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Example 1: A 6 ft. man is walking away from a 20 ft. tall street light. If the man is

walking at a rate of 4 ft/sec how fast will the length of his shadow be changing when

he is 30 ft. from the light.

20

6

s x

Let x be the distance between the man and the street light and let s be

the length of his shadow. GIVEN: dx ds

dt = 4 ft/sec. WANT: dt when x = 30.

Note that we have two similar triangles: the overall triangle with height

20 and base length s + x and the smaller one inside of it with height 6

and base length s. We want to solve for s in terms of x by using the ratio

6 20

=

s s+x

6(s + x) = 6s + 6x = 20x

6s = 14x

3

s= x

7

Differentiate both sides to get

ds 3 dx 3 12

= = (4) =

dt 7 dt 7 7

So it turns out that as long as the man is moving at a constant rate, the

rate of his shadow will also remain constant 12

7 ft/sec. regardless of how

far away he is from the street light.

Example 2: A cone-shaped funnel is emptying water at a rate of 5cm3 /hr. The base

(positioned at the top) radius is 20 cm and the height is 10 cm. At what rate is the

depth of the water in the funnel changing when the depth of the water is 6 incm?

20

A

A

A

A

A

A r

A 10

A

A

A h

A

A

Let V be the volume of water left in the funnel, r and h the radius and

height of the water at any given point in time. GIVEN: dV 3

dt = 5 cm /hr.

WANT: dh dt when h = 6 cm.

The general equation for the volume of a cone is

1

V = r2 h

3

We want to rewrite this only in terms of V and h since those are the

variables we are given information about. As in the first example, we

have similar triangles, one with height 10 and width 20, the smaller with

height h and width r. Thus,

20 r

=

10 h

20h = 10r

2h = r

Plug this back into the equation for V so that its just in terms of h

1 1 4

V = r2 h = (2h)2 h = h3

3 3 3

dh

Differentiate with respect to time, solve for dt , and plug in values:

dV dh

= 4h2

dt dt

dh 1 dV 1

= 2

= 2

(5cm3 /hr) 0.0111cm/hr

dt 4h dt 4(6cm)

Example 3: An observer stands 300 ft from a hot-air balloon that is rising upwards at

20 ft/sec. What rate is the angle between the observers line of sight of the balloon and

the ground changing when the balloon is 400 ft above the ground?

balloon

y

man 300

Let y be the verical distance that the balloon has risen, the angle cre-

ated between the line of sight of the observer and the ground. GIVEN:

dy d

dy = 20 ft/sec. WANT: dt when y=400 ft.

y y

tan() = = arctan( )

300 300

d 1

Recall: dx arctanx = 1+x2

d 1 1 dy 1 dy

= y 2( )= y2

dt 1 + ( 300 ) 300 dt 300 + dt

300

d 1

= 2 (20) .024

dt 300 + (400)

300

radians/sec.

Example 4: An 8 ft tall projector is positioned 2 feet above eye level. If you are walking

towards the screen at a rate of 4 ft/sec, at what rate will your viewing angle be changing

when you are 20 ft away?

Z

Z

Z

Z

Z

Z

8 Z

Z b = + s

Z

Z

Z

Z

Z

Z

XXX Z

XXX Z

XXX Z

2 XXX Z

XXX Z

XXX ZZ

s XXX

X Z

Z

X

x

Define x to be the distance between the observer and the projector and

the angle of observation. GIVEN: dx d

dt = 4ft/s. WANT: dt when x=20.

Note that we have two similar triangles, one with base x and height

10, the other with base x and height 2. They share the angle b = + s.

= b s

10 2

= arctan( ) arctan( )

x x

d 1 10 dx 1 2 dx

=( )( 2 )( 2 2 )( 2 )

dt 1 + ( 10

x )2 x dt 1 + ( x ) x dt

d 10 dx 2 dx

= 2 + 2

dt x + 100 dt x + 4 dt

So, when x = 20,

d 10 2

= (4) + (4) .0602

dt (20)2 + 100 (20)2 + 4

radians/sec.

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