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2.7 #16. A baseball diamond is a square with side 90 ft. A batter his the ball and runs

toward first base with a speed of 24 ft./s.

90

(a) At what rate is his distance from second base de-

creasing when he is halfway to first base? a

x

ing when he is halfway to first base? 90

-x

90

(a) Using the Pythagorean Theorem we have x2 + 902 = a2 (see the figure). Therefore

the derivative is

dx da

2x + 0 = 2a .

dt dt

dx

Plugging in = 24 (the runners distance x is decreasing as he runs to first base.

dt

We can also set up the problem by letting x be the distance of the runner from home

dx

plate and using 90 x as the runners distance from first base. In that case would

dt

be 24, not 24, since quantity x would be increasing). Also, we are supposed to

find out what happens when

the runner

is halfway to first base, i.e. x = 45. Note

that when x = 45, a = 452 + 902 = 10125 = 45 5. Plugging everything in and

da

solving for we get

dt

da

2(45)(24) = 2(45 5)

dt

da 2(45)(24) 24

= =

dt 2(45 5) 5

Therefore the runners distance from second base (which is decreasing, so we know

da 24

is supposed to come out negative!) is decreasing at a rate of 10.7331 ft./s

dt 5

(b) At what rate is his distance from third base increasing when he is halfway to first

base?

This is very similar to part (a), except we will use the other triangle in the picture

(the one with the hypotenuse labeled b). We can either continue to use the x as in the

picture (in which case our equation in this part will look like (90 x)2 + 902 = b2 ), or

we can rename things to make it easier: let y = 90 x. Then our equation becomes

y 2 + 902 = b2

whose derivative is

dy db

2y + 0 = 2b .

dt dt

dy

Now we plug in y = 45, = 24 (yes, positive 24, since the distance y is increasing),

dt

and b = 45 5 (when the runner is halfway to first base, the two hypotenuses are

equal; see part (a) for the calculation), and we get

db

2(45)(24) = 2(45 5)

dt

db 2(45)(24) 24

= =

dt 2(45 5) 5

db

Therefore the runners distance from third base (which is increasing, so we know

dt

24

is supposed to come out positive!) is increasing at a rate of 10.7331 ft./s

5

2.7 #38.* The minute hand on a watch is 8 mm long and the hour hand is 4 mm long. How

fast is the distance between the tips of the hands changing at one oclock?

This is a very tricky problem and will require the Law of Cosines:

B

2 2 2

c = a + b 2ab cos(C) c

a

A

for a triangle with standard labeling (see picture at right).

b C

Okay, so lets get started!

Using the Law of Cosines, we can set up an equation involving 12

11 1

c and C (see picture at right) as follows: c

10 8 2

2 2 2

c = 8 + 4 2(4)(8) cos(C) C 4

9 3

which simplifies to 8 4

7 5

c2 = 80 64 cos(C) (1) 6

You can see that c, the distance between the tips of the hands, is mentioned in the problem

(our goal is to find dc

dt

), but it may not be obvious that we need the angle C. But the

rotation of the hands of a clock is the only movement that affects the distance c, and we

can measure that rate of rotation.

Taking the derivative of the above equation, we have

dc dC

2c = 64 sin(C) . (2)

dt dt

Now comes the fun part: at one oclock, the angle C is 30 , or . Therefore sin(C) =

1 6

sin = . Using the equation (1), we can also solve for what c is at that moment:

6 2

c2 = 80 64 cos

6

3

= 80 64 = 80 32 3;

2

q

therefore c = 80 32 3.

dC

Finally, there is . We need to decide what units we are going to use for time. Lets use

dt

hours (though minutes works just as well). The minute hand goes an angle of 2 radians

per hour. The hour hand goes an angle of radians per hour in the same direction. So

6

11

the angle between them changes at a rate of 2 = radians per hour. At one

6 6

oclock, the angle between the hands is decreasing (look at or imagine a clock to visualize

this), so we get

dC 11

= radians per hour.

dt 6

dc

Plugging all these numbers into the equation (2) and solving for we get

dt

dc

q

1 11

2 80 32 3 = 64

dt 2 6

dc

q

88

80 32 3 =

dt 3

dc 88

= p 18.6 mm per hour

dt 3 80 32 3

Thus the distance between the tips of the hands is decreasing at a rate of approximately

18.6 mm per hour

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