 %/C

T = desired temperature (C)


Br (T) = Br adjusted for temperature T
BrRT = Br specification for room temperature (23C)
Hci (T) = Hci adjusted for temperature T
HciRT = Hci specification for room temperature(23C)
Tcx = reversible temperature coefficient for either Br or Hci
(%/C)

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Process
Advantage
Process

Higher loading than injection molded, but lower than


fully dense
Creates a compromise in energy product
Limited to simple geometries: rectangles, cylinders,
arcs
Tight geometric tolerancing except in pressed
thickness
Brittle - requires careful handling
Isotropic powder allows complex magnetizing
patterns

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FEMM
FEMM
FEMM

Finite Element Method on Magnetics


2D solver for all magnetostatics problems
2D solver in 3D mode
Successive Approximation Method

FEMM magnet Characteristics


Distribution of Magnetic Flux Density of magnet
Magnet Flux Density Distribution Spectrum
Air Gap Flux
Normal Flux Density at Pole point

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Multipole Magnets
FEMM

Magnets having 2 or more pole pairs

Multi-Magnetic Profiles
Axial Bi-polar
Diametrical Bi-polar
S N
Radial Bi-polar
Radial Uni-polar S
Radially Out Multi-polar N
Radially In Multi-polar
N
S
FEMM Characteristics
Flux Penetration depth N S
Flux Flow & Direction
Magnetic Field Developed in the magnet
& Fixture
Total Magnetic Energy

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Multipole Magnets Results
FEMM

Magnetic flux density measurement


11mm diametrically magnetized
FEMM result
Peak value 0.1400 Tesla per pole
Measured result
Peak value 0.1385 Tesla per pole

FEMM Result
Measured Result

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Applications
Applications

Computer peripherals
Audio-Visual Equipments
Military Equipments
Aerospace
Communications
Power Generation
Electrical/electronic goods
Medical
Security industries

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Applications
Sensors
Automotive applications
Speed Sensor Magnet
Drive-by-wire
Brake-by-wire
Steer-by-wire
Throttle position sensor
Active suspension control
Steering wheel angle
Headlight range adjustment
Current measurement
Battery management
Liquid level sensor
Power steering
Image Courtesy: www.micronas.com

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Applications
Sensors
Industrial applications
Commutation of BLDC
motors
Cooling fans
Rpm measurement
Wheel speed sensors
Revolution counting
Final position switch
Contactless switch
Liquid level
Liquid flow
Pressure switch
Rotary switch
Image Courtesy: www.micronas.com

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Applications
Motors
Stepper Motor
BLDC Motor
Starter Motor
Synchronous Motor

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FEMM
Permanent Magnet Economics
Market

Most Cost-efficient Magnets

Total Cost of magnet (US$)


Material cost

NdFeB Ferrite Sintered NdFeB


Rubber Ferrite
Processing cost
Ferrite
Normalized cost (US$/Watt)

Rubber
Weight of magnet (g)
Alnico Sintered
SmCo Ferrite
5

NdFeB

Power (Watts)

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Consumption
Market

Application of Bonded Misc.

NdFeB Magnets 3,200 Communication


4% Computer Peripherals
50%

2%
MT in 2002 Small Appliance
3%

Air Conditioning
3%

Largest Market is Misc. Motors


5% Office Automation

Computer Peripherals Automotive


10%
Consumer Electronics
11%
12%

1,450 MT in 2002
ODD Spindle
ODD Stepper
36.1%
(Pick-Up
Carriage)
13.2%

FDD Stepper
(Pick-Up
Carriage)
7.7 %
HDD Spindle FDD Spindle
38.2% (Laptop)
4.8%

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Market
Market

TV Set Boxes (DVD-R). 200

175

DVD-R 150

Millions of Units
125 119
DVR - HDD combined with DVD-R 93
100

120 million units/year by 2008. 75 58


70

46
36
Computer Game Consoles. 50

49 59 70
25 34 34 41

70 million units/year by 2008. 0


2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008

Games TV Set Boxes

Continued growth in PC sales.


Rapid Growth in non-PC HDD market.
350

Expected to be larger than PC market 300


295

by 2008. 250 235


260

Millions of Units
210
164 million units in 2003. 200
164
187

Estimated 300 million by 2008 (12% 150


105
120
139 133 139

growth). 100

50
Growth in PC market will use large
0
quantities of bonded NdFeB. 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008

Actual Forecast

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Interaction Time
Q&A

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ENIGMATICS

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Thank You

Thank You

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