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I.

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

This theoretical framework explain the deconstructive flow of the study in which

researchers use. Theoretical frameworks is a structure that support the theory of the research

study.

Social Cognitive Theory

Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) started as the Social Learning Theory (SLT) in the 1960s by Albert

Bandura. It developed into the SCT in 1986 and posits that learning occurs in a social context

with a dynamic and reciprocal interaction of the person, environment, and behavior

Environment refers to the factors that can affect a person’s behavior. There are social

and physical environments. Social environment include family members, friends and

colleagues. Physical environment is the size of a room, the ambient temperature or the

availability of certain foods. Environment and situation provide the framework for

understanding behavior (Parraga, 1990). The situation refers to the cognitive or mental

representations of the environment that may affect a person’s behavior. The situation is a

person’s perception of the lace, time, physical features and activity (Glanz et al, 2002).

The three factors environment, people and behavior are constantly influencing each

other. Behavior is not simply the result of the environment and the person, just as the

environment is not simply the result of the person and behavior (Glanz et al, 2002). The

for all creative purposes. .This asserts that people can witness and observe a behavior conducted by others. This is often exhibited through "modeling" of behaviors. environment (external social context). and behavior (responses to stimuli to achieve goals). Behavioral capability means that if a person is to perform a behavior he must know what the behavior is and have the skills to perform it. Bandura accepts the possibility of an individual's behavior being conditioned through the use of consequences.This is the central concept of SCT. they can also complete the behavior successfully. If individuals see successful demonstration of a behavior. Observational Learning . such as cognitive skills or attitudes) can impact the environment. The concept of behavior can be viewed in many ways. At the same time he asserts that a person's behavior (and personal factors.environment provides models for behavior.[1] These skill sets result in an under- or overcompensated ego that. This refers to the dynamic and reciprocal interaction of person (individual with a set of learned experiences). is too strong or too weak to focus on pure outcome. and then reproduce those actions. Observational learning occurs when a person watches the actions of another person and the reinforcements that the person receives (Bandura. Reciprocal Determinism . 1997).

advanced telecommunications technologies are disseminating ideas. what happens economically and politically in one part of the world can affect the welfare of vast populations elsewhere. 1993. With growing international embeddedness and interdependence of societies. economic conditions. These new realities call for broadening the scope of cross-cultural analyses beyond the focus on the social forces operating within the boundaries of given societies to the forces impinging upon them from abroad. There are collectivists in individualistic cultures and individualists in collectivistic cultures. Thus. sense of efficacy. 1994). rather than directly (Baldwin et al. and enmeshment in the Internet . people will be even more heavily embedded in global symbolic environments. Bandura. With further development of the cyberworld. for example. Elder & Ardelt. The symbolic environment feeding off communication satellites is altering national cultures and homogenizing collective consciousness. In social cognitive theory.The preceding analyses centered on the nature of direct personal agency and the cognitive.. 1992). In addition. socioeconomic status. In many spheres of functioning. Moreover. and educational and family structures affect behavior largely through their impact on people's aspirations. Social bonds and communal commitments that lack marketability are especially vulnerable to erosion by global market forces unfettered by social obligation.. values and styles of behavior transnationally at an unprecedented rate. sociostructural factors operate through psychological mechanisms of the self system to produce behavioral effects. mass migrations of people are changing cultural landscapes. 1996a. 2000a. people achieve the greatest personal efficacy and productivity when their psychological orientation is congruent with the structure of the social system (Barley. personal standards. This growing ethnic diversity accords functional value to bicultural efficacy to navigate the demands of both one's ethnic subculture and that of the larger society. affective. motivational. 1989. Regardless of cultural background. Because of extensive global interconnectedness. and choice processes through which it is exercised to produce given effects. people do not have direct control over the social conditions and institutional practices that affect their everyday lives. affective states. Bandura et al. and other self-regulatory influences.

a strong sense of collective efficacy to make transnational systems work for them becomes critical to furthering their common interests . As globalization reaches ever deeper into people's lives. the issues of interest center on how national and global forces interact to shape the nature of cultural life.symbolic culture.